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# Introduction

Welcome to the realm of statistical adventure. As the instructor of record, you have been given the blessing to teach statistical concepts to eagerly awaiting students who just cannot wait to acquire the knowledge you are about to impart to them. And, as with any foreign language it will take time for the students to enter into the click point (that point which what they understand is the same as what you say). For some, the click point will be very soon. For others, it may be further into the semester. Still, for some, it may never click but that does not preclude your very best effort to making it happen for themwith patience and encouragement. Both patience and encouragement are critical in this type of classroom instruction. Students need to know and understand that statistics are nothing to fear, but something to master. And, when mastery occurs (or at least the understanding of it all), they will be much more gratified that they stuck with it. We have maintained that, given enough time (which is critical but yet seemingly impossible), even the most challenging of students can grasp the statistical conceptsthis is where the patience and encouragement motor must be in full overdrive. This guide and introductory PowerPoint will provide the basis for you as the instructor of record to form that critical foundation for students to buildalbeit it is ultimately the students responsibility to put in the necessary study time to make it all happen. And, it is critical that students fully understand that they cannot put this wonderful stuff down for a week at a time and expect statistical miracles. No, they must endure the fun each and every daystudy groups are also a necessary part to make the click point occur much sooner than normal. A Statistical Journey: Taming of the Skew was originally written in 1992 as a response to the needs of students we had in our first stats classes. Since then, we have basically been making copies of this work for these many years and, because of peer and student encouragement, we have decided to share our excitement in teaching statistical concepts in a way that is a bit different from normal statistical text books without diminishing the underlying critical aspects of statistical procedures. We actually talked to the students during the course of the book and have found that approach has been extremely successful. The chapters are designed to be taught in sequence, however, as the instructor of record, you are free to mix and match. However, there is a reason why the chapters were written in its present sequence. Each chapter builds on the previous chapter and the

statistical concepts are conducted by hand so the student will gain a practical understanding of the underlying working components of each statistical test. Then, they are introduced to such statistical programs as SPSS to crunch data in a friendlier manner. But, the underlying and primary purpose is to have students who can run their own data and explain statistical concepts in their dissertation defense or project paper without having to hire a statistician to do the work for them. That is why this book was ultimately writtenfor the students in an easy-to-understand format and in a language that is readily understood. We have provided for you, in the subsequent pages, an instructional format that describes how the chapters are covered in a 15-week, traditional class settingmeeting once a week, a 15 week blended, online formatmeeting one weekend per month for four months, and the dreaded crunched 7 week, blended formatmeeting one weekend per month for two months (not desired, but doable). We have also provided the chapter introductory page that includes the main topics to be covered, statistical assumptions (if applicable), and student objectives. Finally, we have attached a copy of the Power Point presentation that covers chapters 1-4 on a review basis for the second meeting and some subsequent topics that you can cover as a preview. We hope that you, and especially the students, enjoy this book in your teaching as much as we enjoyed putting it together. Oh, the answers to the Chapter Reviews and Unit Tests are also included in this guide, but not in the students bookthat gives you the advantage! Dr. Donald F. DeMoulin Dr. William Allan Kritsonis Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis

Instructional Format
Traditional Classroom setting (15 weeks on a weekly basis)

Chapters are designed to correspond with the 15 week, weekly meeting format with each chapter being covered each week Chapters are designed to go sequentially, but it is up to you, the instructor of record to make that determination on the sequencing of chapters Chapter reviews are designed to be completed each week for the chapter covered Each Unit Test is designed to serve as a benchmark quiz to ascertain a students level of understanding of the previous four chapters The Final Exam is designed to be given on the 15 th week and three hours is allotted for completion (that is also under the discretion of the instructor of record)

Non-Traditional Blended Classroom Setting (15 week class meeting one weekend per month for four months with online assignments in-between face to face meetings) First weekend meetingChapters 1-4 are covered During intersession, students work on Chapters 1-4 review sections that are due at the next meeting Second weekend meetingChapters 5-8 are covered with review sections for Chapters 1-4 dueThe Unit I test/quiz can also be given at this meeting Third weekend meetingChapters 9-14 are covered with review sections for Chapters 5-8 dueThe Unit II test/quiz can also be given at this meeting During intersession, students work on Chapters 9-14 review sections that are due at the next meeting Fourth weekend meeting(morninga total review of the material) (afternoonfinal exam) Review sections for Chapters 9-12 are due

Non-Traditional Blended Classroom Setting (15 week class meeting one weekend per month for four months with online assignments in-between face to face meetings) First weekend meetingChapters 1-8 are covered During intersession, students work on Chapters 1-8 review sections

## Second weekend meetingChapters 9-14 are coveredFinal Exam optional

Chapters

Chapter 1
TERMS Descriptive Statistics Inferential Statistics Parametric Statistics Non-parametric Statistics Population Finite Population Infinite Population Target Population Random Sample Sampling With Replacement Sampling Without Replacement Variable Dependent Variable Independent Variable Discrete Variable Continuous Variable Qualitative Variable Quantitative Variable Scale of Measurement Nominal Strength Ordinal Strength Interval Strength Ratio Strength Symmetric Kurtosis Platykurtic Mesokurtic Leptokurtic Asymmetrical Skewness Asymmetrical Distributions Unimodal Bi-modal Multimodal ASSUMPTIONS None
At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to: -Describe two types of statistics -Identify and categorize data qualitatively and quantitatively -Classify data in an appropriate scale of measurement -Draw and analyze a symmetrical and asymmetrical distribution.

Chapter 2
TERMS Tally Frequency Frequency Polygon Ordinate Abscissa Real Lower Limit Real Upper Limit Real Limit Midpoint Histogram Bar Graph

## ASSUMPTIONS Nominal Strength Data

At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to: - Construct a frequency table - Plot raw data on a frequency polygon - Construct a histogram from a data set - Identify the shape of a distribution from a histogram.

Chapter 3
TERMS Central Tendency Mode Median Mean Sample Mean Population Mean Deviation from the Mean

ASSUMPTIONS Mode - Nominal strength data - Qualitative variables Median - Ordinal strength data - Qualitative variables Mean - Interval strength data - Quantitative variables

At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to: - Locate the mode in a data set - Compute the median for a data set - Calculate the mean for a data set - Decide which measure of central tendency would best describe a data set - Approximate a mean for grouped data.

Chapter 4
TERMS Dispersion Variability Range Interquartile range Outliers Semi-interquartile range Mean absolute deviation Variance Standard deviations Definitional formula Calculating formula N-1 Constant Rules for transformation

ASSUMPTIONS Standard deviation and variance are utilized with the mean (X) or (); therefore the data should be at least interval strength.

At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to: - Compute the range, interquartile range, and semi-interquartile range for a data set - Compute the mean absolute deviation - Calculate the standard deviation and variance for a data set and, with the mean, plot the results on a distribution - Interpret a data set utilizing each of the four rules of transformation.

Chapter 5
TERMS Analytical view Relative frequency Event Independent Mutually exclusive Additive law for mutually exclusive events Multiplicative law Conditional probability Additive law for mutually unexclusive events Factorial Permutations Combinations

ASSUMPTIONS
None

At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to: - Identify the appropriate procedure of an event to calculate the probability - Calculate a permutation or combination from information given in a problem.

Chapter 6
TERMS z-normal distribution Area Between Area Beyond Area Between Mean and z T-Score Stanine Score

ASSUMPTIONS None

At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to: - Identify the appropriate procedure to calculate z-score percentages under a normal distribution - Identify the appropriate procedure to transform a raw score to a z-score - Identify the appropriate procedure to transform a raw score to a T-score

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Chapter 7
Variability due to Chance Sample Error Outliers Central Limit theorem Null Hypothesis Alternative Hypothesis Risk Level Type I Error Type II Error Alpha Level Power Effect Size Practical Significance Sample Size 7-Step Process Rejection of Null Hypothesis Fail to Reject Null Hypothesis Critical Value Critical Region One Tailed Test

ASSUMPTIONS None
At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to: - Identify the appropriate procedure of an event to calculate the probability - Calculate a permutation or combination from information given in a problem.

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Chapter 8
TERMS Critical Value One sample z-test Standard error of the mean Zobs One sample t-test tobs Degrees of freedom Confidence Interval

ASSUMPTIONS z-test - Underlying distribution is normal ( = 0, = 1) - Standard deviation or variance is known - Null hypothesis is true - Rules of randomization were followed t-test - Underlying distribution is normal ( = 0, = 1) - The standard deviation or variance is not known - Null hypothesis is true - Rules of randomization were followed

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Chapter 9
TERMS Chi-Square test of variance F-test Chi-Square distribution Interpolation

ASSUMPTIONS Chi-Square test of variance - Underlying variable is normally distributed - Rules for randomization were followed - Null hypothesis is true F-test - Underlying variable is normally distributed - Rules for randomization were followed - Groups were independently selected - Null hypothesis is true

At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to: - Perform all functions in the seven-step process for the Chi-Square e-test of variance - Perform all the functions in the seven-step process for the F-test for two independent groups - Calculate interpolated values for more precise comparison - Write the assumptions for the Chi-Square test of variance and the F-test for independent groups.

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Chapter 10
TERMS Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Chi-Square test of Independence Observed cell frequency Expected cell frequency Contingency table Correction for continuity Phi coefficient Kramers V

ASSUMPTIONS Chi-Square Goodness of Fit - only one variable - nominal strength data - underlying variable is normally distributed - rules of randomization were followed - null hypothesis is true - zero (0) relationship is a non-systematic relationship Chi-Square test of Independence - independent samples - nominal strength data - underlying variables are normally distributed - rules of randomization were followed - null hypothesis is true - zero (0) relationship is a non-systematic relationship

At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to: - Perform all the functions in the seven-step process for the Chi-Square Goodness of Fit - Perform all the functions in the seven-step process for the Chi-Square e-test of Independence - Interpolate values where appropriate - Compute a Phi-coefficient and a Kramers V where appropriate - Write the assumptions for the Chi-Square Goodness of Fit and the Chi-Square test of Independence

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Chapter 11
TERMS Independent t-test Homogeneity of Variance Test Robust F-test (Hartleys Test) Dependent t-test Correlated t-test Paired t-test

ASSUMPTIONS - Groups are independent of each other - Population is a normally distributed variable - Samples were randomly selected - The underlying variable is continuous - Null hypothesis is true - Two groups come from a population of variances

At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to: - Calculate a test for two independent groups with equal sample size - Calculate a test for two independent groups with unequal sample size - Calculate the dependent t-test with one group providing two sets of data - Understand when to use the parametric or the non parametric tests on data sets (Mann Whitney U and Wilcoxon T-test)

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Chapter 12
TERMS One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) F-Ratio Treatment (Between Effects) Error (Within or Residual Effects) Fixed Effects Random Effects Hartleys Test of Variance Cochrans Test of variance Bartletts Box Text of Variance Sum of Squares (Total) Sum of Squares (Between) Sum of Squares (Within) ANOVA Table Mean Square Post-Hoc Test Experiment-Wise Alpha

ASSUMPTIONS - That Yij = + i + Eij is the correct model - That E (error) is a Normally and Independently Distributed (NID) variable with a of 0 and some error term that is classified as e - That the underlying variable comes from a population that is normally distributed and comes from a population with equal variance - That the null hypothesis is true - That is a fixed parameter

At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to: - Calculate and interpret an ANOVA Summary Table - Identify the appropriate-post hoc procedure and understand its implication to the ANOVA - Identify the difference between a fixed effects and a random effects model.

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Chapter 13
TERMS Correlation Coefficient of Determination Perfect Positive Correlation Perfect Negative Correlation Pearson Product Moment Correlation Spearman Rho Rank Order Correlation Linear Regression

ASSUMPTIONS - Linear Relationship - Interval Strength Data - Group Data are Dependent

At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to: - Calculate and interpret a Pearson Product Moment Correlation and a Spearman Rank Order Correlation - Understand the difference between a positive and a negative correlation - Identify the difference between correlation and correlation coefficient.

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Chapter 14
TERMS Research Proposal Research Report Max-Min-Con Principle Internal and External Validity Pygmalion Effect John Henry Effect Hawthorne Effect Blind-Double-Blind Experiments Experimental Designs Reliability Validity Hypothesis Test/Sampling

ASSUMPTIONS None

At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to: - Understand the different components of a research proposal - Understand the meaning of the Max-Min-Con Principle - Understand the different types of internal and external validity and how they affect a study - Understand the different experimental designs - Understand the significance and types of reliability and validity

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