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Adolf Hitler From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Hitler" redirects here. For other uses, see Hitler (disambiguation).
Adolf Hitler
From Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia
"Hitler" redirects here. For other
uses, see Hitler (disambiguation).
Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf
ˈhɪtlɐ] (
listen); 20 April 1889 – 30
Hitler in 1937
Führer of Germany
In office
April 1945) was an Austrian-
born German politician and the
leader of theNational Socialist
German Workers
Party (German: Nationalsozialistisc
he Deutsche Arbeiterpartei,
abbreviated NSDAP, commonly
referred to as the Nazi Party). He
was Chancellor of Germany from
1933 to 1945, and head of
2 August 1934 – 30 April 1945
Chancellor
Himself
state (as Führer und Reichskanzler)
from 1934 to 1945. Hitler is most
commonly associated with the rise
of fascism in Europe, World War
Preceded by
Paul von Hindenburg
II and the Holocaust.
(as President)
A decorated veteran of World War
Succeeded by
Karl Dönitz
(as President)
Chancellor of Germany
In office
30 January 1933 – 30 April 1945
President
Paul von Hindenburg
Himself (Führer)
I, Hitler joined the precursor of the
Nazi Party (DAP) in 1919, and
became leader of the NSDAP in
1921. In 1923, Hitler attempted a
coup d'état, known as the Beer Hall
Putsch, at
the Bürgerbräukeller beer hall in
Munich. The failed coup resulted in
Hitler's imprisonment, during which
time he wrote his memoir, Mein
Kampf (My Struggle). After his
Deputy
Franz von Papen
Vacant
Preceded by
Kurt von Schleicher

release in 1924, Hitler gained support by promoting

release in 1924, <a href=Hitler gained s upport by prom oting Pan-Germanism , antisemitism and anti- " id="pdf-obj-1-8" src="pdf-obj-1-8.jpg">

and

 

transformed the

the

with and
with
and
and into the
and
into the

propaganda. He was appointed chancellor in 1933, and

dictatorship based on

ideology of

Hitler's avowed aim was to establish a

of absolute Nazi German

in continental

Europe. His foreign and domestic policies had the goal of seizing the <a href=Lebensraum ( living space ) for Germanic people . This included the rearmament of Germany, resulting in the invasion of Poland " id="pdf-obj-1-75" src="pdf-obj-1-75.jpg">

Europe. His foreign and domestic policies had the goal of seizing

the

(living space) for

Germanic people. This included the rearmament of Germany, resulting in the

by

the

<a href=Wehrmacht in September 1939, leading to the ou tbreak of World War II in Europe . " id="pdf-obj-1-105" src="pdf-obj-1-105.jpg">

Under Hitler's direction, German forces and their

and North Africa, reversed in 1945 when the

an estimated six million Jews targeted in

Under Hitler's dir <a href=ection, German force s and their and North Africa, reversed in 1945 wh en the motivated an estimated six million Jew s targeted in European allies at one point occupied most of Europe racially Allied armies defeated the German army. Hitler's million civilians, policies resulted in the systematic annihilation of as many as 17 the Holocaust including Roma . and between 500,000 and 1,500,000 " id="pdf-obj-1-126" src="pdf-obj-1-126.jpg">

at one point occupied most of Europe

Under Hitler's dir <a href=ection, German force s and their and North Africa, reversed in 1945 wh en the motivated an estimated six million Jew s targeted in European allies at one point occupied most of Europe racially Allied armies defeated the German army. Hitler's million civilians, policies resulted in the systematic annihilation of as many as 17 the Holocaust including Roma . and between 500,000 and 1,500,000 " id="pdf-obj-1-132" src="pdf-obj-1-132.jpg">

defeated the German army. Hitler's

million civilians, [3]

policies resulted in the systematic annihilation of as many as 17

including

Under Hitler's dir <a href=ection, German force s and their and North Africa, reversed in 1945 wh en the motivated an estimated six million Jew s targeted in European allies at one point occupied most of Europe racially Allied armies defeated the German army. Hitler's million civilians, policies resulted in the systematic annihilation of as many as 17 the Holocaust including Roma . and between 500,000 and 1,500,000 " id="pdf-obj-1-149" src="pdf-obj-1-149.jpg">

Roma. [4]

and between 500,000 and 1,500,000

In the final days of the war, during the

in 1945, Hitler married his long-time

mistress,

Eva Braun. To avoid capture by the

Red Army, the two

less than two days

later on 30 April 1945 and their corpses were burned. [5]

The Holocaust

<a href=The Holocaus t Part of: Jewish history Responsibility [ sh ow] Early policie s [show] The victims [ sho w] " id="pdf-obj-1-191" src="pdf-obj-1-191.jpg">

Part of: Jewish history

 

Early policies[show]

 
 

Main article: The Holocaust

One of Hitler's central and most controversial

ideologies was the concept of so-called racial

hygiene. Hitler's

policies initially targeted children with physical and developmental

disabilities in a programme dubbed

Action T4. [141]

Hitler's idea of

Lebensraum

espoused in

<a href=The ghettos [ show] Atrocities [ show] The camp s [show] Resistance [ show] Aftermath [ show] List s [show] Resources [ show] Remembranc e [show] v · d · e Main article: The Holocaust One of Hitler's central and most controversial ideologies was the concept of so-called racial hygiene . Hitler's eugenic policies initially targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities in a programme dubbed Action T4 . Hitler's idea of Lebensraum espoused in Mein Kampf , focused on acquiring new territory for Th e Generalplan Ost ("General Plan for the East") German settlement in Eastern Europe. provided that the population of occupied Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union was to be partially deported to West Siberia, used as slave labour and eventually murdered; the conquered territories were to be colonized by German or "Germanized" settlers. Between 1939 and 1945, the SS , assisted by collaborationist governments and recruits from occupied countries, systematically killed 11–14 million people, including about six million Jews representing two-thirds of the Jewish population in Europe. These killings took place, for example, in of the Holocaust were concentration camps , gassed ghettos , and through mass executions. Many victims to death, whereas others died of starvation or disease while working as slave labourers. " id="pdf-obj-2-84" src="pdf-obj-2-84.jpg">

Mein Kampf, focused on acquiring new territory for

("General Plan for the East")

German settlement in Eastern Europe. [142]

provided that the population of occupied Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union was to be partially

deported to West Siberia, used as slave labour and eventually murdered; the conquered territories were to be colonized by German or "Germanized" settlers. [143]

Between 1939 and 1945, the

SS, assisted by

<a href=The ghettos [ show] Atrocities [ show] The camp s [show] Resistance [ show] Aftermath [ show] List s [show] Resources [ show] Remembranc e [show] v · d · e Main article: The Holocaust One of Hitler's central and most controversial ideologies was the concept of so-called racial hygiene . Hitler's eugenic policies initially targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities in a programme dubbed Action T4 . Hitler's idea of Lebensraum espoused in Mein Kampf , focused on acquiring new territory for Th e Generalplan Ost ("General Plan for the East") German settlement in Eastern Europe. provided that the population of occupied Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union was to be partially deported to West Siberia, used as slave labour and eventually murdered; the conquered territories were to be colonized by German or "Germanized" settlers. Between 1939 and 1945, the SS , assisted by collaborationist governments and recruits from occupied countries, systematically killed 11–14 million people, including about six million Jews representing two-thirds of the Jewish population in Europe. These killings took place, for example, in of the Holocaust were concentration camps , gassed ghettos , and through mass executions. Many victims to death, whereas others died of starvation or disease while working as slave labourers. " id="pdf-obj-2-108" src="pdf-obj-2-108.jpg">

governments and recruits from

occupied countries, systematically killed 11–14

million people, including about six

million

representing two-thirds of the Jewish population in Europe. [144][145]

These killings took

place, for example, in

of the Holocaust were

<a href=The ghettos [ show] Atrocities [ show] The camp s [show] Resistance [ show] Aftermath [ show] List s [show] Resources [ show] Remembranc e [show] v · d · e Main article: The Holocaust One of Hitler's central and most controversial ideologies was the concept of so-called racial hygiene . Hitler's eugenic policies initially targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities in a programme dubbed Action T4 . Hitler's idea of Lebensraum espoused in Mein Kampf , focused on acquiring new territory for Th e Generalplan Ost ("General Plan for the East") German settlement in Eastern Europe. provided that the population of occupied Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union was to be partially deported to West Siberia, used as slave labour and eventually murdered; the conquered territories were to be colonized by German or "Germanized" settlers. Between 1939 and 1945, the SS , assisted by collaborationist governments and recruits from occupied countries, systematically killed 11–14 million people, including about six million Jews representing two-thirds of the Jewish population in Europe. These killings took place, for example, in of the Holocaust were concentration camps , gassed ghettos , and through mass executions. Many victims to death, whereas others died of starvation or disease while working as slave labourers. " id="pdf-obj-2-137" src="pdf-obj-2-137.jpg">

ghettos, and through mass executions. Many victims

to death, whereas others died of starvation or disease while

working as

labourers.

 
An American soldier stands near a wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium in thed Buchenwald concentration camp (April 1945) Hitler's policies also resulted in the systematic killings of communists and other political opponents, homosexuals, Poles and Soviet prisoners of war , Roma , the physically and mentally disabled, Jehovah's Witnesses , Adventists , and trade unionists. One of the largest centres of mass-killing was the extermination camp complex of Auschwitz-Birkenau . Hitler never appeared " id="pdf-obj-3-4" src="pdf-obj-3-4.jpg">
 
An American soldier stands near a wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium in thed Buchenwald concentration camp (April 1945) Hitler's policies also resulted in the systematic killings of communists and other political opponents, homosexuals, Poles and Soviet prisoners of war , Roma , the physically and mentally disabled, Jehovah's Witnesses , Adventists , and trade unionists. One of the largest centres of mass-killing was the extermination camp complex of Auschwitz-Birkenau . Hitler never appeared " id="pdf-obj-3-8" src="pdf-obj-3-8.jpg">

An American soldier stands near a wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium in the newly

(April 1945)

Hitler's policies also resulted in the systematic killings of communists and other political opponents, homosexuals,

Hitler's policies also resulted in the systematic killings of communists and other political opponents, homosexuals, <aPoles and Soviet prisoners of war , Roma , the physically and mentally disabled, Jehovah's Witnesses , Adventists , and trade unionists. One of the largest centres of " id="pdf-obj-3-24" src="pdf-obj-3-24.jpg">

and

Roma, the physically and mentally

disabled, [146]

Hitler's policies also resulted in the systematic killings of communists and other political opponents, homosexuals, <aPoles and Soviet prisoners of war , Roma , the physically and mentally disabled, Jehovah's Witnesses , Adventists , and trade unionists. One of the largest centres of " id="pdf-obj-3-39" src="pdf-obj-3-39.jpg">

Adventists, and trade unionists. One of the largest centres of

mass-killing was the

complex of

Auschwitz-Birkenau. Hitler never appeared

to have visited the concentration camps and did not speak publicly about the killings. [147]

The Holocaust (the "Endlösung der jüdischen Frage" or "Final Solution of the Jewish Question")

was organised and executed by

Reinhard Heydrich. The records of

theWannsee Conferenceheld on 20 January 1942 and led by Reinhard Heydrich with fifteen senior Nazi officials (including Adolf Eichmann) participating—provide the clearest evidence of the systematic planning for the Holocaust. On 22 February, Hitler was recorded saying to his associates, "we shall regain our health only by eliminating the Jews". [148]

Although no specific order from Hitler authorising the mass killings has surfaced, [149]

he approved

the

Einsatzgruppen, killing squads that followed the German army through Poland and Russia,

and he was well informed about their activities. [150]

Evidence also suggests that in the fall of 1941,

Himmler and Hitler decided to use gassing for the mass killings. [citation needed]

by Soviet

An American soldier stands near a wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium in thed Buchenwald concentration camp (April 1945) Hitler's policies also resulted in the systematic killings of communists and other political opponents, homosexuals, Poles and Soviet prisoners of war , Roma , the physically and mentally disabled, Jehovah's Witnesses , Adventists , and trade unionists. One of the largest centres of mass-killing was the extermination camp complex of Auschwitz-Birkenau . Hitler never appeared to have visited the concentration camps and did not speak publicly about the killings. The Holocaust (the " Endlösung der jüdischen Frage " or "Final Solution of the Jewish Question") was organised and executed by Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich . The records of th e Wannsee Conference held on 20 January 1942 and led by Reinhard Heydrich with fifteen senior Nazi officials (including Adolf Eichmann) participating—provide the clearest evidence of the systematic planning for the Holocaust. On 22 February, Hitler was recorded saying to his associates, "we shall regain our health only by eliminating the Jews". Although no specific order from Hitler authorising the mass killings has surfaced, he approved the Einsatzgruppen , killing squads that followed the German army through Poland and Russia, and he was well informed about their activities. Evidence also suggests that in the fall of 1941, Himmler and Hitler decided to use gassing for the mass killings. by Soviet During interrogations Heinz Linge , and his intelligence officers d eclassified over fifty years later, Hitler's valet, military aide, Otto Günsche, had stated that Hitler had a direct interest in the development of gas chambers . " Third Reich Main article: Nazi Germany Having consolidated and concentrated his political powers, Hitler proceeded to suppress or eliminate his opposition by a process termed Gleichschaltung ("bringing into line"). He also tried to gain additional public support by vowing to reverse the effects of the Depression and the Versailles treaty. " id="pdf-obj-3-104" src="pdf-obj-3-104.jpg">

During interrogations

Heinz Linge, and his

intelligence officersdeclassified over fifty years later, Hitler's valet,

military aide, Otto Günsche, had stated that Hitler had a direct interest in the development of

gas

chambers." [151]

Third Reich

Main article: Nazi Germany

Having consolidated and concentrated his political powers, Hitler proceeded to suppress or

eliminate his opposition by a process termed

("bringing into line"). He also tried

to gain additional public support by vowing to reverse the effects of the Depression and the

Versailles treaty.

Economy and culture

Increased economic activities were enabled largely by debt flotation (refinancing long term debts

Economy and culture Increased economic activities were enabled largely by debt flotation (refinancing long term debts For example, Hitler's reconstruction and rearmament were financed with currency manipulations by Hjalmar Schacht, including credits through the Mefo bills. September 1934 , Luitpoldarena , "Totenehrung" (honouring of dead): SS-leader Heinrich Himmler, Adolf Hitler and SA-leader Viktor Lutze on the terrace in front of the "Ehrenhalle" (Hall of Honour); in the background: the crescent- shaped "Ehrentribüne" (literally: tribune of honour) Nazi policies strongly encouraged women to bear children and stay at home. In a September 1934 speech to the National Socialist Women's Organization, Hitler argued that for the German woman her "world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home. " The Cross of Honor of the German Mother was bestowed on women bearing four or more children. The unemployment rate fell substantially, mostly through arms production and women leaving the [ citation needed ] Hitler oversaw one of the largest infrastructure-improvement campaigns in German history, leading to the construction of dams, autobahns , railroads, and other civil works. However, these programmes lowered the overall standard of living of workers who earlier had been unaffected by the chronic unemployment of the later Weimar Republic; wages were slightly reduced in pre– World War II years, while the cost of living was increased by 25%. Hitler's government sponsored architecture on an immense scale, with Albert Speer becoming the first architect of the Reich, instrumental in implementing Hitler's classicist reinterpretation of German culture. In 1936, Hitler opened the summer Olympic games in Berlin. Hitler also made " id="pdf-obj-4-6" src="pdf-obj-4-6.jpg">

into cheaper short term debts) and expansion of the military. [citation needed]

For example, Hitler's

reconstruction and rearmament were financed with currency manipulations by Hjalmar Schacht,

including credits through the

Mefo bills.
Mefo bills.
September 1934 <a href=, Luitpoldarena , "Totenehrung" (honouring of dead): SS-leader Heinrich Himmler, Adolf Hitler and SA-leader Viktor Lutze on the terrace in front of the "Ehrenhalle" (Hall of Honour); in the background: the crescent- shaped "Ehrentribüne" (literally: tribune of honour) " id="pdf-obj-4-22" src="pdf-obj-4-22.jpg">

September 1934,Luitpoldarena, "Totenehrung" (honouring of dead): SS-leader Heinrich Himmler, Adolf Hitler and SA-leader Viktor Lutze on the terrace in front of the "Ehrenhalle" (Hall of Honour); in the background: the crescent- shaped "Ehrentribüne" (literally: tribune of honour)

Nazi policies strongly encouraged women to bear children and stay at home. In a September 1934 speech to the National Socialist Women's Organization, Hitler argued that for the German

woman her "world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home." [117][118]

The Cross of

was bestowed on women bearing four or more children. The

unemployment rate fell substantially, mostly through arms production and women leaving the

workforce. [citation needed]

Hitler oversaw one of the largest infrastructure-improvement campaigns in German history,

leading to the construction of dams,

autobahns, railroads, and other civil works. However, these

programmes lowered the overall standard of living of workers who earlier had been unaffected by

the chronic unemployment of the later Weimar Republic; wages were slightly reduced in pre– World War II years, while the cost of living was increased by 25%. [119]

Hitler's government sponsored architecture on an immense scale, with

Albert Speer becoming

the first architect of the Reich, instrumental in implementing Hitler's classicist reinterpretation of

German culture. In 1936, Hitler opened the

in Berlin. Hitler also made

some contributions to the design of the

its design and construction. [120] On 20 April 1939, a lavish celebration was held for

Hitler's 50th birthday, featuring military

parades, visits from foreign dignitaries, thousands of flaming torches and Nazi banners. [121]

One question concerns the aspect of modernization in Hitler's economic policies. Historians such

as

and

some contributions to the design of the <a href=Volkswagen Beetle and charged Ferdinand Porsche with its design and construction. On 20 April 1939, a lavish celebration was held for Hitler's 50th birthday , featuring military parades, visits from foreign dignitaries, thousands of flaming torches and Nazi banners. One question concerns the aspect of modernization in Hitler's economic policies. Historians such as David Schoenbaum and Henry Ashby Turner argue that Hitler's social and economic policies Others, including Rainer Zitelmann , have were modernization that had anti-modern goals. contended that Hitler had the deliberate strategy of pursuing a revolutionary modernization of German society. Rearmament and new alliances Main articles: Axis powers , Tripartite Pact , and German re-armament On 3 February 1933, in a meeting with German military leaders, Hitler spoke of "conquest for Lebensraum in the East and its ruthless Germanisation" as his ultimate foreign policy In March 1933, a major statement by the State Secretary at the Auswärtiges objectives. Amt (Foreign Office), Prince Bernhard Wilhelm von Bülow, of German foreign policy aims was issued. It advocated Anschluss with Austria, the restoration of Germany's national borders of 1914, rejection of Part V of the Treaty of Versailles, the return of the former German colonies in Africa, and a German zone of influence in Eastern Europe. Hitler found the goals in Bülow's memo to be too modest. In his "peace speeches" in the mid-1930s, Hitler stressed the peaceful goals of his policies and willingness to work within international agreements. At the first meeting of his Cabinet in 1933, however, Hitler prioritised military spending over unemployment relief. In October 1933, Hitler withdrew Germany from the Foreign Minister Baron League of Nations and the World Disarmament Conference , and his sécurité was a Konstantin von Neurath stated that the French demand for principal stumbling block. " id="pdf-obj-5-29" src="pdf-obj-5-29.jpg">

argue that Hitler's social and economic policies

Others, including

were modernization that had anti-modern goals. [122]

contended that Hitler had the deliberate strategy of pursuing a revolutionary modernization of

German society. [123]

Rearmament and new alliances

Main articles:

some contributions to the design of the <a href=Volkswagen Beetle and charged Ferdinand Porsche with its design and construction. On 20 April 1939, a lavish celebration was held for Hitler's 50th birthday , featuring military parades, visits from foreign dignitaries, thousands of flaming torches and Nazi banners. One question concerns the aspect of modernization in Hitler's economic policies. Historians such as David Schoenbaum and Henry Ashby Turner argue that Hitler's social and economic policies Others, including Rainer Zitelmann , have were modernization that had anti-modern goals. contended that Hitler had the deliberate strategy of pursuing a revolutionary modernization of German society. Rearmament and new alliances Main articles: Axis powers , Tripartite Pact , and German re-armament On 3 February 1933, in a meeting with German military leaders, Hitler spoke of "conquest for Lebensraum in the East and its ruthless Germanisation" as his ultimate foreign policy In March 1933, a major statement by the State Secretary at the Auswärtiges objectives. Amt (Foreign Office), Prince Bernhard Wilhelm von Bülow, of German foreign policy aims was issued. It advocated Anschluss with Austria, the restoration of Germany's national borders of 1914, rejection of Part V of the Treaty of Versailles, the return of the former German colonies in Africa, and a German zone of influence in Eastern Europe. Hitler found the goals in Bülow's memo to be too modest. In his "peace speeches" in the mid-1930s, Hitler stressed the peaceful goals of his policies and willingness to work within international agreements. At the first meeting of his Cabinet in 1933, however, Hitler prioritised military spending over unemployment relief. In October 1933, Hitler withdrew Germany from the Foreign Minister Baron League of Nations and the World Disarmament Conference , and his sécurité was a Konstantin von Neurath stated that the French demand for principal stumbling block. " id="pdf-obj-5-50" src="pdf-obj-5-50.jpg">

On 3 February 1933, in a meeting with German military leaders, Hitler spoke of "conquest

for

Lebensraum

some contributions to the design of the <a href=Volkswagen Beetle and charged Ferdinand Porsche with its design and construction. On 20 April 1939, a lavish celebration was held for Hitler's 50th birthday , featuring military parades, visits from foreign dignitaries, thousands of flaming torches and Nazi banners. One question concerns the aspect of modernization in Hitler's economic policies. Historians such as David Schoenbaum and Henry Ashby Turner argue that Hitler's social and economic policies Others, including Rainer Zitelmann , have were modernization that had anti-modern goals. contended that Hitler had the deliberate strategy of pursuing a revolutionary modernization of German society. Rearmament and new alliances Main articles: Axis powers , Tripartite Pact , and German re-armament On 3 February 1933, in a meeting with German military leaders, Hitler spoke of "conquest for Lebensraum in the East and its ruthless Germanisation" as his ultimate foreign policy In March 1933, a major statement by the State Secretary at the Auswärtiges objectives. Amt (Foreign Office), Prince Bernhard Wilhelm von Bülow, of German foreign policy aims was issued. It advocated Anschluss with Austria, the restoration of Germany's national borders of 1914, rejection of Part V of the Treaty of Versailles, the return of the former German colonies in Africa, and a German zone of influence in Eastern Europe. Hitler found the goals in Bülow's memo to be too modest. In his "peace speeches" in the mid-1930s, Hitler stressed the peaceful goals of his policies and willingness to work within international agreements. At the first meeting of his Cabinet in 1933, however, Hitler prioritised military spending over unemployment relief. In October 1933, Hitler withdrew Germany from the Foreign Minister Baron League of Nations and the World Disarmament Conference , and his sécurité was a Konstantin von Neurath stated that the French demand for principal stumbling block. " id="pdf-obj-5-67" src="pdf-obj-5-67.jpg">

in the East and its ruthless Germanisation" as his ultimate foreign policy

In March 1933, a major statement by the State Secretary at the

objectives. [124]

Amt

(Foreign Office), Prince Bernhard Wilhelm von Bülow, of German foreign policy aims was

issued. It advocated

with Austria, the restoration of Germany's national borders of

1914, rejection of Part V of the Treaty of Versailles, the return of the former German colonies in

Africa, and a German zone of influence in Eastern Europe. Hitler found the goals in Bülow's memo to be too modest. [125]

In his "peace speeches" in the mid-1930s, Hitler stressed the peaceful goals of his policies and

willingness to work within international agreements. [126]

At the first meeting of his Cabinet in 1933,

however, Hitler prioritised military spending over unemployment relief. [127]

In October 1933, Hitler

withdrew Germany from the

Foreign Minister Baron

and the

sécurité

was a

stated that the French demand for

principal stumbling block. [128]

On 25 October 1936, an Axis was declared between Italy and Germany

On 25 October 1936, an Axis was declared between Italy and Germany

In March 1935, Hitler rejected Part V of the Versailles treaty by announcing an expansion of

to 600,000 members (six times the number stipulated in the Treaty of

Versailles), including development of an Air Force (Luftwaffe) and increasing the size of the Navy

(Kriegsmarine). Although Britain, France, Italy and the League of Nations condemned these plans, no country took actions to stop them. [129]

On 18 June 1935, the

(AGNA) was signed, allowing German

tonnage to increase to 35% of that of the British navy. Hitler called the signing of the AGNA "the

happiest day of his life" as he believed the agreement marked the beginning of the Anglo-German

alliance he had predicted in

Mein Kampf. [130]

France or Italy were not consulted before the signing,

directly undermining the League of Nations and putting the Treaty of Versailles on the path

towards irrelevance. [131] On 13 September 1935, Hitler ordered two civil servants, Dr. Bernhard Lösener and Franz

Albrecht Medicus of the Interior Ministry to start drafting antisemitic laws for Hitler to bring to the

floor of the

On 25 October 1936, an Axis was declared between Italy and Germany In March 1935, HitlerGerman army to 600,000 members (six times the number stipulated in the Treaty of Versailles), including development of an Air Force ( Luftwaffe ) and increasing the size of the Navy ( Kriegsmarine ) . Although Britain, France, Italy and the League of Nations condemned these plans, no country took actions to stop them. On 18 June 1935, the Anglo-German Naval Agreement (AGNA) was signed, allowing German tonnage to increase to 35% of that of the British navy. Hitler called the signing of the AGNA "the happiest day of his life" as he believed the agreement marked the beginning of the Anglo-German alliance he had predicted in Mein Kampf . France or Italy were not consulted before the signing, directly undermining the League of Nations and putting the Treaty of Versailles on the path towards irrelevance. On 13 September 1935, Hitler ordered two civil servants, Dr. Bernhard Lösener and Franz Albrecht Medicus of the Interior Ministry to start drafting antisemitic laws for Hitler to bring to the floor of the Reichstag . On 15 September, Hitler presented two laws—known as the Nuremberg Laws before the Reichstag . The laws banned marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans and the employment of non-Jewish women under the age of 45 in Jewish households. The laws also deprived so-called "non-Aryans" of the benefits of German citizenship. " id="pdf-obj-6-54" src="pdf-obj-6-54.jpg">

Reichstag. [132]

On 15 September, Hitler presented two laws—known as the

Lawsbefore the

Reichstag. The laws banned marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish

Germans and the employment of non-Jewish women under the age of 45 in Jewish households.

The laws also deprived so-called "non-Aryans" of the benefits of German citizenship. [132]

Hitler with <a href=Arthur Seyss-Inquart , Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich in Vienna, 1938 In March 1936, Hitler reoccupied the demilitarized zone in the Rhineland, thus again violating the Versailles treaty. In addition, Hitler sent troops to Spain to support General Franco after receiving " id="pdf-obj-7-3" src="pdf-obj-7-3.jpg">
Hitler with <a href=Arthur Seyss-Inquart , Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich in Vienna, 1938 In March 1936, Hitler reoccupied the demilitarized zone in the Rhineland, thus again violating the Versailles treaty. In addition, Hitler sent troops to Spain to support General Franco after receiving " id="pdf-obj-7-6" src="pdf-obj-7-6.jpg">
 

Hitler with

 

and

in Vienna, 1938

In March 1936, Hitler

the

in the Rhineland, thus again violating the

Versailles treaty. In addition, Hitler sent troops to Spain to support

after receiving

an appeal for help from Franco in July 1936. At the same time, Hitler continued with his efforts to

create an Anglo-German alliance. [133]

In August 1936, in response to a growing economic crisis caused by his rearmament efforts,

Hitler issued the "Four-Year Plan Memorandum", ordering

Hitler with <a href=Arthur Seyss-Inquart , Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich in Vienna, 1938 In March 1936, Hitler reoccupied the demilitarized zone in the Rhineland, thus again violating the Versailles treaty. In addition, Hitler sent troops to Spain to support General Franco after receiving an appeal for help from Franco in July 1936. At the same time, Hitler continued with his efforts to create an Anglo-German alliance. In August 1936, in response to a growing economic crisis caused by his rearmament efforts, Hitler issued the "Four-Year Plan Memorandum", ordering Year Plan Hermann Göring to carry out the Four to have Germany ready for war within the next four years. Hitler's "Four-Year Plan Memorandum" laid out an imminent all-out struggle between "Judeo-Bolshevism" and German National Socialism, which in Hitler's view required a committed effort of rearmament regardless of the economic costs. On 25 October 1936, Count Galeazzo Ciano foreign minister of Benito Mussolini ' s government declared an axis between Germany and Italy, and on 25 November, Germany signed the Anti- Comintern Pact with Japan. Britain, China, Italy and Poland were also invited to join the Anti- Comintern Pact, but only Italy signed in 1937. By late 1937, Hitler had abandoned his dream of an Anglo-German alliance, blaming "inadequate" British leadership. On 5 November 1937, Hitler held a secret meeting at the Reich Chancellery with his war and foreign ministers and military chiefs. As recorded in th e Hossbach Memorandum , Hitler stated his intention of acquiring Lebensraum ("living space") for the German people, and ordered to make preparations for war in the east no later than 1943. Hitler further stated that the conference minutes were to be regarded as his "political testament" in the event of his death. Hitler was also recorded as saying that the crisis of the German economy had reached a point that a severe decline in living standards in Germany could only be stopped by a policy of military aggression " id="pdf-obj-7-61" src="pdf-obj-7-61.jpg">

to carry out the

to have Germany ready for war within the next four years. [134]

Hitler's "Four-Year Plan

Memorandum" laid out an imminent all-out struggle between "Judeo-Bolshevism" and German National Socialism, which in Hitler's view required a committed effort of rearmament regardless of the economic costs. [135]

On 25 October 1936, Count

Galeazzo Ciano foreign minister of

Benito Mussolini's government

declared an axis between Germany and Italy, and on 25 November, Germany signed the

with Japan. Britain, China, Italy and Poland were also invited to join the Anti-

Comintern Pact, but only Italy signed in 1937. By late 1937, Hitler had abandoned his dream of

an Anglo-German alliance, blaming "inadequate" British leadership. [136]

On 5 November 1937, Hitler held a secret meeting at the

Reich Chancellery with his war and

foreign ministers and military chiefs. As recorded in theHossbach Memorandum, Hitler stated his

intention of acquiring

Lebensraum

("living space") for the German people, and ordered to make

preparations for war in the east no later than 1943. Hitler further stated that the conference

minutes were to be regarded as his "political testament" in the event of his death. [137]

Hitler was

also recorded as saying that the crisis of the German economy had reached a point that a severe

decline in living standards in Germany could only be stopped by a policy of military aggression

and seizing Austria and

Czechoslovakia. [138][139]

Moreover, Hitler urged for quick action before

Britain and France obtained a permanent lead in the

arms race. [138]

In early 1938, Hitler asserted his control of the military-foreign policy apparatus through

the

and the abolition of the War Ministry and its replacement by the

OKW.

He also dismissed Neurath as Foreign Minister on 4 February 1938, and assumed the role and

title of the

Oberster Befehlshaber der Wehrmacht

(supreme commander of the armed forces).

It has been argued that from early 1938 onwards, Hitler was not carrying out a foreign policy that increased the risk of war, but that he was carrying out a foreign policy that had war as its ultimate aim. [140]