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Chapter 1: Outline

Need for Psychological Science

Hindsight bias and judgmental overconfidence show that we cannot rely on intuition and common sense. Critical thinking must also be employed in order to perceive facts from nonsense. Hind sight Bias

The thought that once a person find out the outcome, that the person knew the outcome all along and could have predicted it.

Proves that we need psychological research

Common sense describes what has happened more easily than predict what will happen Overconfidence

Thinking is limited

Even when you are 100% sure about something, self prediction may change up to 15% of the time.

When prediction becomes wrong, individuals attempt the I was close excuse

Often leads to the overestimation of our potential.

Skepticism and humility must be added to come back to reality Scientific Attitude

Sometimes refutes skeptics

Being skeptical but not cynical, open but not gullible

Skeptical testing could separate the real facts

Requires skepticism and humility

Need to reject our own ideas

Copernicus and Newton, are examples of people who used the scientific attitude

Critical Thinking examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluatesevidence and assesss conclusion without blindly accepting arguments andconclusions.

Scientific Method

Scientific Theory explains through principles that organizes and predicts behaviors or events.

By organizing isolated facts, theory simplifies things.

Connection of observed dots, we may discover a pattern

Hypothesis is testable prediction, often started by a theory

Research allows one to test or reject the theory

Operational Definition is a statement of the procedures used to define research variables.

Replication when a procedure could be repeated with different participants in different situations to see whether the same result is found.

A theory is successful if it links and organizes observed facts and if it implies hypothesis that offer testable predictions and practical applications. Case Study

An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles

Case studies can suggest hypotheses for further study.

Unrepresentative information can lead to mistaken judgments and false conclusions.

Anecdotal stories may elevate the truth

Does not work to find the general truths that cover individual cases Survey

Looks at many cases in less depth

Asks individuals about their behaviors and opinions

Answers depend on wording

May use random sampling Random Sampling

False consensus effect is the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

Populations includes all the cases in a group from which samples may be drawn from a study

Random sampling represents a populations because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

Very large samples may be more reliable

Basis of generalizing is from representative sample of cases Naturalistic Observation

Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

Does not explain behavior, it describes it

Robert Levine and Ara Norenzayan compared pace of life

Can be used with correlation research Correlation

When two traits seem to accompany each other, they correlate

Correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of a relationship

Reveals how closely two things vary together and thus how well wither one predicts the other

Scatter plots show how closely related the traits are associated with

Each point plots the value of the two variables

Positive correlation means that two variables seem to rise or fall together

A negative correlation could mean inverse as well as negative relationships

Inverse means that while one variable is increasing, the other is decreasing

A weak correlation means that there is little or no relationship- the coefficient is then zero

Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship but does not prove the cause. Illusory Correlations

A perceived non existent relationship

Explains superstitions, beliefs.

More likely to notice and remember the occurrence of two events in sequence

Can be easily deceived by estimating that there is a correlation amidst random events. Perceiving order in random events

Random sequences often dont look random

Example- Flipping coins 50% of getting each side

Streaks may be found in any random data

Patterns or sequences occur naturally in random data Exploring Cause and Effect

Experiment is a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process. By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.

Independent Variable is being manipulated

Dependent Variable is the effect being observed. Evaluating Therapies

Double blind procedures- when an experiment is being performed without the knowledge of either the participant nor the administer

Placebo Effect is researching the effect of expectations, could be used to see whether a medicine is needed or not

Experimental Condition is the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment.

Control condition is the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

Random assignment is assigning participants to by chance, minimizes existing differences. Independent and Dependent Variables

The Independent Variable is the value being manipulated within a given experiment

The dependent variable is the effect produced by manipulating the independent variable.

A variable is anything that can vary

Random assignment is preferred so that all other variables could be equal and

not favor one thing. Statistical Reasoning

Describing Data

Measures of Central Tendency

A single score that represents a whole set of scores is also known as the measure of central tendency.

Mode is the most frequent number repeated within a given set of numbers

Median is the midpoint

Measures of Variation

The range is determined based on how far the lowest and highest scores are.

When is an observed difference reliable?

variable. (consistent scores are more reliable than those with more variation.) 3. When a study includes more cases, it is more reliable than having a study with fewer cases. When is a difference significant?

Statistical difference also shows the likelihood that the result will happen by chance. Can Libratory Experiments illuminate Everyday Life?

The main idea is that the resulting principles-not the specific findings will help everyday behaviors.

Douglas Mook claims that the experiments purpose is not re-create the exact behaviors of everyday life but to test theoretical principles. Does Behavior Depend on Ones Culture

Culture is the shared ides and behaviors that one generation passes on to the next.

It does matter since it influences our perspective on certain topics.

Does Behavior vary by gender?

Gender does play a role in behavior.

Why do Psychologists study animals?

Human physiology resembles that of many other animals.

Animal experiments could lead to cures/vaccines for humans Is it ethical to experiment on animals?

Researchers defend themselves by stating that the number of animals they use for research is only 1% of the number of animals killed for food.

Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of animals want researchers to use naturalistic observation while testing rather than libratory manipulation.

Ethics vary from culture to culture

Some say that the benefits out way the costs

Scott Plous noted that each individual has a list of animals they are more concerned about.

APA advocates minimal pain and stress placed upon animals. Experimenting on people

The APA states that in order to experiment on people, the following guidelines Value of Judgments

Bias definitely plays a role in how an individual may interpret results and study it.

Plays a role in which goals we would like to reach Psychology- Dangerous?

power to deceive as well as enlighten

Addresses common problems, meant to enlighten.

ap psychology chapter 1 outline from the myers textbook