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Genghis Khan History's Greatest Lover - Kripa Aryal.Genes of History's Greatest Lover Found. Found.

In the early 13th c entury a band of fierce nomads swept down from the chilly steppes of Mongolia an d began one of the bloodiest invasions in history. Eventually the Mongol Empire (1206-1368) would stretch from the Sea of Japan to Hungary. The Mongols' influen ce was only regional until a young military genius named Temujin came on the sce ne. Avenging his father's death, Temujin defeated the enemy Tatars and gradually brought the nomadic tribes of Mongolia under his control. In 1206 the Mongols n amed him Genghis Khan, or Universal Ruler. Genghis Khan (1162-1227), who is stil l mentioned frequently in Mongolia, was no pioneer. He consolidated the Mongol t ribes and led them to create by conquest perhaps the largest empire in the histo ry of the world. He fought successful military campaigns from Poland and Hungary to the west and to the border of Vietnam in the southeast.Genghis Khan was a wo rld historic butcher. He slaughtered untold numbers, ranging into the millions. As far as can be determined, his campaigns, coupled with the resulting famine an d disease, eliminated one-fourth of the population of China, from 80 to 60 milli on.His second generation descendant Kublai Khan was the recipient of Marco Polo' s alleged visit and the subject of Coleridge's opium induced poem, but Genghis K han does not live so benignly in historic memory. He pioneered in military tacti cs and administration, but settled nowhere. He tamed not plains but rival tribes and helpless peasants. One of the stranger assertions about Genghis Khan is tha t his DNA is found in an astonishingly large percentage of the human population, hardly a testament to his family values, unless one defines "family" rather loo sely.Genghis Khan, the fearsome Mongolian warrior of the 13th century, may have done more than rule the largest empire in the world; according to a recently pub lished genetic study, he may have helped populate it too.This map reflects the M ongol Empire in 1227, when Genghis Khan died. His descendants expanded into East ern Europe, the Middle East, and all of China.We owe it all to super stud Genghi s Warlord Khan has 16m male relatives alive now, says study Robin McKie, science e ditor The Observer One in every 200 men alive today is a relative of Genghis Kha n. An international team of geneticists has made the astonishing discovery that more than 16 million men in central Asia have the same male Y chromosome as the great Mongol leader.It is a striking finding: a huge chunk of modern humanity ca n trace its origins to Khan's vigorous policy of claiming the most beautiful wom en captured during his merciless conquest. One thirteenth century Persian histo rian claimed that within a century of Khan's birth, his enthusiastic mating habi ts had created a lineage of more than 20,000 individuals.'That now appears to ac count for around 8% of the men in central Asia'There are only two ways a single Y chromosome can make such a mark on a population. 'The chromosome could in some way confer its owners with some biological advantage. But given that a Y chromo some is little more than a biochemical switch that turns an embryo into a male c hild, it is hard to see how it could have such an effect. The other explanation is that its original possessor had some incredible social advantageover other Y chromosome possessors, allowing its owner to pass it on, over and over again.Kha n fits that bill perfectly. He had many wives, and was enthusiastic in his atten tions to other women.When Mongol armies attacked, their spoils were shared among the troops and officers, with one exception. The most beautiful women were rese rved for Khan.The study also sided with the Hazara people of northern Pakistan, whose claim to be direct descendants of Khan is derided by historians. It found the Hazaras' Y chromosomes were identical to those they had already linked to Kh an.The spread of the chromosome could be the result of natural selection, in whi ch an extremely fit individual manages to pass on some sort of biological advant age. But this scenario is unlikely. advantage. unlikely. The unique set of circu mstances surrounding the establishment of the Mongol empire may have led to the spread. spread.Legacy of Genghis Khan To have such a startling impact on a population required a special set of circum stances, all of which are met by Genghis Khan and his male relatives.Khan's empi re at the time of his death extended across Asia, from the Pacific Ocean to the

Caspian Sea. His military conquests were frequently characterized by the wholesa le slaughter of the vanquished. His descendants extended the empire and maintain ed power in the region for several hundred years. And the males were markedly pr olific. Khan's eldest son, Tushi, is reported to have had 40 sons.His grandson, Kubilai Khan, who established the Yuan Dynasty in China, had 22 legitimate sons, and was reported to have added 30 virgins to his harem each year.Burial Site Ma y Reveal Secrets That Died with Genghis Khan Archaeologists believe they have fo und the burial site of the Mongolian warrior Genghis Khan. The discovery of a wa lled Khan. burial ground containing at least 60 unopened tombs has increased spe culation that an expedition that is under way will succeed in tracking down the elusive conqueror, who was buried amid great secrecy and slaughter in 1227. 1227 .John Woods, a history professor at the University of Chicago, said, "It is an e xciting discovery because it's located near where some other important events oc curred in Khan's life. life. These locations include Genghis Khan's likely birthp lace and the Great Kuriltai, where 20,000 people crowned him Khan of 20, Khans, and ruler of "all who live in felt tents." tents.After his death at the age of 6 5, perhaps from injuries suffered in a fall from his beloved horse, Genghis was buried by generals who went to extraordinary lengths to conceal the grave. Every one of the 2,000 people who attended his funeral was reportedly massacred by 80 0 soldiers, who in turn were killed to ensure his rest was undisturbed. He has l aid undisturbed ever since, despite the high-tech efforts of Japanese explorers highwho wasted three years and millions of dollars in the mid-nineties in a vain attempt to midfind his grave. The Americans believe luck is on their side this time. As they considered abandoning a search near the town of Batshireet in Khen tii Province, 200 miles northeast of the capital, Ulan Bator, they heeded a sugg estion from an asthmatic Mongolian geographer to climb a nearby hill, which was so steep that it had defeated him. From the summit, the walled burial ground cam e into view.Other positive signs include an unexcavated tomb 31 miles away, whic h may contain 100 of the soldiers who lost their lives to keep the secret. Professor Woods said, "This whole country is virgin in terms of archaeologyalmost no excavation of any archaeology kind has been done in Mongolia. There are tanta lizing references [in folklore] to maidens being sacrificed, and booty. We don't know what to expect."Although traditions weigh heavily on Mongolia's people, th e financial temptations of creating a tourist attraction to rival the Tomb of Tu tankhamen in Egypt, or China's Terracotta Army, would be considerable for this p oor, aidaid-dependent nation, with its semi-nomadic population of 2.6 million. s emi-Tracking the Y-Chromosome Y The study looked at blood samples collected over a period of ten years from more than 40 populations living in and around the fo rmer Mongol empire.Geneticists use the Y-chromosome in population studies such a s this because it doesn't recombine as other parts of the genome do. When it com es to eye color, or height, or resistance or susceptibility to particular diseas es, each parent contributes half of a child's DNA, which join together to form a new genetic combination. The Y-chromosome is passed on as a chunk of DNA from f ather to son, basically unchanged through generations except for random mutation s.These random mutations, which happen naturally and are usually harmless, are c alled markers. Once the markers have been identified, geneticists can go back in time and trace them to the point at which they first occurred, defining a uniqu e lineage of descent.In this particular instance, the lineage originated 1,000 y ears ago. The scientists aren't saying that the genetic mutations defining the l ineage originated with Khan, who was born around 1162; they are more likely to h ave been passed on to him by a great great grandfather. The lineage was found in only one population outside of the former Mongolian emp ire, in Pakistan.The Hazaras [of Pakistan] gave us our first clue to the connect ion with Genghis Khan. They have a long oral tradition that says they're his dir ect descendants."

How does it work? All men carry a Y-chromosome in every cell of their bodies, wh ich is inherited exclusively from their fathers. Indeed, it is the Y-chromosome that makes men male! We despatch directly to you by post a Sampling Kit containi ng a small brush that we ask you to rub on the inside of your cheek to collect, painlessly, your DNA, which we extract and profile on receipt of the brush. Your DNA is made up of a string of chemicals whose names are abbreviated to the lett ers A, C, G and T. At particular points on the Y-chromosome, the exact number of letters can vary. The profiling process determines the exact number of letters at particular points or markers; in the case of our Y-Clan analysis, ten markers . Once we have these ten numbers, which form your ten-digit Y-Clan signature, we can compare this to our extensive reference database and establish the correlati on between your Y-Clan signature and your paternal ancestral clan. Further, this signature can then be compared to the specific haplotype that has been identifi ed, on the balance of probability, as that of Genghis Khan himself, to determine if you share your Y-chromosome with the most successful empire builder who ever lived.How long does it take?Sampling Kits are usually despatched within 3-5 wor king day of receipt of your order. From the time that we receive your sampling b rush, it will be approximately six weeks until we send you your results.How much does it cost?The Y-Clan plus Genghis Test costs 195.00, including postage and pa cking."This is a clear example that culture plays a very big role in patterns of genetic variation and diversity in human populations. It's the first documented case when human culture has caused a single genetic lineage to increase to such an enormous extent in just a few hundred years."Of course, the connection to Ge nghis Khan will never be a certainty unless his DNA could be extracted. Until th en, geneticists will continue to seek out isolated populations in the hope of un raveling the mysteries of geographic origin and relatedness told by our genes."B etween finding Genghis Khan's DNA and the fact that he conquered most of the wor ld, it's fair to wonder if he was a little genetically unusual. Of course, if yo u found his corpse and could extract his DNA, eventually, at some point in the f uture, you'd be able to clone 'the Perfect Warrior.' Do you think the Department of Defense would want an army of Genghis Khans?Map of Mongolia Today Mongolia To day Genghis Khan will return someday, according to a legend that still throbs in Mongolia, and will lead the Mongols again to greatness. He would find his homel and changed but little since the 13th century, when it was the center of an empi re stretching from Korea and China to Russia and Iraq. True, the capital, Ulaanb aator, was radically altered while Mongolia was a vassal of the Soviet Union, fo r 66 years until 1990. In place of Buddhist lamaseries and temples, the Soviet m asters raised blocky office buildings. But beyond the capital spreads the steppe , the awesome, breathtaking steppe, still peopled by herders who dwell in round, felt tents called gers, and who depend upon horses for transport as well as ger s, milk koumiss. for milkmuch of it fermented into their beloved koumiss. Genghis would recognize all: herds, horses, gers, and the bitter koumiss taste.Summer r ains fill the floodplain of the Onon River in northeastern Mongolia, where a boy named Temujin was born in the 1160s. The young leader spent his early years bui lding a confederation of pastoral tribes that had long vied for power in the gra sslands north of the Gobi desert.The future great khan was said to have been bor n with an auspicious clot of blood in his hand. Legend says that his hand. spiri t will reappear in a boy boy like infant Jargal Chinzoreg in his familys felt tent, or gerand lead Mongolia to ger new greatness. greatness.There was little in Mongo lia to attract conquerors, and there is little today to lure builders of factori es and high-rises. The chief resource of Mongolia may well be grass, upon which most life depends. When the grass in one place has been cropped by their sheep a nd horses, herders simply dismantle their gers and move to another place. Few ot her nations approach the end of the 20th century holding so true to traditions.C ursed by a short growing season and fierce winters, Mongolia never became populo us. More than twice as large as Texas, it claims only 2.3 million people, perhap s no more than when Genghis founded his dynasty in 1206.Hence a traveler crossin g this grassland is awedor humbledby the sheer emptiness of it. Occasionally, very occasionally, towns rise modestly on the far horizon, but no pavement spans the distance between them. Just a dirt track. Nor are there road signs or gas stati

ons, and of course no Mongol equivalent of McDonalds, serving up burgers.Stop an d you will be invited in; Mongols are hospitable. In the single round room will be cots, stools, a low table, a chest, a battery-powered radio, perhaps a couple of saddles to one side. Ive never seen anyone ride a horse like this man, marveled photographer Jim Stanfield. Stanfield. It was so natural to him. Stanfield spent him. several days with Had, a Mongolian herder. Had and herder. his family were in the saddle 15 to 18 hours a day, looking after some 250 horses, 200 cattle, a nd other livestock For Genghis and his army the road to China lay across the imm ense Gobi desert. Bactrian camels, the same species used desert. today, accompan ied the Mongols. Army, animals, and Mongols. civilians crossed the Gurvan Sayhan Mountains on their way to the kingdom of Xi Xia. Xia.The wife offers tea and pu ts a kettle on the wood stove. Inevitably, koumiss appears too; it would be a po or family that had no mares to provide milk. Tasting from the proffered bowl, yo u may wonder what kind of the horse provided the raw material. Buttermilk is swe et by comparison. Mongols delight in speaking of Genghis Khantheir George Washing ton, they say, for he Khan welded all the 30 or so Mongol tribes into a nation. ( This comparison overlooks the fact that Washington never ravaged 20 cities.) The Soviet Union tried to erase Genghis. In school, if mentioned at all, he was des cribed as a feudal tyrant. But around the campfires where shepherds gathered, st ories of Genghis survived. Today, despite the Soviet blackout, Mongols know Geng hiss boyhood was bleak, that his father was killed by enemies, that he fought for 20 years to bring the warring tribes together.He is the essence of how Mongols want to see themselves: brave, daring, allallconquering. His dynasty was a shoot ing star, a brilliant blaze across the sky. It lasted less than a century, but i n that brief time people throughout Asia and Europe knew the name Mongol, and tr embled.Defiantly proud of their past, Mongols like these youngsters racing at a summer festival festivallearn to ride at age four or five, just as their ancestors did eight centuries ago. ago. Watching the contestants, several hundred in all, was probably the most rewarding part of photographer Jim Stanfields time on assign ment. assignmentDeadeye marksmanship favors no gender at the Naadam festival, wh ere a young Mongolian woman competes in archery finals. Mongolia is finals. uniqu e among Asian cultures, says Mongolian lawyer MunhMunh-Orgil Tsend, in its genuine respect for women. women.Will there be another great leader, another Genghis? Mo ngolia is waiting Not only was Genghis Khan the leader of one of the fiercest ar mies the world has ever seen, his reputation as a legendary ladies' man has tran scended time. Today it might even get you a free meal in time. London's Shish re staurant, in Hoxton and Willesden's Green Mongolian. Mongolian. For the past few months, guests there have been treated to a free meal if their DNA is directly descended from the Great Khan. Khan.

95,720 descendants 95,720. Not bad. You're no Mongol warlord, but to have that m any copies of your genetic code running around 800 years from now is pretty impr essive. You're at the lower end of the scoring spectrum, but, honestly, when you consider that the cheaters, swindlers, and football players of this world are s tatistically best-equipped to create children, scoring low is something to be pr oud of. As you'll see below, some of your lines will die out, but nonetheless yo ur genetic material will thrive here on earth for a long time to come. My test t racked 1 variable How you compared to other people your age and gender: - you're more genetically fit than 44% of the current population -Lets take the Genghis Khan Test Go to the test..Born Tem jin in 1165 Became tribe leader aged 10 afte r his father was murdered. Abandoned by his clan he led a poor, nomadic life Age d about 20, he married his wife Borte. According to legend he rescued her after she was kidnapped In 1206 he united the formerly fragmented tribes of what is no w Mongolia, and was titled Genghis Khan or "Universal Ruler" Founded the Mongol Empire by conquering most of Asia, including China, Russia, Persia, and the Midd le East, and Eastern Europe Died in 1227 His body was returned to Mongolia, and legend has it that the escort killed anyone that strayed across their path, so as not to reveal where he was finally laid to restSource. articles/thaxton_dnadesign.html 4 er_Found.htm http://n 14_genghis.html http://www.oxf Y DNA/2004 h ttp:// h?sourceid=navclient&ie=UTF8&rls=GGLG,GGLG:20058&rls=GGLG,GGLG:200552,GGLG:en&q= genghis+khan+family+history+dna LAST PAGE