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Explain the changing nature of the link INTRO: The Australian aid program has undergone considerable changes

over the pa st 50 years. Changers have occurred in the administration of the program, its fo cus, the major countries receiving Australian aid, and the types of aid provided . These changes reflect the changing regional and global role that Australia has adopted. 1. Before WWII. Small scale. Grants of less than 100,000 to PNG due to thei r close proximity to Australia and its political administration by Australia (bi lateral) 2. 1950s. Commonwealth ministers launch Colombo Plan which concerned aid wi th low-income Commonwealth countries in South and South-East Asia due to politic al (all part of the Commonwealth), and ethical/moral reasons (multilateral) 3. From mid-1950s. Aus continues to give aid to PNG. Commonwealth countries less important. Near neighbours e.g. Indonesia more important due to national s ecurity (stopping conflicts to arise, stop people trafficking, illicit drugs) an d close proximity and political reasons (bilateral) 4. From mid-1960s. Multilateral aid became more important (Early 1970s, 7% of all Australian Aid, Now 25%). Setting up with global development agencies (du e to globalisation) such as Asia Development Band (ADB) (due to geopolitical, ec onomic and social benefits) 5. 1980s. 1984 Jackson Review. Stronger focus on partnerships with recipien t countries (bilateral). Country programs rather than individual projects. Agree d principal objectives: humanitarian aid, strategic interests, commercial intere sts. Sectoral focus including agriculture, heath, infrastructure development, po pulation planning and urban development. 6. Simons Review 1996. To advance Australia's national interest (national s ecurity, economic) by assisting developing countries to reduce poverty (social, economic) and achieve sustainable development (economic, environment). Country P rograms. 7. Millennium Development Goals. Reduce poverty. Environmental sustainabili ty. 8. 2009-2010. Post GFC. Food Security and increasing aid to Africa as a res ult. Asia Development Bank (multilateral) Explain the roles and actions of different government levels The Federal Government is the primary government level that deals with internati onal aid. This is because it is government that interacts with other nations. Wh ere international aid is concerned, the Federal Government's role is to sign int ernational agreements and treaties relating to aid and formulate policies to be implemented by AusAID. Agreements Australia-Indonesia Partnership for Reconstruction and Development, 2 005, Aus contributing $1 billion over 5 years, reconstruction in areas of greate st need (humanitarian aid after tsunami), large scholarship program, providing s upport and training in areas such as engineering, health care, public administra tion and governance (this education allows for Indonesia to become self-determin ant). UN Millennium Goals - Australia is moving towards the UN target 0.7% of gr oss national income (GNI) regarding development goals. The Australian Government has committed to increase Australia's official development assistance (ODA) to Gross National Income (GNI) ratio from 0.34% in 2009 10 to 0.5 per cent by 2015 16. Treaty International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (multilatera l) signed by Australia on 13 August 1980. Protects civil and political rights of all people physical integrity, in the form of the right to life and freedom from torture an d slavery liberty and security of the person, in the form of freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention and the right to habeas corpus procedural fairness in law, in the form of rights to due process, a fair and impartial trial, the presumption of i nnocence, and recognition as a person before the law individual liberty, in the form of the freedoms of movement, thought, conscience and religion, speech, association and assembly, family rights, the right to a n

ationality, and the right to privacy prohibition of any propaganda for war as well as any avocacy of national or reli gious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violenc e by law political participation, including the right to join a political party and the r ight to vote Non-discrimination, minority rights and equality before the law Help through AusAID - e.g. Landmine in Cambodia - mines in rural aras maiming pe ople doing daily chores (2 casualties/day). Cambodian Mine Action Centre. $75 mi llion to remove mines and mine education. Roads and Schools also provided. Examine the roles of government and non-government organisations in relation to the link The main government organisation relating to aid is AusAID. The Australian Agenc y for International Development (AusAID) is the Australian Government agency res ponsible for managing Australia's overseas aid program. The objective of the Aus tralian aid program is to assist developing countries reduce poverty and achieve sustainable development, in line with Australia's national interest. Aid is delivered through a variety of methods: 1. through the delivery of goods and services (e.g. humanitarian relief, bu ilding health clinics and schools, immunising children) 2. building local institutions through training of staff, improving managem ent systems and institutional cultures 3. policy dialogue and reform through ongoing discussions between Australia n development advisers in the field and their local counterparts in government c ivil society and business. Sometimes Military e.g. Aceh after tsunami, deployed to clean up, engineer, dist ribute food and drugs. NGOS- Roles- raising public awareness, raising money from public, working on a l ong-term basis with local communities on specific programs, working with federal government and AusAID regarding common goals. In 2008-09 the Australian communi ty contributed $808.8million to non-government organisations (NGO) for their ove rseas programs which makes up 73% of their total funds raised. e.g. Oxfam- Vision: Our vision is of a just world without poverty. We aim to inc rease the number of people who have a sustainable livelihood, access to social s ervices, an effective voice in decisions, equal rights and status, and safety fr om conflict and disaster. Our work is a partnership through which Australians en able poor and marginalised people to control their own development, achieve equi table treatment, exercise their basic rights, and ensure the environment is heal thy and sustainable. Work Oxfam Undertakes We fund long-term projects around the world and work in a range of areas, from w ater and sanitation to education and health, to bring about positive change in p eople's lives. We form part of a global movement of people committed to achieving a fairer worl d by: Partnering with Australians to campaign on the issues that matter more than 50,0 00 Australians took action with us in the 2010/2011 financial year Empowering communities in developing countries to realise their rights and impro ve their lives Engaging with organisations and governments to change policies that cause povert y and inequality People need help in an emergency fast. We save lives, swiftly delivering aid, su pport and protection; and we help people prepare for future crises. 2009/2010 Number of poor people assisted 7.91 million people in 30 countries Individual donors - 177,696 Number of emergencies responded to 25 Oxfam Project in Cambodia Problems - 50% of the population is less than 25 years old, older adults missed out on an education which has led to a lack of productive skills across the coun

try, high unemployment means that making a living is difficult, suffers from a l ack of basic infrastructure and services. 30% of Cambodians live below the pover ty line Work focuses on helping improve agricultural practices as well as raising animal s for improved nutrition and as a source of income. Introduced SRI (system of ri ce intensification) to improve rice yields, and rice banks to help sustain famil ies in times of shortage. Providing people with access to medical treatment, and raising awareness of HIV and AIDS. Building village schools in remote hard-to-a ccess regions for children as well as educating adults, running literacy program s and training teachers. Analyse the advantages and disadvantages of the link to Australia Where Australia is concerned, there are more advantages of aid than disadvantage s Advantages National security- by focussing on development-related issues through aid, many of the underlying causes of terrorism, civil and political unrest, people smuggl ing, drug trafficking can be addressed. If there was no aid, conflicts more like ly to arise and negatively impact Australia Economic- By strengthening regional national economies, Australia creates market s for our goods and services. Also it opens up new investment opportunities for Australia. Geopolitical- Helps build existing political, economic, community, religious and sporting ties with close proximity nations. Helps promote future diplomatic, bu siness, and investment links (e.g. Aus govt sought to establish free trade agree ments with Thailand and Singapore) Positive impacts on social justice and equity Disadvantages Environmental, social and cultural- Criticising. Bougainville Copper Mine and OK Tedi Mine in PNG established with support of Aus aid funds have environmental i mpact. "commercialisation of aid" as AID/WATCH says as development assistance is designed to promote political and economic interests. Economic-Criticising. Concern that the aid budget is being used to build markets for Australian goods and services overseas and to assist Australian firms to in ternationalise rather than meeting the needs of communities, therefore the aid p rogram is inefficient. Geopolitical- can encourage "culture of dependence". Examine the implications on social justice and equity Good implications. Helps reduce poverty and improves access to education and hea lth services.