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CIGI at ten

CIGI at ten

Copyright © 2011 The Centre for International Governance Innovation.

© 2011 The Centre for International Governance Innovation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution — Non-commercial — No Derivatives License. To view this license, visit (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). For re-use or distribution, please include this copyright notice.

ISBN: 978-0-9867077-2-8

The Centre for International Governance Innovation is an independent, non-partisan think tank on international governance. Led by experienced practitioners and distinguished academics, CIGI supports research, forms networks, advances policy debate and generates ideas for multilateral governance improvements. Conducting an active agenda of research, events and publications, CIGI’s interdisciplinary work includes collaboration with policy, business and academic communities around the world.

CIGI’s research programs focus on four themes: the global economy; the environment and energy; global development; and global security.

CIGI was founded in 2001 by Jim Balsillie, co-CEO of RIM (Research In Motion) and collaborates with and gratefully acknowledges support from a number of strategic partners, in particular the Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario.

Le CIGI a été fondé en 2001 par Jim Balsillie, co-chef de la direction de RIM (Research In Motion). Il collabore avec de nombreux partenaires stratégiques et exprime sa reconnaissance du soutien reçu de ceux-ci, notamment de l’appui reçu du gouvernement du Canada et de celui du gouvernement de l’Ontario.

For more information, please visit www.cigionline.org.

This book was printed and bound in Canada.

de l’Ontario. For more information, please visit www.cigionline.org. This book was printed and bound in Canada.
de l’Ontario. For more information, please visit www.cigionline.org. This book was printed and bound in Canada.
de l’Ontario. For more information, please visit www.cigionline.org. This book was printed and bound in Canada.
de l’Ontario. For more information, please visit www.cigionline.org. This book was printed and bound in Canada.

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CIGI at ten Table of ConTenTs

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CIGI at ten

a celebration of the first decade of the Centre for International Governance Innovation, founded in 2001 in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Contents

Beginnings

2

Programs

8

Overview

9

Global Economy

10

Environment and Energy

17

Global

Development

20

Global

Security

24

The CIGI Campus

28

Milestones in International Governance

34

Public Service and Outreach

36

The Road Ahead

40

28 Milestones in International Governance 34 Public Service and Outreach 36 The Road Ahead 40
28 Milestones in International Governance 34 Public Service and Outreach 36 The Road Ahead 40
28 Milestones in International Governance 34 Public Service and Outreach 36 The Road Ahead 40
28 Milestones in International Governance 34 Public Service and Outreach 36 The Road Ahead 40
28 Milestones in International Governance 34 Public Service and Outreach 36 The Road Ahead 40
28 Milestones in International Governance 34 Public Service and Outreach 36 The Road Ahead 40
28 Milestones in International Governance 34 Public Service and Outreach 36 The Road Ahead 40
28 Milestones in International Governance 34 Public Service and Outreach 36 The Road Ahead 40
28 Milestones in International Governance 34 Public Service and Outreach 36 The Road Ahead 40
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beginnings CIGI at ten

2 beginnings CIGI at ten Jim Balsillie, co-CEO of Research In Motion, is the founder of

Jim Balsillie, co-CEO of Research In Motion, is the founder of CIGI and chair of its Operating Board of Directors. His vision for the think tank on international governance has produced tangible results in the organization’s first 10 years.

John English, CIGI executive director from 2001 to 2009, and founder Jim Balsillie celebrate the

John English, CIGI executive director from 2001 to 2009, and founder Jim Balsillie celebrate the federal funding announcement on July 23, 2002.

celebrate the federal funding announcement on July 23, 2002. Early donors included RIM co-CEO Mike Lazaridis

Early donors included RIM co-CEO Mike Lazaridis (left) and the Province of Ontario under Premier Dalton McGuinty (right).

Province of Ontario under Premier Dalton McGuinty (right). Paul Martin, then finance minister, was among Jim

Paul Martin, then finance minister, was among Jim Balsillie’s advisers in 2001 on the creation of CIGI.

CIGI at ten beginnings

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A S IT marks its tenth anniversary, The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) is really just setting out on its journey. Given CIGI’s

stated vision to be “the world’s leading think tank on international governance with recognized impact on significant global problems,” and realizing the magnitude of the issues to be tackled — global economic crises, the dangers of climate change, the immense disparities in world development and threats to security including nuclear risks and armed conflict — the road toward “recognized impact” appears to be long and challenging. Helping to transform how the entire planet’s nation-states and people interact among themselves is no small objective. A think tank’s only tools to generate innovations in international governance are research, policy development and building bridges from knowledge to power — through dialogue among scholars, policy makers and the public worldwide. What influence on global governance has CIGI been able to achieve after only a single decade on a road whose milestones stretch through centuries? CIGI’s tenth anniversary is an opportunity to take stock of the organization’s history and accomplishments. Its story begins with the private conversations in which such an enterprise was first imagined, continues to CIGI’s founding in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada on July 30, 2001, and through several years of rapid growth. This is the account of an ambitious vision, spurred by early and remarkable success — in the eyes of external independent evaluators — for a young think tank newly arrived on the global stage of multilateral cooperation and problem solving. This story is one of bold experimentation, with intrepid course corrections as CIGI explored various strategies to guide its mission. In the first 10 years, even as different approaches were undertaken, the fellows, researchers and staff of CIGI generated a considerable first press of research and commentary on multilateral subjects, while convening global experts to discuss the most

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beginnings CIGI at ten

critical issues. CIGI established partnerships with universities, government bodies and other think tanks, developing an international network of academics, researchers and policy practitioners. And at the hub of all of this activity, the impressive CIGI Campus began to rise, home to CIGI’s hopes for even greater impact in the years ahead. The story of CIGI begins in early 2001, when co-CEO of Research In Motion Jim Balsillie engaged in conversations with friends and advisers about his desire to build capacity in Canada to act on the international stage. His goal was to lay the framework for an institution tasked with helping solve the world’s most pressing challenges. Balsillie’s early advisers in this regard included: John English, author, historian and former member of Parliament; Paul Heinbecker, then Canada’s ambassador to the United Nations (UN); David Johnston, then University of Waterloo president and now Canada’s governor general; Paul Martin, then finance minister and later prime minister of Canada; Bob Rosehart, then president of Wilfrid Laurier University; and Harry Swain, former federal deputy minister of industry. International governance — especially the lack of it — soon emerged as the linchpin connecting all major global challenges. “If we can’t get along with one another, if we can’t govern ourselves, if we can’t establish viable communities in each part of the world, then prosperity just goes to nothing,” Balsillie said. In collaboration with his circle of advisers, he began to develop plans for a new centre of research and expertise that would help create greater capacity in Canada to be effective at the international level. On July 30, 2001, Industry Canada officially incorporated The New Economy Institute. It quickly became apparent, as planning proceeded, that the think tank required a name that would better reflect its governance focus and global mission. On July 19, 2002, the name was changed with letters patent to The Centre for International Governance Innovation. The initial funding came in

Governance Innovation. The initial funding came in The John Holmes Library, a specialized collection on

The John Holmes Library, a specialized collection on Canadian foreign policy dating back to 1928, occupies the second floor of CIGI’s main lobby in the converted barrel warehouse.

of CIGI’s main lobby in the converted barrel warehouse. CIGI’s first staff (left) at their temporary
of CIGI’s main lobby in the converted barrel warehouse. CIGI’s first staff (left) at their temporary

CIGI’s first staff (left) at their temporary office, the Waterloo–St. Jacobs railway station, a mere whistle stop on the think tank’s journey. Since 2003, CIGI has been located in a former warehouse of the Seagram whisky distillery (above).

Klaus and Anna Woerner donated the $1.6 million Woerner Centre to CIGI. The 60-acre property
Klaus and Anna Woerner donated the $1.6 million Woerner Centre to CIGI. The 60-acre property

Klaus and Anna Woerner donated the $1.6 million Woerner Centre to CIGI. The 60-acre property hosts conferences, retreats and workshops.

60-acre property hosts conferences, retreats and workshops. Louise MacCallum and Michael Barnstijn were among the early

Louise MacCallum and Michael Barnstijn were among the early supporters of CIGI, donating $2.9 million in 2004.

CIGI at ten beginnings

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the form of a $30 million endowment, including $20 million from Balsillie and $10 million from Mike Lazaridis, co-CEO of RIM. Matching federal funds of $30 million were announced on July 23, 2002 (and formalized in a 2003 agreement), as a donation through the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Other funding support for CIGI in its early years included $17 million from the Ontario government (matched by another $17 million from Balsillie), an anonymous major donation for the Africa Initiative, a $1.6 million property in North Dumfries, Ontario, from Klaus and Anna Woerner and $2.9 million from Michael Barnstijn and Louise MacCallum. At the time of the federal funding announcement, Balsillie said CIGI would “provide coherence, focus and voice to the best minds in the world on the global economy. Our exceptional research will influence the development of new rules of the game with respect to the world’s economy.” Balsillie said in a later interview: “The world is orders of magnitude more integrated than 60 years ago, and the institutions that manage and support and guide and protect the direction of the world haven’t evolved to keep pace.” With its vision and purpose articulated, CIGI was set on its course. But even though the papers of incorporation had been duly filed and funding put in place, there would still be a great deal of recruiting, creativity and intellectual energy required to begin filling what was essentially a blank canvas. Before CIGI could launch research and policy development programs, it needed to find a temporary office and build a team. CIGI’s first postal address was a main-floor office in the University of Waterloo’s Hagey Hall, with only founding Executive Director John English and his assistant Lena Yost on staff. Next, CIGI moved into the Waterloo–St. Jacobs railway station in Waterloo. In September 2003, CIGI moved into its permanent home, the former Seagram Museum building, purchased from the City of Waterloo.

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beginnings CIGI at ten

Many visitors to CIGI’s headquarters at 57 Erb Street West are awestruck when they step into the main lobby, surrounded by a magnificent display of whisky-aging barrels. Originally a rack warehouse for the Joseph E. Seagram

& Sons Distillery founded in 1857, the building later operated as a distillery museum from 1984 to 1997, designed by architect Barton Myers, winner of

a Governor General’s Medal for Architecture in 1986. The space remains

steeped in history while housing a forward-looking research institution. A think tank’s chief assets are, of course, its people. Among the first staff

in 2002, in addition to English and Yost, were: John Milloy, director of public

affairs at CIGI before he was elected to provincial Parliament in 2003, later becoming minister of training, colleges and universities; and Andrew Cooper,

a University of Waterloo professor and CIGI’s longest-serving expert (a

distinguished fellow in 2011). Cooper produced CIGI’s first official publication,

a 2005 working paper on coalitions of the willing. Paul Heinbecker joined

CIGI as a senior fellow in January 2004, and later became a distinguished fellow. By mid-decade, CIGI had as many as 50 staff and 30 fellows. The inaugural meeting of the International Board of Governors (IBG), CIGI’s advisory board, was held at CIGI in October 2003. Early IBG members included, among many others: Jagdish Bhagwati, special adviser to the UN on globalization; Joe Clark, former prime minister of Canada; Bill Graham, former

minister of foreign affairs for Canada; Ahmed Galal, managing director of the Economic Research Forum, Egypt; Angel Gurria, former secretary-general of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD); Anne-Marie Slaughter, then dean of the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University; and Maureen O’Neil, then president of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC). The IBG engaged CIGI’s leaders in an in-depth discussion on research areas where the new think tank might have an impact.

areas where the new think tank might have an impact. University of Waterloo President David Johnston,
areas where the new think tank might have an impact. University of Waterloo President David Johnston,

University of Waterloo President David Johnston, later appointed governor general, sat on CIGI’s first International Board of Governors.

From left, John English, senior researcher Hany Besada and Joseph Kahiigwa, Ugandan deputy high commissioner, attend the Africa Initiative launch in 2008.

commissioner, attend the Africa Initiative launch in 2008. Tamara Zur was among CIGI’s earliest research staff

Tamara Zur was among CIGI’s earliest research staff members and later became research partnership manager.

Paul Heinbecker, former Canadian ambassador to the UN who became a distinguished fellow in 2004,

Paul Heinbecker, former Canadian ambassador to the UN who became a distinguished fellow in 2004, gives an interview to CTV at CIGI ’06: Building Ideas for Global Change.

The Centre for International Governance Innovation WORKING PAPER Re-Shaping Diplomacy
The Centre for International Governance Innovation
WORKING PAPER
Re-Shaping Diplomacy

Stretching the Model of “Coalitions of the Willing”

ANDREW F. COOPER
ANDREW F. COOPER

Working Paper No.1 October 2005

An electronic version of this paper is available for download at:

w w w. ci gi o n li n e.org

Building Ideas for Global Change

w w w. ci gi o n li n e.org Building Ideas for Global Change CIGI’s

CIGI’s first official publication, a 2005 working paper (left) on coalitions of the willing, was written by the think tank’s first researcher, University of Waterloo professor and international relations expert Andrew Cooper (seated, with research project manager Kelly Jackson).

CIGI at ten beginnings

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CIGI’s early efforts led to the creation of other organizations. In 2005, CIGI and its partners launched International Governance Leaders and Organizations Online (IGLOO), an online research portal. Incorporated separately, IGLOO moved out of CIGI to a Kitchener, Ontario, office in 2008. CIGI also played

a central role in the 2005–07 transformation of the Canadian Institute of

International Affairs into the Canadian International Council (CIC). With more than 1,300 members in 16 chapters in 2011, the CIC is a nationwide council established to strengthen Canada’s role in international affairs. And in 2007, CIGI partnered with the University of Waterloo and Wilfrid Laurier University

to launch the Balsillie School of International Affairs (for more on the school,

see The CIGI Campus, page 29). By the mid-2000s, CIGI’s research programs had begun to expand rapidly. The pace of publishing outputs and events activity increased dramatically in 2005, and has continued at a steady rate. Looking back, CIGI’s current Executive Director, Thomas Bernes, recalls his first contact with CIGI was through attending workshops that were part of the Breaking Global Deadlocks project in 2006-07. “CIGI was, and remains, the first major Canadian effort to promote research and dialogue on global governance challenges that are central to Canada’s future prosperity,” says Bernes. “For me, this was exciting, as the think tank

world has traditionally been dominated by US institutions that tend to view issues from their perspective. CIGI has the possibility to encourage a greater focus in Canada on these issues and bring a broader perspective to the global dialogue.” Some of CIGI’s first major projects had considerable impact; most notably, CIGI’s proposals for innovation in the G8 system helped lead to the creation of the G20 at the leaders’ level. Even while CIGI was a relatively young organization, its programs were establishing an international reputation.

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Programs CIGI at ten

8 Programs CIGI at ten While still a fledgling on the global scene, CIGI helped lay

While still a fledgling on the global scene, CIGI helped lay the groundwork for the formation of the G20 leaders’ group. Since their first meeting in Washington in 2008 (above), the leaders’ G20 quickly established itself as the premier forum for international economic cooperation.

CIGI Strategic Plan 2010-­‐15 December 10, 2010 Confidential Internal Document Final The Centre for
CIGI Strategic Plan 2010-­‐15
CIGI Strategic Plan 2010-­‐15

December 10, 2010

Confidential Internal Document

Final

The Centre for International Governance Innovation 57 Erb Street West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 6C2 www.cigionline.org

In its 2010–15 strategic plan, CIGI research is defined under four program areas, with collaboration on crosscutting issues.

Executive Director Thomas Bernes (centre, at a 2011 Asian economic outlook seminar in Ottawa) first attended CIGI events in 2006.

seminar in Ottawa) first attended CIGI events in 2006. The BRICSAM advisory group met at the

The BRICSAM advisory group met at the Woerner Centre in May 2005 to help chart the course for CIGI’s first major research project.

CIGI at ten Programs — overview

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D URING ITS first decade, CIGI has produced several hundred publications that examined international policy and governance systems. This has

been accomplished under a variety of program streams — and clearly defining these program themes has been one of CIGI’s ongoing challenges. CIGI’s early research was focused on just two thematic areas — international relations and the international economy. A subsequent research model was added mid-decade to create dedicated program streams to operate within large- scale projects drawing on researchers from across the organization, such as the 2005–09 BRICSAM (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa, ASEAN states and Mexico) project, which explored the shifting global order and emerging economies. In 2008, CIGI’s research coalesced around six themes: International Law, Institutions and Diplomacy; Shifting Global Order; International Economic Governance; Environment and Resources; Global and Human Security; and Health and Social Governance. However, a federal evaluation of CIGI later that year recommended a sharper focus. Thus, the research programs were streamlined into four pillars in the CIGI Strategic Plan 2010–15: Global Economy, Environment and Energy, Global Development and Global Security. Regardless of the research model, CIGI’s programs will, ultimately, be judged for their impact. By that measure, CIGI can justifiably lay claim to tangible success. For example, experts and policy makers agree that CIGI’s proposals for innovation in the G8 system helped lead to the creation of the G20 leaders’ group, while the Nuclear Energy Futures project offered substantial recommendations for safe management of the global nuclear industry. As CIGI enters its second decade, it continues to produce 75 to 100 publications annually, and deploys 20 to 30 experts across its research programs, with plans underway to launch significant new research projects in the months and years ahead.

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Programs — global eConomy CIGI at ten

O NE OF the more disturbing aspects of the 2008-09 financial crisis, besides its scope and lingering damage, was a widespread failure to recognize

the warning signs. This systemic inability to foresee the US housing bubble’s collapse, and avert the resulting global financial turmoil, illustrated a profound gap in our collective understanding and regulation of macroeconomics. Addressing the glaring need for greater stability in the global economy is a key policy development theme at CIGI. The global financial crisis provided the necessary impetus to create the leaders’ level G20 (L20) summits, a development for which CIGI experts had advocated extensively. But even in the earliest days of CIGI, global interdependencies were a subject of clear focus. From the outset, CIGI worked to develop an in-depth understanding of the impact of emerging Asian economies on the global economy, including the implications for Canada and Ontario. Studies on the rise of China and India, and analyses of emerging powers in economic and diplomatic spheres, were conducted by a number of CIGI fellows, including John Whalley, Manmohan Agarwal, Andrew Cooper and Jorge Heine. CIGI projects also explored improvements to the multilateral trade system. In 2009, CIGI, with Wilfrid Laurier University Press and the IDRC, published Redesigning the World Trade Organization for the Twenty-first Century, edited by Senior Fellow Debra Steger. The book laid out the need for institutional reform of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and provided innovative, practical proposals. In some cases, CIGI put the spotlight on a particular region. In 2007, led by then Director of Research Daniel Schwanen, CIGI launched the Caribbean Economic Governance project. Researchers and leaders in the private and public sectors met to explore policy prescriptions for trade, investment, human capital and the fiscal outlook in the Caribbean region. But in hindsight, the most influential of CIGI’s work in the economic realm

the most influential of CIGI’s work in the economic realm Senior Fellow Daniel Schwanen has held
the most influential of CIGI’s work in the economic realm Senior Fellow Daniel Schwanen has held

Senior Fellow Daniel Schwanen has held senior executive positions at CIGI and lent his expertise as an economist.

Former Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin (right, with South Africa’s representative to the UN Dumisani Kumalo at CIGI’s spring 2011 conference) was a driving force in CIGI’s G20 project.

conference) was a driving force in CIGI’s G20 project. Distinguished Fellow John Curtis (left) with CIGI

Distinguished Fellow John Curtis (left) with CIGI Chair in International Political Economy Eric Helleiner fielding questions at a 2008 CIGI event.

The Issues for 2010 Summits conference, held in the CIGI Atrium, convened leading researchers, practitioners
The Issues for 2010 Summits conference, held in the CIGI Atrium, convened leading researchers, practitioners

The Issues for 2010 Summits conference, held in the CIGI Atrium, convened leading researchers, practitioners and policy makers ahead of the G8 and G20 summits in Ontario.

policy makers ahead of the G8 and G20 summits in Ontario. Senior Researcher Agata Antkiewicz, who

Senior Researcher Agata Antkiewicz, who joined CIGI in 2004 and helped develop the organization’s expertise on emerging economies, attending CIGI ’06. The fall conference focused on the gap between emerging economies and fragile states.

CIGI at ten Programs — global eConomy

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was its role in laying the groundwork for the creation of the G20 at the national leaders’ level. CIGI analyzed the rationale for a more inclusive arrangement than the G8, which lacked voices from emerging economies such as China, India and Brazil. As early as 2003, CIGI had begun to conduct research into a concept put forward by then Prime Minister of Canada Paul Martin. Based on his experience as finance minister, Martin proposed that the G20 countries, which met only at the finance ministers’ level at that time, could become a positive force in addressing global problems if the gatherings were elevated to the leaders’ level. In response to this challenge, CIGI, in cooperation with several partners, began a comprehensive project to examine the feasibility of creating an L20. The premise was that only heads of government could effectively force the necessary leap to action. The initial phase of the L20 project investigated the hypothesis that many global challenges required action by G8 leaders together with countries that were not members of that “club.” In a fusion of academic knowledge and practical experience, groups of experts met to discuss a wide range of topics, such as agricultural subsidies, climate policy, infectious diseases, water, terrorism and weapons of mass destruction, financial crises, pandemics, fragile states, UN reform, energy security, official development assistance, international institutional reform and global governance. This first phase ended in May 2006, reaching the conclusion that an expanded version of the G8 was essential to break key deadlocks. The subsequent “Breaking Global Deadlocks” (BGD) phase (September 2006 to May 2007) applied the L20 hypothesis to climate change and energy security in particular. The BGD phase produced an illustrative consensus package, aggregating proposals that could be used at an enlarged summit table. This “grand bargain” included a list of actions, such as the mobilization

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of a broad range of international organizations to contribute in their area of competence. The “Widening/Deepening” phase (September to November 2007) tested the BGD results with think tank representatives and other groups working on climate change, senior political personalities attending the Clinton Global Initiative, and media opinion leaders from the G8+5 (the five being Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). Emerging from this discussion were the terms of a more refined climate change and energy “deal.” After several years of working on these three phases, the project leaders came to the conclusion that a major event or global crisis would be necessary to push leaders to meet in a G20 forum; the simple need for collective action was not impetus enough. In the fall of 2008, such a precipitating crisis arose, as the global financial system staggered under the cumulative weight of a series of disasters that began in the US housing market and quickly spread worldwide. In the waning days of his second administration, US President George W. Bush, at the urging of several world leaders, convened the first meeting of the G20 countries at the level of government leaders. Suddenly, the theoretical discussions were transformed, and the project partners were in a position to offer operational advice to senior officials and politicians. In 2008, CIGI began the next phase of the project, which focused on utilizing the network of experts established during the earlier phases to influence decision making at the global level. This was done through off-the-record briefings of officials hosting G8 and G20 summits. Additionally, CIGI’s G20 Working Group engaged in an active program of research, policy analysis, conferences and workshops on G20 issues — a process that continues in 2011. Since its first meeting in Washington, DC, the G20 quickly established itself as the premier forum for international economic cooperation, representing 85 percent of global GDP, 80 percent of world trade and two-thirds of the world’s

80 percent of world trade and two-thirds of the world’s French President Nicolas Sarkozy was one
80 percent of world trade and two-thirds of the world’s French President Nicolas Sarkozy was one

French President Nicolas Sarkozy was one of several world leaders who supported the formation of a G20 leaders’ group, mirroring the finance ministers’ forum.

leaders’ group, mirroring the finance ministers’ forum. In September 2008, financial markets plunged around the

In September 2008, financial markets plunged around the world, causing a global recession and increases in unemployment — but also giving impetus to the formation of the leaders’ G20 group, a development for which CIGI researchers had long advocated.

Gordon Brown, as British prime minister, consulted CIGI experts ahead of the London G20 Summit
Gordon Brown, as British prime minister, consulted CIGI experts ahead of the London G20 Summit

Gordon Brown, as British prime minister, consulted CIGI experts ahead of the London G20 Summit in April 2009.

CIGI commissioned Dusan Petricic to draw this editorial cartoon for a full-page ad in The Globe and Mail amid the Toronto G20 Summit.

ad in The Globe and Mail amid the Toronto G20 Summit. Vice President of Public Affairs

Vice President of Public Affairs Fred Kuntz (left) and Partnerships Manager Andrew Schrumm confer in the media centre at the Toronto summit.

CIGI at ten Programs — global eConomy

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population. The institutional outcomes of the G20 have included upgrading the Financial Stability Forum into a more inclusive and robust Financial Stability Board (an organization analyzed in-depth by CIGI Chair Eric Helleiner) and conclusion of the Basel III agreement on banking supervision in less than a year — a remarkable feat considering that it took more than five years to conclude Basel II. Meanwhile, the value of CIGI’s G20 network has been recognized in a practical way by G8 and G20 summit hosts, who invited CIGI to organize briefings for officials preparing for the summits. This first occurred in February 2008, when Japan invited CIGI to assemble a group of experts to advise them on climate change policy — the focus of the Hokkaido G8 Summit. Following this network event in Tokyo, Ambassador Nishimura, Japan’s chief climate change negotiator, wrote to the organizers: “Once again, I just wanted you to know how much I feel indebted. Find an occasion for me to pay this debt.” CIGI was subsequently invited by Italy in 2009 and Canada in 2010 to brief the G8 officials on summit substance and process. One of the more significant measures of CIGI’s growing influence was the briefing with then UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown and his G20 summit officials. In February 2009, CIGI, in collaboration with The Brookings Institution, convened a group of eminent thinkers on global financial issues to brief UK officials preparing for the London G20 Summit two months later. The meeting was organized at the request of the UK government to discuss global financial markets, the world economy and a coordinated response to the global financial crisis. Korea and France also invited CIGI to convene confidential consultations for the officials organizing the G20 summits in those countries in 2010 and 2011. Looking forward, CIGI expects to work with Mexico as it prepares to host the G20 summit in 2012.

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Programs — global eConomy CIGI at ten

The global financial crisis caused CIGI researchers to intensify their work on institutional reform at the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In June 2009, in partnership with the Canadian International Council, CIGI hosted a joint task force on the Canadian perspective of the IMF’s future role in the international financial system. Held in Ottawa, this workshop was the first phase of a larger project that sought to analyze the future responsibilities of the IMF in the global financial system. CIGI fellows, including Daniel Schwanen and Alan Alexandroff, also worked to monitor protectionist measures by G20 members in violation of their collective commitments at the peak of the global financial crisis (this was CIGI’s participation in a project called the Global Trade Alert, a joint initiative with the Centre for Economic Policy Research, the IDRC and the World Bank). More recently, CIGI research has focused on fostering a deeper understanding of global interdependencies and new economic growth models that take into account growing resource and environmental constraints and vulnerabilities that were exposed by the financial crisis. These issues were the subject of a 2011 CIGI-Chatham House special report, Preventing Crises and Promoting Economic Growth, authored by CIGI Distinguished Fellow Paul Jenkins, a former senior deputy governor at the Bank of Canada, and Paola Subacchi, research director of international economics at Chatham House. Their comprehensive report made eight recommendations for the G20: support for the G20 Mutual Assessment Process; the publication of international impact assessments for domestic policy; a tone of cooperation at the top; a single statement of purpose for the G20; accountability for commitments made; national road maps for delivery on international commitments; greater transparency in the rotation of the G20 presidency; and regular summit reports on G20 progress. In its tenth anniversary year, CIGI formed an important partnership with

anniversary year, CIGI formed an important partnership with Preventing Crises and Promoting Economic Growth A
Preventing Crises and Promoting Economic Growth A Framework for International Policy Cooperation A Joint Chatham
Preventing Crises and
Promoting Economic Growth
A Framework for International
Policy Cooperation
A Joint Chatham House and CIGI Report
Paola Subacchi and Paul Jenkins

Paul Jenkins (right, with India’s Shyam Saran at a CIGI conference) is a former senior deputy governor of the Bank of Canada who joined CIGI in 2010.

governor of the Bank of Canada who joined CIGI in 2010. The 2011 report Preventing Crises

The 2011 report Preventing Crises and Promoting Economic Growth was co-written by Paola Subacchi (right), a research director at London’s Chatham House, and CIGI Distinguished Fellow Paul Jenkins. It made recommendations to the G20 for better policy coordination.

INET founder George Soros (left) and CIGI founder Jim Balsillie announced the CIGI-INET partnership at

INET founder George Soros (left) and CIGI founder Jim Balsillie announced the CIGI-INET partnership at the 2011 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.

at the 2011 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. INET Executive Director Robert Johnson (right) and

INET Executive Director Robert Johnson (right) and Thomas Bernes addressed a student breakfast at the 2011 Bretton Woods conference.

a student breakfast at the 2011 Bretton Woods conference. CIGI at ten Programs — global eConomy

CIGI at ten Programs — global eConomy

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the Institute for New Economic Thinking (INET). This partnership was announced at the January 2011 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, by CIGI founder Jim Balsillie and George Soros, who founded INET in 2009 in response to the global financial crisis. INET is a non-profit organization providing fresh insight and thinking to promote changes in economic theory and practice through conferences, grants and education initiatives. Under the agreement, CIGI will provide $25 million over five years to support joint CIGI- INET activities, in a partnership committed to broadening and accelerating the development of innovative thinking that will lead to solutions for the great economic challenges of the twenty-first century. INET’s initiatives include: research grants designed to harness the new economic thinking crucial to effecting change; a campus outreach program that sees Nobel Laureates and world-renowned scholars visiting graduate economics students to promote education, discourse and the sharing of new ideas; and an events program aimed at fostering open discussion, transparency and the amplification of fresh ideas. Under the CIGI-INET partnership, these activities — including the grants and campus outreach — are extended to Canadian researchers and campuses. In April 2011, CIGI sponsored 12 Canadian university students to attend the INET conference, Crisis and Renewal: International Political Economy at the Crossroads, held in Bretton Woods, NH. The conference was held at the historic Mount Washington Hotel — site of the 1944 Bretton Woods conference — and featured 200 of the world’s leading economic thinkers and former policy makers. In addition to attending the conference sessions, the Canadian students joined their American counterparts at a joint CIGI-INET student breakfast session, featuring CIGI Executive Director Thomas Bernes, his INET counterpart Robert Johnson and Nobel Laureate and INET board member Joseph Stiglitz.

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Students raised questions about policy development, the continued gender imbalance in economics and the shortcomings in economics curricula. CIGI experts were featured at the conference: Distinguished Fellow Paul Jenkins was the moderator for a session entitled “Getting Back on Track:

Macroeconomic Management After a Financial Crisis”; CIGI Chair in Global Systems Thomas Homer-Dixon was a panellist in the session titled “Exploring Complexity in Economic Theory”; Executive Director Thomas Bernes moderated a session on sustainable economics, with Jim Balsillie providing introductory remarks; and Senior Visiting Fellow Paul Blustein moderated a session entitled “The Architecture of Asia: Financial Structure and an Emerging Economic System.” CIGI and INET are planning a joint conference, Sovereign Debtors in Distress: Are Our Institutions Up to the Challenge?, which will be held in Canada. As countries grow ever more interdependent through the flow of goods, services, capital and information, a stable global economy is vital to the welfare of our planet. In the years ahead, CIGI’s Global Economy program will continue to explore and recommend policy solutions to the problems that undermine the stability of the world economy. While the 2008-09 financial crisis provided the impetus that led to macroeconomic coordination among G20 leaders, the restoration of economic growth saw the “lifeboat” mentality that allowed for global cooperation begin to evaporate. Progress on reforming international financial regulation continues at a slow pace, and the sovereign debt crises in European nations and political infighting over debt and deficit in the United States worry markets, central bankers, investors and consumers alike. CIGI’s research programs will ask whether our institutions are up to these challenges, proposing road maps to better economic systems of governance to ensure greater prosperity for all.

systems of governance to ensure greater prosperity for all. Senior Visiting Fellow Paul Blustein led a
systems of governance to ensure greater prosperity for all. Senior Visiting Fellow Paul Blustein led a

Senior Visiting Fellow Paul Blustein led a session at Bretton Woods on the financial architecture of Asia.

Senior Visiting Fellow Simon Zadek (left) and Acting Director of the Environment and Energy program David Runnalls talk at Bretton Woods.

and Energy program David Runnalls talk at Bretton Woods. The INET 2011 conference was held at

The INET 2011 conference was held at the Mount Washington Hotel, site of the 1944 Bretton Woods conference (see page 34).

CIGI Special Report Climate Change in Africa Adaptation, Mitigation and Governance Challenges Edited by Nelson

CIGI Special Report

Climate Change in Africa

Adaptation, Mitigation and Governance Challenges

Edited by Nelson K. Sewankambo and Hany Besada
Edited by Nelson K. Sewankambo and Hany Besada

Climate change is a major crosscutting theme for the Africa Initiative, and was the basis for its first special report.

As an Arctic nation, Canada has a special stake in CIGI’s Environment and Energy program, which includes work on climate change.

and Energy program, which includes work on climate change. Carbon emissions, a by-product of economic growth,

Carbon emissions, a by-product of economic growth, tie CIGI’s research on the global economy to its study of sustainability issues.

CIGI at ten Programs — environmenT and energy

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P LANET EARTH faces severe and growing stresses as a result of human population growth, development and consumption. Climate change, the

depletion of fossil fuels and surging food costs pose major challenges for international governance. Solutions seem to evade the grasp of national leaders preoccupied with many other concerns, such as economic growth, market instability, debt crises, armed conflicts and terrorism, citizen uprisings, natural disasters or the longevity of their own power. At the highest political levels, inaction and deadlock have made the world’s governance systems appear increasingly inadequate to address urgent environmental realties. In this vital area of research, CIGI’s strength in advancing environment and energy policy solutions starts with understanding the connectedness of related systems in achieving sustainability. During the 2008-09 global financial crisis, as other think tanks concentrated on that issue, CIGI was among the global research institutions that continued to focus on sustainability. It remained the major crosscutting theme of the Africa Initiative, which in 2009 issued a special report on climate change on the African continent. Since 2010, the relaunched Environment and Energy program at CIGI has begun probing climate change, geoengineering, sustainable economics, alternative energy, agriculture and food security — all from a governance perspective. CIGI’s early work on the environment studied the importance of energy security for the United States. In a 2006 CIGI paper, Research Fellow Annette Hester outlined how a new US focus on energy alternatives would affect ethanol and agricultural markets. In 2008, Distinguished Fellow John Whalley, working with Ben Lockwood of the University of Warwick in the United Kingdom, studied commitments to reduce carbon emissions in the European Union, the United States and other OECD economies. Their findings offered policy options for a multilateral, negotiated package of commitments for a post-Kyoto 2012 accord.

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In 2009, CIGI, in cooperation with the US Council on Foreign Relations, the Brazilian Center for International Relations and the Institute of International Relations at the University of the West Indies in Trinidad, co-hosted three workshops on policy opportunities arising from the global financial crisis for creating sustainable energy partnerships in the Americas. The same year, CIGI’s Environment and Resources Working Group produced a special report, Environmental Sustainability and the Financial Crisis. It urged policy makers not to lose sight of the environment amid fiscal stimulus efforts, as long-term economic prosperity requires a healthy ecosystem. More recently, the work plan for CIGI’s Environment and Energy program has been informed, in part, by CIGI founder Jim Balsillie’s participation in the UN High-Level Panel on Global Sustainability. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon launched the panel in 2010, bringing together world-leading policy makers and thinkers to formulate a new blueprint for sustainable growth. The panel was tasked with exploring different approaches to effectively tackle hunger, inequality and the deterioration of the natural environment, with a report due in early 2012. Among the panellists, Balsillie is the only Canadian and the only member from the private sector. The Secretary-General instructed the 22-person panel to “think big, to be bold and also practical.” The panel is led by two co-chairs, Finnish President Tarja Halonen and South African President Jacob Zuma. Members include high-ranking government officials and representatives from civil society from both developed and developing countries. Ban Ki-moon added: “The time for narrow agendas, narrow interests and narrow thinking is over. The challenges of the twenty-first century require nothing less.” Supporting Balsillie on the UN panel is David Runnalls, who joined CIGI as a distinguished fellow in 2010 and is the acting director of the Environment

fellow in 2010 and is the acting director of the Environment Distinguished Fellow Gordon Smith at
fellow in 2010 and is the acting director of the Environment Distinguished Fellow Gordon Smith at

Distinguished Fellow Gordon Smith at a G20 conference where that group’s role on the environment was debated.

In 2010, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon launched the High-Level Panel on Global Sustainability and named CIGI’s founder as a member.

Sustainability and named CIGI’s founder as a member. CIGI’s Daniel Schwanen and Elizabeth Dowdeswell, former

CIGI’s Daniel Schwanen and Elizabeth Dowdeswell, former administrator of the UN Environment Program, at CIGI ’10: Climate of Action in Waterloo.

On the need for global action on climate change, Ban Ki-moon said: “The time for
On the need for global action on climate change, Ban Ki-moon said: “The time for

On the need for global action on climate change, Ban Ki-moon said: “The time for narrow agendas, narrow interests and narrow thinking is over.”

agendas, narrow interests and narrow thinking is over.” Senior Fellow Jason Blackstock, who has explored the

Senior Fellow Jason Blackstock, who has explored the governance issues of geoengineering, was on the program committee to organize CIGI ’10. The conference focus included how to restructure global negotiations and build better links between climate science and policy.

CIGI at ten Programs — environmenT and energy

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and Energy program. In the 1970s, Runnalls served as a consultant for renowned British economist and author Barbara Ward, for her award-winning book, Only One Earth, which helped inform the first global conference on the environment held in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1972. The following year, he and Ward co-founded the International Institute for Environment and Development. Runnalls is also a former president of the International Institute for Sustainable Development, where he remains a distinguished fellow. Addressing climate change requires collective action, coordinated at the global level. The path to action, however, remains unclear. Following the 2009 UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, faith in multilateral negotiations began to wane. In this context, CIGI devoted its annual fall conference in 2010 to exploring how all levels of government and society could be mobilized to generate near-term progress. Led in part by Senior Fellow Jason Blackstock, CIGI ’10: Climate of Action was a forum for discussing the roadblocks and how to break them. CIGI ’10 conference round tables were built around related themes:

understanding the obstacles in the way of top-down global negotiations; examining the bottom-up initiatives from lower levels of government or regional initiatives; exploring how to restructure global negotiations; and building better links between climate science and policy. Delegates included climate change experts, scientists and policy makers from around the world. Keynote addresses were presented by Jim Prentice, then Canada’s minister of the environment, and former UK Science Adviser Sir David King. Going forward, CIGI’s Environment and Energy projects will focus on how to form influential knowledge-to-action frameworks, providing analytically grounded, timely and practical advice to decision makers. CIGI researchers believe the resulting dynamic networks will help build the international governance capacity needed to create a sustainable global future.

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Programs — global develoPmenT CIGI at ten

I MAGES AND stories of an eastern African nation crippled by drought and starvation dominate the headlines and front pages of newspapers. With up

to 10 million people requiring food aid, a UN official declares it the “worst humanitarian disaster” on earth. These reports might cause some to think of Ethiopia and Sudan in the 1970s, Ethiopia again in the mid-1980s, and Sudan again in the 1990s. Sadly, this was the grave scenario playing out in Somalia in mid-2011. Repeated cycles of famine in Africa serve as a stark reminder of the vital and continued need for coordinated policy innovation in development, all around the world. CIGI’s Global Development program emphasizes the importance of systemic coherence for overcoming international challenges to sustainable growth. The program’s goal is to identify international governance innovations that support poverty reduction and facilitate the transition to more effective, efficient and equitable delivery of public goods. Exploring, identifying and projecting the shifting global dynamic has been key to CIGI’s work in development research and analysis. In 2005, CIGI launched its largest research initiative to that point, the BRICSAM project. The BRICSAM countries are Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa, the ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam) and Mexico — fast-growing developing economies. CIGI researchers studied the implications of this economic restructuring for the world economy and international governance. The BRICSAM project represented a step up in CIGI’s partnerships, with 17 participant organizations from nine countries contributing research. BRICSAM was also a theme of CIGI’s first annual conference, CIGI ’05. CIGI’s 2005–07 Global Health Governance project examined how the worldwide health governance system was adapting and responding to new threats, which were proving to be larger in scope and scale than in the past.

proving to be larger in scope and scale than in the past. Erica Dybenko is project
proving to be larger in scope and scale than in the past. Erica Dybenko is project

Erica Dybenko is project manager for the Africa Initiative, a multi-year program supporting research and student exchanges.

Recurring African famines (as in Sudan, above) are among the human and natural disasters requiring coordinated international action.

disasters requiring coordinated international action. Jeffrey Sachs, director of the Earth Institute, speaks at

Jeffrey Sachs, director of the Earth Institute, speaks at the CIGI ’05 conference, which examined global health and migration issues.

CIGI ’08 China in the Shifting World Order
CIGI ’08
China in the Shifting World Order
CIGI ’08 China in the Shifting World Order In 2008, CIGI’s annual conference explored the global

In 2008, CIGI’s annual conference explored the global ramifications of China’s rapid rise in the context of developments in the changing world order.

in the context of developments in the changing world order. Distinguished Fellow John Whalley and CIGI

Distinguished Fellow John Whalley and CIGI Chair in Global Environmental Governance Jennifer Clapp (far right, with Oxford researcher Jimin Zhao at the CIGI ’08 conference) served as mentors for the Young China Scholars Poverty Research Network in 2005.

CIGI at ten Programs — global develoPmenT

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Using a cross-disciplinary approach, work under this project addressed global health issues ranging from climate-induced pandemics to the brain drain of health practitioners and their migration across borders. CIGI researchers produced analyses to strengthen institutions in both developed and developing countries, to influence the agendas of international opinion leaders and multilateral institutions related to health governance challenges. In its early years, CIGI made a commitment to engage and inform young researchers about the most pressing global issues. In the summer of 2005, in cooperation with the IDRC and Beijing Normal University, CIGI launched the Young China Scholars Poverty Research Network. The project saw senior researchers act as mentors, offering advice and instruction to young scholars on how best to conduct research and present their findings. CIGI also engaged in a multi-year project led by Distinguished Fellow John Whalley, based at the University of Western Ontario, to produce policy-relevant research on China. It focused on five areas: China’s exchange rates, reserve management and monetary policies; trade and investment; climate change; tax policies; and China and other rapidly emerging economies. In 2008, CIGI held its annual fall conference on the theme of China in the shifting world order. While China had been an economic force since the 1970s, its unprecedented growth and rising political power in the new millennium were causing the rest of the world to take notice. CIGI ’08 explored China’s impact as an emerging power on the world stage, examining how international governance structures and different regions, including other developing countries, were adjusting to this new global force. As the poorest continent, Africa is considered most vulnerable to a climate change catastrophe, due to its inability to cope with the physical and human consequences of climate extremes. In March 2008, a donor approached CIGI with a goal of creating research

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capacity in Africa to bolster its resilience to climate change and to develop sustainable practices. It was an ambitious plan that required an equally ambitious research team to make it a reality. In July 2008, CIGI, in partnership with Makerere University and the Salama Shield Foundation, launched the Africa Initiative, a multi-year, donor- supported program with three components: a research program; an exchange program; and a grants program. These programs were focused on six core thematic areas: conflict resolution; energy; food security; health; migration; and climate change — a theme that crosscuts all the core themes. The Africa Initiative’s research program supports field-based research on governance issues critical to the continent in the six thematic areas. It focuses on the interface between human behaviour and the various themes as they relate to the design and implementation of public policy. Identified research priorities aim to inform and influence both policy within Africa and policy that affects Africa. The Africa Initiative exchange program supports short-term academic placements for Africans and Canadians undertaking research on Africa. Launched in November 2009, the exchange program had, by 2011, given 27 highly motivated students and 48 faculty an opportunity to discover and impart new learning in a cross-cultural experience, with many of the African students coming to Waterloo to attend programs at Wilfrid Laurier University and the University of Waterloo. In November 2009, the Africa Initiative held a meeting in Uganda titled, Africa’s Climate Change Reality: The Africa Initiative Congress on Climate Change. This event was held over four days, and covered topics such as assessing regional needs in combatting climate change and how to mobilize human and technical resources. About 750 policy makers, academics, experts, students and representatives from non-governmental organizations,

and representatives from non-governmental organizations, Director Nelson Sewankambo (left) and Distinguished Fellow
and representatives from non-governmental organizations, Director Nelson Sewankambo (left) and Distinguished Fellow

Director Nelson Sewankambo (left) and Distinguished Fellow Jorge Heine at the Africa Initiative launch in 2008.

CIGI’s Ibi Brown (centre) with Makerere University faculty (from left) David Ddumba, Medard Rugyendo, Andrew Kayanja and Herbert Kasita.

Ddumba, Medard Rugyendo, Andrew Kayanja and Herbert Kasita. CIGI’s Brian Adeba works on the Africa Portal,

CIGI’s Brian Adeba works on the Africa Portal, an online knowledge resource for researchers and opinion leaders, launched in 2010.

Gregory Chin, who joined CIGI as a senior fellow in 2007, leads the Global Development
Gregory Chin, who joined CIGI as a senior fellow in 2007, leads the Global Development

Gregory Chin, who joined CIGI as a senior fellow in 2007, leads the Global Development program in 2011 as its acting director.

Global Development program in 2011 as its acting director. Senior Fellow Barry Carin (left) and Mukesh

Senior Fellow Barry Carin (left) and Mukesh Kapila of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies co-led a 2011 project focused on the UN’s Millennium Development Goals and the future of international development in a post-2015 context.

CIGI at ten Programs — global develoPmenT

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international agencies and donor countries attended the event, as did Ugandan cabinet ministers and senior officials. The Africa Portal was launched in 2010, in collaboration with Makerere University and the South African Institute of International Affairs, as an online knowledge resource for policy-related issues on Africa. It houses research and information on African policy at www.africaportal.org. In the portal’s first year, a storehouse of more than 3,000 documents had been created. By early 2011, the portal had already attracted a large audience — the site had been visited by people in 156 of the world’s 194 countries. In just 100 days, the Africa Portal had enjoyed 13,800 unique visitors making a total of 20,700 visits and generating 52,300 page views. In 2011, CIGI and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) announced a joint initiative, Toward a Post- 2015 Development Paradigm, to explore and recommend future directions for international development. Nine years earlier, the UN had launched its Millennium Campaign, seeking a concrete action plan for the world to achieve eight Millennium Development Goals by the year 2015, to reverse the grinding poverty, hunger and disease affecting billions of people. With less than five years remaining in that mandate, CIGI and IFRC undertook to explore the plan beyond the stated target year, given that the goals were unlikely to be met. The project was co-directed by CIGI Senior Fellow Barry Carin and Mukesh Kapila, under secretary-general for national society and knowledge development at the IFRC. As in the past, the next phase in CIGI’s Global Development programming will be informed by current realities, while also looking over the horizon beyond the coming shifts in the global order. As new donor nations emerge on the global development scene, including China, Brazil and India, so too will new governance issues and opportunities for policy making.

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Programs — global seCuriTy CIGI at ten

J UST A FEW months after CIGI was established in 2001, the world’s outlook on peace and conflict changed dramatically and irrevocably. On September

11 that year, al-Qaeda’s devastating attacks on the World Trade Center, the Pentagon and United Airlines Flight 93 shattered existing security paradigms and led to the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq and a new regime of terrorist and counterterror measures around the world. In the ensuing decade, other issues of global security have also leapt forward in worldwide consciousness, including concerns about cybersecurity, increasing questions about when UN- sanctioned forces should intervene in civil wars and heightened awareness of nuclear risks in the wake of Japan’s 2011 Fukushima disaster. CIGI’s Global Security program seeks to study these issues, with an eye to how international governance systems can mitigate or even avert these dangers. As much of CIGI’s early work in this area was conducted in the shadow of 9/11, its researchers focused on countries and regions directly affected by the new terms of engagement for the international community. CIGI also explored the status of security in failed states outside of the post-9/11 framework, and produced substantial policy-development recommendations in nuclear industry governance. In March 2005, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan released In Larger Freedom, a report that explored the emerging contradiction between the UN Charter’s most basic purpose, “to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war,” and its most basic principle, the non-interference in the internal affairs of member states. Within a month of the release, CIGI researchers, in conjunction with Wilfrid Laurier University and the Academic Council of the United Nations System (ACUNS), convened a group of expert practitioners, leading academics, civil society representatives and UN officials to address the report’s many ideas. That conference, “The UN: Adapting to the 21st Century,” marked the start of

UN: Adapting to the 21st Century,” marked the start of Al-Qaeda’s attacks of 9/11 (above, Ground
UN: Adapting to the 21st Century,” marked the start of Al-Qaeda’s attacks of 9/11 (above, Ground

Al-Qaeda’s attacks of 9/11 (above, Ground Zero in New York) forever altered the global security paradigm.

An American soldier (left) trains Afghan security forces as part of the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan.

THE FUTURE OF SECURITY SECTOR REFORM Edited by Mark Sedra CIGI’s first ebook, The Future
THE FUTURE OF SECURITY SECTOR REFORM Edited by Mark Sedra
THE FUTURE OF
SECURITY SECTOR
REFORM
Edited by Mark Sedra

CIGI’s first ebook, The Future of Security Sector Reform, was published in 2010.

Senior Fellow Mark Sedra (above, in Afghanistan in 2006) has led CIGI’s project examining security sector reform in fragile states.

project examining security sector reform in fragile states. An all-female Bangladeshi police force arrives to help

An all-female Bangladeshi police force arrives to help in Haiti’s post-earthquake stabilization.

CIGI at ten Programs — global seCuriTy

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CIGI’s UN Reform project, led by Distinguished Fellows Paul Heinbecker and Louise Fréchette, the latter a former deputy secretary-general of the UN. At the time, Fréchette captured the issues at play: “We will not enjoy development without security; we will not enjoy security without development; and we will not enjoy either without respect for human rights.” CIGI’s early work in global security helped inform Canadian foreign policy. In 2006, Andrew Thompson, while a CIGI research associate, addressed the House of Commons Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development on the human rights situation in Haiti. The CIGI book, Haiti:

Hope for a Fragile State (co-published by Wilfrid Laurier University Press), was cited six times in the committee’s report. In 2008–10, Senior Visiting Fellow Mokhtar Lamani led a security- related project on the future of Iraq. In addition to field research, reports and workshops, the project led to the publication of the CIGI book From Desolation to Reconstruction: Iraq’s Troubled Journey, which Lamani co-edited with Senior Fellow Bessma Momani. In an overlap with CIGI’s global development work, Senior Researcher Hany Besada led a 2009 project that examined peace-building efforts in the fragile West African states of Sierra Leone, Liberia and Côte d’Ivoire, with a focus on the role of the private sector in leading the reconstruction initiatives. In 2009, the focus of CIGI’s Global Security research turned to security sector reform (SSR), under the guidance of Senior Fellow Mark Sedra. SSR is a

framework of principles and best practices for the reconstruction of the security architecture (including the military, police and courts) in fragile, collapsed and post-conflict states. Since April 2010, the project’s major initiative has been the Security Sector Reform Resource Centre, a website designed to serve as

a hub for SSR practitioners, policy makers and experts across the world, and

a platform to promote CIGI’s security sector governance research. Another

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major research project was the Security Sector Reform Monitor, a quarterly publication that tracked developments in the SSR processes of five post- conflict countries — Afghanistan, Burundi, Haiti, Timor-Leste and Southern Sudan — through peer-reviewed, field-based analysis. The SSR Monitor was superseded in 2011 by a series of issue papers on SSR. Work in this area also led to CIGI’s first ebook, The Future of Security Sector Reform. Edited by Sedra and published in November 2010, the book features 20 papers by leading SSR experts. Policy makers have consulted CIGI’s security sector researchers regularly to assess the policy options before them, including: the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), the Canadian Security and Intelligence Service (CSIS), Public Safety Canada, the Government of Switzerland and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). In September 2006, CIGI launched its Nuclear Energy Futures (NEF) project in collaboration with the Canadian Centre for Treaty Compliance (CCTC) at Carleton University. The NEF project investigated the implications of the purported nuclear energy revival for nuclear safety, security and non- proliferation to 2030, and made recommendations for consideration by the international community, especially in the realm of global governance. It offered a detailed analysis of the potential for a nuclear energy revival. The project was chaired by Distinguished Fellow Louise Fréchette and directed by Senior Fellow Trevor Findlay; it ran from September 2006 to April 2010. At the time, the NEF project was the only comprehensive study to look at all aspects of the nuclear global governance regime. Exploring nuclear safety, security and non-proliferation in a single report allowed CIGI researchers to identify similarities and synergies that could be used to strengthen global governance in this area. It documented the state of play in the 40-plus countries that had announced an interest in starting a nuclear energy program.

announced an interest in starting a nuclear energy program. NUCLEAR ENERGY AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE TO 2030
NUCLEAR ENERGY AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE TO 2030 An Action Plan NUCLEAR ENERGY FUTURES PROJECT CHAIR:
NUCLEAR
ENERGY
AND GLOBAL
GOVERNANCE
TO 2030
An Action Plan
NUCLEAR ENERGY FUTURES PROJECT
CHAIR: LOUISE FRÉCHETTE
DIRECTOR: TREVOR FINDLAY
Addressing International Governance Challenges

The NEF project was the first comprehensive study to look at all aspects of nuclear governance globally.

Distinguished Fellow Louise Fréchette (right) chaired the NEF project, which ran from 2006–10 and focused on a possible nuclear energy revival.

Fréchette (right) chaired the NEF project, which ran from 2006–10 and focused on a possible nuclear
Members of the IAEA fact-finding mission in Japan examine the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant
Members of the IAEA fact-finding mission in Japan examine the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Members of the IAEA fact-finding mission in Japan examine the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant for tsunami damage.

Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant for tsunami damage. In 2010-11, CIGI Senior Fellow Trevor Findlay led

In 2010-11, CIGI Senior Fellow Trevor Findlay led the first independent review of the International Atomic Energy Agency, headquartered (right) in Vienna.

CIGI at ten Programs — global seCuriTy

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Since the NEF project began, global nuclear governance has moved to the centre stage, after years of stagnation. In 2008, the director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed a commission to advise on the future of the organization. In 2009, an international commission on nuclear energy and disarmament was formed, and the Obama administration committed itself to progress toward nuclear disarmament. In December 2010, CIGI, again in collaboration with the CCTC, launched

a project on Strengthening and Reform of the International Atomic Energy

Agency. Led by Findlay, the project seeks to capitalize on the success of the NEF project by advancing ideas about the future of the IAEA contained in the NEF’s final report. The IAEA is the paramount instrument of global governance in the nuclear realm in all three areas of governance concern: nuclear safety, nuclear security and nuclear non-proliferation. Findlay is conducting a “root- and-branch” study of the IAEA, to examine its origins, past performance, and current strengths and weaknesses. The nuclear disaster at Fukushima, Japan, following a tsunami in March 2011, brought increased attention to the IAEA. “Now is an even more appropriate time for an independent external review of the agency,” Findlay said. As CIGI continues to develop its Global Security program, questions to be examined include: how can multilateral governance systems best operate in a

world where security is deeply entrenched in issues of national sovereignty? Are the UN Security Council and other multilateral bodies prepared to meet the challenges ahead, and how well do they interact with military forces, police, intelligence agencies and courts that serve strictly one-state or

regional interests? As with all of CIGI’s research themes, global security has

a crosscutting overlap with other program areas — for example, it has clear

ties to global development — and will, therefore, be analyzed in the broadest context of the world’s interrelated problems.

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The Cigi CamPus CIGI at ten

The Cigi CamPus CIGI at ten

28 The Cigi CamPus CIGI at ten The Cigi CamPus CIGI at ten The CIGI Campus,

The CIGI Campus, opening in 2011 next to CIGI’s office in Waterloo, will be a hub of global research and academic excellence.

CIGI at ten The Cigi CamPus CIGI at ten The Cigi CamPus 29 C ANADA

CIGI at ten The Cigi CamPus

CIGI at ten The Cigi CamPus

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C ANADA ENJOYS a unique place among the nations of the world. Its history of innovation, especially in economic, technological and social

development, rivals and even surpasses those of much larger countries. It is only natural then, that Canada would contribute to international affairs on a similar scale. The CIGI Campus is the result of Jim Balsillie’s vision to build capacity in international affairs in Canada and to make CIGI one of the most innovative think tanks in the world. “Canada is uniquely positioned to bridge the disconnect between human achievement and global challenges,” Balsillie said in 2007 upon founding the Balsillie School of International Affairs (BSIA), a cornerstone of the new campus. The CIGI Campus, costing $66 million to build and scheduled for completion in the fall of 2011, received $50 million in funding from the federal and provincial governments, including $25 million through the Knowledge Infrastructure Program and $25 million through the Ontario budget. The City of Waterloo donated the 3.6-acre former Seagram distillery site, valued at $5 million, through a 99-year lease. The CIGI Campus was envisioned as a hub of partnerships among CIGI, global research institutions and the academic and research communities in Canada. A unique incubator of ideas would be created by the physical

proximity of a global think tank, a highly regarded school of international affairs, and other centres of study. The think tank itself would bring to the campus its opportunities for research, and the expertise of experienced policy practitioners with international networks. The BSIA added the energy of scholars, faculty and students alike, with new thinking for the next generation. Another proposed inhabitant of the campus is an international law program in a partnership between CIGI and an existing Ontario law school. The campus is within an hour’s drive of eight Ontario universities, and

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The Cigi CamPus CIGI at ten

located in a region that is home to world-leading technology firms, as well as leading institutes for theoretical physics and quantum computing. When it was founded in 2007, the BSIA represented the largest initiative in the social sciences in Canadian history. The three-way partnership includes CIGI, Wilfrid Laurier University (WLU) and the University of Waterloo (UW). Its first director was UW professor Ramesh Thakur, also a CIGI fellow at the time. UW President David Johnston, later appointed governor general of Canada, declared the BSIA “a wonderful investment, both in terms of developing this area as the knowledge capital of Canada and for the future of international relations.” The Balsillie School offers three programs: a Ph.D. in global governance, a master’s in global governance and a master’s in international public policy. In May 2010, five Ph.D. students at the BSIA won major national scholarships. David Welch, CIGI Chair in Global Security and director of the Balsillie School, was proud of the students’ accomplishments with the school still in its infancy. “The school was established precisely to help find answers,” Welch said. “Our three graduate programs draw superb students from around the world who are attracted by the opportunity to pursue genuinely interdisciplinary research in Canada’s most exciting intellectual community.” In 2010, the BSIA unveiled a new logo that features a stylized, borderless networked globe in blue and gold, representing the colours of its three partners. It also launched an engaging new website, which was credited with an increase in international applications in 2011. Also in 2011, in a committee process overseen by the three-way Executive Partnership Committee, it forged a new governance agreement to elaborate on the original principles outlined in the 2007 Collaboration Agreement. With these and other steps, the new school was ready to move into its splendid new home on the CIGI Campus. For architect Shirley Blumberg of Toronto’s Kuwabara Payne McKenna

Shirley Blumberg of Toronto’s Kuwabara Payne McKenna Graduate students confer at the Balsillie School of
Shirley Blumberg of Toronto’s Kuwabara Payne McKenna Graduate students confer at the Balsillie School of

Graduate students confer at the Balsillie School of International Affairs, which offers study streams in global governance and public policy.

offers study streams in global governance and public policy. CIGI Chair in Global Systems Thomas Homer-Dixon

CIGI Chair in Global Systems Thomas Homer-Dixon (left) and CIGI Chair in Global Security and Director of the Balsillie School of International Affairs David Welch (right) helped lead the school’s development and growth as it established interdisciplinary focus.

CIGI at ten The Cigi CamPus

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CIGI at ten The Cigi CamPus 31 With its bell tower on Erb Street, the campus

With its bell tower on Erb Street, the campus is part of Waterloo’s transition from a traditional manufacturing economy to a knowledge culture.

a traditional manufacturing economy to a knowledge culture. The campus features an interior courtyard in the

The campus features an interior courtyard in the classic “Oxbridge” style.

an interior courtyard in the classic “Oxbridge” style. Floors in the campus buildings employ BubbleDeck technology
an interior courtyard in the classic “Oxbridge” style. Floors in the campus buildings employ BubbleDeck technology
an interior courtyard in the classic “Oxbridge” style. Floors in the campus buildings employ BubbleDeck technology

Floors in the campus buildings employ BubbleDeck technology for a reduced carbon footprint.

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The Cigi CamPus CIGI at ten

Blumberg Architects (KPMB), the CIGI Campus was an opportunity to create an environment perfect for human interaction. “Our approach to designing educational buildings is that what happens outside the classroom is as important as what happens inside the classroom. So, education, if you boil it down, it’s really about discourse,” Blumberg said. KPMB’s design creates a “vibrant sanctuary,” with a bell tower and an interior courtyard — a layout inspired by the University of Toronto’s Massey and Trinity Colleges, and others in the traditional “Oxbridge” style. A green space with benches and trees lies within the quadrangle formed by three- storey academic buildings and an auditorium pavilion. The main entrance on Erb Street, adjacent to CIGI’s front door, is distinguished by a super-scaled entrance canopy with a wood soffit. The campus continues the revitalization of the uptown neighbourhood of the City of Waterloo, paying homage to the simple brick constructions of the industrial past while serving the new knowledge-and-information economy of the city today. Innovative design features include the use of BubbleDeck floors, which place large hollow plastic balls inside the poured concrete slabs to eliminate more than 30 percent of the deadload weight, enabling a 25-percent reduction in structural costs and reducing the building’s carbon footprint. Other efficiency features include rainwater capture and storage for a grey-water system, and in-slab heating and cooling systems, resulting in a 60-percent energy-use reduction. The new building is equipped with a 250-seat auditorium and a full suite of interactive technologies, for state-of-the-art experiences in the classrooms. Campus inhabitants will be able to enjoy video conferencing, web streaming, multi-screen projections, electronic archival of lectures, hearing assistance and translation booths.

of lectures, hearing assistance and translation booths. The design of the academic building allows for ample
of lectures, hearing assistance and translation booths. The design of the academic building allows for ample

The design of the academic building allows for ample natural light to infuse all of its interior corridors.

Fireplace lounges in the academic building of the CIGI Campus create places for relaxation and an informal exchange of ideas.

places for relaxation and an informal exchange of ideas. In 2009, KPMB architect Shirley Blumberg (left)

In 2009, KPMB architect Shirley Blumberg (left) goes over the design concepts for the new CIGI Campus with Heidi Balsillie.

Artist Richard Fleischner observes the planting of trees in the CIGI Campus courtyard in July
Artist Richard Fleischner observes the planting of trees in the CIGI Campus courtyard in July

Artist Richard Fleischner observes the planting of trees in the CIGI Campus courtyard in July 2011, during the installation of his public art.

Laid out over an unseen map of the world (above), the public art for the CIGI Campus commemorates milestones in international governance with a series of copper markers. Measuring eight inches in diameter, the markers (below) state the date and location of 19 significant events.

state the date and location of 19 significant events. CIGI at ten The Cigi CamPus 33

CIGI at ten The Cigi CamPus

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P UBLIC ART can surprise, delight, inform and inspire passersby. Visitors to the CIGI Campus courtyard are treated to a thought-provoking and

creative experience in this regard. The courtyard features a significant public art piece by artist Richard Fleischner. His concept was selected from nine artist submissions to visually represent the goals and aspirations of the CIGI Campus. Fleischner, born in the Bronx in 1944, is known internationally as a sculptor, painter and installation artist. His award-winning landscapes emphasize the relationship of architecture to the natural world. His studio and home are in Providence, Rhode Island. Four main elements comprise Fleischner’s artwork for the CIGI Campus: a low, circular terrazzo bench bisected by a pathway; a diagonal knee-wall made of electroplated aluminum with a small rectangular terrazzo element at one end; a tall column of galvanized steel; and 16 copper discs on the ground. The copper discs commemorate 19 significant milestones in international governance (for the complete list, see the following section), each marked with the name of the event, the date, and the latitude and longitude of the event’s location. The arrangement of the discs is based on an unseen world map, centred on Waterloo, Ontario. The 19 milestones were selected through an internal competition among CIGI staff and fellows in late 2010. A panel of experts selected the winning entries from a total of more than 80 submitted, including the signing of the Magna Carta, the French Revolution and the founding of the UN. They are not meant to be an exclusive archive of the only moments that matter in world history, but rather, form an impression of the sweep of history behind the idea of international governance. The milestone markers may also inspire visitors to the CIGI Campus to muse about the major progress in international relations that still lies ahead.

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milesTones in inTernaTional governanCe CIGI at ten

H ISTORIANS CAN point to many moments when governance systems across nations made a leap in progress. No list of milestones is

definitive, as room exists to debate the significance of one treaty, revolution or new organization over another. But in an expert panel’s view, judging 80-plus submissions from CIGI staff, the following 19 events merited inclusion in the CIGI Campus public-art installation (see previous page). If not cast in stone, they are certainly now cast in copper.

1 The Magna Carta issued Runnymede, England – June, 1215 King John of England, under considerable duress, issued the charter in order to proclaim certain liberties and accept that his will was not arbitrary, thereby establishing the first modern concept of individual rights and the obligations of the state to its citizens.

2 The Peace of Westphalia began

the state to its citizens. 2 The Peace of Westphalia began King John signs the Magna

King John signs the Magna Carta.

Münster, Germany – October, 1648 This series of peace treaties was signed between May and October of 1648. It ended the Thirty Years’ War (161848) and the Eighty Years’ War (15681648), and established the principle of national sovereignty and the non-interference of one nation-state in the affairs of another.

3 The French Revolution commenced Paris, France – 1789 The revolution in France ended the French monarchist era and introduced sweeping political reform, including modern principles of citizenship and inalienable rights. It sparked the Napoleonic Wars, which led to the Congress of Vienna and eventually the Concert of Europe — a precursor to the League of Nations and the United Nations.

4 The International Committee of the Red Cross convened

4 The International Committee of the Red Cross convened Napoleon Bonaparte Geneva, Switzerland – February, 1863

Napoleon Bonaparte

Committee of the Red Cross convened Napoleon Bonaparte Geneva, Switzerland – February, 1863 In 1862, Henri

Geneva, Switzerland – February, 1863 In 1862, Henri Dunant proposed a permanent relief agency for humanitarian aid and a government treaty to allow it to provide aid in a war zone. His ideas led to the establishment of the Red Cross in 1863 and the First Geneva Convention in 1864 — which guaranteed protection for wounded soldiers and field medical personnel in war zones.

5 The first Hague Conventions adopted The Hague, Netherlands – July, 1899 The Hague Conventions are a group of international treaties that established the first agreements on the laws of war and war crimes. Along with the Geneva Conventions, these were a model for the establishment of international law.

6 The Paris Peace Conference convened Paris, France – January, 1919 Following the First World War (191418), the Allied Powers met for six months in Paris to establish peace terms for the defeated Central Powers. The conference founded the League of Nations, the first permanent international security organization and precursor to the United Nations.

7 The Bretton Woods Conference convened

Bretton Woods, US – July, 1944 Forty-four Allied nations met at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, to develop a new system of international monetary management. The Bretton Woods agreements established the International Monetary Fund and led to the creation of the World Bank.

Monetary Fund and led to the creation of the World Bank. Woodrow Wilson and Lloyd George

Woodrow Wilson and Lloyd George in Paris.

of the World Bank. Woodrow Wilson and Lloyd George in Paris. 8 The Charter of the
of the World Bank. Woodrow Wilson and Lloyd George in Paris. 8 The Charter of the

8 The Charter of the United Nations signed

San Francisco, US – June, 1945 The failure of the League of Nations to prevent a second world war led to the founding of the United Nations

as a more effective forum for multilateral cooperation

and dialogue. With a membership of 193 nations, the UN represents humanity’s most comprehensive effort

to maintain peace and promote cooperation in solving

economic and humanitarian problems.

9 The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade signed Geneva, Switzerland – April, 1947

A major agreement on the rules of trade among nations, the General Agreement

on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), was negotiated during the UN Conference on Trade and Employment. It led to the creation in 1993 of the World Trade

Organization.

CIGI at ten milesTones in inTernaTional governanCe

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10 The Organization of American States formed Bogotá, Colombia – April, 1948 The Ninth International Conference of American States formalized inter-American cooperation with the adoption of the Charter of the Organization of American States, the American Treaty on Pacific Settlement (the Pact of Bogotá), the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (the world’s first general human rights instrument) and the Economic Agreement of Bogotá (the latter never entered into force).

11 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted Paris, France – December, 1948 This declaration was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly to create a common standard of rights for all individuals, regardless of race, gender, age or origin. It outlines the inherent dignity of human beings, and the right of every person to be free from discrimination and oppression.

12 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization created Washington, DC, US – April, 1949 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is an alliance of 26 countries in Europe and North America. Established by the North Atlantic Treaty to ensure peace and security in the North Atlantic region through the principle of collective defence, NATO was the first peacetime intergovernmental military alliance since 1778.

13 The Organisation of African Unity created Addis Ababa, Ethiopia – May, 1963 The OAU was the first transnational body in Africa to promote solidarity throughout the continent while creating a unified African voice on the world stage. Since 2002, it has been known as the African Union.

14 The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons signed New York, US – March, 1970 The treaty to limit nuclear proliferation was signed in 1970 by 189 states, including five with nuclear arsenals: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, China and France. More countries have ratified this treaty than any other arms- limitation agreement.

this treaty than any other arms- limitation agreement. 15 The United Nations Convention on the Law

15 The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea signed Montego Bay, Jamaica – December, 1982 This convention established national rights and obligations relating to navigation, pollution, resource extraction and other uses of the seas and oceans. It set ocean boundaries and created an innovative legal regime for controlling mineral resource exploitation in deep seabed areas beyond national jurisdictions.

16 The United Nations Rio Earth Summit held Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – June, 1992 More than 100 heads of state met in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the first international Earth Summit, convened to address urgent problems of environmental protection and socio-economic development. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed by 154 nations, attempted to address greenhouse gas emissions. Subsequent meetings led to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.

17 The European Union established through the Treaty of Maastricht Maastricht, Netherlands – February, 1992 The European Union was formed as the first complex supranational state with a single market and common currency system. It allows the free movement of people, goods, services and capital for its member states. The EU has grown from the original six founding states (France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Belgium) to 27 countries in 2011.

18 The Centre for International Governance Innovation founded Waterloo, Canada – July, 2001 Incorporated on July 30, 2001, and officially named The Centre for International Governance Innovation a year later, CIGI is an independent, non-partisan think tank addressing the most pressing problems in global governance. In its first decade, CIGI helped develop the idea for a G20 leaders-level summit, and has built the CIGI Campus in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, as a hub of education, research and analysis for international governance innovation.

19 The International Criminal Court created Rome, Italy – July, 2002 The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court established the ICC as the first international tribunal where crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and the crime of aggression can be prosecuted when states are unable or unwilling to try the accused. By 2011, the court had indicted more than two dozen individuals.

accused. By 2011, the court had indicted more than two dozen individuals. Canada’s Louise Arbour, prosecutor
accused. By 2011, the court had indicted more than two dozen individuals. Canada’s Louise Arbour, prosecutor
accused. By 2011, the court had indicted more than two dozen individuals. Canada’s Louise Arbour, prosecutor
accused. By 2011, the court had indicted more than two dozen individuals. Canada’s Louise Arbour, prosecutor
accused. By 2011, the court had indicted more than two dozen individuals. Canada’s Louise Arbour, prosecutor
accused. By 2011, the court had indicted more than two dozen individuals. Canada’s Louise Arbour, prosecutor
Canada’s Louise Arbour, prosecutor at the ICC.
Canada’s Louise Arbour, prosecutor at the ICC.
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PubliC serviCe and ouTreaCh CIGI at ten

F ROM THE OUTSET, CIGI has sought to engage the public with a wide array of free lectures and other events. It did so to build public understanding of its programs — in recognition of the think tank’s public funding, but also because policy influence is achieved in part through the electorate. As it gained experience and skills, CIGI also began to build a more sophisticated program of communications and outreach that includes a dynamic website with multimedia features, a state-of-the-art broadcast studio, a robust program of media relations and effective deployment of new social media. The Signature Lecture Series is CIGI’s longest-running public outreach event. Held regularly, these free lectures draw as many as 250 people in each sitting at the CIGI Atrium — and in the fall of 2011 will move to the new CIGI Auditorium. Since 2010, CIGI public events have also been webcast live, available free to any viewer in the world with Internet access. CIGI’s lectures have featured major names in research and policy making on global governance issues. Speakers have included: Anne-Marie Slaughter, former director of policy planning for the United States Department of State; Jeff Rubin, former chief economist at CIBC World Markets and author of Why Your World Is About to Get a Whole Lot Smaller; retired US General Wesley Clark; the Honourable Bill Graham, former minister of foreign affairs for Canada; retired Lieutenant-General and Canadian Senator Roméo Dallaire; Jeffrey Sachs, economist and director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University; Dambisa Moyo, economist and author of Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa; Irene Khan, former secretary general of Amnesty International; and environmental activist Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. CIGI volunteers helped stage all of these events (and more). Soon after inception, CIGI identified a need to encourage student engagement in world issues. Commencing in 2005 and continuing for four years, CIGI hosted the Global Youth Forum, an annual one-day conference at CIGI for 150

Youth Forum, an annual one-day conference at CIGI for 150 For four years, CIGI hosted the

For four years, CIGI hosted the Global Youth Forum at its Waterloo headquarters. Above, high school students gather in the CIGI Atrium for the 2006 conference.

In March 2009, TVO’s The Agenda with Steve Paikin broadcast live from CIGI for an

In March 2009, TVO’s The Agenda with Steve Paikin broadcast live from CIGI for an episode on the social impact of the economic downturn on Ontario communities.

impact of the economic downturn on Ontario communities. Waterloo native Lisa LaFlamme, of CTV, joined a

Waterloo native Lisa LaFlamme, of CTV, joined a media panel at CIGI in 2008.

Lisa LaFlamme, of CTV, joined a media panel at CIGI in 2008. Retired Lieutenant-General Roméo Dallaire

Retired Lieutenant-General Roméo Dallaire speaks to CIGI researchers in 2007.

CIGI at ten PubliC serviCe and ouTreaCh

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high school students. Also in 2005-06, CIGI partnered with the World Bank to host the first World Bank Graduate Seminar in Canada, for approximately 120 graduate students. Other public events held in the first decade included a noon-hour Food for Thought lecture series and a cinematic series that combined documentaries on global issues with expert commentary. CIGI also supported international photo exhibitions including “Voices on the Rise: Afghan Women Making the News” in 2007, presented in collaboration with the Embassy of Afghanistan, and “Delivering Hope,” a collection of images from the UN World Food Programme that focused on the difficulties in delivering assistance to the Democratic Republic of Congo. An annual media panel, which CIGI presents jointly with the Waterloo chapter of the Canadian International Council, always draws a packed house and features Canadian foreign correspondents relating the challenges of covering wars, disasters and other stories abroad. Other CIGI partnerships in community events have included: spOtlight Celebrate Our Artists Weekend in 2008; Ecofest 2009, a day of interactive learning and a celebration of the environment; and CU Expo 2011, showcasing exemplars in community- university partnerships worldwide. While thinking globally, CIGI is mindful of its presence in the Waterloo community. In addition to employing 50 people locally and investing in local education infrastructure, CIGI fosters ties with the local business community as a member of the Greater Kitchener-Waterloo Chamber of Commerce. Since 2010, it has formally participated in the annual employee payroll deduction plan of the United Way of Kitchener Waterloo. Staff and experts speak regularly at local service clubs and events, when requested. CIGI staff are encouraged to volunteer for and participate in local charitable boards and not-for-profits, such as arts groups and the Region of Waterloo Food Bank.

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PubliC serviCe and ouTreaCh CIGI at ten

Sustainability is an ongoing part of CIGI’s public service mandate. CIGI’s conferences began a greening program in 2006 and were recognized by Zerofootprint for their reduced environmental impact. Through its Sustainability Committee, CIGI joined Sustainable Waterloo’s Regional Carbon Initiative in 2011 to foster good environmental practices internally. To make its voice heard in more public channels, CIGI opened its broadcast studio in mid-2011, allowing in-house production of videos, media interviews, photo shoots and webcasts. The studio is directly linked, through fibre optic cable, to global television networks, enabling live-to-air interviews with CIGI experts. Within days of opening, the studio enabled television interviews on three continents — CBC Toronto and Bloomberg Asia and UK. The studio has also been deployed steadily for CIGI multimedia productions, including the first season of the Inside the Issues podcast series, in 2010-11. Throughout 2010 and in 2011, CIGI increased its social media campaign. The new Social Media Squad offered Twitter lessons for staff and fellows keen to tweet, while CIGI’s Facebook page and YouTube channel helped increase traffic to CIGI’s substantial storehouse of publications online. CIGI’s public affairs team deployed new systems for connecting with mass media around the world, subscribing to a database with tens of thousands of journalists worldwide. CIGI communications specialists joined its G20 Working Group members in the media centres of the G20 summits in Toronto and Seoul to help connect the think tank’s experts to journalists. And in 2010, CIGI launched a quarterly enewsletter, CIGI Worldwide, delivering news about its programs and projects to thousands of subscribers. Whether by engaging the public in Waterloo or proactively disseminating its message to media and CIGI subscribers worldwide, CIGI will continue to develop its methods of outreach, all in support of its core mission — to infuse the world with better ideas for global governance.

to infuse the world with better ideas for global governance. CIGI Senior Fellow Bessma Momani appeared

CIGI Senior Fellow Bessma Momani appeared in the first live-to-air use of CIGI’s broadcast studio with a television network, a 2011 interview with Bloomberg in the UK.

network, a 2011 interview with Bloomberg in the UK. Clockwise from top left: Joe Clark, former
network, a 2011 interview with Bloomberg in the UK. Clockwise from top left: Joe Clark, former
network, a 2011 interview with Bloomberg in the UK. Clockwise from top left: Joe Clark, former
network, a 2011 interview with Bloomberg in the UK. Clockwise from top left: Joe Clark, former

Clockwise from top left:

Joe Clark, former prime minister of Canada, at an early meeting of the International Board of Governors; Andrés Rozental, long-time member of the same board, at a 2011 CIGI conference; Max Brem, who expanded CIGI’s communications and publications team from 2008 to 2011; and Jennifer Jeffs, former CIGI deputy executive director, with Senior Fellow Manmohan Agarwal.

Former advisory board member Prince Andrew gets a tour from Jim Balsillie in 2006. International

Former advisory board member Prince Andrew gets a tour from Jim Balsillie in 2006.

member Prince Andrew gets a tour from Jim Balsillie in 2006. International Board of Governors member

International Board of Governors member Maureen O’Neil at a CIGI conference.

of Governors member Maureen O’Neil at a CIGI conference. Waterloo Mayor Brenda Halloran, WLU President Bob

Waterloo Mayor Brenda Halloran, WLU President Bob Rosehart (centre) and CIGI Vice President of Government Affairs Mohamed Hamoodi.

CIGI at ten PubliC serviCe and ouTreaCh

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Mohamed Hamoodi. CIGI at ten PubliC serviCe and ouTreaCh 39 The Interpreter , starring Nicole Kidman,

The Interpreter, starring Nicole Kidman, was projected onto the exterior of the CIGI building in July 2006 as part of the Summer Cinema Series.

building in July 2006 as part of the Summer Cinema Series. From left, CIGI’s Stephanie Woodburn

From left, CIGI’s Stephanie Woodburn (seated) Briton Dowhaniuk, Colleen Fitzpatrick and Neve Peric at a CIC dinner in 2008.

Colleen Fitzpatrick and Neve Peric at a CIC dinner in 2008. Former Chief Technology Officer Dan

Former Chief Technology Officer Dan Latendre (left) and CIGI’s Andrew Cooper roll up to the building in “smart” style.

Andrew Cooper roll up to the building in “smart” style. The Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony performs in the

The Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony performs in the CIGI Atrium in December 2008.

Symphony performs in the CIGI Atrium in December 2008. CIGI board member Carmen Sylvain of the

CIGI board member Carmen Sylvain of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade at CIGI’s 2011 spring conference.

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The road ahead CIGI at ten

A S CIGI enters its second decade, it is inspired by a fundamental belief that innovations in international governance can make the world a more

prosperous, sustainable and secure place for people everywhere. In its first decade, CIGI overcame the challenges of starting small and growing rapidly, and was able to build effective partnerships and recalibrate as needed. It can take heart from the words of others, who recognized CIGI’s early successes and inspire us to forge ahead. Sam Daws, a senior research associate at the Centre for International Studies at the University of Oxford, sees CIGI as “one of the only think tanks that can claim not just to have studied, but to help bring into being, an international framework for countries,” the G20 grouping. Stewart Patrick, director of the International Institutions and Global Governance Program at the US Council on Foreign Relations, says that “in just 10 short years, CIGI has established itself as the premier institution studying global institutional reform.” Recognizing that CIGI already is making a difference may bolster the confidence of this young organization. At the same time, CIGI will need to be even more daring to truly have an impact on the economy, environment, development and security of a troubled world facing rapid change. Over the coming century, “the nexus of issues is unambiguous: GDP growth, the number of people, energy consumption — anyway you look at it, it is going up four or five times,” Jim Balsillie told the 2011 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. To address these issues effectively, he said, “we have to be radically ambitious.” With that charge, CIGI is ready to write the next chapter in its story, continuing to address significant global problems by building bridges from knowledge to power. Driving the excellence of its research programs and outreach will be its desire to improve systems of governance for the good of the planet and all humankind.

of governance for the good of the planet and all humankind. In the coming years, development

In the coming years, development of CIGI’s research programs will be led by Vice President of Programs David Dewitt, who joined CIGI in July 2011.

CANTHINK TANKS MAKE A DIFFERENCE? CIGI CONFERENCE

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20, 2011
TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20, 2011
FILLING THE GAPS IN INTERNATIONAL GOVERNANCE October 28-30, 2011
FILLING
THE
GAPS
IN
INTERNATIONAL
GOVERNANCE
October
28-30,
2011
CIGI CONFERENCE TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20, 2011 FILLING THE GAPS IN INTERNATIONAL GOVERNANCE October 28-30, 2011
SOVEREIGN DISTRESS IN DEBTORS THE I N S T I T U T I O

SOVEREIGN

DISTRESS IN

DEBTORS

THE INSTITUTIONS

CHALLENGE?

ARE TO OUR

UP

30 to December 2, 2011

- INET Conference

Waterloo, ON — CIGI

November

CHALLENGE? A R E TO O U R UP 30 to December 2, 2011 - INET
CHALLENGE? A R E TO O U R UP 30 to December 2, 2011 - INET
CHALLENGE? A R E TO O U R UP 30 to December 2, 2011 - INET
CHALLENGE? A R E TO O U R UP 30 to December 2, 2011 - INET
CIGI LeADeRsHIP Operating Board of Directors Jim Balsillie, Chair of the Board Cosimo Fiorenza, Secretary

CIGI LeADeRsHIP

Operating Board of Directors

Jim Balsillie, Chair of the Board Cosimo Fiorenza, Secretary Dennis Kavelman, Treasurer Carmen Sylvain Scott Burk Andrés Rozental Maureen O’Neil

International Board of Governors

Jim Balsillie Jorge Braga de Macedo Ahmed Galal Rohinton Medhora Maureen O’Neil Andrés Rozental Diana Tussie Ngaire Woods

Executive

Thomas Bernes, Executive Director David Dewitt, Vice President of Programs Mohamed Hamoodi, Vice President of Government Affairs Fred Kuntz, Vice President of Public Affairs Neve Peric, Vice President of Operations

CIGI At ten

Lead writers: Declan Kelly and Fred Kuntz

Contributors: Matthew Bunch, Geoff Burt, Barry Carin, Gregory Chin, Kevin Dias, Colleen Fitzpatrick, Meagan Kay and Gordon Smith

Managing Editor, Publications: Carol Bonnett

Senior Publications Adviser: Max Brem

Assistant Publications Editor:

Jennifer Goyder

Media Designer: Steve Cross

Publications Coordinator: Matthew Bunch

Communications Coordinator: Kelly Lorimer

Thanks also to: Justin Alger, Thomas Bernes, David Dewitt, Trevor Findlay, Louise Fréchette, Paul Heinbecker, Mohamed Hamoodi, Susan Hirst, Alicia MacFadden-Jutzi, Joanna Mirek, Annie Monteiro, Maureen O’Neil, Zachary Osborne, Neve Peric, Andrés Rozental, Mark Sedra, Lisa Schaefer, Andrew Schrumm, Daniel Schwanen, Alexandra Stephenson, Harry Swain, Brenda Woods and Kristopher Young

Photo credits: Page 8, Tolga Adanali/AP Photo (G20 leaders); Page 12, Presidency of the French Republic Photo (Nicolas Sarkozy); Page 18, UN Photo/Paulo Filgueiras (Ban Ki-moon); Page 20, UN Photo/Bahr el Ghazal (Sudan 1998); Page 24, Mark Lennihan/AP Photo (Ground Zero); Page 24, UN Photo (Afghan forces); Page 25, UN Photo (Bangladeshi forces); all others CIGI, INET, Chatham House and iStock