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3.

2 Process Flow in Front of Line (FOL)

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3.3 Explanation of Each Step (FOL)

Below is an explanation of the steps involved in the front of line process flow:

3.3.1

Kitting

Kitting process is the first process flow in the FOL process. The operator will draw the bond diagram and marking diagram after received the customer document or invoice. The operator also provides the raw material such as lead frame, cap, epoxy and gold wire, which needed by the wafer lots based on customer requirement.

3.3.2

Wafer Mount

Wafer mounting is a process of providing support to the wafer to facilitate the processing of the wafer from wafer saw through die attach. During wafer mounting, the wafer and a wafer frame are simultaneously attached on a wafer or dicing tape. The wafer frame may be made of plastic or metal, but it should be resistant to warping, bending, corrosion, and heat. The dicing tape is just a PVC sheet with synthetic adhesive on one side to hold both the wafer frame and the wafer. 32

3.3.3

Sawing

Wafer saw is the step that actually cuts the wafer into individual die for assembly in IC packages. The wafer saw process consists of the following steps. Firstly, the frame mounted wafer is automatically aligned into position for cutting. Then, the wafer is cut thru its thickness according to the programmed die dimensions using a resin-bonded diamond wheel rotating at a very high rpm. Finally, the wafer goes through a cleaning process using high pressure DI water sprayed on the rotating work piece and then dried by air-blowing.

3.3.4

2nd optical

The wafers will go through 100% inspection using high power microscope with 90 magnification at 2nd optical process. Operators will drop in marking on the defective die using the inker system. 33

3.3.5 Die Attach

Die attach is the process where the individual on the wafer will be attached to the die pad on the lead frame using epoxy or soft solder. The DA operator is responsible to put the correct wafer into the die ponder, program the machine to pick up good die and to run the machine according to the customers specification.

3.3.6

Epoxy Cure

After die attach, the dice that have done through epoxy die attach must go through the cure process in an oven. The purpose of epoxy cure is to harden the epoxy. The time and temperature of the oven will be set according to the customers specifications. After the epoxy cure, the lots will be pull out to room temperature to cool off.

3.3.7

Wire Bond 34

Pure Gold wire will be used to attach the bond pad on the die to the lead frame during the wire bond process. The wire bond operator will prepare and set up the correct wire bond according to the bond diagram. One operator will be in charge of 5 bonding machines

3.3.8

3RD Optical

At the 3rd Optical, operators will inspect 100% the quality of the dice it depending on the customer requirement through low power microscope (30X-60X). The dice will be marked on the heat sink and the lead frame will be punch out if any rejected lots detected. After this process, the lots will be sending to QA for random inspection before buying off the lots. A low yield lot (yield under 99.8%) means percentage of rejects for the lot is very high. If the lots are having low yield, the operator will highlight the matter to the respective engineer. If there is no problem with the lot, it will proceed to the End Of Line Operation for coating process.

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3.3.9

Coating

The purpose of coating process is to cover the lead frame (with die and wire) with a mixture of epoxy as the coating solution and hardener to prevent contamination and moisture on the die and wire. The coating are colorless, therefore the die and wire are still visible after the process.

3.3.10 Die Coat Cure

The final process in the FOL is coating. The lots will be cured again for another 2 hours in the oven at 175C to dry the coating. Then the lots will proceed to the coating inspection and then the QA personnel will do buyoff. After that, the lots will be sent to end of line.

3.4 Process Flow in end of Line (EOL) 36

3.5 Explanation of Each Step (EOL) 37

3.5.1 MO1

MO1 is where the end of line received the lots from the front of line (FOL)

3.5.2

Pre Mold Bake

The purpose of pre-mold bake process is to remove moisture from the die surface to prevent corrosion. This will also make the die attachment stronger. Before molding, some packages will be cure for another 2 hours at 175C in the oven. All the packages that did not go through the coating process must go through this pre-mold bake process.

3.5.3

Molding

Molding is the process where the plastic compound is used to cover up the dice. 3.5.4 PMC 38

Upon completion of the molding process, the molded lead frame needs to be cured in the oven at 175C for 6 hours.

3.5.5

Laser Marking Laser ray

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During the Laser Marking process, molded lead frames are marked using laser rays to indicate customer logo & alpha numeric on the belly surface of the molded package. Marking diagrams are used to mark according to customers requirements.

3.5.6

Top Mark

At the top marking process, ink viscosity is used to mark logo & alpha numeric on the top surface of the packages. Top mark cure is then conducted to cure the marking ink using oven at 175C for 2 hours.

3.5.7

Dejunk/Trim Form

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Marked lead frames are now ready for the Dejunk/Trim operation. Dam bars between the leads are trimmed during the process.

3.5.8

Plating

This is the Solder platting process. Oxide on the leads are removed & plated with tin using solder plating method to prevent corrosion.

3.5.9

STRIP INSPECTION

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At the Strip Inspection process, 100% visual inspection is performed on solder plated frames to identify good & damaged units. Damaged units are then marked with white sticker to indicate defects.

3.5.10 Form Singulate

Forming process is to from the product base on the required customer order. In the singulate process, leads are formed to separate the units from the frames. Formed units are then placed into anti-static tubes before they are sent to the next process. Final Visual

Units placed into air-static tubes are inspected for detected lead & package. This is done during the Final Visual process. QA Final Visual buyoff is the conducted to ensure there is no escapee of defects to the next process.

3.5.11 Packing 42

Assembled units that have undergone quality inspection are then packed into boxes. QA Packing buyoff is then conducted to ensure units are packed according to customers requirement & lot information is correct.

3.6 Final Test There are two different test techniques available: Final test integrated Final test non-integrated

3.7 Final test Integrated Process Flow

3.7.1 Ipretest Store Lot from external and internal (assembly) will be collected in PRETEST store.

3.7.2 Merging Fresh lot will merge with the partial lot due to the customer request.

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3.7.3 Pre QA Sample Some of tested good unit will be taken by QA for QA sample buy off and replacement units.

3.7.4 100% Electrical Test, Scan And Tape & Reel Electrical test process (Scan) to separate out the good unit from reject unit according to SPEC TES008029.

3.7.5 QA Electrical Buy-Off QA will only test a sample of good unit which tested before due to SPEC QRA008006.

3.7.6 Splitting Partial unit will separate out from the mother lot.

3.7.7 100% VM Reel Good unit will be checking on criteria seal, marking, lead defect, wrong orientation etc by using luxor lamp according to SPEC TES008048.

3.7.8 Packing & Label Process to packing and labeling the tested product according to SPEC TES007204.

3.7.9 QA Outgoing Buy-Off QA examine the lot randomly, which already packed according to SPEC QRA008004

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3.7.10 Finishing Goods Store Passed lot will be sent to finishing goods store awaiting shipment to the customer.

3.8 Final test non-integrated process flow

3.8.1 Impretest Store Lot from external and internal (assembly) will be collected in pretest store.

3.8.2 100% Electrical Test Electrical test (Scan) process to separate out the good unit from reject unit according to SPEC TES008029.

3.8.3 QA Electrical Buy-Off QA will examine the tested good unit according to SPEC QRA008006.

3.8.4 Tape & Reel Process to separate out the good unit from reject unit (Marking & Lead Orientation Criteria) according to SPEC TES07203.

3.8.5 100% VM Reel Good unit will be checking on criteria seal, marking, lead defect, wrong orientation, etc by using Luxor Lamp according to SPEC TES008048. 45

3.8.6 Packing & Label Process to packing and labeling the tested product according to SPEC TES007204.

3.8.7 QA Outgoing Buy-Off QA examine the lot randomly, which already packed according to SPEC QRA008004.

3.8.8 Finishing Goods Store Passed lot will be sent to finishing goods store awaiting shipment to the customer.

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