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1 INTRODUCTION: The purpose of part print or drawing is to provide means of conveying the ideas of product designer to those concerned with transforming them into the physical product as per the part print specifications. In fact, the part print is the most important document, which transmits more information than any other document to the process engineer to start his processing job. In this chapter, we will see how to read and interpret the information given in the part print, the problems encountered in the process and the remedial measures to avoid them. Thus while doing the preliminary study of part print the process engineer must ask himself two important questions. (1) What is wanted by the product engineer? (2) What must be done with the information disclosed by the part print to get what is wanted? Study of part print Real & interpret and establish if required use auxiliary method General characteristic of the part Identify principal process & Alternate process of Manufacturing Identify the functional surfaces (Product critical areas) and process critical area from the w/p Rotate the workpiece characteristics with the nature of job to, be done. Find the need of finishing operations from the specification and means mode place for the part identifications Relating the part to the assembly Fig. 2.0 Preliminary Part Print Analysis 2.2PROBLEMS IN READING AND INTERPRETING THE PART PRINT: The process engineer has to extract most of the information about the part from the part print. In reading and interpreting these part prints he is likely to face some difficulties and may 2422684 13

Process Engineering have certain confusion about the actual part. The general problems faced in the interpretation of the part print can be listed as under (i)Non standard design and drawing techniques: Although continuous efforts are made to standardize design and drawing techniques, designers and draftsman still have a considerable degree of individualism in their work. To add to more confusion the organizations themselves set up their own standards, and in general introduce all sorts of variations from standard practices, usually to satisfy the needs peculiar to that enterprise. (ii)Complexity of -parts times the drawing of part is very complex. The problem of Some interpretation of such part prints becomes more difficult if the designer uses the notations and other details from an outside firm. Further too much of dimensions, specifications and other notes can also cause error in interpretation. (iii) Temptation of interpretation of confusion about interpretation of some In case symbols or notations, or complex part prints there is a danger of process engineers temptation to interpret the part print in his own way. Hence to avoid this it is better not to second-guess of the product engineer in case of doubt and contact him for clarification. (iv) Revisions and changes times during discussions or meetings some changes Some are suggested in part prints for value addition or ease of manufacturing etc. Such changes if not recorded properly the process engineer is likely to process the wrong part print. Thus, to avoid above problems in interpretation of part prints for complex parts, following precautions can be taken. (i) Use of standardized design techniques, (ii) Never to second-guess of the product engineer and contact designer for further clarification. (iii) Before starting processing of part check whether correct latest revised drawing is used. (iv) Use various auxiliary methods mentioned below for visualizing part prints of more complex parts. The various auxiliary methods for visualizing the complex parts are as under. (a)Reconstructing the drawing without dimensional details parts some complex showing many dimensions, notes, specifications may create confusion. Reconstructing such drawing without such details can aid in visualization process. (b)Exaggerating the scale Consideration should be given to scale of the drawing. Exaggerating the scale may aid in interpreting certain details not completely clear on drawing as it is received. By blowing up scale of these details, the process engineer can often develop a better mental picture of the workpiece and work-out many problems such as blending of radii, determining the best surfaces for locating, supporting, and clamping the workpiece and many others. 14 2422684

Process Engineering (c)Drawing a cross sectional view sectional view can convey information A cross which is not disclosed in various projections but it is important to determine what cross section is being pictured and direction in which it is taken. (d)A pictorial sketchpictorial sketch can often be helpful in interpreting some A complex shapes. This is usually done when the two or three views are unable to convey what is wanted. (e)Actual part Although the proceeding suggestions can often be of great assistance to the process engineer, nothing can substitute actual part. In some cases, the product engineer may go for an actual part produced for experimental or other purposes. This makes the job of process engineer easy. (f) A wooden or wax If the actual part is not available, then a model can be made. model Models vary from simple ones carved from a cake of soap to wooden or plastics models. Threedimensional models are usually quite expensive to produce and are avoided unless the part is too complex to be visualized in two-dimensional drawing. (g) Preparing a drawing in CAD format If the drawing is reconstructed using some computerized drawing software like AutoCAD etc. The various aids like seeing threedimensional view from any angle, exaggerating the scale etc. are readily available for better visualization. 2.3 SPECIFICATIONS: For analyzing part print it is necessary to understand certain notes on the part print. These notes, which provide information relating to both general and specific characteristics of the workpiece that are not provided within the conventional dimensioning system, are called specifications. Specifications usually pertain to the material of the workpiece, - its heat treatment quality of finish, - general tolerance level to be achieved, - references to other drawings., - notations that cannot be included as part of dimensions etc. The Specifications are of two types as given below [A]Explicit Specifications (I) These are specified in sufficient detail on the part print and are needed before the part can be made, (ii) they are clearly stated and hence there is no danger of misinterpretation. (iii) Examples (a) Specification of surface hardness surface A to be carburize hardened to 0.60 0.1 mm. (b) Specification of part number say place of part number is at the top. (c) Surface finish notations for details of surface finish see IS 123 (d) general notes indicating size of fillets and radii and [B]Implied Specifications (I)They are not always specified on the part print but are correctly assumed either by general knowledge or convention to be in effect. (ii) They are left to good judgment of the process 2422684 15

Process Engineering engineers and manufacturing people and hence there are dangers, of misinterpretation due to unintentional omissions. Hence it is good to check with product engineer before making a questionable assumption. (iii) Example Machine workpiece to size of 100 mm x 50 mm x 100 mm, clearly implies that corners should be square and it is 0angles at unnecessary to specify 90 each corner. 2.3ESTABLISHING GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WORKPIECE: The real work of the process engineer cannot start unless he estab lishes certain general characteristics of workpiece. This is a preliminary step for establishing more general characteristics of workpiece. The ease with which this task can be achieved depends upon the part print itself. The process engineer determines following things from the part print at this stage. (1) General description of the part. (2) General configuration (shape and size) of the part (3) What is the material of the part? (4) How is the part originated? (5) Recorded changes in design. (6) Resistance to damage in the process. (1) General Description of the information is obtained from the title block on the - This part part print. The information is briefly given due to limitation of space. If required the process engineer may clarify the doubts from the designer. The main information in title block includes name of part, part number. Number of assembly or subassembly of which it is a part. The part name may aid in associating it with given shape. For example, shaft-drive arm implies it is a shaft like part for drive arm; similarly valve rocker lever gives us information that it is a lever like part, which reciprocates about central hole to operate valves. (2) General Configuration of the part means shape and size of the part. During - Configuration interpretation one must check scale from title block. The shape and size of part can be related to many manufacturing problems as under. (a) Handling: Big sized heavy parts needs different material handling methods than small light weight parts e.g. Heavy castings may require some special lugs cast on them to be picked up by OH crane. Whereas small parts can be moved by chute, or belt conveyors as per requirement. The shape of workpiece also decides the method of handling e.g. coil springs get tangled if thrown together. Round or cylindrical parts can be moved by gravity because they roll freely. Rectangular parts can be slid down the chutes on flat surfaces. (b)Type of tooling: 16 2422684

Process Engineering Size and shape of workpiece often gives clue to the type of tooling required. For example shaft made up from several cylinders generated about a common centerline needs a series of turning operations and may not need any jig or fixture. Whereas parts like valve rocker lever may require various operations to be performed on drilling, turning, grinding and milling machines, using special jigs and fixtures. Small parts need delicate toolings, which can be moved about by hand on a machine table whereas for large parts toolings are less mobile. (c)Type of machine: Generally speaking large parts must be produced on larger and slower machines mainly on too/room basis because of difficulty in handling. On the other hand small parts can be produced on faster machines on mass production basis. But now due to advancement in production techniques, even large sheet metal parts can be produced on mass scale at relatively high speed. (d)Sequence of operations: Shape and size affects the sequence in which the various operations must be performed. To achieve good dimensional control certain operations are done prior to other operations. (e)Rate of production: Shape and size of workpiece influences its mobility and thus affects its rate of production. It also affects number of operations, which can be combined. If shape is such that feeders and hoppers can be used, the rate of production can be significantly increased. Thus, from the above discussion it is clear that seemingly simple examination of parts gives important information to the process engineer for preliminary estimate of the job. (3) Material specification It is very important to know the material from which the part is made because different materials have different machinability as well as different manufacturing costs. The information about the material is available either in the title block or as a general note on the part print. (4) The originating operation: The information about the originating operation or basic process operation i.e. the operation from which the workpiece has been produced before the processing of the parts starts, may not be directly given on the part print, but can be either understood by certain foot notes or by general knowledge. The basic process operation decides amount of probable variations in the manufacturing e.g. cast pattern number here implies that basic process operation is casting. Certain drawings are more explicit about basic process operations and give set of drawings together e.g. forging drawing and machining drawing. (5) Recorded changes in design: Failures to check the revisions made in part print can cause costly manufacturing mistakes. There are various reasons for part print revision like correction of errors, cost 2422684 17

Process Engineering reduction, improvement in the manufacturing and inspection methods; improvement of quality etc. Many times such revisions are made at the request of process engineer. Design changes must be checked out completely before the process is planned because they may have effect on operation sequence, tooling, location system, auxiliary and supporting operations, and overall manufacturing economy. Checking the revisions in the individual part will be too superficial, because, the part is either a part of some subassembly or assembly and hence it is necessary to check as to how these changes tie with other related drawings required clarifications should be requested from the product designer for any omissions in the related drawings. (6) Resistance to damage in the process: Studying the part print can also give important information as to whether the part is susceptible to damage during the manufacturing. Material specification or general configuration of part can give a fairly good idea about this. For example, forgings or castings are less susceptible to damage than the fragile parts like parts of electric control. Generally as the workpiece progresses through its manufacturing sequence, it becomes more susceptible to damage because more finished surfaces are exposed. 2.5 DETERMINING PRINCIPAL PROCESS AND ALTERNATE PROCESS: The principal process is the main process out of cutting, forming, casting and assembly, by which the part is produced from the workpiece obtained from basic process or originating operation. Once the basic process is decided from the part print the principal process is easily decided. If casting or forging is basic process operation then the cutting or machining is a logical principal process operation. A sheet metal part may require series of stamping operations, or a product made from several fabricated parts need assembly as a principal process operation. The process engineer is mainly concerned with the principal process and hence it is necessary to determine the principal process in the preliminary part print analysis. As the one best method for, manufacturing a product has not been discovered the process engineer has to think of alternative solutions to manufacturing problems. The possible alternate process can be planned from the information gathered from part print, imagination and process engineers knowledge of known processes. Though the product engineer is mainly concerned with design of a product acceptable to the customer functionally, aesthetically and economically, it is the process engineer who decides how the part is manufactured to these specifications. The economy of manufacture can be achieved if the efforts of both design and manufacturing people are co-coordinated. Only a careful analysis can justify whether to use casting, forging or rolling (bar stock) as basic process. Hence the process engineer or for that matter any other person can contribute for changing the part print specification to achieve the desired goals. The planning of process will be dealt in more detail in later chapter. 18 2422684

Process Engineering 2.6IDENTIFYING PRODUCT AND PROCESS CRITICAL AREAS/SURFACES: During the preliminary part print analysis certain areas are identified from part print, which are required to be developed or machined to accomplish certain function. On these surfaces/ areas are called functional surfaces or product critical areas. No surface is in fact machined unless it makes physical contact with other part, unless appearance is of prime importance. On the other hand certain hidden rotating parts are machined in its entire for balancing purposes. Such areas can be identified from the part print from the following. [1] Surface finish certain surface finish symbols indicate whether the surface needs machining or not. [2] Basic geometry be indicated by certain symbols for specifying geometric May tolerances for flatness, roundness, angularity etc. [3]Tolerances Degree of dimensional tolerances specifies whether the surface is product critical area or not. There are same surfaces or areas, which decide the ease or difficulty with which the part can be located, supported, and held throughout the manufacturing sequence. These areas are important from the manufacturing point of view or are critical for the process and are called process critical areas. These areas can be identified from the part print by (1) Looking for baselines from which dimensions are measured, (2) close tolerances, and (3) Natural centerlines. While identifying the process critical areas a specific order is followed. According to which first the areas best qualified for locating during processing are selected, followed by areas best suitable for supporting during processing. This specific order is followed in selection of the process critical areas because. (1) To get the workpiece out of rough in shortest possible time and achieve quick workpiece control over the consequent operations in the sequence, the first choice is to select areas suitable for location. (2) As no workpiece is rigid the unsupported workpiece at point of maximum deflection caused due self weight, cutting force etc lead to lack of mechanical control the next surfaces selected has to be best qualified for supporting during processing and (3) As no choice is left for area suitable for clamping during processing such areas are selected at last. Areas best suitable for supporting are as areas on the work piece where maximum deflection occurs and which do not interfere with the areas suitable for location and areas which are to be machined and areas which do not interfere with loading or unloading of the workpieces from tooling. 2422684 19

Process Engineering Symmetry Assisting Common Set Up FIG.2.1a FIG 2.2 Machining Possible In One Set Up C X BA X



SKETCH TO ILLUSTRATE DEGREE OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SURFACES Areas best suitable for clamping are decided from following guidelines. [1] Select areas other than areas to be machined unless it is on its entire surfaces. [2] Select areas directly opposite to the areas suitable for location. But if such areas are to be machined select the areas, which direct the resultant force against the locators. [3] Select areas, which are not susceptible for distortion and which are sufficiently large to evenly distribute the force instead of, localized application. [4] Select areas, which are not previously machined. 2.7NATURE OF WORK TO BE PERFORMED: The workpiece characteristics have been studied up till now in preliminary part print analysis primarily to relate them to the job to be done. The process engineer may ask following five questions to assess the nature of work to be done to produce the part to the part print specifications. (1) What is the degree of symmetry found in workpiece? 20 2422684

Process Engineering (2) How many machining surfaces are related to each other? (3) What is the relationship between these surfaces? (4) Is it possible to combine or group these related surfaces so as to achieve lesser Number of machining setups? (5) How many operations must be performed on each surface? Let us study the above aspects in details. (1) Degree of symmetry: If workpieces have surfaces symmetrical about a axis or a centerline, they can be machined in fewer setups by selecting common locating system for developing various surfaces. The advantages resulting are increased accuracy economy and ease of holding, especially when work piece is made up from basic cylindrical shapes generated about the same centerline, as in turning operation. However, neither all-symmetrical part is cylindrical and required to be not machined in few setups, nor permit use of common locating system to reduce the number of setups. Thus as can be seen from the figure 2.1 a part showing symmetry in two or three views cannot be produced in one setup. Thus, it needs shifting of locating system from one to another increasing potential error in the final product. (2) Number of related surfaces to be machined: The dimensioning system is the best guide in finding out the number of surfaces that can be related in one setting of the workpiece. As in case of symmetrical part, related surfaces often share same seat of registry. For example, if two parallel slots are to be produced on a rectangular slab and if both the slots are dimensioned from same surface of the blocks; then both the slots can be gang milled in one setup (fig 2.2) (3) Degree of relationship between surfaces: The primary reasons for relating surfaces on the part print are to guarantee accuracy of workpiece and economy in manufacturing. Thus, it is necessary for a process engineer to establish relationship between surfaces, to achieve specified accuracy. The economy can also be achieved as more good parts are produced or less part are rejected. Actually, on a given workpiece all surfaces are related to each other directly or indirectly. The degree or the closeness of there relationships is indicated by the dimensioning system. Each dimensions indicates a direct first-degree relationship between the two surfaces or lines. The number of direct dimensional relationships or connecting dimensional links that must be considered in relating one surface to another indicates their degree of relationship. For example in fig 2.3 surfaces A is directly related to surface B, D, & F. Surface A is indirectly related to surface E i.e. through D by two-dimensional links and hence second-degree relationship exists between them. Similarly the relationship between the indirectly related surfaces the tolerances 2422684 21

Process Engineering on the interrelated connecting dimensions are tightened to such a level that their collective variations do not exceed these desired in the indirect dimension. (4) Grouping related surfaces or areas: The primary purpose of relating the surfaces is to think of grouping them so as to machine them in one setup. The most conveniently grouped or combined operations are parallel surfaces and internal and external cylinders. These are the basic shapes generated by machine tools. Some surfaces through closely related dimensionally, cannot be combined readily for machining because of differences in surface positions. Two surfaces bearing an angular relationship to each other may be difficult to combine because they cannot be matched with the geometry the machine was built to produce work piece in fig 2.4 cannot be gang milled in one setup. (5) Number of surface treatments: To achieve desired surface characteristics number of operations may be required. This can be found from part print from specification of surface roughness, dimensional tolerances, or geometrical tolerances. For example a hole with a specific surface finish may be required to be bored and honed, or drilled and reamed etc. A surface may require machining, surface hardening and grinding. Thus, the process engineer must find out what surface treatments are specified before he can set up sequence of operations. 2.8FINISHING AND IDENTIFYING OPERATIONS: The finishing operations are not always directly related to principal process. The finishing operations like anodizing, painting or plating etc. are sometimes mentioned on the part print. As the process engineer has to pan through these types of operations he should search for mention of any such operation on part print. Sometimes workpiece identified with a number or identification mark. There are various methods of part identification like (1) raised numbers on certain castings or forgings (2) stamped numbers on certain gears, TATA chassis, (3) fixing of identification tabs, Ashok Layland chassis. When raised numbers are present on casting or forgings these areas should be avoided for location purpose. But when numbers are to be stamped such operations should be placed at convenient stage in the operation sequence; provided the identification is preserved throughout the operation sequence. Metal tab are usually fixed late in the operation sequence if attached by adhesive. Not all parts require identification. In fact the identification number on some parts cannot be tolerated. Parts like automobile door panels are identified from make model and year of manufacture for aesthetic reasons. Whereas standard parts such as washers, nuts and screws are easily identified and hence for economic reasons never numbers are placed on them. 22 2422684

Process Engineering 2.9RELATING PART TO ASSEMBLY. The great majority of individually fabricated parts ultimately become a part of something else. Thus, to examine only the part drawing without relating it to whole assembly would be superficial and could be dangerously costly. In fact, subassembly and assembly drawings usually provide information without which the process engineer could not carry out his functions. If the assembly drawing is studied with the individual parts more detail information can be obtained which will help the process engineer for processing of the part. Unfortunately it is not as simple to start with the print of the individual part and work back to individual drawing as it is to work down from the assembly drawing. Now a day this process can be made easy if the drawing is given in CAD format. QUESTIONS: Q.1 What is preliminary part print analysis? How is it done? Q.2 What problems are faced while reading and interpreting the part prints? Q.3 What are the methods used to visualize the complex parts? Q.4 What general characteristics of workpiece are established in preliminary part print Analysis? Q.5 What is the impact of part configuration (shape and size) on manufacturing of the part? Q.6 What is originating operation? How can it be identified from the part print? Q.7 What are the product critical areas or functional surfaces of the workpiece? Q.8 How are they identified? Q.9 Why a specific order is following in establishing various process critical areas? Q.10 What order should be followed in establishing process critical areas? Why should this order be followed? Q.11 What key point should be considered in deciding nature of work to be Performed on the workpiece? Q.12 What do you understand by the term degree of relationship? What is its significance to the process engineer? Q.13 What are specifications? Q.14 What are identifying operations? Do all parts need identifications? Q.15 Why is necessary to relate the part to the assembly drawing? JOIN NETWORK LEARNING SCHEME FOR AUTOCAD2002 AND LEARN AUTOCAD ABSOLUTELY FREE. CD'S OF UNIGRAPHICS, MDT,IDEAS AVAILABLE.