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A Gentle Introduction to the Art of Mathematics

Version 2.0

Joseph Fields

Southern Connecticut State University

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2010 Joseph E. Fields. Permission is granted to

copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no In- variant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

The latest version of this book is available (without charge) in portable document format at http://www.southernct.edu/~fields/

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Acknowledgments

This is version 2.0 of A Gentle Introduction to the Art of Mathe- matics. Earlier versions were used and classroom tested by several colleagues: Robert Vaden-Goad, John Kavanagh, Ross Gingrich. I thank you all. A particular debt of gratitude is owed to Leon Brin whose keen eyes caught a number of errors and inconsisten- cies, and who contributed many new exercises. Thanks, Len.

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Contents

 1 Introduction and notation 1 1.1 Basic sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Deﬁnitions: Prime numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.3 More scary notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.4 Deﬁnitions of elementary number theory . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 1.4.1 Even and odd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 1.4.2 Decimal and base-n notation . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1.4.3 Divisibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 1.4.4 Floor and ceiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 1.4.5 Div and mod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 1.4.6 Binomial coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 1.5 Some algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 1.6 Rational and irrational numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1.7 Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 2 Logic and quantiﬁers 59 2.1 Predicates and Logical Connectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2.2 Implication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 2.3 Logical equivalences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 2.4 Two-column proofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 2.5 Quantiﬁed statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 v

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 2.6 Deductive reasoning and Argument forms . . . . . . . . . . 105 2.7 Validity of arguments and common errors . . . . . . . . . . 114 3 Proof techniques I 123 3.1 Direct proofs of universal statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 3.2 More direct proofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 3.3 Contradiction and contraposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 3.4 Disproofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 3.5 By cases and By exhaustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 3.6 Existential statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 4 Sets 169 4.1 Basic notions of set theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 4.2 Containment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 4.3 Set operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 4.4 Venn diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 4.5 Russell’s Paradox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 5 Proof techniques II — Induction 205 5.1 The principle of mathematical induction . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 5.2 Formulas for sums and products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 5.3 Other proofs using PMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 5.4 The strong form of mathematical induction . . . . . . . . . 234 6 Relations and functions 237 6.1 Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 6.2 Properties of relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 6.3 Equivalence relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 6.4 Ordering relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 6.5 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

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 6.6 Special functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 7 Proof techniques III — Combinatorics 299 7.1 Counting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 7.2 Parity and Counting arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 7.3 The pigeonhole principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 7.4 The algebra of combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 8 Cardinality 349 8.1 Equivalent sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 8.2 Examples of set equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 8.3 Cantor’s theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 8.4 Dominance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 8.5 CH and GCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 9 Proof techniques IV — Magic 391 9.1 Morley’s miracle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 9.2 Five steps into the void . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 9.3 Monge’s circle theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 References 420 GNU Free Documentation License 422 Index 437

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List of Figures

 1.1 The sieve of Eratosthenes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.2 Pascal’s triangle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 1.3 A small example in pseudocode and as a ﬂowchart . . . . . 40 1.4 The division algorithm in ﬂowchart . . . . . . . . . . 42 1.5 The Euclidean algorithm in ﬂowchart . . . . . . . . . 45 2.1 A schematic representation of a transistor. . . . . . . . . . . . 64 2.2 Series connections implement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 2.3 Parallel connections implement or. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 2.4 Parenthesizations expressed as digital logic circuits. . . . . . . 67 2.5 Disjunctive normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3.1 A four-color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 3.2 Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 3.3 Graph pebbling move. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 3.4 A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 6.1 An example of a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 6.2 An example of the “divides” relation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 6.3 The graph of the “less than” . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 6.4 The graph of the divisibility relation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 6.5 Some simple Hasse diagrams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

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LIST OF FIGURES

 6.6 Hasse diagram for (P({1, 2, 3}), ⊆). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 6.7 Hasse diagram of divisors of 72. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 6.8 The sets related to an arbitrary . . . . . . . . . . 275 7.1 Full houses in Yahtzee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 7.2 K¨onigsberg, Prussia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 7.3 K¨onigsberg, Prussia as a graph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 7.4 A desk with pigeonholes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 8.1 Cantor’s snake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 8.2 Equivalent intervals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 8.3 An interval is equivalent to a semi-circle. . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 8.4 Binary representations in the unit interval. . . . . . . . . . . . 369 8.5 Setup for proving the C-B-S . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 8.6 An A-stopper in the proof of . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 9.1 The setup for Morley’s Miracle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 9.2 The ﬁrst Morley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 9.3 Conway’s puzzle proof. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 9.4 Scaling in Conway’s puzzle proof. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 9.5 An inﬁnite army in the lower half-plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 9.6 Moving one step into the void is . . . . . . . . . . . 404 9.7 Moving two steps into the void is more diﬃcult. . . . . . . . . 405 9.8 Moving three steps into the void takes 8 men. . . . . . . . . . 406 9.9 The taxicab distance to (0, 5). . . . . . . . .