Sei sulla pagina 1di 464

A Gentle Introduction to the Art of Mathematics

Version 2.0

Joseph Fields

Southern Connecticut State University

ii

2010 Joseph E. Fields. Permission is granted to

copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no In- variant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

Copyright c

The latest version of this book is available (without charge) in portable document format at http://www.southernct.edu/~fields/

iii

Acknowledgments

This is version 2.0 of A Gentle Introduction to the Art of Mathe- matics. Earlier versions were used and classroom tested by several colleagues: Robert Vaden-Goad, John Kavanagh, Ross Gingrich. I thank you all. A particular debt of gratitude is owed to Leon Brin whose keen eyes caught a number of errors and inconsisten- cies, and who contributed many new exercises. Thanks, Len.

iv

Contents

1 Introduction and notation

 

1

1.1 Basic sets

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1.2 Definitions: Prime numbers

 

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1.3 More scary notation

 

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21

1.4 Definitions of elementary number theory

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24

1.4.1 Even and odd

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24

1.4.2 Decimal and base-n notation

 

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25

1.4.3 Divisibility

 

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27

1.4.4 Floor and ceiling

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1.4.5 Div and mod

 

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1.4.6 Binomial coefficients

 

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1.5 Some algorithms

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38

1.6 Rational and irrational numbers

 

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48

1.7 Relations

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2 Logic and quantifiers

 

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2.1 Predicates and Logical Connectives

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59

2.2 Implication

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73

2.3 Logical equivalences

 

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2.4 Two-column proofs

 

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2.5 Quantified statements

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96

 

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vi

CONTENTS

2.6 Deductive reasoning and Argument forms

 

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2.7 Validity of arguments and common errors

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3 Proof techniques I

 

123

3.1

Direct proofs of universal statements

 

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3.2

More direct proofs

 

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3.3

Contradiction and contraposition

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3.4

Disproofs

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3.5

By cases and By exhaustion

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3.6

Existential statements

 

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4 Sets

169

4.1

Basic notions of set theory

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4.2

Containment

 

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4.3

Set operations .

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4.4

Venn diagrams

 

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4.5

Russell’s Paradox

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5 Proof techniques II — Induction

 

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5.1 The principle of mathematical induction

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5.2 Formulas for sums and products

 

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5.3 Other proofs using PMI

 

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5.4 The strong form of mathematical induction

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6 Relations and functions

 

237

6.1 Relations .

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6.2 Properties of relations

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6.3 Equivalence relations

 

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6.4 Ordering relations .

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6.5 Functions

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CONTENTS

vii

 

6.6

Special functions

 

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7

Proof techniques III — Combinatorics

 

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7.1 Counting

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7.2 Parity and Counting arguments

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7.3 The pigeonhole principle

 

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7.4 The algebra of combinations

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8

Cardinality

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8.1 Equivalent sets

 

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8.2 Examples of set equivalence

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8.3 Cantor’s theorem

 

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8.4 Dominance

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8.5 CH and GCH

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9

Proof techniques IV — Magic

 

391

9.1 Morley’s miracle

 

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9.2 Five steps into the void

 

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9.3 Monge’s circle theorem

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References

 

420

GNU Free Documentation License

 

422

Index

 

437

viii

CONTENTS

List of Figures

1.1

The sieve of Eratosthenes.

 

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Pascal’s triangle.

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1.3

A small example in pseudocode and as a flowchart

 

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The division algorithm in flowchart

 

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1.5

The Euclidean algorithm in flowchart

 

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2.1

A schematic representation of a transistor.

 

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2.2

Series connections implement

 

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2.3

Parallel connections implement or.

 

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2.4

Parenthesizations expressed as digital logic circuits.

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2.5

Disjunctive normal

 

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3.1

A four-color

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3.2

Graph

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3.3

Graph pebbling move.

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3.4

A

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6.1

An example of a

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6.2

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6.3

The graph of the “less than”

 

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6.4

The graph of the divisibility relation.

 

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6.5

Some simple Hasse diagrams.

 

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ix

x

LIST OF FIGURES

6.6

Hasse diagram for (P({1, 2, 3}), ).

 

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6.7

Hasse diagram of divisors of 72.

 

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6.8

The sets related to an arbitrary

 

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7.1

Full houses in Yahtzee.

 

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7.2

K¨onigsberg, Prussia.

 

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7.3

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7.4

A desk with pigeonholes.

 

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8.1

Cantor’s snake.

 

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8.2

Equivalent intervals.

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8.3

An interval is equivalent to a semi-circle.

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8.4

Binary representations in the unit interval.

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8.5

Setup for proving the C-B-S

 

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8.6

An A-stopper in the proof of

 

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9.1

The setup for Morley’s Miracle.

 

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9.2

The first Morley

 

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9.3

Conway’s puzzle proof.

 

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9.4

Scaling in Conway’s puzzle proof.

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9.5

An infinite army in the lower half-plane.

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9.6

Moving one step into the void is

 

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9.7

Moving two steps into the void is more difficult.

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405

9.8

Moving three steps into the void takes 8 men.

 

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9.9

The taxicab distance to (0, 5).

 

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