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Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics Solutions for \ 1,." Cumulative Exercises

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A Supplement to A ' Foundation for Implementation

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Manitoba

Education

Education

et Formation

and Training

professionnelle

Manitoba

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SENIOR 4 ' PRE-CALCULUS MATHEMATICS · SOLUTIONS TO CUMULATI'VE EXERCISES

A Supplement to, A Foundation for Implementation'

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Manitoba Education and Training

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Manitoba Education and Training Cata logu i ngi n Publication Data

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, 510 ' Senior 4 pre-calculus mathematics. Solutions to cumulative exercises: a supplement to a foundation for implementation

ISBN 0-7711-2787-1

1. Mathematics-Problems, exercises, etc. 2. Calculus-Problems, exercises, etc. 3.

Mathematics-Study

and teaching (Secondary).

, 4. Calculus-Study and teaching (Secondary). 1. Manitoba . Dept . of Education and Training.

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Copyright © 2000, the Crown in Right of Manitoba 'as represented by the Minister of Education and Training. Manitoba Education and Training, School Programs Division, 197.0 Ness Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3J OY9.

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Every effort has , been made to acknowledge original sources and to comply with

_ Manitoba Edu~ation and Training. Errors or omissions will be corrected in a future ,., edition.Bincere thanks to the authors and publishers who allowed their original material to be adapted or reproduced.

copyright law. If cases are identified where this has not been done,

please notify

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Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

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Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Manitoba Education and Training gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following individuals in the development of Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics Solutions to Cumulative Exercises: A Supplement to A Foundation for Implementation.

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics Revision Committee

John Barsby St . John ' s Ravenscourt

Independent Schools University of Manitoba

Manitoba Education and Training

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Manitoba Education and Training

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Mountain S.D . No. 28

I'f ·

Mystery Lake S.I? No. 2355 Winnipeg S.D . No.1

Lynn Batten (until December 1996) Carole 'Bilyk (sinceFebruary 1999) Joseph Combiadakis ' (until June 1998) Abdou Daoudi

.

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Department of Mathematics

School Programs Division

Bureau de l'education francaise

I Notre Dame Collegiate (until June 1998) Bureau de l ' education francaise (since September 1998) R.D. Parker Collegiate Sisler High (until January 1998) Balmoral Hall (since January 1998) College Beliveau Oak Park High Whitemouth School . (until June 1998) Rivers Collegiate

Dave Klasse ' n William Korytowski

Vivian ' e Leonard Jayesh Maniar Doli Nichol

Hilliard Sawchuck

St. Boniface S . D. No.4 Assiniboine South S.D . No.'3 Agassiz S . D. No. 13

Rolling River S.D. No. 39

,

Connie Shaver Kathy Tetlock Don Trim (since January 1997) Barb Vukets (until June 1997) Wayne Watt Alan Wells

(until June 1996)

Silver Heights Collegiate School Programs Division Department of Mathematics

River East Collegiate

School Programs Division West Kildonan Collegiate (until June 1995)

St. James-Assiniboia S.D. No.2 Manitoba Education and Training University of Manitoba

River East S.D. No.9

.Manitoba Education and Traiing Seven Oaks S . D . No_ 10

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

,~

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Kindergarten to Senior 4 Mathematics Steering Committee,

Lynda Baxter

St. Vital S.D. No.6'

School Programs Division

Arthur Day School Bureau de l'education francaise

St. -Iames-Aeainiboia S.D. No.2

Bureau de l'education francaise

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Superintendents

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Transcona-Springfield S.D. No. 12 Manitoba Education and Training

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Manitoba Associati~n of Mathematics Teachers' .Manitoba Education and Training

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Transcona-Springfield S.D. No. 12 University of Manitoba Community Colleges Manitoba Education and Training

Manitoba School Library

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Association

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Gail Scheer

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River East S.D. No.9

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Trustees Ma'~itoba Association of 'Parent Councils Manitoba Association of Principals Matutoba Education and Training University of Manitoba '

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Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics Cumulative Exercises Committee

John Barsby

St. John's-Ravenscourt

Independent Schools

Barry Boothe

Fort Richmond Collegiate

Fort Garry S.D. No.5, I

Judy Bowes

St. -Iohn's-Ravenscourt

Independend Schools

"

Ruth Dyck

Westgate Mennonite

Collegiate

Independent Schools

John Enns

Westgate Mennonite

Collegiate

Independent Schools

Lyn Jannuska

Crocus Plains Regional

Brandon S.D. No. 40

Dennis Kasian

Secondary School River East Collegiate

River East S.D. No.9

David Klassen

R.D. Parker Collegiate

Mystery Lake S.D. No. 2355

Bill Korytow.ski

Balmoral Hall

Independent Schools

Kelly Livesley

John Taylor Collegiate

St. James Assiniboia S.D. No.2

Joyce McCallum

Morden Collegiate

Western S.D. No. 47

Don Nichol

Whitemouth School

Agassiz S.D. No. 13

Christine Ottawa

St. John's High School

Winnipeg S.D. No.1

Larry Ruppel

River East Collegiate

River East S.D. No.9

Gordon Smith

MacGregor Collegiate

Pine Creek S.D. No. 30

Ketri Wilkes

John Taylor Collegiate

St. James-Assiniboia S.D. No.2

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Senior 4 Pre-Oalcutus Mathematics

"

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics Field Validation (Pilot) Project (1997-0(»

Dave Barnes (1998-99) Darryl Bohart , Barry Boothe (1997-99) Raf Borelli (1998-99) Chris Boumford (1998-00) Paul Carpenter Pat Clark Kim Deamal (1999-00) Darren Deserranno (1997-98)

Neelin High School River East Collegiate Fort Richmond Collegiate Portage Collegiate Shaftesbury High School ' Morden Collegiate Gordon Bell School Carman Collegiate , Swan Valley Regional Secondary School Westgate Mennonite Collegiate

,

Westgate Mennonite Collegiate

River East Collegiate Dakota Collegiate , Fort Richmond Collegiate Hapnot Collegiate Kelvin High School Daniel McIntyre Collegiate Shafteshury High School Vincent Massey Collegiate River East Collegiate Oak Park High Crocus Plains Regional Secondary School White mouth School, River East Collegiate Neelin High School R.D. Parker Collegiate Springfield Collegiate Whitemouth School Vincent Massey Collegiate Sanford Collegiate John Taylor Collegiate Vincent Massey High School Swan Valley Regional Secondary School Morden Collegiate Kelvin High School Portage Collegiate Windsor Park Collegiate R.D, Parker Collegiate Fort Richmond Collegiate Boissevain School Whitemouth School John Taylor Collegiate Winnipegosis Collegiate

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Brandon S . D . No. 40 River East S.D. No.9 Fort Garry S . D. No.5 Portage la Prl:!-irie , $.D . No. 24 Assiniboine South S.D. No . 3 Western S . D. f-Jo.47 Winnipeg S.D. No.1 , j Midland S.D. No. 25 '

Swan Valley S.D. No. 3~

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Manitoba Federa tion ,of, Independent Schools Manitoba Federation of Independent Schools River East S.:O. Nb. 9 St . Vital S.D. No.6 Fort Garry S.D . Nb. 5 Flin Flon S . D. No. fo6 , , ' Winnipeg S.D. No . 1 Winnipeg S . D. No.1 Assiniboine South S.D. ' No . 3 " Fort Garry S.D. No.5 , River East S.D. No.9 ,

,

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Ruth Dyck

John Enns

John Fast (1997-99) Dean Favoni Arlyn Filewich Harland Garinger -Ian Gibson (1998-00) Ewa Goldfeld (1998-00) Chuck Hatfield (1999-00) Jerry Hildebrand (1998-00) Erwin Hildebrandt (1999-00) Greg Jakubec (1998-00) Lyn Jannuska

Brian Johnston (1998-99) Dennis Kasian Doug Kinney (1998-00) Dave Klassen (1997-99) Peter Kula (1999-00) Doug Kutcher (1999-00) Philippe LeClercq (1998-00) Don Lepper Kelly Livesley (1997-98) Tanis MacDonald (1998-00) Bill Marshall

Joyce McCallum Melanie McCasin (1998-00) Pat McCrea (1998-00) Ralph McKay (1998-00) Patty Miller Les Mitchell Mike Nantais Don Nichol (1997-98) Joe Oczerklewicz (1998-99) Rob Pehura (1998-00)

Assiniboine South ' S.D . No . 3

~ Brandon S . D. No. 40, '

Agassiz S.D. No. 13 River East S.D. No ' . 9 Brandon S.D. No. 40 Mystery Lake S.D~ No.; 2355 Transcona-Springfield S.'D , .No. 12 Agassiz D.D. ~o.' 13., \, Fort Garry S.D. Nb. 5 " Morris-Macdonald S.D. No . 19 St. James-Assinib~ia S.D. No , 2 Brandon S.D . No. 40

Swan Valley S . D . No. 35 Western S . D. No. 47 Winnipeg S.D . No.1 Portage la Prairie S.D. No. 24 St. Boniface S.D. No.4 Mystery Lake S . D. No. 2355 Fort Garry S ' . D. No.5 Turtle Mountain S.D. No . 44 Agassiz S . D. No . 13 St. James-Assiniboia S.D. No.2 Duck Mountain S.D. No . 34

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Senior 4 Pre~CalculusMathematics

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

'"

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics Field Validation (Pilot) Project (1997-00) (continued)

Peter Pura (1998-00)

Kelvin High School Grant Park High School River East Collegiate R.D. Parker Collegiate Dakota Collegiate Vincent Massey ' High School ' Macflregor Collegiate Grant Park High School Miami Collegiate Kelvin High School Oak Park , High Springfield Collegiate John Taylor Collegiate Arthur Meighen High Vincent Massey Collegiate

Winnipeg S.D. No.1 Winnipeg S.D. No.1 River East S.D : No.9 Mystery Lake S.D . No . 2355 St. Vital S . D. No . 6 Brandon S.D. No. 40 Pine Creek S.D . No . 30 Winnipeg S . D. No . 1 Midland S.D. No. 25 Winnipeg S.D. No.1 Assiniboine South S.D.' No.3 , Transcona-Springfield S.D . No . 12 St. James-Assiniboia S.D . No.2 Portage la Prairie S . D. No. 24 Fort Garry S.D. No . 5

, Norm Roseman (1999-00)

Larry Ruppel Gerry Sapinsky (1997-98) '

John Scott

Mark Sefton (1998-00) Gordon Smith Roy Spivak (1998-00) Wanda Stockford (1998-00) Jim Stuparyk (1998-00) Hans Tauchnitz (1998-00) Egon Ulr~ch (1998-99) Ketri ' Wil~es (1998-99) Rick Williamson (1998-00) Fra , Qk WiJson (1998-00) ,

,

Mani~oba , Education and Training Staff School Programs Division

Carole Bilyk

Consultant

Lee- Ila Bothe '

Coordina tor

 

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DianeCoo~ey ,

Project Manager

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Katharine Tetlock

 

Consultant

Wayne Wfltt '

 

Project Leader

I''''' '

Curriculum Unit

, Program Development Branch

Production Support Unit Program Development Branch

Curriculum Unit ' Program Development Branch

Learning Technologies Unit Program Development Branch

Curriculum Unit , Program Development Branch

SolutiQns to Cumulative Exercises

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

,

CONTENTS

Acknowledgements m

Introduction 1

Exercise

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

" 19

Degree and Radian Measure 3

The Unit Circle 5

Special Angles and the Trigonometric Functions 10

Solving Trigonometric Equations on a Specified Interval 13

General Solution of Trigonometric Equations . 15

Graphing Circular Functions 18

Translations 21

Horizontal and Vertical Stretches 25 ,

Symmetry, ' Reflections, and Inverses 28 Graphing Reciprocals 32 Graphing Absolute Values 36 Practice with Transformations 40 I Transformations with Trig Functions 13 Trigonometric Identities I 46 Trigonometric Identities II 48 Sum and Difference Identities I 51 Sum and Difference Identities II 55 Double Angle Identities 58 Exponential Functions 61

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Solve Exponential Equations 64

21

Logarithmic Functions 66

22

Logarithmic Theorems I 69

23

Logarithmic Theorems II 72

24

Exponential and Logarithmic Equations I 75

25

Exponential and Logarithmic Equations II 79

26

Natural Logarithms 82

27

Applications of the Exponential Function 85

28

Counting Principles 89

29

Permutation with Repetitions and Restrictions 92

30

Permutations 95

31

Circular Permutations 98

32

Permutations with Case Restrictions 102

33

Combinations 105

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Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Exercise

34 Binomial Theorem 108

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35 Permutations, Combinations, and Binomial The ' brem 111

36 Parabola 114

37 Circle and Ellipse 117

38 Hyperbola 121

39 Sample Spaces 126

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40 Probability of Independent . and Dependent Events

41 Combining Probabilities lif2

42 Conditional

43 Conditional Probability II 138

44 Probability Using Permutations and Combinations

45 Geometric Sequences 144

46 Geometric Series 147

47 Infinite Geometric Series 150

48 Review I 153

49 Review II 157

50 Review III 161

Probability I 'J 35

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Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

INTRODUCTION

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics Solutions to Cumulative Exercises: A Supplement 'to A Foundation for Implementation initially was prepared by members of the Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics Cumulative Exercises Committee.

The initial solutions were provided to the field test teachers during the 1997-98 school year. As the cumulative exercises were revised, pther Manitoba educatora'participated in the' further , , development of Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics Solutions ~ Cumulative Exercises.

This document is provided to Manitoba teachers of Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics to support implementation of the new curriculum. It is intended to provide both teachers and students' with sample solutions and/or alternate solutions.

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Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Exercise 1: Degree and Radian Measure

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

2, a) Jtr ::.~

11--

180

~'X ::. ~!.JI80) = - 210 tJ , , c) 2- (,3'i .: 2L :9 X ~2-~'I (/81))

10

,

"

'it-

/80

' ' It:

z, ~

~

x =- /I (180) = IfoS 0

180 If

:: ISO· i" d.)-{),~925 .:.L:) )(~~O,?825(i~

I,·

,

I

I

11'

180 '

n-

, :: -5w.3 Q

,

3 '

11 -

5."

-' 7."

12. 12 ,

I'

,

'/. '180 a ,- 130 0

::. 50 0

50' =

180

K-

1]-

=> x ::.50." ,~= '511-

/8()

/8 '

,

5, Th ir d At19Ie: 11'- - 2 (3fl7) =!Jr ",'

Cample men/-: 11'- - 3.,.,

=- 711-_ 61?- ::;!!:

2

7

Ii

,

t" Conver+ 2LJo fo radia.n.s-

2'1 = .li: =9 s : 2~

/80

17'-

,,/5

:. rt- = 2.1r 7 X ~ /5 0 I' 5

1'/

7

/~

2."

r

11" z: -r»:

'/5

X

II

 

2

+-

I

.:: I

75 X

"",, \',

2x + /5 .:: /5 X

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X

/5

2

15;:

13x

 

X .:: '5/,3

'

0 Quadra.f1+.N:.

)

4 ~

< e c 217" or (3%, J 2~)

b) Qvo

ara

fl+

II '7 ~2

~ o <'1!- or ["Y2, I 1l")

(Note:

(0.5 e ::0 i s if')C/uc/etI ir7 fhe solcJ-/-;on)

C) GutAdra.n-f I and IIr ~ 0 < e 4:;

% u 1r ~ () c .3~

or (at ~)

U (11") 3~)

d) &ua.d r{).rJf and J1£ ~ 172 ~ S ~ 3~2. or L ~ I 3~J

(Nofe: COS(;} == 0 is /ncl(/d~d il7 fhe so/tlft'(lr))

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

,"

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Exercise , 1: Degree and Radian ' Measure (continued) I

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II. e , :; Lj,gu ::; ;%; ra.diMS

r = 2 Lf i ocoe 5

h) III

/2·d=/6·1.:;\

r=82

1

S=t3r

/2 · 3 :: e (8.2)

(9 =/2.3

:: . /·5

5

1/

8·2

= , L 9 X :f: /5(/80)

180

17"

= 85·7"

fii. X = Z sr= 3,°::: 5 cJ::: /

No ofhera . n:;,wer,5 are p05s;ble t(. pa.r 1- .pr~ rn /1 +he po wetS of

fhe power.s\ -r-s a

re

d;;iinaf, '

Since J

.3 a,,,,t/

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fl· ~::(Y)x~b

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~ = 0/3 xd-

Le+ ~ =0 ~ 0:: ~ x + 12 , -/2=;;3 x - 3~;; 2-;.

1

. 1

-18 ;:.X

/6. a) (x+3)2f l

= 20

X 2 + ~ x '+ ~ t- 2 = 20

X 2 f/Py-/:

0

.

, X:= - 0 :r1/' 3~ -'I(/)(-~)

2.

X:" -6;1 rn ::-6:1 b-Y2

,

2

2

x~-3i3fl

b)~-

X

,

x-I :1

2

I

12-(x2-x) '=8x

. 0 = ';('2.+ 7x -;/2.

X =-7~1iI-i.f(;)(-/2)

2

=-7:t-/n

2

18. a,) X(x 2 +2x-3)

=x(x-t3) (x-I)

:. the x -j n+ercep+ i5 - /8

b) X s: 0) x = -3 ) X = /

ICf.

'd:; (; - x

J ::.Y2.)( 2.+ X

=7 0 - X ::: ~ X z+ X

/2 - 2 x :;: X 1 + 2)<

O='X2 -lifx-12

:. The

0= (x+-C;)(x-2)

X :::-0

Or x=2

pOinf.s are (6,12) cvrJ (2, J./)

20.

Q

)(-f-b

=cxfd

ax=c x s a-»

X cc-cr= d- s

x=d-i:>

--

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e

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Exercise 2: The Unit Circle

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.o

-

b

150"

J50 d

c)

Lf. IJ-) I

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b)

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

330<1 C)

-310 0

I, •• '

-1/

-

If

IZ() 0

b)

/2.5."

== 3/17' + rt

~

'"7('

c)JI

:. c(Jf~"m;naJ ~/e

.!J.Jt = t1i' + 2."

.3

"3

.,'. cu+errn;ntAl Q,nQ/e 2fl\

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Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

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Exercise 2: The Unit Circle (continued)

5, a.)

,

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Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

J. =_1 =P.3 = 'I

8

. If)

,5"

~

b)

'2 + 8 ~ :: (t

(.-~I~o)

'\0

,

.;:.p ( :: JO

t 1) 2. +('10) 'l. =(2.

(=-'1,

c)

I '

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X

::_1_ ~)(::-?

-1

~/

I

if

va '\

,. P(e) =:(- ~/ J '41;/

.

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-12

(-if, -/2)

(-'I) 1. +(-12) 2. :. (2-

~ r = "'/(pO or ~1iO

d) P( e) i:5 Of) +he vn;+

circle ~ P(e)={~-/)

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Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Exercise 2: The Unit Circle (continued)

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

. ~

b. X '2.+ J 2. = I 7., I . X '2. :I-J '2. .:
b. X '2.+ J 2. = I
7.,
I
.
X '2. :I-J
'2.
.:
2.+ (~7)2.= I
+ J2 =-/
X
I
t
-
25
X 'l. l: I - '~8'T
.
~
& 2- = /lj£j
:
. ~~~
' I
I
x? '= 225
/61
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~;: :!:~
XI :!: ' :t /5
13
/7
I
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si oc e the PClit?; /s to ~V4.cI nr
j: -R
SinCe the poirr/ /s /'1 tYva.oIll '
ca» e :: -15
13
/7
8. fa/) &
:: S ,'n&,

Cose

fan t9 = - ii¥~

~'t

I'

:: -yz :=-£0

-

~

.

:: -z

fi5

--

~

~ -

fi5

"

3

ta. C = zo-r-

3cJ .:: 2-rJ'r .:} r = /~1l':

5 =: Sr

5 = e(~9

II. s"oce S.: &r t:U?d' ,If.: "/lr '2 ,

11

:: 7i'- S 2.

 

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& = 30 0 (71' ~6 r t M1.,.~.5

Ii :: 1!-(7.t;;.)'Z. :::;66/. lJcmz, ' {a,('~.::(of "\

(~,,)2.

e"rele,,)

12 S+udenf~ could exp/~I7:

The slice wovld he tzlh [3tJ~t.d']~:'{'

. '. /lrea. qf' fhe s"~e = "I. f

/2

5

.::::5·2 em 2

• di",iSi(7n o-P fhe unif

circle • va

/t/t'S

(71 e~ch C(ua

cln:u?-k/

~Ie

• how +odelermilJ~ /f r=: . o

pproXirna.

.

fe

o

f)a./(7r

ex4.c!

+h~n one revolvt-ioY]

valves.

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Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

Exercise ~; The Unit Circle (continued)

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

" '; 13· 501u-l-,-01'/ /

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~c

B 'f

:

()S,"I7,J L~

Q.p. :5/l7es

~ir) A :: 'S113r.::? S/Q II:

L

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3

II::: ~8 ' .2/" a r 13;. 75'°

Ll,

4z.

"7~"17,3'1 ' = , (J . 7~55r;

:3

L. C =18(}-31f-'f8.2/

' C

:::?7· 71

=

3

Sin ?J. 7i ~:: 3Sin

s.» 31

'17. 71:= 5.315

, S/n 31

L.C =rsa -3if-131.7'jC7 =/"/.2/°

C S'-f'j 1'1. 2/

_

-: . -S-/17-3-tj'-

3

C

::: 3Sir),J'i.2/

Sin 3'1

.:: /·3/7

 

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, so/u+;'O(} 2" USIny

Law oJ!. COS ' Ifx>S

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= 32

'-j2+X 2 - 2(7')6-) ees 3r Q => 0 .: X z ; ('·6323)( T 7

B~ ,-the GUo.arQtic formula

:

X =6·~3Z3.I

-I(,.'3Z3)~

-28 I

2

X = 5· 3/5 '0; / · 3/7

Ii· -Vx'2. + 7 = ' 1

, X '2. + 7,. ::: Ita

I x'Z '=o

(X ' -3)(xt3) ::.0

,:\1

X = -; or )( = - 3

check:

A'<:: 3 9 {r-3 1.-=--+-7 ;: -.IJ ~ :: Lj

X':: - 3 1

/{-3)1.+-7

;:;Iii; ;;~

/to -j = (x 2 + ~ x + r ) + 10

~:::(X+3)2+J

.'. ver t-« x 1/'5 (- 3,/)

011

=

1-3)

2.f- (I) 2.;:

- 7

YiO

15 · ' Z(K+2)-f 3 ::k-f ' Zkt3'

lk+7=3K+3

'-/=K

17. fo,nf,lf:

X=2 #,J::: ; :::; 'ct3)

POI n+ B: x::~ ~ j =: =/ .: 8(',1)

a.)lIreq. = } (bctsfj'" ~('2.)(he t jhf)

11= l. (3+1)(~):8

2

b) Perimeter : IIBt 13 ('rCD + DA

p.:: -v(2-,,)Z.-f"{3-/)~+/-I- Yr3

P = 2VS+8

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Exercise 2: The Unit Circle (continued)

/8. X v-

1

/6 :: (x'Z.- 'i) (x 'Zf.if)

= (x- i) (X+2) (x 2.+~)'

1'1. /2x 2. - 25x + 12 ~cJ

(3 x - f)(~x

-3) =0

X = Y3 or X = 0/1

i

\.

"I

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus . Mathematics

1

Senior 4 Pr& . Calculus Mathematics

,

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Exercise 3: ' Special Angles and , the Trigonometric Functions

/. Va.lue~ rea.d. i7r"'(}('h

un i+ circ;«,

a.)};z

, b) -fi

2

e)-/

fh<::.

'

d) .: 01' Z e"\- rz

I

:/ -.3:: ;;: - /

2

12

T

3. a.) (O(I)(-f3)

. 33

::; Y3

f')-ij

Ar:4 r2 - -

2'

)

,

b)-fi

2

, "I

'

(J) ,- '2

~

-/

43

U. =:»: 01'-_

'2

13

3

I

,

I,

.

,.,

LJ.o

}

O/S:

sil7 % ., -f3/ 2 = -I3~:;-13 'b) LNS': Sin'% ' =!,Z

l + (05 '"i1' /+ Y,-

l- Y2

% . ' ? " , RHS,-;I-Co~,o/:,/-

-

I

= {j

i . 2;

fijz

-13 .3 , jA = IT ",.1

~

, 2 if I z'

2

R HS : I - CO 5 0/3

, Sin 173 =.,-Yz -

.

"',-

:

If foJ)

0 In

)

(}uo

o = -L -7 Sin e :::.f 1.' and C05 e =!' ff (hoth. pb~ifill(:

13'

Z

2.

orj

t ho.fh nejahve'

dra.nl-

I 9- o == %

In (]l)adranlll and.J1I ~'e:::7%

 

,

,

I

I

~

11I1

~ I,

CJ In () ua.d r~171. s:» no/- poss;ble (sin e is ~o

+ive

, and ( , o~ , ~~'s\

J . , pos,h ve)

10. a) In ()uad~t7f .IIIor1Y

~ e - 5'fi" . 71r

-T>T

b) I I? aueA.t/ rani I or N

()

== ."

I;)7;"

. //1.,.

C) I tJ (]()a.d ranl-

e ::= L/1l"

3

llI.

d)

L r1 ()uadr()

n

e

z: 211"

3

f II

,

"

,

i

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

Exercise 3: Special Angles and the Trigonometric Functions (continued)

7.

8. (I) X 2 : 8 X - hJ s:

(2))(3:

9 ' 1f~l/;;:

20

-3

17" <V s: /7

/'

 

X

;;:

/

l/ ( I) - 3y = 10 ,

:.(XIY)=U;-~)

-3y = ~

,Y :;; ~2.

 

"

 

,

,

,

,

"

,

b) -If

,

2

, j

Sin 5'"/" .: JL

"

,3t"

J=,2.912.o//P

Co s ' 5'i D =- ~

'3·'

x ~ 2.' Ij 60 3 =)

Ae.='1.2. ' 32ofo,

," a) Per/melt'/': 3.6+ 3 6'1 ~23~(}6 ~/;. Yt~

I

'~) A"'~4 ,: ; (1/. 232()6X2:'j12~~)!&t.2c"l

II.

:zz:r = ,:0 '7 x.: !!

H~

,

{/8:J)

~

2Lj I

, I

,

,

,

=82.5c> ,

/4. X2 + Y 2 ;

I

X2+(V3)2. =/

)( 2- :;; J - 'I?

X'l.:. 9/~

X =- :t

3

Since Si(18)() a"J

cas e ~O =7 F&J) is

in Q vo.o( II .

.'. X = -2~

15.

+o.n e .;:.5, . n<3 = Y3 .= I .: -,Ii,

COS(9 -z~

-2ft

'I

P(e) etll4Ja.ys becotrKis

(0, o

.', sto o «]

I

COS{7=O

I

().ncl fan e i5 vndefined

,

,

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

' / '

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Exercise 3': Special Angles and the Trigonometric Functions (continued)

/B. ,Itx + 3 : ' / +-rx;;

2x+3 :::1+2-Vx+j tx+/

x+J = 2-Y'x-rr

X"+2X4-I=

'I(X+I)

)(2. -2)( -3:::0

ex -3)(x+I)::()

x = 3 ar x

= - /

Che<?K: / x =,.3 , -(2(3)-1- 3 -= -If == 3

, l+ V3+i-= /fH:= 3

x ~.,. / 112(-1)+-:5 = -vT ::.J

1+ Y-I +-1 ::: 1+ () .::

,

:.x::30rx:::-/

,I', J~. '(Z'/O) is a. pOin!

" i= peJpendiC uJo

r

d

Or) 3;<+ l/y . : 0

is+ance

.f2r-om (2"O)

, i5 :

d. :: / 3 (2) of. 1(0) - / / _ 5 - /

-(32.+ 12.

,-

5' -

'

'

fo 3)( t 'IJ z / ,

20· H( X) =- 2)( + I

X-if'r/ercepf:

x-'1

8-inkr~pf:

~9=O

~ x =0

0:: 2xtl

~ = 2.(0)-1-1

x-'-/

0-,-/

, 0 = 2x i: J J =:.!

't::::-~

2

J.j

~

--4----- i~

I

I

--------~-+~~r-~IX

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

'

,

.

,

,

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Senior 4 Pr~Calculus Mathematics

Exercise 4: Solving Trigonometric Equations on , a Sp~cified Interval ,

, _

J.

a 2 C 0 5 e s 2.

)

C05$

;:: I

e :0"

I

3(POQ

'

b) 5 t()J) e +i;:O

1v e .: - ~/5

n e, ' ;; 38. 7" (re/a.-kJ ~/e)

.; e =ILf/·3" O( 32/· 30,

d) 2 sio 2 e 1" sin e ; 0

S/n 19 (2 e.» o +/) ='0

Sin e <9 z: 0

= 0 or 2SilH9 r/ =0

a /80 4

I

,

3 (, 0 () stoe= - Yz

<9 = 210 () 330 a

I

,

,

2 2 Sit') 28 - sino z: 0

Sin e (2sin ~ -1)=0

S,. o C) ~O or' Zstr: (9- / =0

·

,,'

'),

S

In (3,;; /2-

:

<S 1 10 21l" . e ~ '0/, I 5%

5. Zcos fJtg=O

2 C05$ -=--13

to. '-Ices l.e : /

'ic05 2 '$ -I =0

, c) 'ji O J76) ':' '7:; 5fo.n e-6 - / :: ra n (J
,
c) 'ji O J76) ':' '7:; 5fo.n e-6
- / :: ra
n
(J
o
z: 135 0 or 315"
"I
, j
,
,
"
,
.
"
,
,
"
'
~

CO) G ~ - i3/2.

e :: 51l' 7"

T/~

(2C05 e -D(lcos e+t)={)

C05 o ,;: Yz or(JJS CJ :::-Y.z

<9 ::: 2% I l/%

1/. e = 'Irr-

3

C058 <.0 CVld

krlG > 0

.: P((}) /t1JIL

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

'"

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Exercise 4': Solving Trlqonometrlc Equations on a Spe'cified Interval (continued)

" t , 1'3. Mefhod. i : Sfuderd-s cotJ/d

,

,

,

, recojfJ;ze

AAf 27rr is a.n oid

t'Y\ulfipJe 'Ot tt: MU5 fa

//it?)

0(1

fue 'tfJ~rCVl-ta

J

~Ie ofl11'-.

. 1here-Pare 1+;:5 110+ loco-+ed in

I + o

a 'ft>uO

r-M

nd

i Is cOord i na:kS

ore (-1,0).

, ' 'He~hod. 2 : Sfudenb

CO /J /J

, da+e'yYI;ne.fhe number 0 t

I

reIJolu'hor)5

-fh~ at1Jle /.()r~5

b~ ' d.ivi~in~ 271)- by 21l'. 13 Vz

, rel.lolu+-iot1s would.

+O

ke

. 9cJU +0

the , ~\Jad rOJ1 ta

l

~

ie o'PT!-.

see' f!iflo

/

Msl.IJe(' +r-dn1 mefhod 1

I'i. @)a.nd.{e) ~re "f"}CorreJ!+ k()::u/se

the · ,'rrlerva.I' iryclvdes me Lt.n91e

117,/) wh:c h ,"S where

C05 e =s.no

(b) is incorrec] beouise in fIJ e

it) -/er vo. I 'o/~4 e ~ % Sine >COS e

(rJ.) is t"n c orreei' beCctll5e ~~.j

Irrkrlluj includes coso> s/m»,

W5e = S/17 o (d.) ,'S co ('recl

~ncl 5'-1'7(9 > cas o.

S .ric« a. II a'?j/e s I

; n fh i> it') fr vo.l ha

ve

a.

Qreo

J ,

ier

cos rne lIa.lvr ~

'

_t-. ~le'-'I

,

S/nf

'\j'7'\

~ ~("JIt:J,S'

1'-' '

/to ,

I&: "'

.,/

"

'

(-,,) 2 +(-8)2:/J. -? 10

,y

1=! 1.J~_'t

.' ~8 :: to 7 I - 5

-Tt-.:;.n,,-!l-~t-----t-- l

-to

s: J.- -7 X:. - 3 '

10

5

.: P (e) :::{-3/ 51 _l//s)

and. C05 $ = - 3/ S

.,1

17. (t )(-/) :; - /

,

I

p({)). AIS)

~eIS'

B~ COfljr(/en+ Ll'S I P(c9 + ~l.)

= (r5, -.0/5) r(s-1)-)::(-}s I '1~)

a)

cas to + 17'1L ) .: "0

b) eo 5

(o -TJ--) ::: 3/ 5

Ig. The pw-a.b()/~ opens

up so a.) 0

The(e oJe no 10 - ;f'1krcepl:5

b2.-Lfa.c(O

:.

B

So

20· The 510 pe trof'Y) (-I, I) fa (0,2) "5

H =/

0+'

Uf'lt' liB ha.s e <tooJiO()

5oIve:{Y"x'2.

9x'2.=x+-l

Y .::; X t 2.

(9.::.)(, •.2 x"l.-X,-2::0

(x -D(xt-O =0

)(= 2 or X::-I

.,

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises ,"

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics I

Exercise 5: General Solution of Trigonometric Equations

/.

~

e

s,'() o :: 72-

=' ~h -t'ela.+ed anJle

=11' + 2K 11" .5Jt + 2K11)

to

/ (p

,

where k is OJ') if'J1t'fjer.

, 2. a COs 3$'::Yz

, 3e~ 0/3 -(da.kdo.r7jle '

)

I

'

3e s: 1lf3

.<J:: <} 11' + 2kft 3
v

t 2K.1l') 5 rt- t 21\-rr-

3

511'" f 2k17'

'1

3

where k IS V'-II /J_ I ·nlA::. ·':Jet.

2. h) <2,i0(9) == 13 ,

,

2

Z

~ ~ ; + 2J<~ , 21l'

?J

+ 2J<'ft

$~. 2; t- 'Ik;/ ~ + 1K1l'

U)he(e Ie is (,\f) in.Je3er.

+c.tf'J e.::. 0

Lf. s: ()2(9 s: /I tj

Sine .=iY2.

I

e ::kfl'" w he« k i 5 a n iY}k;je~

o ::;"o/~,-'rela:kd ~jle (9 =1Y'w +2.~1/")I\~% ~ZK1tJ ~ + 2k'fJ' '~T2K1l'

whet:'e k i S an j n-k~ er.

I

5. (r+Sine)(j-Cose)

=0

" ,5 in <9 .;; - I or c oS e = I

e ~ 30/2. + 2krt

o =O+2kfl'

e = 3"0/2. +2K.~ UTi'- where

)

K i S ~fl ; '1+e~eA.

0. 2 see o + '1.=0

See (9 s: ~ 2J

ce s e ;' - Yz '

e

= 1Y'3 - relo

W

o

Y1j

le

e = lo/3

+ Zkf1\' J L/fl/3 + 2

k-n-

W~re k is a.n ink3er.

T 'I csc e + (p :: /l./ 'i csc e .= B

CSC :: 2-

5in G s: Y Z e = ~w - t'elo.:kd OJ?}1e

<9 :: 1i/(JJ -I- 2 k: 11- 517";/ t 2k11'

I

VI

where

r , S OJ) i n~ er.

I

(S in o - /)( Z See e

-I- /) = 0

S'-n e s: I

see (9 ::: -!It.

(9 ::: 'tz + 2.Kfl'

:. e:; TYz t 2

COse = - 2 no sO/Ill-ion

/(.,., co h ere k is ary

I

i'1le!j er.

7. '-Is,'n 2$ -.3:.0 '-I Sin 2 e = 3

S j n 2 (9 .= 3;~

5i (') (9 = t io/z

e = 'o/~, 211"/3 , ~'rr/3' 51l'/.;

-1Y''2.

;7 ,

- 2o/~

,

-

'f1J'/3

- 5~

,

,

'

Senior 4 Pre-,Calculus Mathematics

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Exercise 5: General Solution of Trigonometric Equations (continued)

/0. l-21i=-O~21t"J 5t~n e +5 =0

5 ta.r) e = - 5

e

+Of) e=>t

= 3'7r/J.J

I I

70/tf - '9r I - ~

I .

12· 2sin'2 e +sine-/=O

(2Si(l(9- I)(sine +/)':::0

Sin e =~ e = 19~51l"4,

I

or Sine = =l

e = 3'1pz

., e :; 1VtR I ,~~ I 3~2.

1'1. 80 em .::o.e M ::. d

r=@ =O·YH

l

$= er

130 :. e (().~)

,

1 1

e = 32 5 ra.d.ia.n5

II. coso fCOS 2 $'t- sin 2$

C05' e rI- / z: ()

CoS e::: - /

fJ=n-

15· '.

"1

.'

I

X2. of 2,/2 s: 25 2 '

X.: 7, '

,

y s: 2. 5 - ~ :;: IgeM :

,

"

.

revel v+ions:

325 = 5;. 7'3 rev.

211'

lto .

~) Let 0 be -Me oeole« of. +he cird« a~

let A8 Ix::

on: s ide of the pet7/t;t!jot7.

,

The n-,e<A5vre o-P L /JOB:: f/s (360):::, 72 ' ° " I, .

.

"

D ' rCl

w

ai '

Sir) 3~" z: ~

,-

Iv AB

-H?en MB ~ 2 ani

~ r = ~ 30 :;:3·J{()

:5,1'}

to

"

I '

L/'fOi!> .= 36 ~

b)The a.rtt=tuj f).AOB': 1(3.~)2.sin 72 :: 5:506 {)2

.

., The a

rect

of +he pen.frA.~uf7 IS 5(5 · 5(}~) = 27·53 o 2

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

.,

,

,

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

Exercise 5: General Solution of Trigonometric Equations (continued)

-,

1'1.ax + e =bcx -c)

ttx -I C :;; b» - be

a.x - b')( s: - be - e

x (fA - b) ;::- be. - c

x = - be - e a-b

20'X+~==7

2x-y-2z

=/2

3x -.2.z = 19

(2) x -2

- 2X + 2z '=-Ifo

,x ,=. 3

3+ Y :: 7

!j .: Lf

3-z =-8

-5 =Z

I'

,

I

,

,

,

check: 3 t Lj ::: 7 aI '

3+5 =8./

I,

''I

, ,I

2(3)- Lt, - 2(- 5) .: /2 v'

, , ,,' , , I' ' , , , , , , 'I III'
,
,
,,'
,
,
I'
'
,
,
,
,
,
,
'I
III'
\,,

Senior 4 Pre-Calculus Mathematics

Exercise ~: Graphing Circular Functions

,

,

I

I

I

e

- 3 1f'1

Sin e .:'I'"fi

-~

- ilJ 1

0, 11'"/1

-} -Y-rz ' 0 Y-vi

1i'"1z

J

'I '

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

3~

Yfi

ft

0

57p1

-!/rz

3%

-I

.,.;' ~ C058 e

"

.

\ .

I

I ,

if, a)

- 3"Y'4

-'1 u

-1Y2.

0

b) 2.1/

-~

YVl

0

I

1l)r"

~/2.

b~q

!Iff

0\

~-

~

:"j

S~"i

-Y-.n

31p'2.

0

5 ' 1he~ , "~(e idenf-icoj it'} CU?1plilude J per/cNi) dtJmct/r) JCV7d r~re. The eorve» wov/d COit'}(!ide if !-he cas.oe eorva Wdll/d vn:1~'Y0

it h()";Z.dfJf~1

- 3" /"

sh/Pf

-1Yz.

1 (lndef'.

uP 1Y":z vl7i-ts fo /-he

njhf.

Solutions to Cumulative Exercises

Senior 4 Pre-CalculusMathematics

,

Exercise 6: Graphing Circular Functions (continued) ,

b) tr'

,C) A// vtJ ~()~Se.xcepf

oOdd ,f?t~t7A./ rY/vlfil'lt!5

of %,Qr{2K+O: INh~re e e r.

8. x » (210-1) -;

e)

k."

where );,e I

,

Where k e I

1. a.) (-2.1/' -3%)u(-% ~)U(3%

I

I

211")

b") (-,21l' ,-11) U (0,"")

10· ,S/n '2 e + Sin e - '-/:= 0

Sine

s: - / :!-I/~{-/6)

2

Sin e :. r5(P1552813

0"-

S if) e = - 2· 5 ~ /5 528/3

"

:. No

50/()·l-/on

/I, 0 S ,>( ' ~ 21l"

Sit} X ~6A''' '

" 12 Ro Uj h sketch f!ro f'» ca

Ic()/o.:br

~ ;: 2 Sin 2(} I- Sin(J - 2.

co./c o/a

fe,

z eruej

fL{. Ra.diaflS:

Z 11'- +- 2 ~o 1l""

/80

::::: 2.". I- if" :::.It) Il'

"3 T

13. See S:::ii 7 ' C1J5e :: L

2

ff

5;0 '2$ .,. (1052e =/

Sin 2e -1-(0/6) 2.::: I

S;r} 2{} -I- 't'/7 :: J

5/0 2 <9

= ~7

5/17 e ::::t 1'/7

stnce: e i5 ,'r}l!Z; sins;: -V3

. '.est (J : -ff :: - -/Zi

TI

'

fi

T

15. e = 180 0