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By : H. M. PAI B. Sc. Engg. ( Elec - Mech ) F. I. E. E C. Eng. ( India ) General Manager, Torrent Power Ltd., Jubilee House, Shahpur, Ahmedabad.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Terminology Earthing and I.E. Rules Earthing and grounding. Nature of earth electrode resistance. Measurement of earth resistivity. Earth Electrodes. Earth resistivity and gradient. Earthing and Bonding Sub-station earthing

1 2 3 4 5 6 14 15 17 22 23 26 27

10. General instruction for laying earthing grid. 11. Consumer installation earthing and protective multiple earthing. 12. Earthing in rural areas. 13. General question and answers.

Extracts from IS 3043 pertaining to :Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Effect of moisture on earth resistivity. Effect of salt on earth resistivity Fuse rating v/s earth circuit impedance Pipe electrode erection details. Earth electrode resistance details for various lengths. Plate electrode erection details 31 32 32 33 34 35

There are many ways of protecting both the installation, user and operation staff from the risk of electric shock of fire under fault condition. A shock risk arises when ever accidental contact is made between the live conductor and exposed metal work. This risk can be guarded against by efficient earthing. Fire risk in electrical installations also can arise due to earth fault current, particularly if the earthing and bonding arrangements are nor capable of carrying a sustained fault current without excessive heating. In outdoor substations step and touch voltage can cause risk to life of operation staff if voltage gradient is not kept within safe limits by a properly designed earthing grid. It could be seen that efficient earthing is must as far as electricity is concerned. The booklet on Earthing covers all the essential points pertaining to the subject and it is hoped the book will be found useful and informative by all concerned. Thanks are due to the Management of the Ahmedabad Electricity Ltd., For the encouragement given. 1-1-1985


Bond :


To connect together electrically two or more conductors or metals parts. Dead means at or about earth potential and disconnected from any live system. A connection to the general mass of earth by means of an earth electrode. An object is said to be earthed when it is electrically connected to an earth electrode. A metal plate, pipe or other conductor connected to the general mass of earth. The conductor by which the connection to the earth electrode is made. The potential difference per unit length measured in the direction in which it is maximum. The area of earth within which practically the whole of the potential difference between the electrode and the general mass of earth occurs when it is carrying fault current. The maximum value of the potential difference possible of being shunted by a human body between two accessible points on the ground separated by a distance of one pace which may assumed as one meter. The maximum value of potential difference between a point on the ground and a point on an object likely to carry fault current such that the points can be touched by a person.

Dead :

Earth :

Earthed :

Earth Electrode :

Earthing lead :

Potential gradient :

Resistance area of an earth electrode :

Step potential :

Touch potential :


Rule 33.
In case of medium, High and Extra High Tension installations, a consumer has to provide his own earthing system over and above terminal provided by the supplier. Rule 51 (D) All metal work associated with the installation other than that designed to serve as a conductor, be connected with earth. Rule 61 (2) Before supply is made on all earthing system shall be tested to ensure efficient earthing. Rule 61 (5) All earthing systems shall be tested for resistance on dry during the dry season not less than once every two years. Rule 61 (6) A record of every earth test made and the result there of shall be kept. Rule 66 (a) Wherever conductors are enclosed in metal sheathing, the sheathing shall be earthed. Rule 66 (b) The resistance of the earth connection should be low enough to blow fuse trip breaker in the installation concerned. Rule 88 (2) Wherever guard wires are provided, these guard wires should be connected with earth. Rule 92 (2) The earthing lead for any lightning arrestor shall not pass through any iron or steel pipe, but shall taken as directly as possible from the lightning arrestor to a separate earth electrode subject to the avoidance of bend wherever practicable.


3.1 Objective

Equipment earthing or grounding relates to the manner in which nonelectrical conductive material, which either encloses energized conductors or adjacent there to is be interconnected and grounded. The basic objectives being sought are the following :(a) To ensure freedom from dangerous electric shock-voltage exposure to persons in the area.

(b) To provide current carrying, capability, both in magnitude and duration adequate to accept the earth fault current permitted by the protections system without creating a fire or explosive hazard to building or contents. (c) To contribute to superior performance of the electrical system by isolating the defective equipment from the system.

It may not be out of place to clarify the difference between system grounding and equipment grounding. Equipment grounding is explained in the first para above. System grounding means a system of current carrying conductors in which at least one conductor or point (neutral in case of star winding of transformer or generator) is intentionally grounded, either directly or through some impedance.


Voltage Exposure.

Electrical accident statistics clearly indicate that many fires and personal injuries are caused as a result to current carrying parts coming in contact with metallic parts which are expected to remain non-energized. Proper earthing or grounding can avoid these mishaps. The impendence of the grounding conductor must be low enough to accept the full magnitude of earth fault current without creating a voltage drop large enough to be dangerous. The grounding conductor must be capable of conducting the full fault current without excessively raising the temperature of the ground conductor or causing the expulsion of sparks or arcss that could initiate a fire or an explosion.


Earthing and grounding

The terms earthing and grounding seemingly are almost alike, yet in fact are not. The electrical system of an air craft in flight will have a ground bus, grounding conductors etc. To suggest that ground and earth can be used

interchangeably is obviously in error. So, where equipment cannot refer to earth potential while referring to voltage exposure magnitudes the term grounding is proper. In air craft, the main body of this the reference ground as for as voltage exposure magnitude is concerned and this has nothing to do with earth. So grounding is the proper term here. Similarly to an electrician working on the tenth floor of a modern steel structured building, the reference ground is the building frame and other metal equipments there. What might be the potential of earth is of negligible importance to this work on the tenth floor in short what is earthed can be called as grounded, but what is grounded may not have anything to do with earth.


4.1 Nature :
The earthing resistance of an electrode is made up of :a. b. c. Resistance of the metal electrode. Contact resistance between the electrode and the soil. Resistance of the soil, from the electrode surface outward to infinite earth.

The first two resistances are very small and can be neglected for all practical purposes. Around the electrode, the soil resistance is the sum of the series resistance of virtual shells of earth, located progressively outward from the rod. The shell nearest the rod has the smallest circumferential area or cross section, so it has the highest resistance. Successive shells outside this one have progressively larger areas, and thus lower resistances. As a radius outward from the rod increases to about 6 meters, the incremental resistance per unit of radius decreases effectively to nearly zero. So, the first few centimeters away from the electrode are the most important once, as far as reducing the electrode resistance is concerned. In high soil resistivity locations, decreasing the soil resistivity in this small area round the rod by chemical treatment, will be most useful in reducing the electrode resistance. Table 4.1 gives in detail the distribution of resistance percentage-wise up to a distance of circle round the rod accounts for percent of the electrode resistance,

Table 4.1
Electrode resistance at a radius R cms from a 3 meter long- 16mm diameter rod-total resistance at R = 7.6 meter = 100 %. Distance from Electrode surface. R=cm. 3 6 9 15 30 150 300 460 610 760 Approximate percentage of Resistance. 25 38 46 52 68 86 94 97 99 100


Multiple Electrodes.

Multiple electrodes in parallel are used to get a lower resistance than obtained by a single rod. Adding a second rod does not, however. Provide a resistance than obtained by a single, unless the two are several rod lengths apart. Normally the rods are placed one rod length apart i.e. if the first rod is of 3 meter. The next rod will be at least 3metres away from it. An experiment was carried with 24 rods, rods being placed one rod length apart, in a line, hollow triangle, circle, and square produced factors for each number as shown in table 4.2 where r is the resistance of single rod. It was also found that placing rods within the periphery of the circle, triangle and square did not appreciably reduce the earth resistance blow that peripheral rods alone.

Table 4.2 Resistance of single rod. Multiplying factors for multiple rods.
Number of rod 2 3 4 8 12 16 20 24 Total resistance in terms of r 0.58 r 0.43 r 0.34 r 0.21 r 0.15 r 0.12 r 0,1 r 0.09 r

So, if r was 20 ohms, with 4 rods the total resistance will be 20 X 0.34 = 6.8 ohms and not 20 / 4 = 5 ohms Similarly with 20 rods it will be 2 ohms and not 20 / 20 =1 ohm.


The resistivity of earth varies within wide limits between 1 to 10,000 ohm meter, ( 1 ohm meter =100 ohm Cm ) and is decisive importance in all problem involving earth as a return conductor. To measure earth resistivity, current is passed between two electrodes fixed ground, the voltage is measured between two intermediate Potential electrodes. Four terminal megger is used for this purpose and the general arrangements of connections are as shown in Fig. 5.1.


In most practical work, the value of earth resistivity over a fairly large area is required. The electrodes therefore, should be spaced quite apart so that the current distribution in soil is practically the same electrodes are considered as points. When resistivity is measured by different electrodes spacing there is variation in the measured value of resistivity. This is due to the increased volume and consequent variations in character of earth included in measurements.


Test locations and weather conditions.

In the evaluation of earth resistivity for substation and generating stations, four or five test location shall be chosen to cover the whole site. This number should be increased for c\very large station sires or if the test results obtained at various locations show a significant difference, indicating variations in soil formation. In case of transmission lines, the measurements shall be taken along the direction of the line, through out the length approximately once in every 4 KM. The resistivity of earth varies over a wide range depending on its moisture content. It is, therefore, advisable to conduct earth resistivity tests during the dry season in order to get conservative results.


The connections are done as shown in Fig 5.1.

Formula 1. r Where r S R = : : : 192 S. R. earth resistivity in ohm-cm. Distance between electrodes in feet. Megger reading in ohms.

Formula 2. r Where r S R Formula 3. In Formula 1 and 2, the depth d is less than s/20 i.e. if S is 10 meter, d is 50 cms or less. If d is more than S/20, than formula to be used is as follows :r = 12.56 S R 1 + 2S S2 + 4 d2 2S 4 S2 + 4 d2 = : : : 2 TT S. R earth resistivity in ohm-cm. Distance between electrodes in meter. Megger reading in ohms.

Where S: d: r: R:

Distance between electrodes in meters. depth of burial of electrodes in meters. resistivity of soil ohm meter. magger reading in ohms.


Test Procedure :

At the selected test site, the four electrodes are driven into the earth along a straight line in the chosen direction at equal intervals S as shown in Fig. 5.1. The depth d of electrodes in the ground can be of the order of say 10 to 15 cms or more. It should be remembered that S should be 20 d or more, it d say 15 cam, then S should be 3 meters or more. The megger is placed on a steady and level base. The connection P1. P2, C1 and C2 are made as shown in Fig. 5.1. The readings on the megger are then taken while turning the crank at about 135 rev/min. Formula 1 or 2 can be used to get earth resistivity after getting reading R. But if S is less than 20 d, than formula 3 will have to be used.


Earth resistivity :

Earth resistivity for different types of soils may have values as shown in table 5.1.

Table 5.1
Type of soil Marshy ground Loan and clay Shalk Sand Peat Sandy Rock Earth resistivity in ohm-cms. 220 - 270 400 -15,000 6000 - 40000 9000 - 80,000 20,000 30,000 - 50,000 1,00,000


Resistance of electrodes :

Table 5.2 shows the approximate resistance in ohms for typical electrodes in soil of resistivity 1,000 ohms-cm.

Table 5.2
Electrodes. 8 5/8 dia Rod. 12 5/8 24 6 2 18 Sq. CI plate. 6 1.1/4 dia pipe Resistance in ohms. 4.2 3.0 6.0 4.5 4.75 4.43

For soils of other resistivity, the figures in tables 5.2 are multiplied by the factor (Resisistivity/1000). Multiple electrodes are installed in almost all to get lower resistance. Precautions should be taken in such cases as follows :Multiple rods or pipes should be separated by a distance not less than their buried length. Plates should not be less than 10 apart.

6.1 Types :

Basically all group electrodes may be divided into group. The first group comprises underground metallic systems, metal building frameworks, well casings, steel piling and other underground metal structures installed for purposes other than grounding. The second group comprises made electrodes specifically designed for grounding purposes. The metal building comprises. The metal building frames are normally attached by long anchor bolts to their concrete foundation footing. The anchor bolts in concrete serve electrodes, while the metal building frame is simply a grounding conductor. Continuous underground water or gas-piping system in general have a resistance to earth of less than 3 ohm and that metal building frames, local metallic under-ground piping system, metal well casings, and the like have small distribution systems where the ground currents are of relatively low magnitude, such electrodes are usually preferred because they are economical in first cost. However, before reliance to earth be measured to ensure that some unforeseen discontinuity has not seriously affected their suitability. Also care should be exercised to ensure that all parts that might become disconnected are effectively bonded together.


Made Electrodes :

Made electrodes may be subdivided into electrodes, steel reinforcing bars in below ground concrete, buried strips or cables, grids plates, and counterpoises. The type selected will depend upon the type of soil encountered and the available depth. Driven electrodes are generally more satisfactory and economical where bedrock is 3 meters or more below the surface, while grids, buried strips, or cable are preferred for lesser depths. Grids are frequently used for substation or generating stations to provide equipotential areas throughout the entire station where hazards to life and property would justify the higher cost. They also require the least amount of buried material for a given electrode resistance. Buried plates have not been used extensively in recent years because of the high cost as compared to rods or strips. Also when used in small numbers they are the least efficient type of rods of made electrode. The counterpoise is a from of buried cable electrode used to ground line towers and structures. When multiple electrodes are used spacing of less 3 meters do not provide the most economical use of materials. In selecting the number and size of grounding terminals their current discharge limitations must be recognized, if these are exceeded the earth around the electrode may be exploded by steam generation or may be dried out to the extent of becoming non-conductive.

6.2.1 Driven Rod or Pipe.

Driven electrodes are normally rods Where soil conditions permit a few deep rods are usually more satisfactory than a multiplicity of short rods, since the soil resistivity generally decreases with depth due to the increased moisture content. 6.2.2 Concrete Encased Rods or Wires. Concrete below ground level is a semi-conducting medium of about 3000 ohm cm resistivity at 20oC, or somewhat lower than the average earth resistivity. Consequently in earth of average or high resistivity, the encasement of rod wire electrodes in concrete result in lower resistivity than when a similar electrode is placed directly into earth. This is due to a reduction of the resistance of the material closest to the primary electrode, in much the same manner as chemical treatment of the earth reacts near the electrode. While it is seldom justifiable to excavate or drill holes for the placement of concrete for this purpose, the widespread use of steel reinforcing bars in concrete foundations and footings provides a ready-made supply of grounding electrodes at structures utilizing this type of construction. It is only necessary to bring out an adequate electrical

connection from a main reinforcing of each footing for attach to the building ground bus or structural steel. A convenient meant for a connection is to tack- weld a short connecting bar between one of the vertical reinforcing bars and one of the anchor bolts for connection above the footing surface. The steel frame of a building, attached to these anchor bolts, then becomes a highly effective grounding conductor, and is used as a grounding bus in many industrial buildings. Each such a footing electrode has resistance equal to or lower than that of a given rod of equal depth, The large number of such footing inherent to building will provide a net ground resistance considerably lower than that normally provided by other made electrode methods, generally below 1 ohm and frequently of the order of 0.25 ohm. Steel rods in concrete in (irregular) excavations in rock or very rockly soil have been found greatly superior to other types of made electrodes. The principles governing this electrode type are that provide grounds for the majority of the steel towers of high voltage transmission lines.

6.2.3 Buried strip, wire and Cable :

Where bedrock is near the surface, or where sand is encountered, the soil is apt to be very dry and of high resistivity, and it is necessary to have an earthing connection of considerable extent. Under conditions, buried metal strips wires, or cable offer the most economical solution. Since the effectiveness of this type of electrodes for lighting discharges is a function of its inductance, the use of a number of a well-spaced shorter strips in parallel is preferable to one or more long strips. The depth at which the strips are buried is not critical. Tests have shown that the resistance decreases only about 5% when the burial depth is increased from 0.50 meter to 1 meter based on uniform soil resistivity similarly the effect of conductor size is extremely small.


Grid System :

Grid system usually extend over the entire station and may extend some distance beyond fence. They consist of conductors buries a minimum of 0.5 meter in the ground, forming a network of square or rectangles. The spacing of the grid conductors will very with the voltage class of the station, but cable spacing of 3.0 to 3.7 meters are commonly used. All cable crossings should be securely bonded and the structure. In rock grounds, where driven grounds are impractical, it is sometimes more economical and desirable to use a grid system in place of buried strips, in which case the cables are usually buried at a depth of 0.5 to 0.6 m.

Where the enclosing fence is within the perimeter of the buried grid the fence must be bonded to the grid to minimize the shock hazard from the touch potential of person touching the fence and, of course, standing on the ground which may be at a the perimeters of the grid the fence should be grounded to its least 1.22 meter beyond to its own electrode system. Which will include a cable buried in the earth approximately 0.91 meter outside the fence line, for the same reasons as discussed. Coarse cracked rock, usually granite, is normally spread all over the surface of the soil within such a substation grid area, not for housekeeping reasons, but to provide a high resistance surface treatment to reduce the hazard from step potential to persons within this areas buring a severe fault.


Plates :

The preferred practice with plate electrodes is bury then on edge since minimum of excavation is required and it is possible to obtain better contact with the soil when backfilling. There appears to be little difference between the effective resistance of horizontal and vertical plates. For commonly used plates of 0.9 to 1.9 m2 the optimum burial depth is 1.50/2.4m.


Choice of Rods.

Ground rods are manufactured in diameters of 12.5 16.0 20.0 and 25.0 mm and in length of 1.5-12.5 m for most application, the diameters of 12.5, 16.0 and 20.0 mm in lengths of 3.5 and 5.0 are satisfactory. ISS specifies that rods of steel or iron shall be at least 16.0 mm in diameter, and that rods of non-ferrous materials shall not be less than 12.5 mm in diameter, Copper-clad steel, one of the most common types of rods, permits driving to considerable depth without destruction of the rod itself, while the copper coat permits direct-clad steel, galvanized steel rods are available. For ease of driving, some rods are available in sections. As each section is driven toward ground level, another section is added by use of a coupling, making a continuous conductor. A removable stud will take the driven blow and avoid damage to the threads of the joint. For safety reasons, rods should be driven so that no unguarded length remains above ground. The effect of the rod diameter on the resistance of the connection to earth is small. The diameter of the ground rod is determined mainly by the mechanical rigidity required for driving. It is advantageous to select the smallest diameter rod that meets the driving requirements. Average soil conditions will permit the use of the 12.5 mm rod. The 16.00 mm rod can be driven in nearly all types of the soil, and the 20.00 mm rod may be reserved for exceptionally hard driving conditions or for deep driven rods.

For ordinary soil condition, the 3 meter length of rod has become fairly well established as a minimum standard length to meet the code requirement of a minimum of 2.5 meter.

6.5.1 Methods Driving Rods.

Sledging requires a minimum of driving equipment, but may require considerable time per food of rod. A modification of the sledging process, consisting of a chuck and sliding hammer, permits the work to be carried on at a level convenient to the worker with out a ladder or auxiliary platform. An additional advantage is that the blow is delivered to the rod at a point not far from the ground line, thus permitting rods to be driven to greater depths than would be possible by hand sledging. If rods are to be driven on a comparatively large scale, it is desirable to provide power driving equipment. Electric, pneumatic and gasoline driven hammers are available, the first two requiring sources of power. Regardless of the type of driven tool used, precaution should be taken to prevent mushrooming of the head.

6.5.2 Connecting to Electrodes :

Connections to electrodes are usually made by one of the several means. The first of these methods involves the use of mechanical (bolted) fittings, which are readily available, simple to install, disconnect able for measurements of resistance to earth, and have a long history of satisfactory usage. Although corrosion has sometimes presented a problem, treatment of the joint as an ordinary electrical connection in a corrosive environment eliminates most of the problems in this respect. Mechanical connections should. If at all possible, be accessible for inspection and servicing. The second method, a thermite process of connecting to the electrode, has increased in usage in recent years because of the savings in time and costs when many connections must be made. This method provides a permanent connection, eliminates contact resistance, is relatively corrosion free, and permits the use of smaller cable because of the 450oC maximum temperature limitation. It requires separate disconnection means, such as aboveground bolted joins, for measurement of resistance to earth. It also requires a certain amount of training and it cannot be used in the operation would interfere with nearly operations. Utilities are experimenting currently with a third method involves the use of a copper or copper0alloy connector which is squeezed onto both ground rod and cable simultaneously by a hydraulic press. This method is economical, presents most of the advantages of the thermite process, and eliminates most of the objections to that process. Other methods of joining, such as brazing or welding, are satisfactory is properly done.


Measuring Electrode resistance :

Four terminal earth testing megger, commonly know as earth tester is used for measuring the resistance of earth electrode. At the time of test, the test electrode and current electrode are used for the test. These auxiliary electrodes usually are of mild steel and have a diameter of 12.5 mm. these rods have to be driven up to 1 meter into the ground. The connection are shown Fig. 6.1.

Distance between AB = Distance between BC = 15 meter. A, B and C should be in a line while testing, sometimes, wandering of the instrument pointed will be noted. This is due to stray currents in the soil. An increase or decrease of the earth tester handle speed will cause this wandering to disappear. The tester gives the earth electrode resistances reading directly in ohms.


Earth resistivity, as normally stared in ohm-meter or ohm-cm, (1 ohm m = 100 ohm cm), varies widely between different types of soil and is particularly affected by the moisture high moisture content, this is because conduction in soil is mainly of an electrolytic nature so that a high moisture content, in excess say 22 percent by weight, is required to give the minimum resistivity of a range,. Ranges of approximate values for the various types of soil are shown in Table 7.1 Made-up ground is indeterminate and ground containing soluble salts, acid or alkali, will have resistivity which varies widely with the amount and the below about 22 percent by weight so it is essential to bury current-carrying electrodes at such a depth that the surrounding soil not affected by seasonal variations, particularly drying out during dry weather. In temperate climes, the variations, in moisture content of the soil with seasonal changes occurs mainly at the change to a depth of 1 meter; below this depth the moisture content and resistivity do not

change to a market degree. An earth electrode or mat should therefore be driven or buried deep enough to be permanently in contact with moist should earth but where this is not possible or, as in the case of a large earth mat too costly, a welldistributed system of vertical rods, driven to a sufficient depth and bonded to the earth grid, will usually suffice.

Table 7.2
Type of soil. Clay and loam Sandy clay Marsh peat Sand Rock and chalk Resistivity ohm - meter 4 -150 80 -200 150 -200 90 -800 Any value up to 1000

The minimum specific resistivity for clay/load of 4 ohm meter is the value of 20OC. Increase of temperature may show a slight decrease in resistivity provided local drying out at the electrode surface does not occur. However, decrease in temperature of the same soil to- 5OC shows a very rapid rise in soil resistivity to 50 ohm meter and at-20oC the same soil has a resistivity of 500 ohm meter. This is a further reason for placing earth electrodes at a sufficient depth since, as with moisture variation, this will avoid an increase in resistivity due to frost penetration of the earth. Since earth resistivity measurements are normally made with small currents, it is important to ascertain that larger currents, such as those which may occur during due to a fault is of sufficiently short duration, but if it persists for more than a second, the heat generated due to the contact resistance between the electrode and the ground may dry out the earth in the vicinity of the electrode causing a rise in earth resistance due to a reduction in moisture content. Excessive drying out of the soil around an electrode may leave an air-space as a result of earth shrinkage, giving defective and is, in any case, only however only likely to occur with a fault current of long defective earth contact. This is dangerous on low-voltage system since, with high voltage, spark over occurs which does not lead to appreciable increase in earth current may also give rise to a voltage gradient which exceeds the breakdown value of the earth adjacent to the electrode, which depended, on the nature of the soil but is of the order of some KV per cm. if this value is exceeded. Aces will start at the electrode surface, effectively increasing the size of the electrode and reducing the voltage gradient to a value which the earth can with stand. The number of electrodes to be used for a given fault current and duration depends on the thermal capacity of earth rods.

A voltage gradient in the earth occurs when current from an electrode flows through the earth resistance. It is theoretically infinite at the surface of the electrode. Practically, a danger exists to persons or large animals, particularly the latter due to their greater sensitivity and the greater distance apart of their legs, if the potential difference at the ground surface is sufficient to pass a dangerous current across the body from leg to leg. This potential difference, known as the step voltage, because it is the voltage which a man would receive across the body by taking a 1 meter step in a radial direction from the earth electrode, depends on the current density at the step, the resistivity of the soil and the depth of the electrode for rod or pipe electrodes. It has been shown that if the electrode small it is therefore, a necessary precaution that earth connections on overhead lines, whether an equipment or system earth should be by means of an insulated conductor, form some point well pot of reach of man or animal to the actual electrode whose top should be at least 0.5 meter, but preferably deeper below ground level.


The equipment earth is the means of connection the outer casings or supporting structures of all live equipment to the main body of earth and, in the event of an earth fault within the equipment, it may have to carry the full phase short circuit current. Equipment earthing is essential for the safety of operating personnel, but particularly on an overhead line system. In underground distribution networks all live equipment is metaclad line system and earthed, the cables with their sheaths and sometimes amour, the switchgear wire that transformers, the cables with their sheaths and sometimes armor, the switchgear and the transformers, but this is not so no overhead systems without a continuous earth wire, that is the majority of distribution network below 33 kv. In this case the resistance of the return path for fault current may be high and a dangerous voltage may exist on faulty equipment unless an additional parallel return path is provided by the equipment earth. Bonding is the term for connections made between the outer casing and supporting structures of all live equipment, and of the earth electrode, in order to provide a low resistance path for leakage current to the equipment earth and back through the main body of earth to the system earth. This ensures adequate current to operate the protective equipment and reduces the magnitude and duration of dangerous voltages. Bonding conductors must be as short as possible and so arranged that any fault current is diverted to them instead of flowing indiscriminately through housing and support frames, since these normally have bolted connections in their construction where local heating and sparking might occur.


Bonding conductors and their joints must have adequate thermal capacity for the estimated fault current and its duration. This latter is normally taken as 3 seconds, the same as the short-circuit time rating of switchgear and current

transformers. Copper strip used for bonding conductors in distribution system are generally of following standard size. (a) 4 cm by 5 mm (1.1/2 in by 3/16 in ) copper strip. Main earth or common bonding bars in major substation. Individual equipment bonding for main structures in substation at 33 KV and above. HV cable bonding where cable sizes are large than 120 mm2. transformer tank bonding above 500 KVA common bonding system in substation where the fault level is above 75 MVA at 6.6 and 150 MVA at 11 KV. Neutral bus bar on LV boards above 500 KVA. (b) 2.5 cm by 3 (1 in by 1/8 in ) copper strip. Bonding in small distribution where fault levels are less than 75 MVA at 11 KV or where the HV cables are 120 mm2 or less. Transformer tank bonding below 500 KVA. HV and LV cable bonding, 70 mm2 or below. LV disconnecting boxes, pillars, kiosks and auxiliary equipment in all substations. Danger points in equipment earthing which need special attention are equipment operating handles such as that a section switch on an overhead line. The danger here is that on earth fault may occur while the operator is opening or closing the switch, either due to insulator failure on line or switch or to the opening in error of an energized circuit resulting in an are to the structure. In either case the steelwork of the tower, or the switch-operating mechanism, even if separately earthed, may be raised to a sufficient voltage above earth to give a dangerous step or touch voltage. If the operating handle is within an extensive substation earth-grid area, step voltage should be within safe limits as else where within the station perimeter, but for an isolated switch on an overhead line further protection is necessary. This may consist of an insulating handle or, more effectively, the bonding of the switch handle and associated mechanism to a separate earth-met, buried horizontally as near the earth surface as is practicable, at a position immediately below that at which the operator must stand, while the tower steelwork, cross-arms, eat, is separately earthed. If an earth fault occurs which raises the steelwork voltage above earth, the voltage between an operators hand and feet will be negligible they are virtually connected through a low resistance bond. Even this does not always ensure sufficient protection and a portable steel mat which may spread on the earth and bonded to the switch handle may prove to be necessary. Metallic cable sheath, unless effectively earthed and bonded, may attain a dangerous voltage due to insulation failure, charges due to electrostatic induction and the flow of sheath current or the voltage rise, under conditions, of the station earth to which must the sheath are connection. With cables that are lead-covered and armored, the armoring must be adequately bonded to the lead sheath at the

point where connection to earth in made. The reason is to ensure that under fault condition there is no voltage difference between armoring and sheath which would cause arcing and subsequent pitting of the lead. At junction points between lines and cable, the cable sheath or sheath in the case three cable in trefoil must be bonded together and to the earth tower or pole. The base of the sealing bell, which is bolted directly to the supporting structure, must be bonded to the gland or plumbed to the lead sheath and connection to the tower or to the earth wire of the pole. For a pole - mounted transformer the bonded and earthing of the transformer taken and supporting structure must be quite separate from the earth of the low-voltage line natural. Why this precaution is necessary with pole transformer and not with other types of substation is the substation is the difficulty of economically in rural areas a satisfactory low resistance earth at all seasons. Lighting arresters or surge diverters must be provided with as short, and direct a path to earth as is possible by bonding the bases of the three arresters to a separate earth electrode situated at the base of the supporting structure. This electrode may how even, be paralleled with the main substation earth grid where this is practicable. If the arresters are mounted on a steel structure, this may provide a lower resistance path than copper strip. In which case the three arresters and the earth electrode are bonded to it. The advantage of fitting lighting arresters as close as possible to the equipment to be protected has led to them being fitted on the top of transformer tanks where an earth terminal to copper-plated earth pad should be provided for connection to the arresters in addition to the normal earth terminal at the base of the tank. This is an advantage as the transformer tank provides better conductivity than a separate earth connection.

The requirement for substation earthing are to dissipate to the earth a large amount current, of the order of thousands of amperes, without heating and consequent drying-out of the neighborhood of an earth electrode, and secondly to control the potential gradient over the whole substation area and beyond so that step-and-touch voltages nowhere exceed a safe value. In a substation of any size, no single earth electrode will suffice to dissipate the fault current, so several such electrodes spaced over the substation area would be the fault required, interconnected below the earth surface by horizontal conductors and connection to switchgear frames equipment casings system neutrals and lower footings. Such an earth grid, as it is in effect, is an excellent earthing system so that a multiple electrode system may prove to be very little better as regards earth resistance and current dissipation. Than is the buried connecting network itself. The earth grid or mesh electrode, covering as it does the whole substation area, provides control of local potentials throughout the area so that dangerous step and torch voltages do not occur. These may be prevented by reducing the spacing of conductors in the buried grid until a suitable distribution of voltage

over the area is achieved. The mesh electrode is normally constructed of rectangular strip, copper of minimum size 2.5 cm by 3 mm or steel 5 cm by 5 mm of length not exceeding 100 m beyond which consideration of impedance at Hz indicates that no appreciable reduction is dissipation resistance would occur. Since the efficient design of earth electrodes requires then to have largest possible surface for a given amount of material, the long flat strip is most suitable and is easily jointed to similar strips at right angles to from a mesh which may vary from a minimum of two strips and two cross members around the perimeter of the site to a theoretical maximum of a solid plate covering the whole area (Fig 9.1). The dissipation resistance or earth resistance of such a mesh electrode buried in homogenous soil is given with sufficient accuracy by the Laurent and niemann equation. R =



This assumes that the voltage of the mesh electrode above the general body of earth has two components P I due to the mesh regarded as a buried plate and 4r P I due to the total length of buried conductor where L

P = average earth resistivity, ohm m. r = radius of a circular plate having the same area A as the mesh electrode. = ( A / TT ) m
L = total length of buried conductor in the mesh excluding cross connectors in meters. Alternatively, it may be considered that the second term recognizes that the resistance of the mesh is more that that of a soil plate of the same area, the difference decreasing as the length of conductor increase becoming zero when L is infinite and the solid plate condition is reached. In grid regions the sub soil may have appreciably lower resistivity Ps than topsoil at the earth surface pt. in this case both values of resistivity are used in equation. Ps and P t used for the local voltage drop giving R =



FIG.-9/1 Valves of the product of the coefficients Km and Kr for square mesh electrodes with, different meshes.

For large-mesh electrodes, even if P t rises considerable, say 10 times due to seasonal drying out of the earth surface, the total resistance change is not great owing to the large value of L, but for smaller substations it may be of importance. Where the subsoil resistivity is the greater, the first term of the equation may become sufficiently large to make the local voltage drop term negligible. The buried conductors are then likely to saturate the earth surface so that only increase in the area of the mesh will lead to may considerable reduction in the dissipation resistance. A rough calculation of the length of buried conductor in a mesh electrode of given area may be made by keeping the various voltages at the earth surface within specified limits, the three voltage are :

V step V touch

: The step voltage over a horizontal distance of one meter. : Here defined as the voltage between a structure earthed to the mesh and a point on the earth surface one meter away. : A special case of touch voltage being the voltage from an earthed structure to a point on the earth surface at the centre of a rectangle formed by the mesh conductors.

V mesh

Laurent has given the approximate value for the usual ranges of conductor size, buried depth and spacing of mesh conductors for French practice as where I is current flowing : V step V touch V mesh = 0.1 - 0.15 P i = 0.6 0.8 P i =Pi

To earth per meter of buried conductor, touch voltage rather than step voltage is taken as the basis of calculation since step voltage involves the resistance to earth of two feet in series rather than in parappep for touch voltage, thus limiting the body current for the formers, Assuming body resistance, constant, ventricular fibrillation may be prevented by keeping the total energy (joule) absorbed by the body during a shock to below given value tests in the time range 0.03 s to 3 s. by a number of workers in several countries have led to the conclusions by Dalziel that this threshold of energy, which will only cause fibrillation in half of 1 percent of a large group of normal men is Ib2 t = 0.027 Where Ib is the current (rms) through the body and t the time (second) or Ib = 0.165 t The above expression shows the virtue of first of fast fault clearance in raising the figure for safe body determined that the resistance of two feet in series ( step contact ) is approximately 6 pt ohm and of the two feet in parallel ( touch contact ) approximately 1.5 pt ohm. Body and skin resistance varies widely, from 500 to 3000 ohm, but a value of 1000 ohm is reasonable considering the improbability that all the factors which contribute to shock severity would have their most adverse value at a particular instant hence.

E touch = (1000 + 1.5 pt ) IB = ( 1000 + 1.5 pt ) = 165 + 0.25 P t t Taking the value of for Emesh in place E touch since for most mesh electrodes it is likely to be the greater. E mesh = PI = 165 + 0.25 P t L t L = PI t 165 + 0.25 pt 0.165 t

An estimation of l from this expression assumes idealized conditions such as uniform soil resistivity, a symmetrical mesh electrode composed of squares of uniform side and constant current to earth per unit length of mesh conductor. The latter condition is not fulfilled even with a square means since the current which flows is higher for conductors at the side than at the centre of the mesh electrode and higher yet at the corners. Since the voltage gradients vary accordingly, any reasonably accurate estimate of E mesh must take account of the position of a given rectangle in the mesh as well as the number, dimensions and depth, of buried of the mesh conductors. This to the use of two coefficients in the expression of E mesh. Emesh = Km Ki P t L Where Km is a coenfficient which taken into account the effect of number n, spacing, D, diameter, d and depth of buried, h, of the grid conductors. It is given by + 0.732 log 10 (3) (5) (7) etc. Km = 0.366 log 10g ( D2 ) ( 16 hd ) (4) (6) (8) The number of factors in parentheses in the second term above being two less than earth number of parallel conductors in the mesh, excluding crossconnectors. Kt is an irregularity correction factor to allow for non-uniformrmity of the current to earth from different parts of the mesh. It conforms closely for rectangular symmetrical mesh electrodes to an empirical relation. Kt = 0.65 + 0.172n.

Where n is the number of parallel mesh conductors. Use of the above expression for Emesh permits a closer estimate of L in order to keep the mesh voltage within safe limit, and a determination of the coefficients for each rectangle in the will show whether the mesh voltage is likely to be exceeded in any point. The value of the Km Kt product as determined experimentally by koch are shown by Fig. 9.1 for rectangular having 2.3 and 5 parallel conductors in one direction, but the same tests show that a value as high as 2.25 is possible for the same rectangle with an irregular spacing of the mesh conductors. However the extent to which differences of potential occur between different parts of the mesh electrodes in self, under fault conditioned, also depends on the points of connection of machines, equipment and system neutrals, from which an earth fault current may flow to the mesh conductors. As such equipment will normally be earthed in the central part of the mesh rather than at the periphery, with consequent rise in voltage at these points the general tendency for the earth current per meter of mesh conductor to be greater with outer conductors will to some extent be compensated. The area of the substation itself may be made safer by the use of a surface layer of crushed rock which has a much higher resistivity than soil exen when wet. Special care may be required with per meter fencing which must be connected throughout to the mesh electrode and with railway track which, being earthed within the substation area, may convey the mesh electrode potential to a distance where give a dangerous touch voltage to earth.


10.1. When copper conductor is used for the grid the joints should be riveted 10.2. 10.3. 10.4. 10.5.
and sweated, brazed or bolted. Brazed joints with out mechanical retentions should not be used. if steel is used, all joints between themselves and grounding electrode should be overlap welded. The length of welds should be at least double the width of the strip. joints in the earth bar between equipments, which may have to be opened later for any construction purpose, should be of bolted type. For protection against rust of buried welded joints, located in soil, the weld should be coated with molted bitumen and covered with suitable taps. In case of copper conductor, the joint faces to be tinned. Tee overhead earth wires of transmission lines should be solidly connection to the earthing grid.

10.6. Separate earthing electrodes should be provided for lighting arrestors,

coupling capacitors and transformer neutrals. These electrodes should also be connected to the earthing grid. 10.7. Trenches dug for burying the earthing grid, should be filled with earth free if stones. The filling should be carefully rammed. 10.8. All the covered by earthing grid should have crushed rock covering of at least 7.5 cms thick to increase foot resistance of the operators. If the fence is connected to the earthing grid, the crushed rock coverings should also be provided outside along the periphery of the fencing.


11.1. While the responsibility for providing one earthing of a power installation is

that of the consumers, supply authorities have to provide second earthing facility to comply with I. E. regulations in case of L.T. consumer, supply authority has to provide earthing facility. The earliest methods of earthing was to connect the consumers earth conductivity conductor to an earth electrode on the consumers premises. Such direct driven rod. Buried plate or metallic water-pipe, most frequently the latter. Such direct earthing may be entirely unsafe. Due to the fact that either supply authority nor consumer are obliged to make a periodic check of the electrode, and the use of plastic mains by water authorities is likely a to make it less effective in the future. The fact that mains by do not accept the use of water or gas pipes, either jointly or separately, as the earthing electrode makes is incumbent on the supply authority to make alternatives to the direct earthing on the consumers premises available, such cable-sheath earthing, continuous earth-wire. Earth leakage circuit breakers and protective multiple earthing. Cable-sheath earthing is common in urban areas where the method of distribution is by underground cable of paper instated lead covered type and where the service mains and main cable have plumbed joints. The consumers continuity earthy is then connected directly to the lead sheath of the cable, providing a low impedance path back to the supply transformer where the lead sheath is earthed to the same earth electrode as the system neutral. This method of earthing is reliable and effective, giving loop impedance as low as 0.5 ohm, so that a prospective fault current of say 500 A is possible, which ensures speedy operation of the fuse on the affected circuit in the consumers installation. The plumbed joint is, however the highest standard of jointing and the most costly so that is has given way to joint boxes with mechanical clamps which do not provide a sufficiently reliable low resistance contactor. But where plumbed joints exist throughout, cable sheath earthing is an economical arrangement since the lead sheath serves its primary purpose of preventing the ingress of moisture to the paper-insulation cable so that its use as an earth conductor is a bonus.

Continuous earth-wire provision was used extensively in rural areas where earth electrode resistance is high. A separate continuous earth wire was run as the lowest conductor on the poles, below the phase and neutral conductors, and the consumer continuity earths all connected to it to provide a low impedance path for earth-fault current back to the supply transformer. The only risk involved in this otherwise satisfactory arrangement is the breakage of the earth wire, which could possibly remain undetected for some time since there are no monitoring facilities. This and the extra capital cost of the fifth wire in each distributor limited the system to short distributors with a high consumer density, if the earthing cost per consumer were to be economic. Eventually the development of the protective multiple earthing system made the provision of a separate earth conductor unnecessary so this system is likely to be obsolescent or used only in cases of special difficulty Figure 11.1 shows the path for earth fault current (a) for a single-phase consumer installation with an continuous earth-wire system of earthing. In the former case-electrode resistances of both the consumer and the substation earths in series, while in the latter no earth electrode resistance is involved. The earth leakage circuit-beaker has the advantage over the more common fuse link that a return path of low impedance, where is required to carry the heavy fault current needed to blow a fuse, is now necessary. Instead of fuses in the main and sub circuits of the consumers installation a miniature circuit breaker is inserted, the operating coil of which trips the circuit-breaker when a predetermined level of earth leakage current is reached. The trip coil us either of high resistance (voltage operated) of low resistance (current operated), connected between the frame of the equipment to be protected and the supply neutral of the consumers earth electrode. This may provide a relatively high resistance earth since a the consumers earth electrode. This may provide a relatively high resistance earth since a rated tripping current of 0.5. A is usual and breakers with tripping current down 25 mA are available. Against the advantage of operation on small earth fault current must be set the extra cost of the circuit breaker and the fact that it normally protects only against an earth fault and that over current tripping facilities, are needed to protect against both phase to-phase faults.

11.2. Protective Multiple Earthing (P.M.E.) or M.E.N. (Multiple Earthing of the

Neutral) has been made possible by the relaxation of the restrictions regarding the earthing of the neutral of a 3 phase, four-wire supply, Originally earthing was permitted at one point only.

FIG. 11-1(c)


line. neutral.

CCE consumers continuity earth. BN bonding to other neutrals. BC Bonding on consumers premises.

EW earth-wire. faulty apparatus.

SA supply authoritys meter. Etc. CEF consumers fortuitous earth. FA

Fig. 11.1 paths of fault current for an earth fault in consumers installation (a) With earth electrode on consumers premises (b) with consumers continuity earth connected to supply authoritys earth-wire or cable-sheath and (c) with protective multiple earthing were too strangest to encourage the general adoption of the system.

However approval is now given and, since, then M.E.N. systems have grown rapidly. In this system Fig 11.1 (c) where the neutral provides the return path of low impedance for earth-fault current, there are two sources of danger of an open-circuited neutral connection and a rise a in voltage of the neutral due to a local phase-to-earth fault. These dangers are mitigated by two requirements, firstly that the neutral shall be earthed not only at the supply end but also at the end of the distributor, and secondly that all metalwork within a consumers premise shall be bonded together and to the neutral. The former requirement ensures that, in the event of a broken neutral conductor, both part remain effectively earthed and the latter that in the event of a voltage rise of the neutral, possible theoretically up to the phase voltage of the system, all metal in a consumers premises is at the same potential so that it is possible for a person to make contact both with the neutral and with the whole body of earth. This neglects the apparently dangerous possibility of contact of contact outside equipotent cage of metal work, such as to damp stone floors, etc. but although special precautions any need to be taken in certain industrial and commercial premises, premises, there is no evidence of danger to the public from the system. It is evident, however that the neutral bonding in the consumers premises be through. It is probable that extensive adoption of M.E.N in distribution results in a lowering of the overall neutral to earth resistance by interconnection of the neutral on previously separate distribution systems, by the fortuitous earth at each consumers premises and by the connection to the neutral of the street lighting standard. This lowering of the neutral-to earth resistance leads directly corresponding reduction in the possible voltage rise which might occur on the metal work in a consumers premises and has apparently made the theoretical safety hazard negligible. The advantage of P.M.E. are that it is possible for a supply authority to provide to all consumers a safe and efficient system of earthing at a lower cost than by any other means. It also leads to the adoption on underground distribution system of new design of cable which save as much as 20 percent on the materiel by providing three shaped cores in the cable with a concentric neutral conductor consisting of a wave-would wire sheath which facilitates jointing. This can result in system where cable and installation costs will be reduced by quarter.


12.1 Rural Electrification :
With the advent of five year plan, electrification of rural areas has been going on in a big way since 1951. In India we have about 576,000 villages and in 1947 practically none of these were electrified. As at March, 1985 all most 370,000 villages, covering about 70% of the population, have electrified. At the

same time, all sorts of electrical gadgets have started making their appearances in villages. Since in villages, ready medical aid is scarce, the safety pertaining to electricity has to be given top priority. Proper earthing of all equipments is of paramounts importance also, since inspection of these earthing arrangements may not be done at regular intervals, proper care should be taken at the vary beginning that the earthing resistance remains low during all seasons.

12.2 Methodology :
The different methods of earthing available (a0 pipe type earthing (b) plate type earthing and (c) combination of (a) & (b) under normal soil resistance condition any of these methods give satisfactory low earth resistance. However in some areas, these methods have failed to provide a safe value of earth resistance, where the terrain may be rocky, black cotton soil or dry sandy soil. Because public safety is involved, some efforts are make to bring down this earth resistance. The most common method used is to treat the soil with salt, charcoal and soft coke to being down the earth resistance. These conventional methods are effective in sandy gravel or rock, whose resistivity may be and where between 500 to 1000 ohm meter. Injection of chemicals such as silicate gels, copper ferricynide gels, acrylamide and methylene bisarcylamide have been tried with great success in developed countries and these maintain low earth resistivity for long time. We cannot think of using treatment in India as cost is prohibitive.

12.3 Soil treatment :

Any soil treatment we apply in India has to fulfill the following requirements. (a) It should not be costly. It should not cause corrosion of the electrode.

(b) If should be easily applicable. (c) (d) It should be capable of absorbing water and retaining the same for long time. (e) (f) Once embedded, it should remain permanently. If should have low resistivity.

One of the substance which fulfills most of the above mentioned requirements is Bentonite. The minerals in Betonies are : Montmorillonite, lllite and kaolinite. Bentonite, when suspended in water, swells to several times its original volume. It can also retain moisture for long time. As far as electrical conductivity is concerned, sodium based bentonite is superiod to calcilm based

one. It does not corrode iron or zinc, but if bentonite is mixed with 5% chloride to improve electricity, it may become corrosive. From a long point of view, bentonite treated soil round the earth electrode in rural areas, seems to be the most suitable for our country.


Q.1. What is the minimum size of earthing lead for any installation ?
A. 3.00 mm2 if of copper and 6mm2 if of galvanized iron or steel. The actual size depends on maximum fault current which the lead is expected to carry. Time rating is generally 30 seconds.

Q.2. What is the effect of temperature on soil resistivity ?

A. Temperature has some effect on soil resistivity but is important only near and below freezing point, necessitating installation of earth electrode at depths to which frost will not penetrate. Below 0oC, the resistivity increases sharply.

Q.3. Which sites are most suitable for installing earth electrode ?
A. In order preference, they are as follows :(a) Wet marshy ground and grounds containing refuge, such as ashes, cinders and bring waste. (b) Clayey soil mixed with shall quantity of sand. (c) Damp and wet sand pit.

Q.4. What is the effect of moisture on soil resistivity ?

A. Below 22 percent of moisture, the resistivity in creases sharply, Beyond 22 percent it remains low and practically same value as at 22 percent moisture for any higher water contact.

Q.5. What is the minimum size of earth electrode ?

A. If of steel or galvanized iron-16 mm in dia. If of copper ; 12.5 mm in dia.

Q.6. What is the minimum size of pipe electrode ?

A. For steel or minimumiron-38 mm internal dia. For cast iron :100 mm internal dia.

Q.7. What is the minimum length of rod and pipe electrode ?

A. The is the length shall not be loss than 2.5 meters.

Q.8. What to do is rock is encountered within 2.5 meters ?

A. The rods can be buried inclined but inclination should be more than 30o from the vertical.

Q.9. What is the minimum size for strip or conductor electrodes

A. Copper strip-25 mm*1.6 mm Galvanized iron or steel. 25 mm * 4 mm if round conductors are used :Copper : 30 mm2 Cross section area. Galvanized iron or steel. 6 mm 2 cross section area.

Q.10. What is the minimum length for buried conductors ?

A. 15 meters.

Q.11. What is the minimum depth of trench for buried conductor ?

A. Not less than 0.5 meters.

Q.12. What is minimum size, thickness and depth for plate electrode ?
A. Minimum size : 60 cm 60 cm Thickness Copper 3.15 mm. Steel or galvanized iron 6.3 mm. Depth Plates to be buried vertically with top edge at a depth not less than 1.5 meter from ground surface. should be minimum separation distance ? 8 meters. installation ? 75 mm. treatment has to be repeated ?

Q.13. If plates are be connected in parallel to reduce earth resistance what


Q.14. What is the minimum cross sectional area for main earthing ring of any

Q.15. If soil is artificially treated to earth low resistance, at what interval the
A. For clay and load once in 8 or 10 years. For sand and porous soil, once in 2 has years.

Q.16. What is the necessity to provide earthing grid in outdoor substation ?

A. Mainly this the to control the step and touch voltage i.e. for safety of personal.

Q.17. Where the resistivity of earth is fluctuating as per season where the earth

grid is located, how many earth electrodes are required to supplement the grid ? If 20 mm dia 3 meter long rods are used, then number of rods required are obtained by dividing maximum earth fault current by 500. if earth fault current is 11000 amps, then rods required 11,00 % 500 =22.


Q.18. What should be the total earth resistance in substation generation station?
A. The resistance should be less than 1.0 ohm. stations? A. A. A. A. (a) Periodic visual inspection say once in 3 months to detect any signs of deterioration. (b) Neighboring soil the earth electrodes shall be kept moist. (c) The resistance test to be carried, if possible, every year and record to be kept test once in two years is a must as per I.E. Rules. (d) If test show high resistance, immediate action to be taken to rectify. and H.T. consumer substation ? A. Resistance in the 2 to 5 ohms range are generally found suitable.

Q.19. What is the maintenance for earth electrode at substations and generation

Q.20. What is the minimum earth resistance required for distributors substations

Q.21. What is the maximum per missile current density for an earth electrode ?
A. The is the maximum permissible meter is obtained by the following formula :I = 7.57 103 A/m2 Pt Where t = duration of earth fault in seconds. P= earth resistivity per ohm-meter. The magnitude of earth fault current divided by I obtained as per the formula, gives the minimum cross section of the earth electrode required.

Q.22. What is the size of earth bus and conductors to be used in Sub-station
and Generation Station ?


The size depends upon the magnitude and duration of earth fault current and is obtained by the following equation. (a) Tor sweated and riveted joints : A = 0.0054 I t (b) For brazed joints A = 0.0044 I t

Where A = cross sectional area in sq. mm. I = amount of current flow in amps and t = duration of current flow in amps. ISS 3043 recommends that t should be taken as 30 seconds. In that case cross section of main earth bus will be as follows :A = 0.0296 I mm2 for sweated, riveted and bolted joints. A = 0.024 I f mm2 or brazed joints.

REFERENCE. 1. Electric supply Transformer and distribution. By F. D. De. La Chard- Longman London. Electrical Installation Technology and Practice. By J. D. PADDOCK The English language Book Society. HODDER & STOUGHTON O.B. Substation Design & Equipment. By P. V. Gupta and P.S. Satnam. Dhanpat Rai & Sons Delhi. Earth resistivity Testing analysis. P.K. Patni. Vidyut Bharati, Pages 115 to 112 July-Sept, 1981. Earth Resistivity of earth resistance and resistivity by means of an Earth Tester. S.B. CHAURASHIYA. Vidyut Bharati, Pages 314 to 318 July-Sept, 1981. Earthing in Rural areas. O.P Arora. Vidyut Bharati, Pages 119 to 124 July-Sept, 1980. IS. 3043- Code of Practice for Earthing. Earthing-Publication No 213 A, B.I.C C. LTD, London. Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power System. IEEE. Std. 142-1982.






7. 8.