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INSTRUCTION SET, MACHINE CODE AND ADDRESSING MODE MNEMONICS, OPCODES AND ASSEMBLER LANGUAGES
INSTRUCTION SET,
MACHINE CODE AND
ADDRESSING MODE
MNEMONICS, OPCODES AND
ASSEMBLER LANGUAGES

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THE INSTRUCTION SET OF THE 8088/8086

 

Data transfer instruction

 

Arithmetic

Logic

instruction

instruction

transfers data between memory

performs

performs logic instructions including AND, OR and XOR instructions ex: RCL instruction

addition,

and registers within the microprocessor or between internal registers

subtraction, multiplication, division, compare and other mathematical operations

ex: MOV

 

instruction

ex: ADD

instruction

compare and other mathematical operations • ex: MOV   instruction • ex: ADD instruction

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THE INSTRUCTION SET OF THE 8088/8086

 

String

 

Control

Processor

manipulation

transfer

control

instruction

instruction

instruction

for all this

decision making

used to control the operation of the processor and set or clear the status indicators ex: HLT instruction

instruction the memory source is DS:DI and the memory destination is ES:DI

group where a decision depends on a previous result such as a mathematical outcome

ex: CMPS

ex: INT

 

instruction

instruction

previous result such as a mathematical outcome • ex: CMPS • ex: INT   instruction instruction

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SOFTWARE (INSTRUCTION)

Op-code

identifies the operation that is to be performed

Operand

the data that are to be processed

)  Op-code  identifies the operation that is to be performed  Operand  the

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SOFTWARE (MACHINE CODE)

 

Op-code

     

Address

and

Label

Mnemonic

Comments

operand

( MACHINE CODE )   Op-code       Address and Label Mnemonic Comments operand

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SOFTWARE (MACHINE CODE)

Address

Op-code and operand

Label

Mnemonic

Comments

Location of the op-code and related data.

Hex code for instruction and related hex data.

A reference point given a name to help relate the program to a flow chart.

Manufactur ers mnemonic for that instruction.

Anything to help understand how the program works. The semicolon identifies the start of a comment.

that instruction. Anything to help understand how the program works. The semicolon identifies the start of

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ADDRESSING MODE 8088/8086

Addressing mode:

Used to describe the way a particular instruction lets the microprocessor know where the source or destination is located

Method of specifying an operand

instruction lets the microprocessor know where the source or destination is located  Method of specifying

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ADDRESSING MODE 8088/8086

The addressing modes are categorized into three types:

1. Register addressing mode

2. Immediate addressing mode

3. Memory addressing mode

are categorized into three types: 1. Register addressing mode 2. Immediate addressing mode 3. Memory addressing

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ADDRESSING MODE 8088/8086

Five memory addressing mode:

1. Direct addressing mode

2. Register indirect addressing mode

3. Based addressing mode

4. Indexed addressing mode

5. Based-indexed addressing mode

Register indirect addressing mode 3. Based addressing mode 4. Indexed addressing mode 5. Based-indexed addressing mode

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ADDRESSING MODE 8088/8086

Register Addressing Mode

Register addressing is an addressing mode where the source and the destination are both register.

Ex: MOV DS, AX ;copy AX into DS

is an addressing mode where the source and the destination are both register.  Ex: MOV

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ADDRESSING MODE 8088/8086

Immediate Addressing Mode

Immediate addressing is the addressing mode where the required data(operand) is part of the instruction.

Ex: MOV AX, 1000H ;load AX with

1000H

addressing mode where the required data(operand) is part of the instruction.  Ex: MOV AX, 1000H

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ADDRESSING MODE 8088/8086

Direct Addressing Mode

Direct (absolute, extended etc) is an addressing mode where the operand specifies the source or the destination.

Ex: MOV CX, [1234H] ;move content in 1234H into CX

mode where the operand specifies the source or the destination.  Ex: MOV CX, [1234H] ;move

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ADDRESSING MODE 8088/8086

Register Indirect Addressing Mode

Storing the memory address in a pointer or index register (SP,BP,SI,or DI).

Ex: MOV [SI],00FFH ;load data 00FF into address that stored in SI

in a pointer or index register (SP,BP,SI,or DI).  Ex: MOV [SI],00FFH ;load data 00FF into

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ADDRESSING MODE 8088/8086

Based Addressing Mode

The effective address of the operand is obtained by adding a direct or indirect displacement to the contents of either base register BX or base pointer register BP

Ex: MOV [BX] + 1243H, AL

displacement to the contents of either base register BX or base pointer register BP  Ex:

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ADDRESSING MODE 8088/8086

Indexed Addressing Mode

Use the value of displacement as a pointer to the starting point of an array of data in memory and the contents of the specified register as an index that select specific element in the array that is to be accessed.

Ex: MOV AL, [SI] + 2000H

register as an index that select specific element in the array that is to be accessed.

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ADDRESSING MODE 8088/8086

Based-Indexed Addressing Mode

Use to access complex data structures such as two-dimensional array

Ex: MOV AH, [BX] [SI] + 1234H

Mode  Use to access complex data structures such as two-dimensional array  Ex: MOV AH,