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Republic of the Philippines

Cavite State University


(CvSU) DON SEVERINO DE LAS ALAS CAMPUS Indang, Cavite, Philippines (046) 415-0011/(046)415-0012

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering

INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING (AENG 26)

EFFECTS OF MASSIVE GROWTH OF INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES IN THE PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY

A Research Study

Renz Erick R. Delgado BSCE 4 -1

Submitted to: Dr. Leyma C. Cero Instructor, AENG 26

16 August 2011

EFFECTS OF MASSIVE GROWTH OF INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES IN THE PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY

INTRODUCTION One indication of a stable ecosystem is the prominent diversity of its species. This is associated with a lot number of species present in a community. Philippines are one example of a country with a stable ecosystem for it as constitute of thousands of endemic and exotic species. The country is consists of about 7,107 islands with a total land area of approximately 30 million hectares, making it possible for plants and animals to flourish. The Philippine ecosystem is characterized by a high degree of biological diversity. In recent years, the increasing global trade, travel, and transport had rapidly increased the rate of introduction and diversity of alien species. Invasive alien species (IAS) includes exotic or non-native micro- and macro-species introduced, accidentally or deliberately, to a place that is not part of their natural habitat or distribunal range, and have adverse ecological and economical impacts (Bruton and Merron, 1985; De Silva, 1989). Once that exotic species was introduced, they can become aggressive and dangerously invasive. Increasing domination by a few invasive alien species increases global homogenization of biodiversity, reducing local diversity and distinctiveness. In line with this, this paper presents the invasive alien species present in the Philippines together with their ecological and economic impacts and concerns.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Generally, the study aims to determine the effects of massive growth of invasive allien species to the Philippine biodiversity. Specifically, the study aims the following: To enumerate the invasive alien species in the Philippines. To determine its effects to the ecosystem, economy to the health of Filipino people. To present the strategies and actions done to minimize or prevent it effects.

INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES An IAS can be defined as an organism that is non-native to the country/ecosystem under consideration. Its introduction (intentional or unintentional) will cause or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or damage to human health. It is considered a threat to biodiversity, second only to habitat loss. It causes serious impediments to conservation and the sustainable use of global, regional and local biodiversity and generates significant negative impacts on goods and services provided by ecosystems. For a species to become invasive, it must successfully out-compete native organisms, spread through its new environment, increase in population density and harm ecosystems in its introduced range. To summarize, for an alien species to become invasive, it must arrive, survive and thrive. The introduction of alien species relates to human interests. Most people introduce an alien species into a new habitat for economic reasons fish can generate excellent fish stocks; plants can provide food, fodder and raw materials for medicines; insects can enhance biological control. It is common knowledge that introduced species can cause, inter alia, displacement or destruction of indigenous species, pollution of the gene pool, and loss of species diversity, disruption of energy and nutrient cycling and increased production costs as they may require high inputs. There are even cases of IAS triggering indigenous species to become harmful and invasive.

STATUS OF INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES IN THE PHILIPPINES The IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)s Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) lists 47 alien species that have been introduced to the Philippines, 6 with biostatus uncertain, and 23 that are native to the Philippines region and invasive elsewhere (ISSG, 2006a). The species of concerns currently are described below as case examples in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Some of them are included in the list of 100 Worlds Worst Alien Invasive Species (Lowe et al., 2000). Seven of the worst invasive plant species that are found in the Philippines are: Chromolaena odorata, Eichhornia crassipes, Hiptage benghalensis, Imperata cylindrica, Lantana camara, Leucaena leucocephala, and Mikania micrantha (ISSG, 2006a). CHARACTERISTICS OF INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES Common characteristics of IAS include: o rapid reproduction and growth o high dispersal ability o phenotypic plasticity (ability to adapt physiologically to new conditions) o Ability to survive on various food types and in a wide range of environmental conditions. CONDITION THAT LEAD TO INVASION Ecosystems that have been invaded by alien species may not have the natural predators and competitors present in its native environment that would normally control their populations. Native ecosystems that have undergone human-induced disturbance are often more prone to alien invasions because there is less competition from native species. For example, imported red fire ants (Solenopsis invicta Buren) are more successful in establishing themselves in disturbed areas such as roadsides and agricultural fields and rarely colonize intact closed forests.

Islands are especially vulnerable to IAS because they are naturally isolated from strong competitors and predators. Islands often have ecological niches that have not been filled because of the distance from colonizing populations, increasing the probability of successful invasions. SOME INVASIVE SPECIES IN THE PHILIPPINES AND THEIR EFFECTS Invasive Terrestrial Plants 1. Hagonoy Weed (Chromolaena odorata) Source: Mexico, West Indies and Tropical America It is considered as a threatening/harmful weed in grassland ecosystems because it outgrows or prevents the establishment of other species like Imperata thus reducing the feeds available for livestock and biodiversity. The weed clogs waterways, and has been reported by farmers to be harmful to cattle when eaten.

2. Large Leaf Lantana (Lantana camara) It was introduced as an ornamental due to its colorful flowers (ISSG, 2006c). It is considered undesirable because it invades pastures and decreases productivity; replaces native forest species after land is cleared for farming, hence preventing succession and restoration, and

may even poison cattle when eaten.

3. Chinese Creeper (Mikania micranth) This is a fast-growing perennial, creeping and twining plant commonly called mile-aminute because of its vigorous and rampant growth habit. It grows best where fertility, organic matter, soil moisture, and humidity are all high and, damages or kills other plants by smothering them thereby cutting out the light.

4. Ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala ) The only invasive tree species reported in several databases, was introduced as forage into the Philippines from tropical America during the Spanish colonial period. This legume was welcomed at first since it made good firewood and provided shade for understory crops. Now, it is considered a bio-invasive species since it forms pure stands which are difficult to eradicate and thus make the land unusable (Baguinon et al., 2005).

5. Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) The B. papyrifera was introduced in 1935 to increase the bast-fibre species present in Mt. Makiling but because of its good adaptive and competitive characteristics and several number of dispersal agents, this species appears to be obnoxious and an environmental threat.

6. Gmelina arborea

7. Acacia mangium

8. Eucalyptus camaldulensis

9. Dipterocarpus grandiflorus

10. Toona aliata 11. Swiietenia macrophylla Invasive Terrestrial Invertebrates A. Plant Pest Organisms 1. Big Headed Ant (Pheidole megacephala)

One of the most invasive species having achieved global distribution, the ant displaces most invertebrate faunas; it is considered as a pest of agricultural crops as it harbours phytophagous insects that reduce crop productivity.

2. Fire Ant (Solenopsis geminate) A grave threat to conservation values as it will invade native communities and affect many or all of the animals and plants in that community. The name fire ant comes from their fiery and painful stings; it is most prevalent in isolated areas, living in open land, including barren areas and grassland, and nests in the soil.

3. Jumping Plant Lice (Heteropsylla cubana) Introduced by the typhoon in the late 1980s, it has affected almost 100% of standing Leucaena leucocephala all over the country.

4. Spiralling Whitefly (Aleurodicus disperus) Accidentally introduced with the importation of ornamental Kalanchoe in the 1970s, the whitefly is now affecting vegetables and ornamentals.

5. Leaf Miner (Liriomyza sp.) Accidentally introduced with the importation of the Chrysanthemum, it has become a major pest of potato and ornamentals.

6. Mealy Bug (Pseudococcus sp.) Accidentally introduced in the late 1990s with the importation of hybrid coconut planting materials, the mealy bug has affected the coconut in Northern Palawan.

7. Riceblack Bug (Scotiniphora coarctata) This bug species was introduced through vessels plying the route between the province of Palawan, the Mindanao Island and countries south of the Philippines. It is a major problem in rice in Mindanao and the province of Leyte.

8. Long Leaf Beetle (Brontispa longissima) It attacks coconuts and other palms.

9. Orchid Virus (Oncydium sp.) This is an orchid virus brought in with the importation of orchids in the late 1970s. 10. Potato Cysts Nematode (Globodera rostochlensis) Accidentally introduced with the importation of potato planting materials, it is heavily infesting potato farms in the province of Benguet, in Northern Philippines. B. Earthworms 1. Giant Earthworms or Mystery Worm (Pheretima spp./ Metaphire spp.) They destroy the rice terrace walls by burrowing holes, and causing water stress and encouraging weed growth thereby affecting rice production in Banaue rice terraces (Personal communication: Dr. Samuel James, USA). 2. Pontoscolex corethrurus (origin Brazil)

3. Polypheretima elongata (origin SE Asia, probably Indonesian region), 4. Amynthas corticis (origin mainland E Asia) 5. Dichogaster saliens (origin Africa) 6. Nematogenia occidentalis (origin unclear) 7. Perionyx excavatus (origin India) Invasive Vertebrates A. Rodents 1. Rattus exulans 2. Rattus tanezumi, 3. Rattus tiomanicus 4. Rattus agentiventur B. Lizards. Five species of geckonid lizards widely distributed and closely associated with human habitations were also probably transported by man through inter-island boats. Soft-shelled turtles used as food have at times escaped to the wild. It is suspected that the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) may have been introduced because of its curious disjunct distribution being present in Negros and Palawan, but absent in Mindanao and Luzon. Its occurrence in sugarcane fields (an artificial habitat for wildlife) is in contrast to the other carnivores (civet cat and palm civet), which are found only in original forests or their remnants. C. Birds. 1. Padda oryzivora 2. Passer montanus D. Frogs.

1. Marine Toad (Bufo marinus L.) It was introduced into the Negros islands in 1934 by the Bureau of Plant Industry from Hawaii to control beetles in sugarcane fields. It has spread to numerous islands across the Philippines through subsequent introductions both accidental and deliberate in nature.

2. American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) It was first bred in Montalban, Rizal in 1960s to boost food production. Few years later, this government project collapsed and 14,000 adults and tadpoles were released in Lake Paoay and Lake Billoca, northern Luzon and Ligawasan Marsh, Mindanao, respectively. It is known to be voracious predator on other amphibian species in the United States.

3. Taiwanese Frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus) It was also introduced for commercial farming. After escaping confinement, it is now widely distributed in the Southern Luzon. It has been reported to pose risks to several species of small native frogs in lowland areas.

4. Common Green Pond Frog (Rana erythraea) It can be found on some islands of the Philippines has been introduced because of its distribution (Negros, Panay, and Laguna).

5. Brown Bullfrog (Kaloula pulchra) It is the most recent introduction.

Invasive Aquatic / Wetland Plants 1. Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes ) It is labeled as the ecosystem engineer or invasive habitat modifier and its invasiveness is related to clogging waterways, impeding boat transport and fishing activities, and reducing fisheries productivity (MacKinnon, 2002).

2. Water Fern (Salvinia molesta) This floating aquatic fern aside from being a pest in the irrigated rice fields (Sinohin and Cuaterno, 2002), also negatively affects the biodiversity and abundance of freshwater species including fish and submerged aquatic plants, and thus affects fishing activities, and boat travels.

3. Water Lettuce/ Duck Weed (Pistia stratiotes) It is an invasive free floating weed capable of forming dense mats on the surfaces of lakes, ponds, rivers and other bodies of water.

Invasive Aquatic Animals 1. Golden Apple Snail (Pomocea canaliculata) Its introduction led to the displacement of the native kuhol (Pila luzonica). In 1999, it was considered as a major pest of newly planted rice seedlings; purposely imported to avert malnutrition as source of protein. 2. Thai Catfish (Clarias batrachus) It is believed to have displaced the native catfish (Clarias macrocephalus) in Luzon. 3. South American Sucker Mouth Catfish or Janitor Fish It have become invasive in the Marikina River (Metro Manila), Lake Paitan in Cuyapo, Nueva Ecija and Laguna de Bay (Agasen, 2005). Introduced by the aquarium trade industry, the

species escaped into natural waters. Damage to the banks of the Marikina River and fish cages in Laguna de Bay by the nuisance catfish is claimed. 4. White Goby (Glossogobius giurus) and eleotrid (Hypseleotries agilis) Their introduction has caused the extinction of majority of 15 cyprinid species in Lanao Lake, Mindanao. 5. Black Bass (Micropterus salmoides) It has led to the disappearance of the original fish population in Caliraya Lake, Laguna. 6. Mosquito Fish (Gambusia affinis ) It is locally known as "bubuntis" or nicknamed as million fish they are prolific breeders. The fish was introduced from Hawaii in 1905 to the Philippines primarily for mosquito and malaria control. It consumes mosquito larvae. This species is also predating on the eggs of fry of dojo in Banaue rice terraces. It is abundant in canals, rice fields, and other water bodies. 7. Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) It is popular only in few selected areas of the Philippines. Uproots submerged weeds and creates turbidity that prevents the growth of submerged vegetation. Compete with indigenous fish adults uproot and destroy submerged aquatic vegetation. 8. Mossambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) It is pest in brackish water ponds as it competes with the natural food (lablab) of milkfish. A highly inbred population occurs and has hybridized with the Nile tilapia both in the wild and in captivity 9. Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

It is the second most important freshwater species contributing to national fish production in the country. In natural water, this fish is a competitor of native species. The introduction of new strains might have brought new species of parasites into the country. 10. Snakehead (Channa striata) A food fish with high aquaculture value and commands a good price in the market. It is a major source of income for local fishermen. It predate on native species. 11. Crucian Carp (Carassius spp.) It is a source of food fish from local fishery but has a low consumers acceptability. It is a competitor of native fishes in fresh water. 12. Freshwater Mussel (Cristaria plicata) It is a biological filter. It can be a nuisance in ponds as the sharp shells can injure workers when they step on it, hence, poses an occupational hazard. 13. Guapote Tigre or Jaguar Guapote (Parachromis managuensis) This ornamental fish escaped to Lake Taal, Batangas Province, and now established in the lake. It is an ornamental fish and can be eaten. This fish is a predator of indigenous fishes in Lake Taal.

Impacts to the Philippine Biodiversity Ecological Impact Invasive alien species (IAS) are considered to be one of the main direct drivers of biodiversity loss at the global level. It is clear that IAS can produce substantial environmental and economic damage, and their negative effects are exacerbated by climate change, pollution,

habitat loss and human-induced disturbance. Increasing domination by a few invasive species increases global homogenization of biodiversity, reducing local diversity and distinctiveness. IAS can change the community structure and species composition of native ecosystems directly by out-competing indigenous species for resources. IAS may also have important indirect effects through changes in nutrient cycling, ecosystem function and ecological relationships between native species. IAS can also cause cascading effects with other organisms when one species affects another via intermediate species, a shared natural enemy or a shared resource. These chain reactions can be difficult to identify and predict. Furthermore, aggregate effects of multiple invasive species can have large and complex impacts in an ecosystem. Invasive species may also alter the evolutionary pathway of native species by competitive exclusion, niche displacement, hybridization predation, and ultimately extinction. IAS themselves may also evolve due to interactions with native species and with their new environment. Economic Impact In economic terms, the costs of invasive alien species are significant. Total annual costs, including losses to crops, pastures and forests, as well as environmental damages and control costs, have been conservatively estimated to be in the hundreds of billions of dollars and possibly more than one trillion. This does not include valuation of species extinctions, losses in biodiversity, ecosystem services and aesthetics. In addition to these costs, economic losses can occur through loss of recreational and tourism revenues. When economic costs of invasions are calculated as production loss and management costs, they are low because they do not consider environmental damage; if monetary values were assigned to the extinction of species, loss in biodiversity, and loss of

ecosystem services, costs from impacts of invasive species would drastically increase. For many invasive species, there are commercial benefits, either existent or capable of being developed. Numerous vegetative 'invasive' like water hyacinth, when in sufficient quantities to be harvestable, can be turned into fuel by methane digesters if no other better use can be determined. Weeds cause an overall reduction in yield, though they often provide essential nutrients for sustenance farmers. Weeds can have other useful purposes: some deep-rooted weeds can "mine" nutrients from the subsoil and bring them to the topsoil, while others provide habitat for beneficial insects and/or provide alternative foods for pest species. Health Impacts Invasive alien species can directly affect human health. Infectious diseases are often IAS imported by travelers or vectored by exotic species of birds, rodents and insects. IAS also has indirect health effects on humans as a result of the use of pesticides and herbicides, which infiltrate water and soil. An increasing threat of exotic diseases exists because of increased transportation and encroachment of humans into previously remote ecosystems. This can lead to new associations between a disease and a human host (e.g., AIDS virus). Introduced birds (e.g. pigeons), rodents and insects (e.g. mosquito, flea, louse and tsetse fly pests) can serve as vectors and reservoirs of human diseases. Throughout recorded history, epidemics of human diseases, such as malaria, yellow fever, typhus, and bubonic plague, have been associated with these vectors. Waterborne disease agents, such as cholera bacteria (Vibrio cholerae), and causative agents of harmful algal blooms are often transported via ballast water. The full range of impacts of invasive species and their control goes beyond immediate effects and can have long term public health implications.

For instance, pesticides applied to treat a particular pest species could pollute soil and surface water.

Policies and Laws Regarding on Invasive Alien Species Plant Quarantine Law of 1978. The Law specifically regulates the entry of plant, plant products, and animals that may harbor pests or cause harm to agricultural products. Presidential Proclamation 2146 It was issued considering the introduction of fauna (exotic animals) in public and private forest an environmentally critical project. Republic Act No. 9147 It provides for the conservation and protection of wildlife resources and their habitats; Philippine Fisheries Code of 1988 (Republic Act No. 8550) It is a law which tasks the Department of Agriculture through the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) with the quarantine, control and monitoring of foreign aquatic species. Department of Agriculture Fish and Game Administrative Order No. 06 This order regulates the importation of fish, mollusks, and other aquatic animals (Uriarte, 2005) Fisheries Administrative Orders (FAOs) 207 The regulation requiring the application of import risk analysis (IRA) for the introduction of foreign crustacean species is provided for in FAO 207.

Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Guiding Principles It provides the framework for national governments in developing their own policies and strategies on IAS, not only to prevent entry, but also to minimize spread and impact of these species once they have actually been introduced into the environment. Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) It is an agreement in which primary goal is to promote international cooperation to prevent the spread and introduction of plant pests and to promote appropriate measures for their control. Implementation of the Guidelines on Planned Release to the Environment of Genetically Modified Organisms and Potentially Harmful Exotic Species Implementation of existing quarantine regulation Implementation of Philippine policy on Biodiversity

Discussion Increasing travel, trade, and tourism associated with globalization and increasing of the human population have resulted to intentional and unintentional movement of species beyond their natural environment. This species which threatens the biological diversity of country or place where they were introduced are called Invasive alien species. Undoubtedly, these species are in existence in the Philippines. Mostly of the Filipinos are not aware that the plant or animals that they have encountered are not endemic to the country. They believed that all the species found in the are all natural but unknown to them that some species are exotic or not natural in our country and some of these are dangerous and invasive. Species are introduced to the country either intentionally or accidental. Intentional invasive species are those species that introduced to a place with an objective or purpose while those invasive species that accidentally introduced are those unintended or without purpose. Golden apple snail or exotic kuhol is an example of intentional introduced species that is now considered as invasive. It was originally introduced to increase the protein source of Filipino diet but now, it is a major pest hindering the promotion and adoption of direct seeded rice. It is also the reason why native kuhol displace to the environment. Another species that introduced intentionally and later become a pest is the Marine Toad. It was introduced into the Negros Islands in 1934 by the Bureau of Plant Industry from Hawaii to control beetles in sugarcane fields but it expand to a greater number and become the reason why native toads are displaced. On the other hand, examples of accidental introduced invasive species are spiralling whitefly, leaf miner, mealy bug, orchid virus, potato cysts nematode, and many more. Orchid virus was brought in with the importation of orchid in the late 1970s. Also, potato cyst

nematode was accidentally introduced with the importation of potato planting materials and now heavily infecting potato farms. Common food of Filipinos, Tilapia, is another species that was introduced to the country. It is originally found in Africa. Unlike others, Tilapia is propagated in the country because it is a source of food and considered as one of a big industry in the Philippines. Invasive alien species greatly affects our environment for it displaces some native species in the country and change the community structure. It also affects the economy in the way that some of it can give economical opportunities for the Filipinos like the industry of Tilapia. Moreover, these species are also affects the health of human. Like for example, the exotic birds that carry certain virus that brought diseases such as bird flu that mark a history in the Philippines. Every species that introduced in the country has its own effect, negative or positive, to our biodiversity. With the alarming growth rate of invasive alien species, the Philippine government made polices and laws that govern to these aspects. Different laws were having been established to regulate the entry of different plants and animals to the Philippine Biodiversity. As early as 1981, Presidential Proclamation 2146 was issued considering the introduction of exotic animals. As year passed, different polices and laws were established regarding to invasive species. Moreover, the government has implemented different awareness campaigns such as the Philippine policy on Biodiversity and the Guidelines on Planned Release to the Environment of Genetically Modified Organisms and Potentially Harmful Exotic Species. Recently, scientist, environmentalists and concerned individuals attended the seminar workshop on Biodiversity and Management of Alien Invasive Species in the Philippines on May 22 to 23, 2011.

Conclusion The massive growth of invasive alien species in the Philippines greatly affects the ecological and economical aspects of the country. It also affects the health of the Filipino people. These impacts are apparently visible to our environment. Some of these species like Golden apple snail and marine toad replaces or displaces the native species in their habitat as they outnumbered them and competes for the resources. This may lead to change in the species composition of native ecosystem and the reducing of local diversity and distinctiveness. Recently, the invasive plant water hyacinth or commonly known as water lily as featured in the news where these plants caused flood in Cotabato City because of its excessive population that dog waterways. We can commonly found this plant in rivers and lakes like the Laguna de Bay. Speaking with Laguna de Bay, we can found another invasive alien species that has a worst effect to the environment. This species is the janitor fish that increasingly grow to the extent that they are the prevalent fish in the Lake. However, these species also give opportunities to the people. For example, water lilies are used to make bags, wallet, and other item that people may sell to. This is popular in Laguna Province for the reason that they have a lot source of water lilies. In case of janitor fish, the skin of this fish is also used as wallet and there some studies that aims to produce fuel with janitor fish. Likewise, as featured by the TV program Born To Be Wild, marine toad is also used for a way of living where it is used to make wallet. This is happening for the reason that these species are great in number and it is a way to reduce them and at the same time to take opportunities to earn money with this invasive species. Some species of this kind are being eaten to make it productive. Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors to invasive alien species since human actions are the primary means of their introduction. Invasive plants pest includes, jumping plant

rice, big-headed ant, rice black, bugs, potato cyst nematode, and many other. These become a major pest of certain agricultural products and result in large cast of loss crops. Undeniably, the Philippines have a scarce and limited data regarding to the invasive alien species and their impacts to the countrys biodiversity. Filipino people have a lack of knowledge to the effects of such species because of lack of extensive and comprehensive technical information. Nevertheless, the Philippine government implements some laws and policies on introduction of exotic species. But these policies and laws are not enough to create awareness in the people on the negative impacts of invasive alien species on local biodiversity. The government must implement different strategies to regulate the entry of exotic species and to control its spread to our country. It may also be helpful to encourage different institutions to conduct a research and study to minimize the massive growth of exotic species by making it productive like the way the authorities did on water lilies and marine toad. It may give economic opportunities to the people and help to reduce its alarming impacts to the environment. Invasive alien species are a global issue that requires international cooperation and actions. Philippine must regularly consult or cooperate to the other countries to gain knowledge in controlling, eradication and preventing these aggressive species. There are many international binding agreements and voluntary guidelines that include regulations on invasive species that the Philippines may dealt with. Prevention of invasive alien species is less costly than control and eradication and it requires collaboration among governments, economic sectors and nongovernmental and international organizations.

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