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LTE tutorial - Looking forward beyond HSPA+ sppe12083@gmail.com RAN System Engineer
LTE tutorial
- Looking forward beyond HSPA+
sppe12083@gmail.com
RAN System Engineer

Outline

• Beyond HSPA+

• LTE: motivation and expectations

• E-UTRAN overview & initial performance evaluation

• OFDMA and SC-FDMA fundamentals

• LTE physical layer

• LTE transmission procedures

Beyond HSPA evolution – 3GPP path

UTRAN

Beyond HSPA evolution – 3GPP path UTRAN E-UTRAN DL: 14.4 Mbps UL: 5.76Mbps DL: 28 Mbps

E-UTRAN

Beyond HSPA evolution – 3GPP path UTRAN E-UTRAN DL: 14.4 Mbps UL: 5.76Mbps DL: 28 Mbps
DL: 14.4 Mbps UL: 5.76Mbps DL: 28 Mbps UL: 11 Mbps DL: 42 Mbps UL:
DL: 14.4 Mbps
UL: 5.76Mbps
DL: 28 Mbps
UL: 11 Mbps
DL: 42 Mbps
UL: 11 Mbps
DL: 84 Mbps
UL: 23 Mbps
DL: 100+ Mbps
UL: 23+
Mbps
Rel-99
HSDPA/HSUPA
HSPA+ (HSPA Evolution)
WCDMA
Rel-5
Rel-6
Rel-7
Rel-8
Rel-9
Beyond Rel-9
deployment
LTE specification
process ~ 2007Q4
& service
LTE-A
enhancement
DL:300 Mbps
UL: 75 Mbps
DL: 1 Gbps
UL: 100 Mbps

LTE - background

• Motivation:

– Based on HSPA success story(274* commercial HSPA networks worldwide)

– Uptake of mobile data traffic upon cellular networks enforces:

• Reduced latency

• Higher user data rate

• Improved system capacity and coverage

• Cost-reduction per bit

Expectation:

– Detailed requirements captured in 3GPP TR 25.913

– NGMN formally released requirements on next generation RAN in late 2006**

released requirements on next generation RAN in late 2006** *source: www.gsacom.com “ mobile broadband evolution:

LTE - background

• Motivation:

– Based on HSPA success story(274* commercial HSPA networks worldwide)

– Uptake of mobile data traffic upon cellular networks enforces:

• Reduced latency

• Higher user data rate

• Improved system capacity and coverage

• Cost-reduction per bit

system capacity and coverage • Cost-reduction per bit • Expectation: – Detailed requirements captured in

Expectation:

– Detailed requirements captured in 3GPP TR 25.913

– NGMN formally released requirements on next generation RAN in late 2006**

released requirements on next generation RAN in late 2006** *source: www.gsacom.com “ mobile broadband evolution:
released requirements on next generation RAN in late 2006** *source: www.gsacom.com “ mobile broadband evolution:

*source: www.gsacom.com “ mobile broadband evolution: roadmap from HSPA to LTE” UMTS forum White paper **http://www.ngmn.org/nc/de/downloads/techdownloads.html

All rights reserved @ 2009

LTE feature overview

• Flexible and expandable spectrum bandwidth

• Simplified network architecture

• High data throughput (Macro eNodeB & Home eNodeB)

• Support for multi-antenna scheme (up to 4x4 MIMO in Rel-8)

• Time-frequency scheduling on shared-channel

• Soft(fractional) frequency reuse

Self-Organizing Network (SON)

LTE spectrum flexibility

• Operating bands

– Flexible carriers: from 700MHz to

2600MHz

– Extensible bandwidth: from 5MHz to

20MHz

FDD Pair

– Extensible bandwidth: from 5MHz to 20MHz FDD Pair uplink downlink 5 MHz 20 MHz Channel
uplink downlink 5 MHz 20 MHz Channel bandwidth (MHz) Transmission bandwidth configuration(RBs) active RBs All
uplink
downlink
5 MHz
20 MHz
Channel bandwidth (MHz)
Transmission bandwidth configuration(RBs)
active RBs
All rights reserved @ 2009

LTE basic parameters

Frequency range

UMTS FDD bands and TDD bands defined in 36.101(v860) Table 5.5.1

channel bandwidth (MHz)

1.4

3

5

10

15

20

Transmission bandwidth NRB:

(1 resource block = 180kHz in 1ms TTI)

6

15

25

50

75

100

Modulation Schemes:

Downlink: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

Uplink: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM(optional)

downlink: OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)

Multiple Access:

uplink: SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access)

downlink: TxAA, spatial multiplexing, CDD ,max 4x4 array

Multi-Antenna Technology

Uplink: Multi-user collaborative MIMO

Peak data rate

Downlink: 150Mbps(UE Category 4, 2x2 MIMO, 20MHz bandwidth) 300Mbps(UE category 5, 4x4 MIMO, 20MHz bandwidth)

Uplink: 75Mbps(20MHz bandwidth)

LTE Peak throughput w.r.t UE categories

Table 4.1-1: Downlink physical layer parameter values set by the field ue-Category

UE Category Maximum number of DL-SCH transport block bits received within a TTI Maximum number
UE Category
Maximum number of DL-SCH
transport block bits received
within a TTI
Maximum number of bits of
a DL-SCH transport
block received within
a TTI
Total number of
soft
channel
bits
Maximum number of
supported layers for
spatial multiplexing
in DL
Category 1
10296
Peak rate
10296
250368
1
150Mbps with
Category 2
51024
51024
1237248
2
2x2 MIMO
Category 3
102048
75376
1237248
2
Category 4
150752
75376
1827072
2
Category 5
299552
149776
3667200
4
Peak rate 300Mbps
with 4x4 MIMO
Table 4.1-2: Uplink physical layer parameter values set by the field ue-Category UE Maximum number
Table 4.1-2: Uplink physical layer parameter values set by the field ue-Category
UE
Maximum number of bits of an
UL-SCH transport block
transmitted within a TTI
Support for
Cate
64QAM in
gory
UL
Category 1
5160
No
Category 2
25456
No
Peak rate
Category 3
51024
75Mbps
No
Category 4
51024
No
Category 5
75376
Yes

3GPP TS 36.306 v850 “User Equipment (UE) radio access capabilities“

All rights reserved @ 2009

LTE UE category

UE Category

1

2

3

4

5

Peak rate

DL

10

50

100

150

300

(Mbps)

UL

5

25

50

50

75

RF bandwidth

 

20 MHz

 

DL

 

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

 

Modulation

   

QPSK,

UL

 

QPSK, 16QAM

 

16QAM,

 

64QAM

2 Rx Diversity

 

Assumed in performance requirements

 

2x2 MIMO

Optional

 

Mandatory

 

4x4 MIMO

 

Not supported

 

Mandatory

Channel dependent scheduling

Time-frequency scheduling

Channel dependent scheduling • Time-frequency scheduling UE #1 UE #2 All rights reserved @ 2009
Channel dependent scheduling • Time-frequency scheduling UE #1 UE #2 All rights reserved @ 2009
UE #1 UE #2
UE #1
UE #2

Sub-

Soft (fractional) frequency reuse

• Soft Frequency Reuse(SFR):

– inner part of cell uses all subbands with less power;

– Outer part of cell uses pre-served subbands with higher power;

part of cell uses pre-s erved subbands with higher power; BS 2 carriers MS 22 MS

BS 2

carriers MS 22 MS 21 ytisendrwepo
carriers
MS 22
MS 21
ytisendrwepo
MS 31 MS 32 sub- carrier ytisnedrewoP
MS 31
MS 32
sub-
carrier
ytisnedrewoP
Power density MS 12 carrier
Power density
MS 12
carrier
sub- carrier ytisnedrewoP Power density MS 12 carrier MS 11 sub- BS 1 3GPP R1-050841 “Further

MS 11

carrier ytisnedrewoP Power density MS 12 carrier MS 11 sub- BS 1 3GPP R1-050841 “Further Analysis

sub-

BS 1

ytisnedrewoP Power density MS 12 carrier MS 11 sub- BS 1 3GPP R1-050841 “Further Analysis of

3GPP R1-050841 “Further Analysis of Soft Frequency Reuse Scheme “

BS 3

All rights reserved @ 2009

E-UTRAN overview

E-UTRAN architecture

E-UTRAN architecture 1S S1 X2 1S X2 S1 All rights reserved @ 2009
E-UTRAN architecture 1S S1 X2 1S X2 S1 All rights reserved @ 2009
E-UTRAN architecture 1S S1 X2 1S X2 S1 All rights reserved @ 2009
E-UTRAN architecture 1S S1 X2 1S X2 S1 All rights reserved @ 2009
E-UTRAN architecture 1S S1 X2 1S X2 S1 All rights reserved @ 2009
E-UTRAN architecture 1S S1 X2 1S X2 S1 All rights reserved @ 2009
1S S1 X2 1S X2 S1
1S
S1
X2
1S
X2
S1
E-UTRAN architecture 1S S1 X2 1S X2 S1 All rights reserved @ 2009
E-UTRAN architecture 1S S1 X2 1S X2 S1 All rights reserved @ 2009
E-UTRAN architecture 1S S1 X2 1S X2 S1 All rights reserved @ 2009

E-UTRAN architecture

E-UTRAN architecture All rights reserved @ 2009

All rights reserved @ 2009

E-UTRAN radio protocol

notifications common dedicated System Paging RRC information Dedicated Control and information transfer SRB0
notifications
common
dedicated
System
Paging
RRC
information
Dedicated Control
and information transfer
SRB0
SRB1
SRB2
DRB1
DRB2
Integrity and
Integrity and
ciphering and
ciphering and
PDCP
ciphering
ciphering
ROHC
ROHC
RLC
ARQ
ARQ
ARQ
ARQ
PCCH
BCCH
CCCH
DCCH 1
DCCH 2
DTCH 1
DTCH 2

MAC

Multiplexing and HARQ control

PCH BCH RACH DL-SCH UL-SCH PHY layer functions PBCH PRACH PDSCH PUSCH
PCH
BCH
RACH
DL-SCH
UL-SCH
PHY layer functions
PBCH
PRACH
PDSCH
PUSCH

radio

bearers

logical

channels

transport

channels

physical

channels

E-UTRAN radio channels

downlink Logical PCCH BCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH MCCH MTCH channels Transport channels PCH BCH DL-SCH
downlink
Logical
PCCH
BCCH
CCCH
DCCH
DTCH
MCCH
MTCH
channels
Transport channels
PCH
BCH
DL-SCH
MCH
PDCCH
PBCH
PDSCH
PMCH
Physical channels

uplink

MCH PDCCH PBCH PDSCH PMCH Physical channels uplink CCCH DCCH DTCH RACH UL-SCH PRACH PUCCH PUSCH
MCH PDCCH PBCH PDSCH PMCH Physical channels uplink CCCH DCCH DTCH RACH UL-SCH PRACH PUCCH PUSCH

CCCH

DCCH
DCCH
DTCH
DTCH
PBCH PDSCH PMCH Physical channels uplink CCCH DCCH DTCH RACH UL-SCH PRACH PUCCH PUSCH • Logical

RACH

UL-SCH

PMCH Physical channels uplink CCCH DCCH DTCH RACH UL-SCH PRACH PUCCH PUSCH • Logical Channels Define
PMCH Physical channels uplink CCCH DCCH DTCH RACH UL-SCH PRACH PUCCH PUSCH • Logical Channels Define

PRACH

PUCCH
PUCCH
PUSCH
PUSCH

Logical Channels Define what type of information is transmitted over the air, e.g. traffic channels, control channels, system broadcast, etc. Transport Channels – no per-user dedicated channels! Define how is something transmitted over the air, e.g. what are encoding, interleaving options used to transmit data Physical Channels Define where is something transmitted over the air, e.g. first N symbols in the DL frame

Define where is something transmitted over the air, e .g. first N symbols in the DL

All rights reserved @ 2009

E-UTRAN bearers

SRB: internal E-UTRAN signalings such as RRC signalings, RB management signalings as RRC signalings, RB management signalings

NAS signalings: such as tracking area update and mobility management messages update and mobility management messages

data traffic: E-UTRAN radio bearer + S1 bearer +S5/S8 bearer arer + S1 bearer +S5/S8 bearer

L1/L2 control channel P-GW S-GW HTTP UDP RTP TCP eNodeB RRC NAS IP UE MME
L1/L2 control channel
P-GW
S-GW
HTTP
UDP RTP TCP
eNodeB
RRC NAS
IP
UE
MME
S5/S8
PDCP
E-UTRAN radio bearer
S1 bearer
bearer
MAC RLC
LTE
L1
RRC
PDCP
GTP-u
S1 AP
SCTP
UDP
MAC RLC
LTE
L1
IP
Layer 2
PHY
NAS
UDP
GTP-u
UDP
SCTP
S1 AP
GTP-u
IP
PHY
IP
L2
IP
PHY
PHY
L2
L2
UDP
GTP-u IP
IP
PHY
L2

E-UTRAN – Control plane stack

MME/ UE eNodeB 24.301 NAS NAS eNodeB 36.331 RRC RRC S1AP 36.413 S1AP X2AP 36.423
MME/
UE
eNodeB
24.301
NAS
NAS
eNodeB
36.331
RRC
RRC
S1AP
36.413
S1AP
X2AP
36.423
X2AP
36.323
PDCP
PDCP
36.412
SCTP
SCTP
36.322
36.422
RLC
RLC
IP
IP
36.321
MAC
MAC
L2
L2
36.211~36.214
PHY
PHY
L1
L1
LTE-Uu
S1-MME/X2-C

E-UTRAN – User Plane Stack

UE PDN/S-GW eNodeB eNodeB Application IP IP 36.323 29.274 GTP-u PDCP PDCP GTP-u 36.322 RLC
UE
PDN/S-GW
eNodeB
eNodeB
Application
IP
IP
36.323
29.274 GTP-u
PDCP
PDCP
GTP-u
36.322
RLC
RLC
UDP
UDP
IP
IP
36.321
MAC
MAC
L2
L2
36.211~36.214
PHY
PHY
L1
L1
LTE-Uu
S1-U/X2-u

Radio resource management

L3

RRC

Interference QoS management management mobility Admission management Load control Semi-persistent control
Interference
QoS management
management
mobility
Admission
management
Load
control
Semi-persistent
control
scheduling

PDCP

L2

RLC

MAC

Hybrid ARQ manager
Hybrid ARQ
manager
Dynamic scheduling
Dynamic
scheduling

Link adaptation

L1

PHY

PDCCH adaptation
PDCCH
adaptation

CQI manager

E-UTRAN mobility

• Simplified RRC states

• Idle-mode mobility (similar as HSPA)

• Connected-mode mobility

– handover controlled by network

RRC-idle RRC-connected
RRC-idle
RRC-connected

• Cell reselection decided by UE

• Based on UE measurements

• Controlled by broadcasted parameters

• Different priorities assigned to frequency layers

• Network controlled handovers

• Based on UE measurements

MME/SGW HO decision Call Admission Source target eNodeB eNodeB Target cell signal quality meets reporting
MME/SGW
HO decision
Call
Admission
Source
target
eNodeB
eNodeB
Target cell signal
quality meets
reporting threshold
Target cell signal quality meets reporting threshold Mobility difference betw een UTRAN and E-UTRAN UTRAN

Mobility difference between UTRAN and E-UTRAN

UTRAN

E-UTRAN

Location area (CS core)

Not relevant since no CS connections

Routing area

Tracking area

SHO

No SHO

Cell_FACH, Cell_PCH,URA_PCH

No similar RRC states

RNC hides most of mobility

Core network sees every handover

Neighbour cell list required

No need to provide cell-specific information, only carrier-frequency is required.

All rights reserved @ 2009

Overview of a PS call – control plane

• UE activities after power-on

Power up
Power up
– control plane • UE activities after power-on Power up Initial cell search Derive system information

Initial

cell search

Derive system information

Random

Access

cell search Derive system information Random Access Data Tx/Rx UE E-UTRAN PSS/SSS BCH PCFICH/PHICH PDCCH
cell search Derive system information Random Access Data Tx/Rx UE E-UTRAN PSS/SSS BCH PCFICH/PHICH PDCCH
cell search Derive system information Random Access Data Tx/Rx UE E-UTRAN PSS/SSS BCH PCFICH/PHICH PDCCH

Data Tx/Rx

UE

E-UTRAN

PSS/SSS BCH PCFICH/PHICH PDCCH Rnadom Access PDSCH PUSCH/PUCCH
PSS/SSS
BCH
PCFICH/PHICH
PDCCH
Rnadom Access
PDSCH
PUSCH/PUCCH

paging

PDCCH Rnadom Access PDSCH PUSCH/PUCCH paging Radom Access procedure RRC Connection Request RRC Connection

Radom Access procedure

RRC Connection Request

paging Radom Access procedure RRC Connection Request RRC Connection Setup RRC Connection Setup Complete Security

RRC Connection Setup

Access procedure RRC Connection Request RRC Connection Setup RRC Connection Setup Complete Security procedures RRC

RRC Connection Setup Complete

Request RRC Connection Setup RRC Connection Setup Complete Security procedures RRC Connection Reconfiguration RRC

Security procedures

RRC Connection Reconfiguration RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete

Reconfiguration RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete Connection establishment Radio bearer establishment All
Reconfiguration RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete Connection establishment Radio bearer establishment All
Connection establishment
Connection
establishment

Radio bearer

establishment

All rights reserved @ 2009

Overview of a PS call – control plane

• UE activities after power-on

Power up
Power up
– control plane • UE activities after power-on Power up Initial cell search Derive system information

Initial

cell search

Derive system information

Random

Access

cell search Derive system information Random Access Data Tx/Rx UE E-UTRAN paging Radom Access procedure
cell search Derive system information Random Access Data Tx/Rx UE E-UTRAN paging Radom Access procedure
cell search Derive system information Random Access Data Tx/Rx UE E-UTRAN paging Radom Access procedure

Data Tx/Rx

UE E-UTRAN paging Radom Access procedure Connection RRC Connection Request establishment RRC Connection Setup RRC
UE
E-UTRAN
paging
Radom Access procedure
Connection
RRC Connection Request
establishment
RRC Connection Setup
RRC Connection Setup Complete
ACK & uplink scheduling grant
Radio bearer
DL data transmission
Security procedures
establishment
RRC Connection Reconfiguration
RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete
ACK & channel status report
UL data transmission

All rights reserved @ 2009

Overview of a PS call – user plane

1 resource block:

180 kHz = 12 subcarriers

– user plane 1 resource block: 180 kHz = 12 subcarriers 1 resource block pair 1

1 resource block pair

1 TTI = 1ms = 2 slots

UE
UE
subcarriers 1 resource block pair 1 TTI = 1ms = 2 slots UE Tx PS data

Tx

PS data via S1 interface

 
 
 

eNodeB

  eNodeB

to RF

 
     

OFDM Signal

PDCP

Generation

   

(Ciphering

 

Header Compression,)

 
  (Ciphering   Header Compression,)   resource   RLC     mapping

resource

 
resource   RLC    

RLC

   

mapping

(Segmentation, ARQ)

 
 
 

scheduling

 

data modulator

data modulator
data modulator
data modulator
data modulator

coding

coding  
coding  
 
 
 
   
 
     
Multiplexing per user
Multiplexing
per
user

HARQ

Overview of a PS call – user plane

Overview of a PS call – user plane Tx PS data via S1 interface    

Tx

PS data via S1 interface

 
 
 

eNodeB

  eNodeB

to RF

 
     

OFDM Signal

PDCP

Generation

   

(Ciphering

 

Header Compression,)

 
  (Ciphering   Header Compression,)   resource   RLC     mapping

resource

 
resource   RLC    

RLC

   

mapping

(Segmentation, ARQ)

 
 
 

scheduling

 

data modulator

data modulator
data modulator
data modulator
data modulator

coding

coding  
coding  
 
 
 
   
 
     
Multiplexing per user
Multiplexing
per
user

HARQ

1 resource block:

180 kHz = 12 subcarriers

user HARQ 1 resource block: 180 kHz = 12 subcarriers Occupying different radio resources across TTIs
Occupying different radio resources across TTIs adapts to time-varying radio channel condition!
Occupying different radio
resources across TTIs
adapts to time-varying
radio channel condition!

1 resource block pair

1 TTI = 1ms = 2 slots

UE
UE

All rights reserved @ 2009

LTE initial deployment scenario

• Similar coverage as 3G HSPA on existing 3G frequency bands

– LTE radio transmission technology itself does not provide coverage boost.

– Lower frequency (e.g, 900MHz) provides better coverage but demands large- size antennas.

• “Over-layed” initial deployment on hot-spot area

– Spectrum availability

– Backhaul capacity

– Handset maturity (multi-mode)

– Backhaul capacity – Handset maturity (multi-mode) urban (0.6 ~ 1.2km) sub-urban (1.5 ~ 3.4km) Rural

urban

(0.6 ~ 1.2km)

sub-urban

(1.5 ~ 3.4km)

Rural

(26 ~ 50 km)

All rights reserved @ 2009

LTE initial trial performance

1Mpbs throughput at cell edge

• LTE data rates

– Peak rate measured in lab and trial align with 3GPP performance targets

– In reality, user throughputs are impacted by

• RF conditions & UE speed

• Inter-cell interference & multiple users sharing the capacity

• Application overhead

Peak rate measured with a single user in unloaded, optimal radio condition

Top 5%, loaded Average Cell edge
Top 5%, loaded
Average
Cell edge

Average: 10 active users with 3Mbps throughput per user

Average: 10 active users with 3Mbps throughput per user Active users per cell Active users per

Active users per cell

Active users per cell

Source: www.lstiforum.org

All rights reserved @ 2009

Macro Cellular network: peak rate Vs average rate

• Unlike circuit-switched network design, live network throughput is not fixed any more, being dependent on many environmental factors such as CQI,Tx buffer status,etc.

• In macro cellular network, network average throughput falls behind peak rate by 10x.

• Cellular booster for Mobile broadband

HSPA cell throughput

– Ubiquitous coverage

Tput (Mbps)

G-factor (dB)

– High capacity & data rate 8 25 – Low cost 4 15 >> “FemtoCell”
– High capacity & data rate
8
25
– Low cost
4
15
>> “FemtoCell” – Home eNodeB!
10
2
2
0
-3

3GPP TS 25.101 Table 9.8D3, 9.8D4, 9.8F3 for PA3

All rights reserved @ 2009

LTE initial trial performance

• User plane latency

– 3GPP RTT target is 10ms for short IP packet

– Field trial results:

air interface RTTtarget is 10ms for short IP packet – Field trial results: End-to-End Ping EPC App Server

short IP packet – Field trial results: air interface RTT End-to-End Ping EPC App Server •
End-to-End Ping EPC App Server
End-to-End Ping
EPC
App Server

10~13ms with pre-scheduled uplink

<25ms with on-demand uplink

pre-scheduled uplink • <25ms with on-demand uplink • Control plane latency – Short latency helps to

• Control plane latency

– Short latency helps to keep “always on” user experience

– Field trial results

Active

(Cell_DCH)

Less than 50msec

Dormant (Cell_PCH)
Dormant
(Cell_PCH)
(Cell_DCH) Less than 50msec Dormant (Cell_PCH) Less than 100msec Camped-state (idle) • Measured idle to

Less than 100msec

Camped-state

(idle)

• Measured idle to active latency: 70~ 100ms

* Measurement

* Source: www.lstiforum.org

taken with one UE in unloaded case

All rights reserved @ 2009

OFDMA and SC-FDMA rationale

OFDM fundamentals – frequency spectrum

OFDM FDM … f f π⋅ sin( f ) Δ f No Inter-Carrier Interference! −
OFDM
FDM
f
f
π⋅
sin(
f )
Δ f
No Inter-Carrier
Interference!
− 2Δf −Δf
0 Δf 2Δf
frequency domain
1
=
T u
Δ f
Time domain

All rights reserved @ 2009

OFDM fundamentals – multicarrier modulation

 

Nc 1

 

Nc 1

 

x

(

t

)

=

x

k

(

t

)

=

a

k

e

j

2

k Δ ft

π

 

k = 0

 

k = 0

Specifying system sampling rate:

 

f

s

=1/ = ⋅Δ

T

s

N

f

Nc 1

We get:

x

n

=

x ( nTs

)

=

a e

k

j

2

k Δ fnTs

π

   

k = 0

 

Nc 1

 

2

k

n

N 1

2

k

n

=

a

k

e

j

π

N

=

a e

k

j

π

N

 

k = 0

   

k = 0

       
 

a

 
  a    
 

Modulated

subcarriers

 
subcarriers  
subcarriers  
subcarriers  
subcarriers  
subcarriers  
subcarriers  
subcarriers  
subcarriers  
subcarriers  

“+1”

 
 

“-1”

“+1”   “-1” “+1”

“+1”

“+1”   “-1” “+1”

f1 f2

f2 f1

f3
f3
+
+

e

j

f t

2π

0

  “-1” “+1” f1 f2 f3 + e j f t 2 π 0 … …
… … … 0 a x ( ) t X0 0 0 a a ,
0
a
x
( )
t
X0
0
0
a
a
,
a
,
,
a
1
0
1
N
c− 1
X1
j
f t
e
1
a
,
a
,
,
a
S/P
0
1
N
c− 1
x(t)
a
x
( )
t
S/P
1
1
+
a
IFFT
P/S
Nc−1
j
2
π
f
t
e
Nc − 1
0
a
x
( )
t
Nc− 1
XN-1
Nc−1
0

All rights reserved @ 2009

OFDM fundamentals- Cyclic Prefix

τ
τ

directed path:

reflected path:

directed path: reflected path:
directed path:
reflected path:

Guard time: Cyclic Prefix Vs Padding Zeroes

T u a a a k−1 k k+1 τ Integration interval of direct path
T
u
a
a
a
k−1
k
k+1
τ
Integration interval
of direct path
τ T >τ cp
τ
T
cp
τ Integration interval of direct path τ T >τ cp g u a r d t
τ Integration interval of direct path τ T >τ cp g u a r d t
τ Integration interval of direct path τ T >τ cp g u a r d t
τ Integration interval of direct path τ T >τ cp g u a r d t

guard time

FFT integration time=1/Carrier spacing

>τ cp g u a r d t i m e FFT integration time=1/Carrier spacing OFDM

OFDM symbol time

All rights reserved @ 2009

OFDM fundamentals- Cyclic Prefix

τ
τ
T u a a a k−1 k k+1 τ Integration interval of direct path
T
u
a
a
a
k−1
k
k+1
τ
Integration interval
of direct path

directed path:

reflected path:

directed path: reflected path:
directed path:
reflected path:
… τ T >τ cp a 0 a add 1 IFFT P/S Cyclic Tu+Tcp a
τ
T
cp
a
0
a
add
1
IFFT
P/S
Cyclic
Tu+Tcp
a
Tu
Prefix
Nc−1

Guard time: Cyclic Prefix Vs Padding Zeroes

Prefix Nc−1 Guard time: Cyclic Pref ix Vs Padding Zeroes an OFDM symbol g u a
Prefix Nc−1 Guard time: Cyclic Pref ix Vs Padding Zeroes an OFDM symbol g u a
Prefix Nc−1 Guard time: Cyclic Pref ix Vs Padding Zeroes an OFDM symbol g u a
Prefix Nc−1 Guard time: Cyclic Pref ix Vs Padding Zeroes an OFDM symbol g u a
Prefix Nc−1 Guard time: Cyclic Pref ix Vs Padding Zeroes an OFDM symbol g u a
Prefix Nc−1 Guard time: Cyclic Pref ix Vs Padding Zeroes an OFDM symbol g u a
Prefix Nc−1 Guard time: Cyclic Pref ix Vs Padding Zeroes an OFDM symbol g u a

an OFDM symbol

Guard time: Cyclic Pref ix Vs Padding Zeroes an OFDM symbol g u a r d

guard time

FFT integration time=1/Carrier spacing

OFDM symbol g u a r d t i m e FFT integration time=1/Carrier spacing OFDM

OFDM symbol time

All rights reserved @ 2009

OFDM fundamentals – general link level chains

Pilot S/P IFFT P/S add CP Insertion Pulse RF Tx DAC shaping
Pilot
S/P
IFFT
P/S
add CP
Insertion
Pulse
RF Tx
DAC
shaping
QAM Coding Interleaving mapping
QAM
Coding
Interleaving
mapping

5 MHz Bandwidth

FFT Sub-carriers
FFT
Sub-carriers

Binary input data

Guard Intervals … Symbols Frequency …
Guard Intervals
Symbols
Frequency

Time

RF Rx ADC Timing and frequency Sync de- QAM CP de-coding Equalizer P/S FFT S/P
RF Rx
ADC
Timing and
frequency Sync
de- QAM
CP
de-coding
Equalizer
P/S
FFT
S/P
interleaving
de-mapping
removal

Binary output data

“Digital communications: fundamentals and applications” by Bernard Sklar, Prentice Hall, 1998. ISBN: 0-13-212713-x “OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications” by Richard van Nee & Ramjee Prasad, Artech house,2000, ISBN: 0-89006-530-6 3GPP TR 25892-600 feasibility study for OFDM in UTRAN

All rights reserved @ 2009

OFDM fundamentals – frequency domain equalizer

MRC filter:

Zero Forcing:

MMSE:

* w τ = h −τ ( ) ( ) h(τ)⊗ w(τ) =1 2 ε=
*
w τ = h −τ
(
)
(
)
h(τ)⊗ w(τ) =1
2
ε=
E {
s ˆ( t )
s t
( )
}

transmitter

Channel model

receiver

n(t) S(t) h(τ) +
n(t)
S(t)
h(τ)
+
) } transmitter Channel model receiver n(t) S(t) h(τ) + r ( t ) ~ s

r(t)

Channel model receiver n(t) S(t) h(τ) + r ( t ) ~ s ( ) t
~ s ( ) t w(τ)
~
s
( )
t
w(τ)
receiver n(t) S(t) h(τ) + r ( t ) ~ s ( ) t w(τ) r(t)
receiver n(t) S(t) h(τ) + r ( t ) ~ s ( ) t w(τ) r(t)
r(t) DFT
r(t)
DFT

W

0
0

ˆ

S

R

0 0 ⊗ W N−1 R N−1 S ˆ N− 1 ⊗
0
0
W N−1
R N−1
S ˆ N− 1
r n D D D W0 W1 WL-1 sˆ + n
r
n
D
D D
W0
W1
WL-1
+
n

sˆ(t)

N− 1 ⊗ r n D D D W0 W1 WL-1 sˆ + n s ˆ(

IDFT

Time domain

frequency domain

Frequency domain equalizer outperforms with much less complexity!

“Frequency domain equalization for single carrier broadband wireless systems”, David Falconer , et.al, IEEE Communication magazine, 2002 April

All rights reserved @ 2009

OFDM fundamentals

OFDM fundamentals f • Advantages: – OFDM itself does not pr ovide processing gains, but provides
OFDM fundamentals f • Advantages: – OFDM itself does not pr ovide processing gains, but provides

f

OFDM fundamentals f • Advantages: – OFDM itself does not pr ovide processing gains, but provides
OFDM fundamentals f • Advantages: – OFDM itself does not pr ovide processing gains, but provides

Advantages:

– OFDM itself does not provide processing gains, but provides a degree of freedom in frequency domain by partitioning the wideband channel into multiple narrow “flat-fading” sub-channels.

– Channel coding is mandatory for OFDM to combat frequency-selective fading.

– Efficiently combating multi-path propagation in term of cyclic prefix

– OFDM receiver (frequency domain equalizer) has less complexity than that of Rake receiver on wideband channels.

– OFDM characterizes flexible spectrum expansion for cellular systems.

Drawbacks:

f

– high peak-to-average ratio.

– Sensitive to frequency offset, hence to Doppler-shift as well

OFDM fundamentals – downlink OFDMA

OFDM fundamentals – downlink OFDMA f 1 resource block: 180 kHz = 12 subcarriers PDCCH 1

f

OFDM fundamentals – downlink OFDMA f 1 resource block: 180 kHz = 12 subcarriers PDCCH 1
OFDM fundamentals – downlink OFDMA f 1 resource block: 180 kHz = 12 subcarriers PDCCH 1
OFDM fundamentals – downlink OFDMA f 1 resource block: 180 kHz = 12 subcarriers PDCCH 1
OFDM fundamentals – downlink OFDMA f 1 resource block: 180 kHz = 12 subcarriers PDCCH 1
OFDM fundamentals – downlink OFDMA f 1 resource block: 180 kHz = 12 subcarriers PDCCH 1
OFDM fundamentals – downlink OFDMA f 1 resource block: 180 kHz = 12 subcarriers PDCCH 1

1 resource block:

180 kHz = 12 subcarriers PDCCH 1 slot = 0.5 ms PDSCH
180 kHz = 12 subcarriers
PDCCH
1 slot = 0.5 ms
PDSCH

• OFDMA provides flexible scheduling in time-frequency domain.

• In case of multi-carrier transmission, OFDMA has larger PAPR than traditional single carrier transmission. Fortunately this is less concerned with downlink.

• Does OFDMA suits for uplink transmission?

– Uplink being sensitive to PAPR due to UE implementation requirements

– With wider bandwidth in operation, OFDMA in uplink will have lower power per pilot symbol which in turn leads to deterioration of demodulation performance.

Wideband single carrier transmission - frequency domain equalizer (SC-FDE)

• While time-domain discrete equalizer has effect of “linear convolution” on channel response; frequency domain equalizer actually serves as “cyclic convolution” thereof.

• The difference will make first L-1 symbols “incorrect” at the output of FDE.

• Solution could be either “overlapped processing” or “cyclic prefix” added in transmitter.

transmitter block-wise generation x(t) Single carrier Pulse signal CP Shaping generation N samples insertion
transmitter
block-wise generation
x(t)
Single carrier
Pulse
signal
CP
Shaping
generation
N samples
insertion N+Ncp samples

SC-FDMA – multiple access with FDE

Binary input data QAM DFT Subcarrier IFFT Coding Interleaving P/S add CP mapping mapping (size
Binary input data
QAM
DFT
Subcarrier
IFFT
Coding
Interleaving
P/S
add CP
mapping
mapping
(size M)
(size N)
Pulse
RF Tx
DAC
shaping
FDMA:
(size M) (size N) Pulse RF Tx DAC shaping FDMA: user multiplexing in frequency domain Single

user multiplexing in frequency domain

Single Carrier:

sequential transmission of the symbols over a single frequency carrier

transmission of the symbols over a single frequency carrier Binary output data RF Rx ADC Timing

Binary output data

symbols over a single frequency carrier Binary output data RF Rx ADC Timing and frequency Sync
RF Rx ADC Timing and frequency Sync QAM IDFT Freq Domain FFT CP P/S S/P
RF Rx
ADC
Timing and
frequency Sync
QAM
IDFT
Freq Domain
FFT
CP
P/S
S/P
de-mapping
(Size M)
Equalizer
(size N)
removal
de- de-coding interleaving
de-
de-coding
interleaving

SC-FDMA – multiple access with SC-FDE

• Multiple access in LTE uplink

Terminal A data stream DFT Pulse OFDM Shaping 0
Terminal A
data stream
DFT
Pulse
OFDM
Shaping
0
Terminal B 0 data stream Pulse OFDM DFT Shaping
Terminal B
0
data stream
Pulse
OFDM
DFT
Shaping
0 Terminal B 0 data stream Pulse OFDM DFT Shaping f f Orthogonal uplink design in
0 Terminal B 0 data stream Pulse OFDM DFT Shaping f f Orthogonal uplink design in
0 Terminal B 0 data stream Pulse OFDM DFT Shaping f f Orthogonal uplink design in
0 Terminal B 0 data stream Pulse OFDM DFT Shaping f f Orthogonal uplink design in
0 Terminal B 0 data stream Pulse OFDM DFT Shaping f f Orthogonal uplink design in
0 Terminal B 0 data stream Pulse OFDM DFT Shaping f f Orthogonal uplink design in

f

f

Orthogonal uplink design in frequency domain!

SC-FDMA – multiple access with SC-FDE

• Multiple access in LTE uplink

Terminal A data stream DFT Pulse OFDM Shaping 0
Terminal A
data stream
DFT
Pulse
OFDM
Shaping
0
Terminal B 0 data stream Pulse OFDM DFT Shaping
Terminal B
0
data stream
Pulse
OFDM
DFT
Shaping
f f
f
f

Orthogonal uplink design in frequency domain!

………

SC-FDMA – multiple access with FDE

……… … SC-FDMA – multiple access with FDE Adopted by LTE uplink! Localized FDMA: A B
Adopted by LTE uplink!
Adopted by
LTE uplink!

Localized FDMA:

A B C D DFT (M) IFFT (N) …
A
B
C
D
DFT
(M)
IFFT
(N)
DFT IFFT CP D/A conversion RF

DFT

IFFT

CP

D/A conversion

RF

(M)

(N)

insertion

/pulse shaping

Also called DFT- Spread OFDM!

IFFT

(N)

/pulse shaping Also called DFT- Spread OFDM! IFFT (N) block-wise signals Distributed FDMA: A B C
/pulse shaping Also called DFT- Spread OFDM! IFFT (N) block-wise signals Distributed FDMA: A B C
block-wise signals
block-wise
signals

Distributed FDMA:

A B C D
A
B
C
D

DFT

(M)

(N) block-wise signals Distributed FDMA: A B C D DFT (M) time domain: OverSampling in freq
(N) block-wise signals Distributed FDMA: A B C D DFT (M) time domain: OverSampling in freq
(N) block-wise signals Distributed FDMA: A B C D DFT (M) time domain: OverSampling in freq

time domain:

OverSampling in freq domain results in interpolation at time domain output

freq domain results in interpolation at time domain output A * * * B * *

A

*

*

*

B

*

*

*

C

*

*

*

D

*

*

*

Upsampling in freq domain makes repeated sequence at time domain output

freq domain makes repeated sequence at time domain output A B C D A B C

A

B

C

D

A

B

C

D

A

B

C

D

A

B

C

D

frequency domain:
frequency domain:

All rights reserved @ 2009

OFDMA Vs SC-FDMA

Time domain:

- OFDM symbol is a sum of all data symbols by IFFT

- SC-FDMA symbol is repeated sequence of data “chips”

Input data symbols

OFDM symbol

SC-FDMA symbol *

“chips” Input data symbols OFDM symbol SC-FDMA symbol * time domain t •Frequency domain - OFDM
“chips” Input data symbols OFDM symbol SC-FDMA symbol * time domain t •Frequency domain - OFDM
“chips” Input data symbols OFDM symbol SC-FDMA symbol * time domain t •Frequency domain - OFDM
“chips” Input data symbols OFDM symbol SC-FDMA symbol * time domain t •Frequency domain - OFDM
“chips” Input data symbols OFDM symbol SC-FDMA symbol * time domain t •Frequency domain - OFDM
“chips” Input data symbols OFDM symbol SC-FDMA symbol * time domain t •Frequency domain - OFDM
“chips” Input data symbols OFDM symbol SC-FDMA symbol * time domain t •Frequency domain - OFDM
“chips” Input data symbols OFDM symbol SC-FDMA symbol * time domain t •Frequency domain - OFDM

time domain

t

•Frequency domain

- OFDM modulates each subcarrier with one data symbol

- SC-FDMA “distributes” all data symbols on each subcarrier.

“distributes” all data symbols on each subcarrier. frequency domain f * Assuming bandwidth expansion factor Q=4
“distributes” all data symbols on each subcarrier. frequency domain f * Assuming bandwidth expansion factor Q=4
“distributes” all data symbols on each subcarrier. frequency domain f * Assuming bandwidth expansion factor Q=4
“distributes” all data symbols on each subcarrier. frequency domain f * Assuming bandwidth expansion factor Q=4
“distributes” all data symbols on each subcarrier. frequency domain f * Assuming bandwidth expansion factor Q=4

frequency domain

f

* Assuming bandwidth expansion factor Q=4 in distributed FDMA.

All rights reserved @ 2009

OFDMA Vs SC-FDMA

• Similarities

– Block-wise data processing and use of Cyclic Prefix

– Divides transmission bandwidth into smaller sub-carriers

– Channel inversion/equalization is done in frequency domain

– SC-FDMA is regarded as DFT-Precoded or DFT-Spread OFDMA

• Difference

– Signal structure: In OFDMA each sub-carrier only carries information related to only one data symbol while in SC-FDMA, each sub-carrier contains information of all data symbols.

– Equalization: Equalization for OFDMA is done on per-subcarrier basis while for SC-FDMA, equalization is done over the group of sub-carriers used by transmitter.

– PAPR: SC-FDMA presents much lower PAPR than OFDMA does.

– Sensitivity to freq offset: yes for OFDMA but tolerable to SC-FDMA.

LTE Physical layer and transmission procedures

LTE physical layer – a vertical view

What kind of information is transmitted?

– Upper layer SDUs plus additional L1 control information in transmission, e.g Reference Signals, Sync signals,CQI, HARQ,etc

control information or user data

How is it transmitted?

– Downlink OFDMA and uplink SC-FDMA

– Channel dependent scheduling, HARQ,etc PDCP – multiple antenna support • Related L1 procedures RLC
– Channel dependent scheduling, HARQ,etc
PDCP
– multiple antenna support
• Related L1 procedures
RLC
random access, power control, time alignment, etc
MAC
Transport blocks
coding
Scrambling
modulation
multiplex
signals from
other channels
frequency
multiplex signals from other channels frequency control information reference signals time All rights

control informationmodulation multiplex signals from other channels frequency reference signals time All rights reserved @ 2009

reference signalsmodulation multiplex signals from other channels frequency control information time All rights reserved @ 2009

time

All rights reserved @ 2009

LTE physical layer - a horizontal view

• PBCH: carries system broadcast information

• PCFICH: indicates resources used for PDCCH

• PHICH: carries ACK/NACK for HARQ operation.

• PDCCH: carriers scheduling assignments and other control information

• PDSCH: conveys data or control information

• PMCH: for MBMS data transmission

• Reference signal

Synchronization signal (PSS,SSS)

PUCCH: carries control information

• • Feedback CQIs, data transmission • PDCCH notifies how to demodulate data
Feedback CQIs,
data transmission
PDCCH notifies
how to demodulate data

PRACH: to obtain uplink synchronization

PUSCH: for data or control information

Reference Signals (Demod RS & SRS)

Fundamental Downlink transmission scheme

1 radio frame = 10 sub-frames = 10 ms 1 sub-frame = 2 slot = 14 OFDM symbols*

1 sub-frame = 1 ms 1 resource element 1 slot = 0.5 ms = 7
1 sub-frame = 1 ms
1 resource
element
1 slot = 0.5 ms =
7 OFDM symbols
1 resourrc block =
12 sub-carriers = 180KHz
1 radio frame = 10 ms
⎧ 5.2
μ
s
,
for first OFDM symbol
Tcp =
66.7 us
Tcp
4.7
μ
s
,
for remaining symbols
Tcp _ e = 16.7μs
66.7 us

Tcp-e

System information broadcast

• System information

– MIB: transmitted on PBCH (40msTTI)

• information about downlink bandwidth

• PHICH configuration

• SFN

– SIB: transmitted on PDSCH(DL-SCH)

One BCH transportation block

CRC insertiontransmitted on PDSCH(DL-SCH) One BCH transportation block 1/3 conv. coding scrambling modulation antenna • SIB1:

1/3 conv. coding
1/3 conv.
coding
scrambling modulation antenna
scrambling
modulation
antenna

• SIB1: operator infor & access restriction infor

• SIB2: uplink cell bandwidth, random access parameters

• SIB3: cell-reselection

• SIB4~SIB8: neighbor cell infor

10MHz 600 subcarriers

10MHz

600 subcarriers

PBCH: the first 4 OFDM symbol in 2 nd Slot per 10ms frame

1.08 MHz

PBCH: the first 4 OFDM symbol in 2 n d Slot per 10ms frame 1.08 MHz
PBCH: the first 4 OFDM symbol in 2 n d Slot per 10ms frame 1.08 MHz

Synchronization signal

mapping

De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing

De-multiplexing

De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
De-multiplexing
mapping De-multiplexing 10ms frame
mapping De-multiplexing 10ms frame
mapping De-multiplexing 10ms frame
mapping De-multiplexing 10ms frame

10ms frame

1.08 MHz Synchronization signal mapping De-multiplexing 10ms frame 10ms frame All rights reserved @ 2009

10ms frame

All rights reserved @ 2009

Downlink control channels – PCFICH,PHICH

• PCFICH:

– tells about the size of the control region.

– Locates in the first OFDM symbol for each sub-frame.

– Locates in the first OFDM symbol for each sub-frame. 2 bits 1/16 block code •
2 bits 1/16 block code • PHICH:
2 bits
1/16
block code
• PHICH:
16 symbols 32 bits 32 bits Scrambling QPSK mod PCFICH-to-resource-element mapping depends on cell identity
16 symbols
32 bits
32 bits
Scrambling
QPSK mod
PCFICH-to-resource-element mapping
depends on cell identity so as to avoid
inter-cell interference.

– acknowledges uplink data transfer

– Locates in 1 st OFDM symbol for each sub-frame inferior to PCFICH allocation

One PHICH group contains 8 PHICHs

1 bit 3 bits I 3x BPSK mod repetition 12 symbols Orthogonal code … Q
1 bit
3
bits
I
3x
BPSK mod
repetition
12 symbols
Orthogonal code
Q
1 bit
3
bits
3x
BPSK mod
repetition
scrambling
Orthogonal code

All rights reserved @ 2009

Downlink control channels - PDCCH

• Downlink control information (DCIs)

Downlink scheduling assignments

Uplink scheduling assignments

Power control commands

• Control region size indicated by PCFICH

• Blind decoded by UE in its “search space” and common “search space” – allows UE’s micro-sleep even in active state

• QPSK always used but channel coding rate is variable

control region

used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information
used but channel coding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information

1 sub-frame = 1 ms

control informationcoding rate is variable control region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms reference signals R1-073373 “ Search

reference signalscontrol region 1 sub-frame = 1 ms control information R1-073373 “ Search space definition ofr L1/L2

CCH candidate 10

CCH candidate 4

CCH candidate 7

CCH candidate 3

CCH candidate 6

CCH candidate 9

CCH candidate 5

CCH candidate 8

CCH candidate 2

CCH candidate 1

Downlink control channels – PDCCH

• How to map DCIs to physical resource elements

Control Channel Elements(CCEs), consisting of 36 REs, are used to construct control channels.

CCE aggregated at pre-defined level(1,2,4,8) to ease blind detections.

• Usually 5MHz bandwidth system renders 6 UL/DL scheduling assignments within a sub-frame.

Control Channel Element 0

Control Channel Element 1

Control Channel Element 2

Control Channel Element 3

Control Channel Element 4

Control Channel Element 5

3 Control Channel Element 4 Control Channel Element 5 Control channel candidate set Or search space
3 Control Channel Element 4 Control Channel Element 5 Control channel candidate set Or search space
3 Control Channel Element 4 Control Channel Element 5 Control channel candidate set Or search space
3 Control Channel Element 4 Control Channel Element 5 Control channel candidate set Or search space
3 Control Channel Element 4 Control Channel Element 5 Control channel candidate set Or search space
3 Control Channel Element 4 Control Channel Element 5 Control channel candidate set Or search space
3 Control Channel Element 4 Control Channel Element 5 Control channel candidate set Or search space
3 Control Channel Element 4 Control Channel Element 5 Control channel candidate set Or search space

Control channel candidate set Or search space

Element 5 Control channel candidate set Or search space R1-070787 “Downlink L1/L2 CCH design” Control channel
Element 5 Control channel candidate set Or search space R1-070787 “Downlink L1/L2 CCH design” Control channel
Element 5 Control channel candidate set Or search space R1-070787 “Downlink L1/L2 CCH design” Control channel
Element 5 Control channel candidate set Or search space R1-070787 “Downlink L1/L2 CCH design” Control channel
Element 5 Control channel candidate set Or search space R1-070787 “Downlink L1/L2 CCH design” Control channel
Element 5 Control channel candidate set Or search space R1-070787 “Downlink L1/L2 CCH design” Control channel

R1-070787 “Downlink L1/L2 CCH design”

Control channel candidates on which the UE attempts to decode the information (10 decoding attempts in this example)

All rights reserved @ 2009

Downlink control channels - PDCCH

• Each PDCCH carries one DCI message.

Control information

Control information

Control information

CRC attachment 1/3 Conv Coding Rate mattching
CRC attachment
1/3 Conv Coding
Rate mattching
CRC attachment 1/3 Conv Coding Rate mattching
CRC attachment
1/3 Conv Coding
Rate mattching

CRC attachment

1/3 Conv Coding

Rate mattching

RNTI

RNTI

RNTI

……

CCE aggragation and PDCCH multiplexing

Scrambling

QPSK

Interleaving

Cell specific

Cyclic shift

All rights reserved @ 2009

Downlink shared channel: PDSCH

Transport block Transport block • Support up to 4 Tx antennas* from MAC from MAC
Transport block
Transport block
• Support up to 4 Tx antennas*
from MAC
from MAC
• Resource block allocation:
CRC
CRC
– Localized: with less signaling overheads
– Distributed: benefits from frequency diversity
Segmentation
Segmentation
• Channelization (location):
FEC
FEC
RM+HARQ
RM+HARQ
control information
reference signals
Scrambling
Scrambling
User A
data region
Modulation
Modulation
User B
User C
Antenna mapping
unused
Cell-specific, bit-level
scrambling for interference
randomization **
RB mapping
1 sub-frame = 1 ms
1 sub-frame = 1 ms

To OFDM modulation for each antenna

Downlink reference signals

• Cell-specific reference signals are length-31 Gold sequence, initialized based on cell ID and OFDM symbol location.

• Each antenna has a specific reference signal pattern, e.g 2 antennas

frequency domain spacing is 6 sub-carriers

Time domain spacing is 4 OFDM symbols

That is, 4 reference symbols per Resource Block per antenna

time Antenna 0 Antenna 1
time
Antenna 0
Antenna 1
per Resource Block per antenna time Antenna 0 Antenna 1 frequency 3GPP TS 36.211 “ physical
per Resource Block per antenna time Antenna 0 Antenna 1 frequency 3GPP TS 36.211 “ physical

frequency

3GPP TS 36.211 “ physical channels and modulation“ section 6.10.1.1

All rights reserved @ 2009

LTE Multiple antenna scheme

… … NodeB transmitter WCDMA STTD scheme: S , S , S , S 0
NodeB transmitter
WCDMA STTD scheme:
S
,
S
,
S
,
S
0
1
2
3
S
,S ,S
,S
0
1
2
3
UE
STTD
*
*
*
*
− S
,
S
,
− S
,
S
1
0
3
2
LTE SFBC (space frequency block coding):
LTE CDD (cyclic delay diversity):
eNodeB transmitter
eNodeB transmitter
a
a
0
0
a
a
1
1
a
a
2
2
OFDM
OFDM
a
a
3
modulation
3
modulation
*
UE
UE
− a
a
0
0
*
a
j
2πΔ⋅Δ
f
t
a e
1
1
*
− a
OFDM
OFDM
j
2 Δ⋅2Δ
π
f
t
3
a e
modulation
modulation
2
*
a
j
2 Δ⋅3Δ
π
f
t
a e
2
3

All rights reserved @ 2009

LTE Multiple antenna scheme

• Downlink SU-MIMO

Transmission of different data streams simultaneously over multiple antennas

Codebook based pre-coding: signal is “pre-coded” at eNodeB before transmission while optimum pre-coding matrix is selected from pre-defined codebook based on UE feedback.

Open-loop mode possible for high speed

r r γ S S1 r1 SIC Pre- H receiver coding S2 r2
r
r
γ
S
S1
r1
SIC
Pre-
H
receiver
coding
S2
r2
r r γ S S1 r1 SIC Pre- H receiver coding S2 r2 • Uplink MU-MIMO:

• Uplink MU-MIMO: collaborative MIMO

eNodeB

coding S2 r2 • Uplink MU-MIMO: collaborative MIMO eNodeB U E PMI, RI, CQI – Simultaneous

UE

PMI, RI, CQI

Simultaneous transmission from 2UEs on same time-frequency resource

Each UE with one Tx antenna

Uplink reference signals are coordinated between UEs

– Each UE with one Tx antenna – Uplink reference signals are coordinated between UEs All

All rights reserved @ 2009

LTE Multiple antenna scheme

 

LTE channels

Multiple Antenna Schemes

comments

   

open-loop spatial multiplexing

large delay CDD/ SFBC

closed-loop spatical multiplexing

SU-MIMO

DL

data channel

PDSCH

multi-user MIMO

MU-MIMO

 

UE specific RS beam-forming

Applicable > 4 Antennas

 

PDCCH

 

SFBC

PHICH

SFBC

DL

control channel

PCFICH

open-loop transmit diversity

SFBC

 

PBCH

SFBC

Sync Signals

PVS

   

receiver diversity

MRC/IRC

UL

data channel

PUSCH

multi-user MIMO

MU-MIMO

 

PUCCH

receiver diversity

MRC

UL

control channel

PRACH

receiver diversity

MRC

Synchronization and Cell Search

• LTE synchronization design considerations:

– high PSR (Peak to side-lobe ratio: the ratio between the peak to the side-lobes of its aperiodic autocorrelation function) to ease time-domain processing

– low PAPR for coverage

– Generalized Chirp Like (GCL) sequences overwhelm Golay and Gold sequences!

• Synchronization signals

– PSS: length-63 Zadoff-Chu sequences

• Auto-correlation/cross-correlation/hybrid correlation based detection

– SSS: an interleaved concatenation of two length-31 binary sequences

• Alternative transmission (SSS1 and SSS2) in one radio frame

1 radio frame = 10 ms 0 1 2 3 4 56 7 8 9
1 radio frame = 10 ms
0
1
2
3
4
56
7
8
9

SSSframe 1 radio frame = 10 ms 0 1 2 3 4 56 7 8 9

PSSframe 1 radio frame = 10 ms 0 1 2 3 4 56 7 8 9

Synchronization and Cell Search

• LTE synchronization design considerations:

– high PSR (Peak to side-lobe ratio: the ratio between the peak to the side-lobes of its aperiodic autocorrelation function) to ease time-domain processing

– low PAPR for coverage

– Generalized Chirp Like (GCL) sequences overwhelm Golay and Gold sequences!

• Synchronization signals

– PSS: length-63 Zadoff-Chu sequences

• Auto-correlation/cross-correlation/hybrid correlation based detection

– SSS: an interleaved concatenation of two length-31 binary sequences

• Alternative transmission (SSS1 and SSS2) in one radio frame

1 radio frame = 10 ms 0 1 2 3 4 56 7 8 9
1 radio frame = 10 ms
0
1
2
3
4
56
7
8
9
62 Central
Sub-carriers

SSS10 ms 0 1 2 3 4 56 7 8 9 62 Central Sub-carriers PSS 3GPP

PSSms 0 1 2 3 4 56 7 8 9 62 Central Sub-carriers SSS 3GPP TS

Synchronization and Cell Search

• Hierarchical cell ID(1 out of 504):

CELL (1) (2) N = ⋅ N + N 3 – Cell ID = 3*
CELL
(1)
(2)
N
= ⋅ N + N
3
– Cell ID = 3* Cell group ID + PHY ID :
ID
ID
ID
π un
(
n +
1)
− j
(2) =
μ = 25
N
0
• PSS structure
n = 0,1,
,30
d
n =
u (
e
63
ID
)
μ = 29
(2) =
π u
(
n
+
1)(
n
+
2)
N
1
ID
− j
e
63 n = 31,32,
,61
μ = 34
(2) =
N
2
ID
0
x
62 sub-carriers excluding DC carrier
pss
1
x
CP
PSS sequences
pss
IFFT
f
insertion
62
x
pss
f
+
The indices (m0, m1) define
the cell group identity.
odd sub-carriers
• SSS structure
even sub-carriers
+
m
(0)
S
SSC
m
(1)
S
SSC
0
1
1
1
+
C
C
0
0
m
(1)
m
(0)
S
SSC
S
SSC
1
2
0
2
slot 0
slot 10
+
m (0)
Z
m (1)
C
C
Z
+
1
1
1
1
+

All rights reserved @ 2009

LTE Cell Search

Vs

WCDMA cell search

• PSS detection

• P-SCH detection

– Slot timing

– Physical layer ID (1 of 3)

• SSS detection

– Radio frame timing

– Cell group ID (1 of 168)

– CP length

• PBCH decoding

– Slot boundary

• S-SCH detection

– frame timing

– code group ID

• CPICH detection

– Cell-specific scrambling code identified

– PBCH timing

– System information access

• BCH reading

PBCH timing – System information access • BCH reading All rights reserved @ 2009 “ cell

All rights reserved @ 2009

cell searching in WCDMA,Sanat Kamal Bahl, IEEE Potential 2003;

LTE uplink

• SC-FDMA: fundamental uplink radio parameters are aligned with downlink scheme, e.g frame structure, sub-carrier spacing, RB size.…

• Multiplexing of uplink data and control information

Combination of FDM and TDM are adopted in LTE uplink

• Uplink transmission are well time-aligned to maintain orthogonality (no intra-cell interference)

• PRACH will not convey user data like WCDMA does, but serve to obtain uplink synchronization

PRACH will not convey user dat a like WCDMA does, but serve to obtain uplink synchronization

Fundamental uplink transmission scheme

1 sub-frame = 1 ms 1 slot = 0.5 ms = 7 OFDM symbols 1
1 sub-frame = 1 ms
1 slot = 0.5 ms =
7 OFDM symbols
1 radio frame = 10 ms
under eNodeB scheduling
⎧ 5.2
μ
s
,
for first OFDM symbol
Tcp =
66.7
us
Tcp
4.7
μ
s
,
for remaining symbols
Tcp _ e = 16.7μs
66.7
us
Tcp-e

f

for remaining symbols Tcp _ e = 16.7μs 66.7 us Tcp-e f • Uplink transmission frame

Uplink transmission frame aligned with downlink parameterization to ease UE implementation.

All rights reserved @ 2009

Uplink reference signal

• Uplink reference signals

– Mostly based on Zadoff-Chu sequences (cyclic extensions)

– Pre-defined QPSK sequences for small RB allocation

interference randomization across intra-cell and inter-cells

Demodulation Reference Signal (DRS) in a cell

– Each cell is assigned 1 out of 30 sequence groups

– Each sequence group contains 1(for less than 5 RB case) or 2 (6RB+ case) RS sequence across all possible RB allocations

– Sequence-group hopping is configurable in term of broadcasting information where the hopping pattern is decided by Cell ID

– Cyclic time shift hopping applies to both control channel and data channel

… … • DRS on PUSCH RS sequence 0 0 DFT block of OFDM add
DRS on PUSCH
RS sequence
0
0
DFT
block of
OFDM
add CP
(size M)
data symbols
modulator
Instantaneous
bandwidth
0
(M sub-carriers)
0
One DFTS-OFDM symbol

3GPP TS 36.101 “physical channels and modulation” section 5.5.1

All rights reserved @ 2009

Uplink reference signal

• DRS on PUCCH

– See next slides

• Sounding Reference Signal (SRS)

– Not regularly but allows eNodeB to estimate uplink channel quality at alternative frequencies

– UE’s SRS transmission is subject to network configuration

– Location: always on last OFDM symbol of a sub-frame if available

one sub-frame

last OFDM symbol of a sub-frame if available one sub-frame wideband, non-fre quency hopping SRS n

wideband, non-frequency hopping SRS

narrowband, frequency hopping SRS

n a r r o w b a n d , f r e q u

All rights reserved @ 2009

Uplink control channel transmission - PUCCH

• Uplink control signaling

– Data associated: transport format, new data indicator, MIMO parameters

no explicit tranmission from UE as it follows eNodeB scheduling!
no explicit tranmission
from UE as it follows
eNodeB scheduling!

– Non-data associated: ACK/NACK, CQI, MIMO codeword feedback

• Channelization

– In the absence of uplink data transmission: in reserved frequency region on band edge

– In the presence of uplink data transmission: see multiplexing with data on PUSCH

Uplink control TDM with data downlink f standalone uplink control
Uplink
control TDM
with data
downlink
f
standalone
uplink control
… Control region 1 Control region 2
Control region 1
Control region 2

1 ms sub-frame

total uplink system bandwidth

data transmission

downlink

data transmission

All rights reserved @ 2009

Uplink control channel transmission - PUCCH

• To cater for multiple downlink transmission mode, while preserving single-carrier property in uplink, multiple PUCCH formats exist.

• PUCCH is thus mainly classified by PUCCH format 1 & 2

PUCCH format 1/1a/1b: 1 or 2 bits transmitted per 1ms, for ACK/NACK/SR

PUCCH format 2/2a/2b: up to 20 bits transmitted per 1ms, for CQI/PMI/RI

reference ACK/NACK signal
reference
ACK/NACK
signal
per 1ms, for CQI/PMI/RI reference ACK/NACK signal 1 ms sub-frame reference CQI signal 1 ms sub-frame
1 ms sub-frame
1 ms sub-frame
reference CQI signal
reference
CQI
signal
for CQI/PMI/RI reference ACK/NACK signal 1 ms sub-frame reference CQI signal 1 ms sub-frame All rights

1 ms sub-frame

Multiuser transmission on PUCCH

• In PUCCH format 1, multiple PUCCHs are distinguished by cyclic shift of ZACAC sequences plus orthogonal cover sequence

• In PUCCH format 2, multiple PUCCHs are distinguished by cyclic shift of ZACAC sequences.

ACK/NACK bit BPSK/QPSK
ACK/NACK bit
BPSK/QPSK

Length-12 phase

rotated sequence

ACK/NACK bit BPSK/QPSK Length-12 phase rotated sequence IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT Length-4 Walsh sequence RS RS
ACK/NACK bit BPSK/QPSK Length-12 phase rotated sequence IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT Length-4 Walsh sequence RS RS
ACK/NACK bit BPSK/QPSK Length-12 phase rotated sequence IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT Length-4 Walsh sequence RS RS
IFFT
IFFT

IFFT

IFFT
IFFT

IFFT

Length-4

Walsh sequence

rotated sequence IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT Length-4 Walsh sequence RS RS RS 1 slot = 0.5
rotated sequence IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT Length-4 Walsh sequence RS RS RS 1 slot = 0.5
rotated sequence IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT Length-4 Walsh sequence RS RS RS 1 slot = 0.5
rotated sequence IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT Length-4 Walsh sequence RS RS RS 1 slot = 0.5
rotated sequence IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT Length-4 Walsh sequence RS RS RS 1 slot = 0.5
RS RS RS
RS RS RS

RS

RS

RS

RS RS RS
RS RS RS

1 slot = 0.5 ms

channel status report

QPSK

Length-12 phase

rotated sequence

channel status report QPSK Length-12 phase rotated sequence IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT RS RS 1
channel status report QPSK Length-12 phase rotated sequence IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT RS RS 1
channel status report QPSK Length-12 phase rotated sequence IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT IFFT RS RS 1

IFFT

IFFT

IFFT
IFFT

IFFT

IFFT
IFFT
RS RS
RS
RS

1 slot = 0.5 ms

Uplink data transmission - PUSCH

• In case of PUSCH available, control signaling is multiplexed with data on PUSCH.

– To cater for radio channel variation, link adaptation applies to data part

– Control signaling does not adopt adaptive modulation but the size of REs (resource elements) can change w.r.t varying radio condition

DFTS-OFDM

CQI/PMI modulation RS ACK/NACK Turbo Rate UL-SCH coding matching RI PUSCH data Conv Rate baseband
CQI/PMI
modulation
RS
ACK/NACK
Turbo
Rate
UL-SCH
coding
matching
RI
PUSCH data
Conv
Rate
baseband
CQI,/PMI
MUX
DFT
IFFT
coding
matching
modulation
Block
Rate
RI
coding
matching
Block
ACK/NACK
QPSK
coding
matching modulation Block Rate RI coding matching Block ACK/NACK QPSK coding t All rights reserved @

t

Uplink data transmission - PUSCH

• UL-SCH processing chain

– No Tx diversity/spatial multiplexing as downlink does

– PUSCH frequency hopping (on slot basis)

• Subband-based hopping according to cell-specific hopping patterns

• Hopping based on explicit hopping information in scheduling grant

UE-specific,

bit-level

scrambling

Transport block from MAC @UE

s c r a m b l i n g Transport block from MAC @UE CRC

CRC

c r a m b l i n g Transport block from MAC @UE CRC Segmentation

Segmentation

b l i n g Transport block from MAC @UE CRC Segmentation FEC RM+HARQ Scrambling Modulation

FEC

i n g Transport block from MAC @UE CRC Segmentation FEC RM+HARQ Scrambling Modulation To DFTS-OFDM

RM+HARQ

g Transport block from MAC @UE CRC Segmentation FEC RM+HARQ Scrambling Modulation To DFTS-OFDM and map

Scrambling

block from MAC @UE CRC Segmentation FEC RM+HARQ Scrambling Modulation To DFTS-OFDM and map to assigned

Modulation

MAC @UE CRC Segmentation FEC RM+HARQ Scrambling Modulation To DFTS-OFDM and map to assigned frequency resorurce

To DFTS-OFDM and map to assigned frequency resorurce

Random Access

• LTE random access serves to obtain uplink synchronization, not to carry data.

– Contention-based random access: preambles based on ZC sequences

– Contention-free random access: faster with reserved preambles (e.g, for handover)

• Random access resources

UE eNodeB – 64 preambles classified into 3 parts: RA preambles Preamble set #0 Preamble
UE
eNodeB
– 64 preambles classified into 3 parts:
RA preambles
Preamble set #0
Preamble set #1
reserved
NAS UE ID
RRC
Connection
Request
temporary C-RNTI;
timing advance;
initial uplink grant
– RA area:
RA response (timing
adjustment, UL grant)
1ms
• 1 in every 1~20 ms(configurable)
6 RBs
random
UE terminal ID
access area
early contention
resolution
Contention resolution
UE terminal ID access area early contention resolution Contention resolution 10 ms frame All rights reserved

Random Access

• PRACH structure

– Preamble sequence: cyclic shifted sequences from multiple root ZC sequences

– CP: facilitates frequency-domain prcoessing at eNodeB

– Guard time: to handle timing uncertainty

 

near user

Other users

CP

Preamble Sequence

 

Guard time

Other users

far user

Other users