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DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1

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DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING

CLIENT

SYSTEM

: ANRAK ALUMINIUM LIMITED

CONSULTANT : SNC LAVALIN ENGG. INDIA PVT. LTD.

PROJECT : ANARK ALUMINIUM REFINERY, VISAKHAPATNAM.

JOB NO : 109013

TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1
TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1

TITLE

DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM

DOCUMENT NO.

3-G085-X-003941

DATE

23/07/10

REV

1

DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1

Page 2 of 9

DESIGN CALCULATION OF ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM

1.0 Importance of Earthing :

Prime Objective of Earthing is to provide a Zero potential surface in and around and under the area where the electrical equipment is installed or erected. To achieve this objective the non-current carrying parts of the electrical equipment is connected to the general mass of the earth which prevents the appearance of dangerous voltage on the enclosures and helps to provide safety to working staff and public.

1.1 The earthing is provided for

a) Safety of Personnel

b) Prevent or at least minimize damage to equipment as a result of flow of heavy fault currents.

c) Improve reliability of Power supply

1.2 The earthing is broadly divided as

a) System earthing (Connection between part of plant in an operating system like LV neutral of a Power Transformer winding and earth).

b) Equipment earthing (Safety grounding) Connecting frames of equipment (like motor body, Transformer tank, Switch gear box, Operating rods of Air break switches, etc) to earth.

The system earthing and safety earthing are interconnected and therefore fault current flowing through system ground raises the potential of the safety ground around the load center.

2.0 Relevant Standards :

2.1 IS 3043/2001 code of practice for earthing and protection against electric shocks.

2.2 IS 732/2000 Electrical installation of building-code of practice.

2.3 IS 12729/2000 A.C metal enclosed switchgear and control gear for rated up to

52kV.

2.4 IS 3842-1 to 12/2001 Electrical relays – Measuring and protection equipment.

2.5 IS 8437-1/2002 Guide on effects of current passing through the human body general aspects.

2.6 IS 3151/2001 Specification for grounding transformers.

2.7 IS 7689/2000 Code of practice for undesirable static electricity.

2.8 IS 12640-2/2001 General requirement for residual current operated protective devices. Circuit breakers with integral over current protection.

TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1
TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1

TITLE

DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM

DOCUMENT NO.

3-G085-X-003941

DATE

23/07/10

REV

1

DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1

Page 3 of 9

3.0 DESIGN DATA :

3.1 As per the short circuit analysis reports (refer doc no : 3-G085-X-003940) Maximum fault level ‘I f ’ is 20kA at 6.6KV, 43kA at 415V.

3.2 Fault duration ‘t’ : 1 sec. for determine the size of earth mat conductor, 0.35 Sec. for fault clearing time.

3.3 Soil Resistivity

: 65 m

3.4 Voltage variation : ±10%

3.5 Ambient temperature ‘T’ : 50 O C.

3.6 Earth conductor : MS Round Rod for earth grid & GI Strip(Flat) for Plant.

3.7 Earth Electrode : MS Rod earthing, Cast iron (CS) pipe electrode earthing.

3.8 Type of joints : Lap welded.

4.0 Estimation of total Area(A), Length(L) & Size(S) of the earth grid

conductor :

a) Calculation of Minimum cross section area required to prepare Earth Grid :

Area required to prepared Earth Grid ‘A’ = I f * ÷t

K

Where A = Area of earth grid I f = Fault current

T

= Fault duration

K

= current density of Earth grid material for steel or GI K = 80, copper K=205, Aluminium K=126

At 415V level A = 43kA * ÷1 ≈ 538 sq.mm

80

Average Area required for earth grid A =

538 sq.mm

b) Calculation of minimum sizing for earthing rod/strip :

Fault current at 415V level

= 43KA

Current density of steel

Current density of steel for a duration of 1 sec = 80/÷1 A/Sq.mm

= 80 A/Sq.mm

= 80 A/Sq.mm

TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1
TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1

TITLE

DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM

DOCUMENT NO.

3-G085-X-003941

DATE

23/07/10

REV

1

DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1

Page 4 of 9

Area of the grounding conductor (rod/strip) = 43000/80

If we select rod as earth grid

= 538 sq mm.

diameter of the grounding rod

Rate of corrosion of steel

= ÷(4*A)/Pi)

= ÷(4*538)/3.1416)

= 27 mm

= 0.7% per annum = (0.7*27)/100

= 0.189 mm.

For a period of 25 years total corrosion occurs = 0.189*25

= 4.725 mm

Diameter of the grounding rod required

= (27+4.725) mm

= 31.725.

Standard size of the rod available in market

= 36mm

If we select strip as earth grid

Area of the ground strip (A) = W*T

Assuming selected strip thickness = 10mm Then width of the strip = 538/10 = 53.8 mm

Rate of corrosion of steel

= 0.7% per annum = (0.7*53.8)/100

= 0.376 mm.

For a period of 25 years total corrosion occurs = 0.376*25

=

9.4 mm

Size of the grounding strip required

= (53.8+9.4) mm

= 63.2 mm

Standard size of the conductor available in market

= 65x10 sq.mm

C) Current density at the surface of an earth electrode :

5.0 a)

I

= 7.57*10 3 /÷( t)

= 7.57*10 3 /÷(65*1)

= 938 A/sq.m

Estimation of total length of the buried conductor(rod) ‘L1’

L1 = n a * a + n b * b + n g * h

in metres

Where n a = no. of conductors lengthwise.

TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1
TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1

TITLE

DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM

DOCUMENT NO.

3-G085-X-003941

DATE

23/07/10

REV

1

DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1

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b = width of the grid in metres.

N b = no. of conductors widthwise.

a = length of the grid in metres.

N g = no. of grounding rods.

h = depth of grounding rods in metres.

As per earth grid layout at load centre 2.1

Length L1 = 298 mtrs.

Minimum area covered by the earth rod

A r

= ∏*d*l = 3.142*0.036*298 = 33.70 sq.m

b) Estimation of Minimum area covered by the buried strip ‘A s

As per the earth grid layout at load centre 2.1

Total length of the buried strip ‘L’ = 48+8+14

= 70 mtrs.

Minimum area covered by buried strip

A s

= 2*L*(W+T)

= 2*70*(0.065+0.01)

= 10.5 sq.m

c) Minimum area covered by the earthing electrode (A e ):

Minimum area covered by the earthing electrode (A e ): TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING
TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1
TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1

TITLE

DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM

DOCUMENT NO.

3-G085-X-003941

DATE

23/07/10

REV

1

DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1

Page 6 of 9

Where

l = length of the pipe in cm. = 3000mm = 300cm d = internal diameter of of pipe in cm. = 100mm = 10cm

minimum area covered by the earthing electrode

A e

=

∏*d*l = 3.142*10*300

=

0.942 sq.m

For 12 number of earth electrodes = 0.942*12 = 11.304 sq.m

Hence total surface area of the earth grid A t =A e + A s +A r

= 11.304+10.5+33.70

= 55.504 sq.m

Total current carrying capacity of the earth grid = A t *I = 55.504*938

= 52062 Amps

As the total current carrying capacity of the earth grid (52062 Amps) is greater than the maximum short circuit current(43000 Amps), chosen earth grid can provide the adequate earthing.

6.0 Calculation of Earth Resistance ‘R’ of the earth pit :

6.1 Pipe Earthing :

All dimensions in mm
All dimensions in mm
TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1
TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1

TITLE

DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM

DOCUMENT NO.

3-G085-X-003941

DATE

23/07/10

REV

1

DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1

Page 7 of 9

R

=

100x 2 l
100x
2 l
d
d

Log e 4l

Where R = Resistance of earth Pit in .

 

= Resistivity of soil in m

= 65 m

l

= length of the pipe in cm. = 3000mm = 300cm

d

= internal diameter of of pipe in cm. = 100mm = 10cm

= 100x65

2 x300

Log e 4x300 10
Log e 4x300
10

= 3.44 *4.787 ≈ 16.5 Effective resistance of 12 Nos.(as per the earthing layout 2.1) of earth pits = 16.5/12 = 1.375

6.2 Calculation for earth resistance of rod electrode :

6.2 Calculation for earth resistance of rod electrode : R = 100x 2 l d Log

R

=

100x 2 l
100x
2 l
d
d

Log e 4l

Where R = Resistance of earth rod in .

 

= Resistivity of soil in m

= 65 m

l

= length of the rod in cm. = 3000mm = 300cm

d

= internal diameter of rod in cm. = 36mm = 3.6cm

= 3.44 * 5.809 = 19.98

Effective resistance of the 12 nos.(as per earthing layout 2.1) of earth rods

= 19.98/12

= 1.665

TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1
TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1

TITLE

DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM

DOCUMENT NO.

3-G085-X-003941

DATE

23/07/10

REV

1

DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1

Page 8 of 9

6.3 Calculation for earth resistance of buried Strip/rod :

R

= Resistance of earth rod in .

= Resistivity of soil in m

= 65 m

l = length of the rod in cm = 262m = 26200 cm

d

= internal diameter of rod in cm. = 36mm = 3.6cm

h

= Depth of the buried strip/rod

= 500mm = 50cm

R =

100x

2 l

x

Log e

= 0.0395*17.45

=

0.689 .

2l 2

h .2d

Effective resistance of the buried rod = 1.665*0.689/(1.665+0.689) = 0.487

Overall earth resistance of the earthing system = 1.375*0.487/(1.375+0.487)

= 0.36

7.0 Earthing resistance for various equipments.

7.1 Distribution transformer neutral :

No of earth pits for transformer neutral = 4Nos (As per earth pit layout 2.1) Type of earth pits = type-1. As per 6.1 the earth pit resistance = 16.5

Final effective resistance of 4 nos. earth pit R N = 16.5/4

7.2 Lightening terminal :

=

4.125

No of earth pits for lightening terminal = 2Nos (As per earth pit layout 2.1) Type of earth pits = type-1. As per 6.1 the earth pit resistance = 16.5

Final effective resistance of 2 nos. earth pit = 16.5/2

TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1
TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1

TITLE

DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM

DOCUMENT NO.

3-G085-X-003941

DATE

23/07/10

REV

1

DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1

Page 9 of 9

8.0 CONCLUSION :

= 8.25

Over all earth resistance achieved is lower than the minimum requirement which

is 1

.

Quantity of earth pits & Purpose :

S.no

Purpose

Earth pit type

Qty(Nos.)

1

Distribution transformer neutral earthing

Type-1

 

4

2

Lightening terminal earthing

Type-1

 

2

3

All panels earthing

Type-1

 

12

 

Total no. of earth pits

   

18

Bill of material :

 

S.no

Purpose

 

Qty(Nos.)

1

36 mm dia MS rod

 

300Mtrs.

2

I.D 100mm dia x 13mm THK. x 3mtrs. Length C.IS earth pit pipe with 150mm flange

 

18Nos.

3

50x6mm CU Flat

80Mtrs.(200 Kgs)

4

65x10mm GI Flat

230Mtrs.(230 Kgs)

5

Charcoal

 

120

Kgs

6

Coke

 

120

Kgs

7

Salt

 

250

Kgs

*

*

*

*

*

*

TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1
TITLE DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM DOCUMENT NO. 3-G085-X-003941 DATE 23/07/10 REV 1

TITLE

DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM

DOCUMENT NO.

3-G085-X-003941

DATE

23/07/10

REV

1