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Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems Yves Briere yves.briere@isae.fr
Feedback Control of Dynamic
Systems
Yves Briere
yves.briere@isae.fr
I. Introduction
I. Introduction
Introduction • Aim of the course – Give a general overview of classical and modern
Introduction
• Aim of the course
– Give a general overview of classical and modern
control theory
– Give a general overview of modern control tools
• Prerequisites
– Mathematics : complex numbers, linear algebra
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I. Introduction
3
Introduction • Tools – Matlab / Simulink • Book – « Feedback Control of Dynamics
Introduction
• Tools
– Matlab / Simulink
• Book
– « Feedback Control of Dynamics Systems », Franklin,
Powell, Amami-Naeini, Addison-Wessley Pub Co
– Many many books, websites and free references
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I. Introduction
4
Introduction 270 BC : the clepsydra and other hydraulically regulated devices for time measurement (Ktesibios)
Introduction
270 BC : the clepsydra and other
hydraulically regulated devices for
time measurement (Ktesibios)
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I. Introduction
5
Introduction 1136-1206 : Ibn al-Razzaz al- Jazari “The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices”
Introduction
1136-1206 : Ibn al-Razzaz al-
Jazari
“The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious
Mechanical Devices”
crank mechanism, connecting rod,
programmable automaton, humanoid robot,
reciprocating piston engine, suction pipe,
suction pump, double-acting pump, valve,
combination lock, cam, camshaft, segmental
gear, the first mechanical clocks driven by
water and weights, and especially the
crankshaft, which is considered the most
important mechanical invention in history
after the wheel
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I. Introduction
6
Introduction 1600-1900 : pre-industrial revolution Thermostatic regulators (Cornelius Drebbel 1572 - Water level
Introduction
1600-1900 : pre-industrial revolution
Thermostatic
regulators
(Cornelius
Drebbel 1572 -
Water level
regulation
(flush toilet,
steam machine)
1633)
Windmill
speed
Steam engine
pressure
regulation (D.
Papin 1707)
regulation.
1588 : mill
hoper ; 1745 :
fantail by Lee ;
1780 : speed
regulation by
Mead
Centrifugal
mechanical
governor (
James Watt,
1788)
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I. Introduction
7
Introduction 1800-1935 : mathematics, basis for control theory Differential equations first analysis and proofs of
Introduction
1800-1935 : mathematics, basis for control theory
Differential equations first analysis and proofs of stability condition for
feedback systems (Lagrange, Hamilton, Poncelet, Airy-1840, Hermite-1854,
Maxwell-1868, Routh-1877, Vyshnegradsky-1877, Hurwitz-1895, Lyapunov-1892)
Frequency domain approach (Minorsky-1922, Black-1927, Nyquist-1932,
Hazen-1934)
1940-1960 : classical period
Frequency domain theory : (Hall-1940, Nichols-194, Bode-1938)
Stochastic approach (Kolmogorov-1941, Wiener and Bigelow-1942)
Information theory (Shannon-1948) and cybernetics (Wiener-1949)
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I. Introduction
8
Introduction 1960-1980 : modern period, aeronautics and spatial industry Non linear and time varying problems
Introduction
1960-1980 : modern period, aeronautics and spatial industry
Non linear and time varying problems (Hamel-1949, Tsypkin-1955, Popov-
1961, Yakubovich-1962, Sandberg-1964, Narendra-1964, Desoer-1965,Zames-
1966)
Optimal control and Estimation theory (Bellman-1957, Pontryagin-1958,Kalman-
1960)
Control by computer, discrete systems theory : (Shannon-1950, Jury-1960,
Ragazzini and Zadeh-1952, Ragazzini and Franklin-1958,(Kuo-1963, Aström-1970)
1980- : simulation, computers, etc
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I. Introduction
9
Introduction What is automatic control ? Basic idea is to enhance open loop control with
Introduction
What is automatic control ?
Basic idea is to enhance open loop control with feedback control
This seemingly idea is tremendously powerfull
Feedback is a key idea in control
Perturbation
Open
Input reference
Input
Output
loop
Process
Controler
Perturbation
Closed
Input reference
Input
Output
Process
loop
Controler
Measurement
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I. Introduction
10
Introduction Example : the feedback amplifier Harold Black, 1927 R2 R1 - A Amplifier A
Introduction
Example : the feedback amplifier
Harold Black, 1927
R2
R1
-
A
Amplifier A has a high gain (say 40dB)
+
V1
V2
V2
R2
1
R2
=
V1
R1
1
R2 
R1
1 +
1
A
 +
R1
Resulting gain is determined by passive components !
amplification is linear
reduced delay
noise reduction
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I. Introduction
11
Introduction Use of block diagrams Capture the essence of behaviour standard drawing abstraction information
Introduction
Use of block diagrams
Capture the essence of behaviour
standard drawing
abstraction
information hiding
points similarities between systems
Same tools for :
generation and transmission of energy
transmission of informaiton
transportation (cars, aerospace, etc
industrial processes, manufacturing
mechatronics, instrumentation
Biology, medicine, finance, economy
)
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I. Introduction
12
Introduction Basic properties of feedback (1) V2 = A ◊ ( V1 k V2 ◊
Introduction
Basic properties of feedback (1)
V2
=
A
(
V1
k V2
)
k
V2
(
1
+
A
k
)
=
A V1
-
V1
V2
A
V2
1
1
1
+
=
V1
k
1
k
1 +
A
k
Resulting gain is determined by feedback !
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I. Introduction
13
Introduction Basic properties of feedback (2) : static properties y k k r : reference
Introduction
Basic properties of feedback (2) : static properties
y
k
k
r
: reference
e
c
p
u
e
: error
d
d
: disturbance
y
: output
-
y
k c : control gain
k
k
c
p
K
p : process gain
r
e
u
d
Open loop control :
y
=
k
k
e
+
k
d
p
c
p
k
k
k
p
c
p
Closed loop control :
y
=
r
+
d
1
+
k
k
1
+
k
k
p
c
p
c
If k c is big enough y tend to r and d is rejected
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I. Introduction
14
Introduction Basic properties of feedback (2) : dynamics properties Closed loop control can : enhance
Introduction
Basic properties of feedback (2) : dynamics properties
Closed loop control can :
enhance system dynamics
stabilize an unstable system
make unstable a stable system !
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I. Introduction
15
Introduction The On-Off or bang-bang controller : u = {u max , u min }
Introduction
The On-Off or bang-bang controller : u = {u max , u min }
u
u
u
e
e
e
The proportional controller : u=k c .(r – y)
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I. Introduction
16
Introduction The proportional derivative controller The proportional derivative controller de t de t ( (
Introduction
The proportional derivative controller
The proportional derivative controller
de t
de t
(
(
)
)
u
u
(
(
t
t
)
)
=
=
k
k
e t
e t
( )
( )
+
+
k
k
p
p
d
d
dt
dt
Gives an idea of future : phase advance
The proportional integral controller
t
u t
( )
=
k
e t
( )
+
k
e
(
)
d
p
i
0
e(t) tends to zero !
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I. Introduction
17
II. A first controller design 9/23/2009 II. A first controller design 18
II. A first controller design
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II. A first controller design
18
A first control design • Use of block diagrams • Compare feedback and feedforward control
A first control design
• Use of block diagrams
• Compare feedback and feedforward control
• Insight feedback properties :
– Reduce effect of disturbances
– Make system insensitive to variations
– Stabilize unstable system
– Create well defined relationship between output and reference
– Risk of unstability
de t
( )
t
( )
( )
(
)
• PID controler :
u t
=
k
e t
+
k
+
k
e
d
p
d
i
0
dt
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II. A first controller design
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Cruise control A cruise control problem : F • Process input : gas pedal u
Cruise control
A cruise control problem :
F
• Process input : gas pedal u
• Process output : velocity v
• Reference : desired velocity v r
mg
• Disturbance : slope
Construct a block diagram
• Understand how the system works
• Identify the major components and the relevant signals
• Key questions are :
– Where is the essential dynamics ?
– What are the appropriate abstractions ?
• Describe the dynamics of the blocks
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II. A first controller design
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Cruise control - Throttle F Controller Engine Body v r v ext. force We made
Cruise control
-
Throttle
F
Controller
Engine
Body
v r
v
ext. force
We made the assumptions :
• Essential dynamics relates velocity to force
• The force respond instantly to a change in the throttle
• Relations are linear
We can now draw the process equations
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II. A first controller design
21
Cruise control Process linear equations : dv t ( ) m ◊ + k ◊v
Cruise control
Process linear equations :
dv t
( )
m ◊
+ k ◊v = F
m◊g◊
dt
Reasonable parameters according to experience :
dv t
(
) + 0.02 ◊v = u 10◊
dt
Where :
• v in m.s -1
• u : normalized throttle 0 < u < 1
• slope in rad
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II. A first controller design
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Cruise control Process linear equations : dv t ( ) + 0.02 ◊v = u
Cruise control
Process linear equations :
dv t
(
) + 0.02 ◊v = u 10◊
dt
PI controller :
t
u t
( )
=
k
(
v
v t
( ))
+
k
(
v
( ))
v
d
r
i
r
0
Combining equations leads to :
2
d
e t
( )
de t
( )
d
( )
t
+
(
0.02
+
k
)
+
e t
( )
= 10 ◊
k i ◊
2
dt
dt
dt
Integral action
Steady state and
= 0 e = 0 !
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Cruise control Now we can tune k and k i in order to achieve a
Cruise control
Now we can tune k and k i in order to achieve a given dynamics
2
d
e t
( )
de t
( )
d
( )
t
+ (
0.02
+
k
)
+
k
e t
( )
=
10
i
dt
dt
dt
2
d
x t
( )
dx t
( )
2
2
◊ ◊
+
x(t)
=
0
+ 0
0
dt
dt
How to choose 0 and
?
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Cruise control Compare open loop and closed loop Open loop Closed loop 9/23/2009 II. A
Cruise control
Compare open loop and closed loop
Open loop
Closed loop
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25
Cruise control Compare different damping ( 0 = 0.1) = 0.5 = 1 = 2
Cruise control
Compare different damping ( 0 = 0.1)
= 0.5
= 1
= 2
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II. A first controller design
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Cruise control Compare different natural frequencies 0 ( = 1) 0 = 0.05 0 =
Cruise control
Compare different natural frequencies 0 ( = 1)
0 = 0.05
0 = 0.1
0 = 0.2
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II. A first controller design
27
Cruise control Control tools and methods help to : • Derive equations from the system
Cruise control
Control tools and methods help to :
• Derive equations from the system
• Manipulate the equations
• Understand the equations (standard model)
– Qualitative understanding concepts
– Insight
– Standard form
– Computations
• Find controller parameters
• Validate the results by simulation
END 1
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II. A first controller design
28
Standard models Standard models are foundations of the “control language” Important to : Learn to
Standard models
Standard models are foundations of the “control language”
Important to :
Learn to deal with standard models
Transform problems to standard model
The standard model deals with Linear Time Invariant process (LTI),
modelized with Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) :
n
n
1
n
1
d
y t
( )
d
y t
( )
d
u t
( )
+
a
+
a
y t
( )
=
b
+
b
u(t)
1
n
1
n
n
n
1
n
1
dt
dt
dt
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II. A first controller design
29
Standard models Example (fundamental) : the first order equation dy t ( ) + a
Standard models
Example (fundamental) : the first order equation
dy t
( )
+
a
y t
( )
=
0
dt
a t
y t
( )
=
y 0
(
)
e
dy t
( )
+
a
y t
( )
=
b
u t
( )
dt
a ◊ t
t
a
(
t
)
y t
( )
=
y 0
(
)
e
+
b
e
u
( )◊
d
0
Input signal
Initial conditions
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II. A first controller design
30
Standard models A higher degree model is not so different : n ( ) n
Standard models
A higher degree model is not so different :
n
( )
n
1
d
y t
d
y t
( )
+
a
+
a
y(t)
=
0
1
n
n
n
1
dt
dt
Characteristic polynomial is :
n
A s
( )
n
1
= s
+ a
◊s
+ a
1
n
If polynomial has n distinct roots k then the time solution is :
( )
n ◊ t
y t
=
C
e
k
k
k
=
1
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II. A first controller design
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Standard models Real k roots gives first order responses : Complex k = ± i.
Standard models
Real k roots gives first order responses :
Complex k = ± i. roots gives second order responses :
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II. A first controller design
32
Standard models General case (input u) : n ( y t ) n 1 n
Standard models
General case (input u) :
n
(
y t
)
n
1
n
1
d
d
y t
( )
d
u t
( )
+
a
+
a
y t
( )
=
b
+
b
u t
( )
1
n
1
n
n
n
1
n
1
dt
dt
dt
n
t
y t
(
)
=
C
( )
◊ t
t
e
k
+
g t
(
)
d
k
0
k
=
1
Where :
• C k (t) are polynomials of t
n
( )
'
( )
◊ t
• g t
=
C
t
e
k
k
k
=
1
A system is stable if all poles have negative real parts
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II. A first controller design
33
Standard models Transfer function without knowing anything about Laplace transform it can be useful to
Standard models
Transfer function
without knowing anything about Laplace transform it can be
useful to store a k and b k coefficients in a convenient way,
the transfer function :
B )
(
n
n
1
s
s
+
a
s
+
a
F s
( )
1
n
=
=
A )
(
n
1
s
b
s
+
b
1
n
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II. A first controller design
34
III. The Laplace transform 9/23/2009 III. Laplace transforms 35
III. The Laplace transform
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III. Laplace transforms
35
Laplace transform (1) : convolution u y System • We assume the system to be
Laplace transform (1) : convolution
u
y
System
• We assume the system to be LINEAR and TIME INVARIANT
The output (y) of the the system is related to the input (u) by
the convolution :
∫ +•
y(t) =
u(τ) ◊h(t τ) ◊dτ
• Example : u(t) is an impulsion (0 everywhere except in t = 0)
y(t) = h(t)
h(t) is called the impulse response, h(t) describes completely
the system
• Causality : h(t) = 0 if t < 0
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III. Laplace transforms
36
Laplace transform (1) : definition u(t) y(t) U(s) Y(s) h(t) H(s) Time space Laplace space
Laplace transform (1) : definition
u(t)
y(t)
U(s)
Y(s)
h(t)
H(s)
Time space
Laplace space
t : real (time)
s : complex (frequency)
∫ +•
s ◊ t
x(t)
X(s)
=
x(t) e
dt
0
1
∫ ◊•
c
j
s t
x(t) =
X(s) e
ds
X(s)
2
◊ ◊
j
c
ץ
j
∫ +•
y(t) =
u(τ) ◊h(t τ) ◊dτ
Y(s) = H(s) . U(s)
☺ Mathematical formulas are never used !
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III. Laplace transforms
37
Laplace transform (2) : properties Impulse fonction t=0 : x(t) = infinite X(s) = 1
Laplace transform (2) : properties
Impulse fonction
t=0 : x(t) = infinite
X(s) = 1
x(t)=0
Step fonction :
t<0 : x(t) = 0
t>0 : x(t) = 1
X(s) = 1/s
Derivation :
d
y(t) =
x(t)
Y(s)
=
s.X(s)
x(0
)
+
dt
Sinusoïdal fonction :
1
y(t) = sin( ◊t)
Y(s) =
2
2
s
+
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III. Laplace transforms
38
Laplace transform (3) : properties Delay : t ◊ s y(t) = x(t t )
Laplace transform (3) : properties
Delay :
t
s
y(t)
=
x(t
t
)
Y(s)
=
X(s)
e
d
d
Initial value theorem :
y(0
)
=
lim(s Y(s))
+
s
Final value theorem (if limit exists) :
y(
+ •
)
=
lim(s Y(s))
s
0
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III. Laplace transforms
39
Laplace transform (4) : tables From t to s 9/23/2009 III. Laplace transforms 40
Laplace transform (4) : tables
From t to s
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
40
Laplace transform (4) : tables From s to t 9/23/2009 III. Laplace transforms 41
Laplace transform (4) : tables
From s to t
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III. Laplace transforms
41
Laplace transform and differential equations a x(t) + a x(t) + a x(t) = b
Laplace transform and differential equations
a x(t)
+
a x(t)
+
a x(t)
=
b u(t)
+
b u(t)
o
1
2
0
1
+
Theorem of differentiation
a
X s
( )
+
a
(
s
X s
( )
x 0
(
))
+
a
(
s
(
s
X s
( )
x 0
(
))
x 0
(
))
o
1
+
2
+
+
=
b U s
( )
+
b
(
s
U s
( )
u 0
(
))
0
1
+
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III. Laplace transforms
42
Laplace transform and differential equations a X s ( ) + a ◊ ( s
Laplace transform and differential equations
a
X s
( )
+
a
(
s
X s
( )
x 0
(
))
+
a
(
s
(
s
X s
( )
x 0
(
))
x 0
(
))
o
1
+
2
+
+
=
b U s
( )
+
b
(
s
U s
( )
u 0
(
))
0
1
+
(
2
)
a
+
a
◊ +
s
a
s
X s
( )
(
a
+
a
s
)
x 0
(
)
a
x 0
(
)
o
1
2
1
2
+
2
+
=
(
b
+
b
s
)
U s
( )
b
u 0
(
)
0
1
1
+
b
+
b
s
(
a
+
a
s
)
x 0
(
)
+
a
x 0
(
)
b
u 0
(
)
( )
0
1
( )
1
2
+
2
+
1
+
X s
=
U s
+
2
2
a
+
a
◊ s +
a
◊ s
a
+
a
◊ +
s
a
s
o
1
2
o
1
2
Initial conditions
Transfer function
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III. Laplace transforms
43
Laplace transform and differential equations b + b ◊ s ( a + a ◊
Laplace transform and differential equations
b
+
b
s
(
a
+
a
s
)
x 0
(
)
+
a
x 0
(
)
b
u 0
(
)
( )
0
1
+
2
+
1
+
X s
=
U s
( )
1
2
+
2
2
a
+
a
◊ +
s
a
s
a
+
a
◊ +
s
a
s
o
1
2
o
1
2
X s
( )
=
H s
( )
U s
( )
+
I(s)
x(t)= h(t) u(t)+i(t)
☺ Initial conditions are generally assumed to be null !
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III. Laplace transforms
44
Finding output response with Laplace transform u(t) y(t) System What is the output y(t) from
Finding output response with Laplace transform
u(t)
y(t)
System
What is the output y(t) from a given input u(t) ?
u(t)
y(t)
Table of transform
Table of transform
Y(s) = H(s) . U(s)
U(s)
Y(s)
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III. Laplace transforms
45
Finding final value with Laplace transform u(t) y(t) System What is the final output y(inf)
Finding final value with Laplace transform
u(t)
y(t)
System
What is the final output y(inf) from a given input u(t) ?
y(
+ •
)
=
lim(s Y(s))
u(t)
s
0
Table of transform
Theorem of final value
Y(s) = H(s) . U(s)
U(s)
Y(s)
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III. Laplace transforms
46
Poles and zeros U Y H(s) Transfer function is a ratio of polynomials : 2
Poles and zeros
U
Y
H(s)
Transfer function is a ratio of polynomials :
2
Y(s)
N(s)
b
+
b s
+
b
s
+
0
1
2
=
H(s)
=
=
2
3
U(s)
D(s)
a
+
a s
+
a
s
+
a
s
+
0
1
2
3
Poles and zeros :
zero : z 1 , z 2 , …
Y(s)
b
(
s
z
)
(
s
z
)
◊◊◊
0
1
2
=
H(s)
=
U(s)
a
(
s
p
)◊(
s
p
)◊(
s
p
)
◊◊◊
0
1
2
3
poles
: p 1 , p 2 , p 3 …
Im
p 1
z
1
p
• Poles and zeros are either into the
left plane ore into the right plane
3
Re
• Complex poles and zeros have a
z
conjugate
p
2
2
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III. Laplace transforms
47
• Poles are the roots of Transfer function denominator – Real values or conjugate complex
• Poles are the roots of Transfer function
denominator
– Real values or conjugate complex pairs
• Poles are also the eigenvalues of matrix A
• Poles = modes
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III. Laplace transforms
48
Poles and zeros : decomposition U Y H(s) Transfer function can be expansed into a
Poles and zeros : decomposition
U
Y
H(s)
Transfer function can be expansed into a sum of elementary terms :
2
Y(s)
b
+
b s
+
b s
+
0
1
2
=
H(s)
=
2
3
U(s)
a
+
a s
+
a
s
+
a
s
+
0
1
2
3
Y(s)
1
2
3
=
H(s)
=
+
+
+
U(s)
s
p
s
p
s
p
1
2
3
◊ j
◊ j
p 1 and p 2 are conjugate :
p
=
e
,p2
=
e
0 ◊
1
0
Y(s)
1,2
3
=
H(s)
=
+
+
U(s)
2
2
s
+ 2
cos
s
+
s
p
0
0
3
First orders
Second orders
☺ Complex system response is the sum of first order and second order
systems responses
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
49
Dynamic response of first order systems U 1 Y H(s) = s + p 1
Dynamic response of first order systems
U
1
Y
H(s) =
s
+
p
1
Y s
( )
=
1 U(s)
s
+ p
1
Example 1 : impulse response
u(t) is an impulsion (0 everywhere, except in 0 : • )
p
t
y(t) =
e
1
u(t)
Table of transform
Table of transform
Y(s)= H(s)◊U(s)
1
U(s)=1
Y s
( )
=
s
+
p
1
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
50
Dynamic response of first order systems U 1 Y H(s) = s + p 1
Dynamic response of first order systems
U
1
Y
H(s) =
s
+
p
1
Y s
( )
=
1 U(s)
s
+ p
1
Example 2 : step response
u(t) is a step
1
(
p
t
)
y(t) =
1
e
1
u(t)
p
1
Table of transform
Table of transform
Y(s)= H(s)◊U(s)
1
1 1
U s
( )
=
Y s
( )
=
s
s
+ p
s
1
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
51
Properties of first order systems U 1 Y H(s) = s + p 1 Y
Properties of first order systems
U
1
Y
H(s) =
s
+
p
1
Y s
( )
=
1 U(s)
s
+ p
1
Step response
t 1 = 1/p 1 is the time constant of
the system :
after t = t 1 , 63% of the final
value is obtained
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
52
Dynamic response of second order systems U 1 Y H(s) = 2 2 s +
Dynamic response of second order systems
U
1
Y
H(s) =
2
2
s
+
2
◊ ◊
s
+
0
0
Example 1 : impulse response
u(t) is an impulsion (0 everywhere, except in 0 : • )
1
t)
◊ t
2
u(t)
y(t) =
e
à
sin(
1
0
2
1
0
Table of transform
Table of transform
Y(s)= H(s)◊U(s)
1
Y(s) =
U(s)=1
2
2
s
+
2
◊ ◊
s
+
0
0
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
53
Dynamic response of second order systems U 1 Y H(s) = 2 2 s +
Dynamic response of second order systems
U
1
Y
H(s) =
2
2
s
+
2
◊ ◊
s
+
0
0
Example 2 : step response
u(t) is an step
1
(
◊ t
2
u(t)
y(t)
=
1
e
à
sin
1
t
+
ar cos
( ))
0
2
1
0
Table of transform
Table of transform
Y(s)= H(s)◊U(s)
1
1
Y(s) =
U(s)=1/s
2
2
s
+
2
◊ ◊
◊ s
+
s
0
0
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
54
Properties of second order systems U 1 Y H(s) = 2 2 s + 2
Properties of second order systems
U
1
Y
H(s) =
2
2
s
+
2
◊ ◊
s
+
0
0
1
(
◊ t
2
Step response :
y(t)
=
1
e
à
sin
1
t
+
ar cos
( ))
0
2
1
0
is the damping factor
0 is the natural frequency
overshoot
2
1
is the pseudo-frequency
0
5% of the final value is obtained after :
3
t
5%
0
Overshoot increases as decreases
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
55
Properties of second order systems U 1 Y H(s) = 2 2 s + 2
Properties of second order systems
U
1
Y
H(s) =
2
2
s
+
2
◊ ◊
s
+
0
0
Step response (continued) :
±
poles :
p
=
◊e
cos( θ)=
0
1,2
0
Im
Re
θ
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
56
Stability Im Re unstable pole, deverges like exp(t) stable pole, decays like exp(-4.t) Any pole
Stability
Im
Re
unstable pole, deverges like
exp(t)
stable pole, decays like
exp(-4.t)
Any pole with positive real part is unstable
Any input (even small) will lead to instability
See animation
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
57
Stable
Unstable
« fast poles » vs « slow poles » Im Re slow pole, decays like
« fast poles » vs « slow poles »
Im
Re
slow pole, decays like
exp(-t)
constant time : t 1 = 1s
fast pole, decays like
exp(-4.t)
constant time : t 1 = 4s
Fast poles can be neglected
See animation
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
58
fast
slow
Effect of zeros See animation Im • Fast zero : neglected Re • Slow zero
Effect of zeros
See animation
Im
• Fast zero : neglected
Re
• Slow zero : transient
response affected
• Positive zero : non minimal
phase system, step response
start out in the wrong
direction
Zeros modify the transient response
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
59
Ex. analysis of a feedback system Process model : dv t ( ) + 0.02
Ex. analysis of a feedback system
Process model :
dv t
(
) + 0.02 ◊v = u 10◊
dt
Transfer functions :
 s
V s
(
)
+
0.02
V s
( )
=
U s
( )
s
V s
(
)
+
0.02
V s
( )
=
10
( )
s
V
(
s
)
1
  F s
=
( )
=
U
(
s
)
0.02
+
s
V
(
s
10
  )
=
 ( )
s
0.02
+
s
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
60
Ex. analysis of a feedback system Transfer function of the controller (PID) : de t
Ex. analysis of a feedback system
Transfer function of the controller (PID) :
de t
( )
t
u t
( )
=
k
e t
( )
+
k
+
k
e t
( )
◊ d
d
i
0
dt
U
(
t
)
1
=
k
+
k
s
+
k
(
d
E
t
)
i
s
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
61
Ex. analysis of a feedback system We can now combine transfer functions : - u
Ex. analysis of a feedback system
We can now combine transfer functions :
-
u
PID
F
v
v
r
e
-10
1
10
V s
( )
=
V
( )
s
+
E(s)
r
1
+
F s
( )
PID s
( )
1
+
F s
( )
PID s
( )
9/23/2009
III. Laplace transforms
62
IV. Design of simple feedback 9/23/2009 IV. Design of simple feedbacks 63
IV. Design of simple feedback
9/23/2009
IV. Design of simple feedbacks
63
Introduction Standard problems are often first orders or second orders • Standard problem standard solution
Introduction
Standard problems are often first orders or second orders
Standard problem standard solution
d
r
u
y
C(s)
P(s)
-
b s
+
b
1
2
P s
( )
=
b P s
( )
=
2
s
+ a
s
+
a
s
+
a
1
2
9/23/2009
IV. Design of simple feedbacks
64
Control of a first order system Most physical problems can be modeled as first order
Control of a first order system
Most physical problems can be modeled as first order systems
Step 1 : transform your problem in a first order problem :
b
P s
( )
=
s
+
a
Step 2 : choose a PI controller
k
( )
i
C s
=
k
+
s
Step 3 : combine equations and tune k and in k i in order to achieve the
desired closed loop behavior (mass-spring damper analogy)
b
k
i
◊  k
+
P s
( )
C s
( )
s
+
a
s
1
+
b's
CL s
( )
=
=
=
K
( )
2
1
+
P s
C s
( )
b
k
2 ◊
s
i
1 +
◊  k
+
1 +
◊ +
s
s
+
a
2
s
0
0
9/23/2009
IV. Design of simple feedbacks
65
Dynamic response of second order systems U 1 Y H(s) = 2 2 s +
Dynamic response of second order systems
U
1
Y
H(s) =
2
2
s
+
2
◊ ◊
s
+
0
0
Example 1 : impulse response
u(t) is an impulsion (0 everywhere, except in 0 : • )
1
t)
t
2
u(t)
y(t) =
e
à
sin(
1
0
2
1
0
Table of transform
Table of transform
Y(s)= H(s)◊U(s)
1
Y(s) =
U(s)=1
2
2
s
+
2
◊ ◊
s
+
0
0
9/23/2009
IV. Design of simple feedbacks
66
Dynamic response of second order systems U 1 Y H(s) = 2 2 s +
Dynamic response of second order systems
U
1
Y
H(s) =
2
2
s
+
2
◊ ◊
s
+
0
0
Example 2 : step response
u(t) is an step
1
(
t
2
u(t)
y(t)
=
1
e
à
sin
1
t
+
ar cos
( ))
0
2
1
0
Table of transform
Table of transform
Y(s)= H(s)◊U(s)
1
1
Y(s) =
U(s)=1/s
2
2
s
+
2
◊ ◊
◊ s
+
s
0
0
9/23/2009
IV. Design of simple feedbacks
67
Properties of second order systems U 1 Y H(s) = 2 2 s + 2
Properties of second order systems
U
1
Y
H(s) =
2
2
s
+
2
◊ ◊
s
+
0
0
1
(
t
2
Step response :
y(t)
=
1
e
à
sin
1
t
+
ar cos
( ))
0
2
1
0
is the damping factor
0 is the natural frequency
overshoot
2
1
is the pseudo-frequency
0
5% of the final value is obtained after :
3
t
5%
0
Overshoot increases as decreases
9/23/2009
IV. Design of simple feedbacks
68
Properties of second order systems U 1 Y H(s) = 2 2 s + 2
Properties of second order systems
U
1
Y
H(s) =
2
2
s
+
2
◊ ◊
s
+
0
0
Step response (continued) :
±
poles :
p
=
◊e
cos( θ)=
0
1,2
0
Im
Re
θ
9/23/2009
IV. Design of simple feedbacks
69
Control of a second order system Step 1 , step 2 : idem (PI controller)
Control of a second order system
Step 1 , step 2 : idem (PI controller)
Step 3 : Transfer function is now third order
P s
( )
C s
( )
1
+
b's ◊
CL s
( )
=
=
K
1
+
P s
( )
C s
( )
2
2 ◊
s
(
)
1
+
a
◊ s
1
+
◊ +
s
2
0
0
2 dof (k and k i ) : the full dynamics (order 3) cannot be totally chosen
9/23/2009
IV. Design of simple feedbacks
70
Simulation tools Matlab or Scilab Transfer function is a Matlab object Adapted to transfer function
Simulation tools
Matlab or Scilab
Transfer function is a Matlab object
Adapted to transfer function algebra (addition, multiplication…)
Simulation, time domain analysis
9/23/2009
IV. Design of simple feedbacks
71
Conclusion Laplace Transform + Simulation tools Design of simple feedbacks 9/23/2009 VI. Design of simple
Conclusion
Laplace Transform
+
Simulation tools
Design of simple feedbacks
9/23/2009
VI. Design of simple feedbacks (Ctd)
72
V. Frequency response 9/23/2009 V. Frequency response 73
V. Frequency response
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
73
Introduction Frequency response : • One way to view dynamics • Heritage of electrical engineering
Introduction
Frequency response :
• One way to view dynamics
• Heritage of electrical engineering (Bode)
• Fits well block diagrams
• Deals with systems having large order
– electronic feedback amplifier have order 50-100 !
• input output dynamics, black box models, external
description
• Adapted to experimental determination of dynamics
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
74
The idea of black box u y System The system is a black box :
The idea of black box
u
y
System
The system is a black box : forget about the internal details
and focus only on the input-output behavior
Frequency response makes a “giant table” of possible
inputs-outputs pairs
Test entries are enough to fully describe LTI systems ☺
- Step response
- Impulse response
- sinusoids
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
75
What is a LTI system A Linear Time Invariant System is : • Linear If
What is a LTI system
A Linear Time Invariant System is :
• Linear
If (u 1 ,y 1 ) and (u 2 ,y 2 ) are input-output pairs then (a.u 1 + b.u 2 , a.y 1 + b.y 2 )
is an input-output pair : Theorem of superposition
• Time Invariant
(u 1 (t),y 1 (t)) is an input-output pair then (u 1 (t-T),y 1 (t-T)) is an input-
output pair
The “giant table” is drastically simplified :
∫ +•
y(t)
=
h t
(
τ u τ dτ
)
(
)
Y(s) H(s) U(s)
=
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
76
What is the Fourier Transform Fourier’s idea : an LTI system is completely determined by
What is the Fourier Transform
Fourier’s idea : an LTI system is completely determined by its
response to sinusoidal signals
• Transmission of sinusoid is given by G(j )
• The transfer function G(s) is uniquely given by its values on
the imaginary axes
• Frequency response can be experimentally determined
The complex number G(j ) tells how a sinusoid propagates
through the system in steady states :
u(t)
= sin
(
t
)
y(t)
=
G (
j ◊
)
◊ sin
(
◊ +
t
arg G
(
(
j ◊
)))
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
77
Steady state response Fourier transform deals with Steady State Response : ◊ i ◊ t
Steady state response
Fourier transform deals with Steady State Response :
◊ i
◊ t
u(t)
=
cos
(
t
)
+
i
sin
(
t
)
=
e
0
0
0
1
⇒ s
U
(
)
=
s
i
0
1
G
(
i ◊
)
R
(System has
(
)
( )
0
k
⇒ G s
Y
s
=
=
+
s
i
s
i
s
distinct poles k )
0
0
k
( )
(
)
i
t
◊ t
⇒ y t
=
G i
e
0
+
R
e
k
0
k
Decays if all k
are negatives
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
78
Steady state response 9/23/2009 V. Frequency response 79
Steady state response
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
79
Nyquist stability theorem Nyquist stability theorem tells if a system WILL BE stable (or not)
Nyquist stability theorem
Nyquist stability theorem tells if a system WILL BE stable (or
not) with a simple feedback
u(t)
y(t)
C(s).
P(s).
L(s)=C(s).P(s)
-
y(t)
-1
(1) Standard system
with negative
unitary feedback
(2) Nyquist standard
form
(2) : if L(i. 0 ) = -1 then oscillation will be maintained
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
80
Nyquist stability theorem Step 1 : draw Nyquist curve Imag =+• Real =0 =-• L(i.
Nyquist stability theorem
Step 1 : draw Nyquist curve
Imag
=+•
Real
=0
=-•
L(i. )
Step 2 : where is (-1,0) ?
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
81
Nyquist theorem When the transfer loop function L does not have poles in the right
Nyquist theorem
When the transfer loop function L does not have poles in the
right half plane the closed loop system is stable if the
complete Nyquist curve does not encircle the critical (-1,0)
point.
When the transfer loop function L has N poles in the right half
plane the closed loop system is stable if the complete Nyquist
curve encircle the critical (-1,0) point N times.
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
82
Nyquist stability theorem Nyquist stability theorem compares L(i. ) with (-1,0) Imag Real (-1,0) =0
Nyquist stability theorem
Nyquist stability theorem compares L(i. ) with (-1,0)
Imag
Real
(-1,0)
=0
L(i. )
(-1,0)
(-1,0)
STABLE
UNSTABLE
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
83
Nyquist theorem • Focus on the characteristic equation • Difficult to see how the characteristic
Nyquist theorem
• Focus on the characteristic equation
• Difficult to see how the characteristic equation L is influenced
by the controller C
Question is : how to change C ?
• Strong practical applications
• Possibility to introduce stability margin : how close to
instability are we ?
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
84
Stability margin Stability margin definitions : M Phase margin 1/g M 45°- 60° g M
Stability margin
Stability margin definitions :
M Phase margin
1/g M
45°- 60°
g M Gain margin
2 - 6
(-1,0)
d
M
d Shortest distance
to critical point
0.5 - 0.8
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
85
The Bode plot Nyquist theorem is spectacular but not very efficient… Impossible to distinguish C(s)
The Bode plot
Nyquist theorem is spectacular but not very efficient…
Impossible to distinguish C(s) and P(s)
Bode plots two curves : one for gain, one for phase :
dB scale
for gain
Logarithmic
frequency axis
Linear
scale for
phase
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
86
The Bode plot Bode’s plot main properties : Asymptotic curves (gain multiple of 20dB/dec) are
The Bode plot
Bode’s plot main properties :
Asymptotic curves (gain multiple of 20dB/dec) are ok
Simple interpretation of C(s) and P(s) in cascade :
Gain dB (C(s).P(s)
= Gain dB (C(s)) + Gain dB (P(s))
Phase(C(s).P(s)
= Phase(C(s)) + Phase(P(s))
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
87
The Bode stability criteria Gain Margin > 0 : closed loop system will be stable
The Bode stability criteria
Gain Margin > 0 : closed loop
system will be stable
Phase Margin > 0 : closed loop
system will be stable
One criteria is sufficient in most cases because gain
and margin are closely related
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
88
Close loop frequency response Typical property of H bo (s) are : H ( j
Close loop frequency response
Typical property of H bo (s) are :
H
(
j ◊
)
>>
1 for
<<
bo
c
H
(
j ◊
)
<<
1 for
>>
bo
c
H
(
j ◊
)
bo
H
(
j
)
=
1 for
<<
bf
(
)
c
1
+
H
j
bo
H
(
j ◊
)
bo
H
(
j
)
=
H
(
j
)
for
>>
bf
1
+
(
j
)
bo
c
H
bo
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
89
Close loop frequency response AdB c Log 10 Open loop Bode plot Close loop Bode
Close loop frequency response
AdB
c
Log 10
Open loop Bode plot
Close loop Bode plot
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
90
Close loop frequency response Phase margin effect AdB c Log 10 Open loop Bode plot
Close loop frequency response
Phase margin effect
AdB
c
Log 10
Open loop Bode plot
Close loop Bode plot (phase margin 90°)
Close loop Bode plot (phase margin 30°)
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
91
Static gain H ( j ◊ ) H ( j ◊ ) bo = bf
Static gain
H
(
j ◊
)
H
(
j ◊
)
bo
=
bf
1
+
H
(
j ◊
)
bo
For small value of (low frequency) :
If H bo ( ) << 1
then
H bf ( )
H bo ( )
If H bo ( ) >> 1
then
H bf ( )
1
If H bo ( ) → •
then
H bf ( ) → 1
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
92
Controller specifications e(s) u(s) y(s) C(s) G(s) - Open loop transfer function : OLTF =
Controller specifications
e(s)
u(s)
y(s)
C(s)
G(s)
-
Open loop transfer function : OLTF = C.G
Close loop transfer function : CLTF = C.G / (1 + C.G)
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
93
Controller specifications • Static gain close to 1 → Low frequency : high gain •
Controller specifications
• Static gain close to 1
→ Low frequency : high gain
• Perturbation rejection
→ High frequency : low gain
|C(j ).G(j )|
• Stability
→ phase margin > 0
• Bandwith
c
→ Cross over frequency c
• Overshoot 25%
→ phase margin 45°
→ Gentle slope in transition region
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
94
Controller design • Proportionnal feedback C(s)= K – Effect : lifts gain with no change
Controller design
• Proportionnal feedback
C(s)= K
– Effect : lifts gain with no
change in phase
– Bode : shift gain by factor
of K
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
95
Controller design 1 + ◊ s • Lead compensation C s ( ) = K
Controller design
1 +
◊ s
Lead compensation
C s
(
)
=
K
1 +
A
s
– Effect : lifts phase by
increasing gain at high
frequency
– Very usefull controller :
increase phase margin
– Bode : add phase between
zero and pole
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
96
Modern loop shaping • Use of rltool (Matlab Control Toolboxe) 9/23/2009 V. Frequency response 97
Modern loop shaping
• Use of rltool (Matlab Control Toolboxe)
9/23/2009
V. Frequency response
97
VI. Design of simple feedback (Ctd) 9/23/2009 VI. Design of simple feedbacks (Ctd) 98
VI. Design of simple feedback
(Ctd)
9/23/2009
VI. Design of simple feedbacks (Ctd)
98
Introduction More complete standard problem : d n r e u x y F(s) C(s)
Introduction
More complete standard problem :
d
n
r
e
u
x
y
F(s)
C(s)
P(s)
-
Controller : feedback C(s) and feedforward F(s)
Load disturbance d : drives the system from its desired state x
Measurement disturbance n : corrupts information about x
Main requirement is that process variable x should follow reference r
9/23/2009
VI. Design of simple feedbacks (Ctd)
99
Introduction Controller’s specifications : A. Reduce effects of load disturbance B. Does not inject too
Introduction
Controller’s specifications :
A. Reduce effects of load disturbance
B. Does not inject too much measurement noise into the system
C. Makes the closed loop insensitive to variations in the process
D. Makes output follow reference signal
Classical approach : deal with A,B and C with controller C(s) and deal with
D with feedforward F(s)
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100
Introduction Controller’s specifications : A. Reduce effects of load disturbance B. Does not inject too
Introduction
Controller’s specifications :
A. Reduce effects of load disturbance
B. Does not inject too much measurement noise into the system
C. Makes the closed loop insensitive to variations in the process
D. Makes output follow reference signal
Classical approach : deal with A,B and C with controller C(s) and deal with
D with feedforward F(s) :
Design procedure
• Design the feedback C(s) too achieve
– Small sensitivity to load disturbance d
– Low injection of measurement noise n
– High robustness to process variations
• Then design F(s) to achieve desired response to reference signal r
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Relations between signals Three interesting signals (x, y, u) Three possible inputs (r, d, n)
Relations between signals
Three interesting signals (x, y, u)
Three possible inputs (r, d, n)
Nine possible transfer functions !
P
P
C
P
C
F
x
=
d
+
n
+
r
1 ◊ C
+
P
1 ◊ C
+
P
1
+
P
◊ C
P
1
P
C
F
y
=
d
+
n
+
r
1 ◊
+
P
C
1 ◊
+
P
C
1
+
P
C
P
C
C
C
F
u
=
d
+
n
+
r
1 P
+
C
1 ◊
+
P
C
1
+
P
C
Six distinct transfer functions…
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Relations between signals Nine frequency responses… From: d Bode Diagram From: n From: r 0
Relations between signals
Nine frequency responses…
From: d
Bode Diagram
From: n
From: r
0
-20
-40
0
-20
-40
0
-20
-40
1
1
10 -1
10 0
10 10 -1
10 0
10 10 -1
10 0
10 1
Frequency (rad/sec)
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103
To: u
Magnitude (dB)
To: y
To: x
Relations between signals Nine step responses… From: d Step Response From: n From: r 2
Relations between signals
Nine step responses…
From: d
Step Response
From: n
From: r
2
0
-2
2
1
0
-1
2
0
-2 0
10
20
30 0
10
20
30 0
10
20
30
Time (sec)
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104
Amplitude
To: u
To: y
To: x
Relations between signals A correct design means that each transfer has to be evaluated… Need
Relations between signals
A correct design means that each transfer has to be evaluated…
Need to be a little bit organized !
Need less criteria
Concept of sensibility functions
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Sensibility functions P P ◊ C P ◊ C ◊ F x = ◊ d
Sensibility functions
P
P
C
P
C
◊ F
x
=
d
+
n
+
r
1 P
+
◊ C
1
+
P
◊ C
1
+
P
◊ C
P
1
P
C
◊ F
y
=
d
+
n
+
r
1 P
+
◊ C
1
+
P
◊ C
1
+
P
◊ C
P
C
C
C
F
u
=
d
+
n
+
r
1 ◊ C
+
P
◊ C
1
+
P
1
+
P
◊ C
Loop sensitivity function
L
=
P
C
1
1
S =
=
Sensibility function
1
+
L
1
+
P
C
L P
C
T =
=
Complementary sensibility function
1
+ L
1
+
P
C
L tells everything about stability : common denominator of each
transfer functions
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Sensibility functions L=PC tells everything about stability : common denominator of each transfer functions Bode
Sensibility functions
L=PC tells everything about stability : common denominator of each
transfer functions
Bode Diagram
0
-20
-40
-90
-180
-270
-360
10 -1
10 0
Frequency (rad/sec)
10
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Phase (deg)
Magnitude (dB)
Sensibility functions S=1/(1+L) tells about noise reduction d n r=0 e u x y C
Sensibility functions
S=1/(1+L) tells about noise reduction
d
n
r=0
e
u
x y
C
P
-
Without feedback :
=
n
+
P
d
y ol
With feedback control :
1
P
=
n +
d
=
S
y
y cl
ol
1
+
P
C
1
+
P
C
Disturbances with |S(i )| < 1 are reduced by feedback
Disturbances with |S(i )| > 1 are amplified by feedback
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108
Sensibility functions It would be nice to have |S(i )| < 1 for all frequencies
Sensibility functions
It would be nice to have |S(i )| < 1 for all frequencies !
Cauchy Integral Theorem :
log
S i ◊
(
)
= 0
for stable open loop system :
0
(
)
For unstable or time delayed systems :
log
S i ◊
> 0
0
Conclusion : water bed effect…
log|S(i )|
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109
Sensibility functions Nyquist stability criteria : , C P < 1 + L € P
Sensibility functions
Nyquist stability criteria :
,
C
P
<
1
+
L
P
1
<
P
T
(-1,0)
d = 1+ L
1/T tells how much P is allowed to vary
until system becomes unstable
C P
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Sensibility functions Nyquist stability criteria : Minimum value of d tells how close of instability
Sensibility functions
Nyquist stability criteria :
Minimum value of d tells how close
of instability is the system
d min is a measure of robustness : the
bigger is M=1/d the more robust is
the system
(-1,0)
log|S(i )|
d = 1+ L
C P
M
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VII. Feedforward design 9/23/2009 VII. Feedforward design 112
VII. Feedforward design
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112
Introduction Feedforward is a useful complement to feedback. Basic properties are: + Reduce effects of
Introduction
Feedforward is a useful complement to feedback. Basic properties are:
+ Reduce effects of disturbance that can be measured
+ Improve response to reference signal
+ No risk for instability
- Design of feedforward is simple but requires good model and/or
measurements
+ Beneficial when combined with feedback
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113
Attenuation of measured disturbance d F u y P P 1 2 Y = P
Attenuation of measured disturbance
d
F
u
y
P
P
1
2
Y
=
P
(
1
P
F
)
2
1
D
Disturbance is eliminated if F is chosen such as:
F = P 1 -1
Need to measure d
P1 needs to be inversible
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114
Combined Feedback and Feedforward d F r u C P P y 1 2 Disturbance
Combined Feedback and Feedforward
d
F
r
u
C
P
P
y
1
2
Disturbance d is attenuated both by F and C :
Y
P
(
1
P
F
)
2
1
=
D
1
+
P
C
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115
System inverse The ideal feedforward needs to compute the inverse of P 1 . That’s
System inverse
The ideal feedforward needs to compute the inverse of P 1 . That’s might
be tricky… Examples:
1
)
1
P
(
s
=
F
(
s
)
=
P
(
s
)
=
1
+
s
Differentiation
1
+
s
s
e
1
s
P
(
s
)
=
F
(
s
)
=
P
(
s
)
=
(
1
+
s
)
e
Prediction
1 s
+
1
s
1
+
s
1
P
(
s
)
=
F
(
s
)
=
P
(
s
)
=
Unstable
1 s
+
1
s
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116
Approximate system inverse The ideal feedforward needs to compute the inverse of P 1 .
Approximate system inverse
The ideal feedforward needs to compute the inverse of P 1 . That’s might
be tricky… Examples:
1
1
P
(
s
)
=
F
(
s
)
= P
(
s
)
=
1
+
s
Differentiation
1
+
s
s
e
1
s
P
(
s
)
=
F
(
s
)
= P
(
s
)
=
(
1
+
s
)
e
Prediction
1 s
+
1
s
1
+
s
1
P
(
s
)
=
F
(
s
)
= P
(
s
)
=
Unstable
1 s
+
1
s
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Approximate system inverse Since it is difficult to obtain an exact inverse we have to
Approximate system inverse
Since it is difficult to obtain an exact inverse we have to approximate. One
possibility is to find the transfer function which minimizes :
J
=
(
u
(
t
)
v
( ))
t
dt
0
Where:
V = P◊X ◊U
And where U is a particular input (ex: a step signal). This gives for
instance:
1
1
+
s
1
P
(
s
)
=
P
(
s
)
1
+
s
1
+
T
s
s
1
P
(
s
)
=
e
P
(
s
)
1
1
s
P
(
s
)
1
=
F
(
s
)
=
P
(
s
)
=
1
1 s
+
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Improved response to reference signal The reference signal can be injected after the controller: M
Improved response to reference signal
The reference signal can be injected after the controller:
M
u
y
u
m
r
M
C
P
y
y
2
y m is the desired trajectory.
Choose M u = M y / P
Design concerns:
M u approximated
M y adapted such that M y /P feasible
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119
Combining feedback and feedforward Feedback Closed loop Acts only when there are deviations Market driven
Combining feedback and feedforward
Feedback
Closed loop
Acts only when there are
deviations
Market driven
Robust to model errors
Risk for instability
Feedforward
Open loop
Acts before deviation shows
up
Planning
Not robust to model errors
No risk for instability
Feedforward must be used as a complement to feedback.
Requires good modeling.
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120
VIII. State feedback 9/23/2009 VIII. State feedback 121
VIII. State feedback
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121
Introduction - Simple design becomes difficult for high order systems - What is the State
Introduction
- Simple design becomes difficult for high order systems
- What is the State concept ?
- State are the variables that fully summarize the actual state of the
system
- Future can be fully predicted from the current state
- State is the ideal basis for control
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State feedback Let us suppose the system is described by the following equation (x is
State feedback
Let us suppose the system is described by the following equation (x is a
vector, A, B and C are matrixes) :
 dx
=
A
x
+
B
u
dt
y
=
C
◊ x
The general linear controller is :
u = K◊ x + L◊u
The closed loop system then becomes :
 dx
=
A
x
+
B
(
K
x
+
L
u
)
=
(
A
B
K
)
x
B
+
L
u
dt
y
=
C
x
The closed loop system has the characteristic equation:
P
(
s
)
= det
(
s ◊I
(
A
B◊ K
))
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State feedback Let us suppose the system is described by the following equation (x is
State feedback
Let us suppose the system is described by the following equation (x is a
vector, A, B and C are matrixes) :
 dx
=
A
x
+
B
u
dt
y
=
C
◊ x
The general linear controller is :
Main mathematical tool
is linear algebra and
matrixes !
u = K◊ x + L◊u
The closed loop system then becomes :
 dx
=
A
x
+
B
(
K
x
+
L
u
)
=
(
A
B
K
)
x
B
+
L
u
dt
y
=
C
x
The closed loop system has the characteristic equation:
P
(
s
)
= det
(
s ◊I
(
A
B◊ K
))
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Pole placement Original (open loop) system behavior depends on its poles, solution of the characteristic
Pole placement
Original (open loop) system behavior depends on its poles, solution of the
characteristic equation:
P
(
s
)
= det
(
s ◊I
A
)
OL
Closed loop system behavior depends on its poles, solution of the
characteristic equation:
P
(
s
)
= det
(
s ◊I
(
A
B◊ K
))
CL
Needs to tune N parameters (N : dimension of x and K)
Appropriate choice of K allow to place the poles anywhere ! (Needs
simple mathematical skills (not detailed here ☺)
Two problems : observability, controllability
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Pole placement Poles of the OL system Poles of the CL system 9/23/2009 VIII. State
Pole placement
Poles of the
OL system
Poles of the
CL system
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First problem : observability In the control feedback equation x is supposed to be known.
First problem : observability
In the control feedback equation x is supposed to be known. If one can
access (measure) x, there is no problem. Sometimes, x cannot be
measured but can be observed.
 dx
=
A
x
+
B
u
System described by:
dt
y
=
C
◊ x
Only u and y accessible, A and B known. Solution is to estimate
internal state x with a “state observer” of gain K o :
 dx
obs
=
A
x
+
B
u
+
K
(
y
y
)
obs
obs
obs
 dt
y
=
x
  C
obs
obs
Appropriate choice of K obs minimizes y obs – y : x obs tends to x
P
(
s
)
= det
(
s ◊I
(
A
K
◊ C
))
Poles of the observer are the poles of:
obs
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First problem : observability In the control feedback equation x is supposed to be known.
First problem : observability
In the control feedback equation x is supposed to be known. If one can
access (measure) x, there is no problem. Sometimes, x cannot be
measured but can be observed.
 dx
=
A
x
+
B
u
System described by:
dt
y
=
C
◊ x
Only u and y accessible, A and B known. Solution is to estimate
internal state x with a “state observer” of gain K o :
 dx
obs
=
A
x
+
B
u
+
K
(
y
y
)
obs
obs
obs
 dt
y
=
x
  C
obs
obs
Appropriate choice of K obs minimizes y obs – y : x obs tends to x
Poles of the observer are the poles of:
P
(
s
)
= det
(
s ◊I
(
A
K
◊ C
))
obs
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First problem : observability Poles of the observer are the poles those of: P (
First problem : observability
Poles of the observer are the poles those of:
P
(
s
)
= det
(
s ◊I
(
A
K
◊ C
))
obs
Poles of the
system
Poles of the
observer
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First problem : observability Problem : is the system observable ? In most cases :
First problem : observability
Problem : is the system observable ?
In most cases : yes
Sometimes, the state is not observable :
The observer does not converge to the true state, whatever K obs is.
Can be derived from a mathematical analyses of (A,C):
rank(A,AC,AAC,AAAC…) = N
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Combining an observer and a state feedback True (with x) state feedback can be replaced
Combining an observer and a state feedback
True (with x) state feedback can be replaced by an observed (x obs ) state
feedback:
u = K◊ x
+ L◊u
obs
Poles of the
OL system
Poles of the
observer
Poles of the
CL system
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Second problem : controllability Sometimes a state is not controllable : means that whatever the
Second problem : controllability
Sometimes a state is not controllable : means that whatever the
command u is, some parts of the state are not controllable
Can be derived from a mathematical analyses of (A,B):
rank(A,AB,AAB,AAAB…) = N
Problem if :
- A state is not controllable and unstable
- A state is not controllable and slow
No problem if :
- A state is not controllable and fast (decays rapidly)
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