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Plastics

technologY

handbook

V O L U M E

2

Manufacturing • coMposites • tooling • auxiliaries

edited by

donald V. Rosato

PhD, MBA, MS, BS, PE

Marlene g. Rosato

BASc (ChE), P Eng

nick R. schott

PhD, MS, BS (ChE), PE

UMASS Lowell Professor of Plastics Engineering Emeritus & Plastics Department Head Retired

PhD, MS, BS (ChE), PE UMASS Lowell Professor of Plastics Engineering Emeritus & Plastics Department Head
PhD, MS, BS (ChE), PE UMASS Lowell Professor of Plastics Engineering Emeritus & Plastics Department Head
Contents

Contents

About thE AuthoRS

v

FiGuRES

xvii

tAblES

xxxi

AbbREViAtioNS

xli

AckNowlEDGMENtS

xlix

PREFAcE

li

10. coAtiNG

1

OVERVIEW

1

Different Coating Aspect

8

TERM AND PERFORMANCE INTRODUCTION

11

Paint

14

Water-Based Paint

16

Varnish

17

Lacquer

17

Solvent

17

PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS

21

Thermoplastic Coating

22

TS Coating

23

viii

Contents

FUNDAMENTALS OF RESIN FORMATION

23

Condensation Type

24

Addition Type

26

Fluorine-Containing Resin

35

Acrylic Resin

35

Cellulosic Resin

35

Copolymer Resin

36

Coumarone-lndene Resin

36

Parylene

36

APPLICATION

39

Coil Coating

40

Strippable Coating

44

Germ-Free Coating

45

EVALUATION METHOD

45

PROCESS

46

Overview

46

Film Solidification

55

Coating Methods

56

Coating Equipment

59

Roll-Coat Finish

59

Spread Coating

60

Floating Knife Coater

60

Fluidized Bed Coating

61

Spray Coating

61

Powder Coating

62

Electrostatic Spraying

62

Coil Coating (Metal Coating)

62

PROPERTY

63

Corrosion and Chemical Resistance

64

Fire Retardant

66

Intumescent Coating

67

Heat Resistant

68

Thermal Control

68

Electrical Insulating

69

SIMULATED SERVICE TESTS

70

Abrasion Resistance

70

Adhesion

71

Accelerated Aging in Hot Air

71

Accelerated aging in oxygen

72

Blocking

72

Contents

ix

Burst Strength

72

Compression Set

72

Curl

72

Elongation

73

Flame Resistance,Vertical

73

Flexibility

73

Hardness

73

Hydrostatic Resistance

74

Low Temperature Cracking

74

Modulus

74

Gas Permeability

75

Liquid Permeability

75

pHValue

75

Resiliency

75

Stretch

75

Swelling

78

Tear Strength

78

Tensile Strength

79

Thickness

79

Wicking

79

Weathering

79

SOLVENT AND COATING

80

Solvent Composition in Coating

80

Solvent and Solvent-Free Coatings

83

Emission

84

Clean Air Act

87

SOLVENT SUBSTITUTION

87

11. cAStiNG

90

INTRODUCTION

90

PLASTIC

91

PROCESSES

92

CASTING OF ACRYLIC

96

Introduction

96

Casting Sheet

97

Casting Rod and Tube

98

Embedment

99

Filled Casting

99

Prototype Casting

100

CASTING OF NYLON

100

x

Contents

Introduction

100

Process

101

SOLVENT CASTING OF FILM

102

12. REActioN iNjEctioN MolDiNG

103

INTRODUCTION

103

EQUIPMENT

108

MOLD

109

Runner and Gate Design

115

Cost

115

PROCESSING

120

Process Control

123

MATERIAL

124

Conversion Process

130

TP Polyurethane

133

TS Polyurethane

133

Cure of TS

133

Polymerization

134

RRIM and Resin Transfer Molding

138

COSTING

138

13. RotAtioNAl MolDiNG

140

INTRODUCTION

140

PROCESS

141

PLASTIC

145

PLASTIC BEHAVIOR

153

Effect of the Thermal Treatment

155

Effect of Pigmentation and Mixing Method

157

Conclusion

157

PERFORMANCE

158

MACHINES

165

MOLD

169

DESIGN

172

PRODUCTION AND COST

177

14. coMPRESSioN MolDiNG

178

INTRODUCTION

178

MOLD

185

MACHINES

188

PLASTIC

193

Contents

xi

Polytetrafluoroethylene Billet

196

Hot Compression-Molding PTFE

203

PROCESSING

204

Heating

205

Automation

207

Transfer Molding

211

Compression-Injection Molding

212

Compression and lsostatic Molding

216

15. REiNFoRcED PlAStic

223

OVERVIEW

223

DEFINITION

225

Fibrous Composite

240

Laminar Composite

251

Particulate Composites

252

Fillers

252

PROPERTIES

254

ORIENTATION OF REINFORCEMENT

270

Directional Property

274

Hetergeneous/Homogeneous/Anisotropic

279

MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION

279

Prepreg

282

Sheet Molding Compound

283

Bulk Molding Compound

284

Compound

285

FABRICATING PROCESS

286

Preform Process

286

Type Process

288

Compression Molding

288

Hand Layup

291

Filament Winding

295

Injection Molding

306

Marco Process

307

Pultrusion

307

Reactive Liquid Molding

309

Reinforced RTM

310

Reinforced Rotational Molding

311

SCRIMP Process

311

Soluble Core Molding

312

Spray-Up

312

xii

Contents

Stamping

314

SELECTING PROCESSES

315

DESIGN

317

Aspect Ratio

317

Tolerance

329

ENGINEERING ANALYSIS

333

Design Theory

333

16. othER PRocESSES

335

INTRODUCTION

335

PVC PLASTISOL

336

Introduction

336

Processing Plastisol

338

Processing Organosol

340

Slush Molding

340

Rotational Molding

341

Spray Molding

342

Continuous Coating

342

Open Molding

342

Closed Molding

343

Dip Molding

343

Dip Coating

344

Heating System

344

INK SCREENING

344

ENCAPSULATION

344

POTTING

345

LIQUID INJECTION MOLDING

345

Vacuum-Assisted LIM

346

IMPREGNATION

346

CHEMICAL ETCHING

347

TWIN-SCREW INJECTION MOLDING

347

TEXTILE COVERED MOLDING

348

MELT COMPRESSION MOLDING

348

Back Injection

349

Melt Flow Compression Molding

351

Back Compression (Melt Compression Molding)

352

MCM-IML

352

PROCESSING COMPARISON

353

Contents

xiii

17. MolD AND DiE tooliNG

366

OVERVIEW

366

MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION

382

STEEL

393

ALUMINUM

399

Preheating

402

Aluminum Zinc

403

COPPER

403

Beryllium Copper

404

Copper Zinc

404

Other Alloys

404

METAL SPRAY

405

POROUS METAL

405

SOFT TOOLING

406

MANUFACTURING

406

Electric-Discharge Machining

408

Electroforming

408

SURFACE FINISH

408

POLISHING

410

Orange Peel

414

Art of Polishing

414

Hand Polishing

415

PROTECTIVE COATING/PLATING

416

Overview

416

Problems

418

Plating

422

Coating

423

Heat Treatment

425

Cryogenic Processing

426

MAINTENANCE/CLEANING

427

MOLD

429

Introduction

429

Basic Operation

460

Mold Components

460

Mold Type

462

Injection Mold Feed System

472

Sprue

472

Runner

473

Gate

475

Cavity

488

xiv

Contents

Cold Runner

491

Hot Runner

502

Runner Overview

512

Material of Construction

516

Cooling

519

CavityVenting

529

Ejection

533

Mold/Part Shrinkage

539

Mold Construction

544

Release Agent

553

Faster/Lower-Cost Mold Insert Approach

554

Manufacturing Mold Cavity

554

Polishing

556

Preengineering

557

Safety

567

Moldmakers

569

Imports

570

Directories

570

Summary

572

DIES

573

Material of Construction

574

Terminology

575

Design

585

Melt Flow

585

Extrudate Performance

594

Manifold

598

Process Control

598

Die Type

606

Tubular Dies

614

New Die Designs

633

COMPUTERS

634

Tool Analysis

635

Model Construction

635

Software

636

Material Selection Software

636

TOOLING AND PROTOTYPING

637

Rapid System

638

Rapid Tooling

640

Selecting Rapid Tooling

644

Rapid Prototyping

644

Contents

xv

Software Trend

645

REPAIRVERSUS BUYING

646

Welding

646

Storage

647

TOOL BUILDERS

647

GLOSSARY

648

APPENDIX

689

18. AuxiliARy AND SEcoNDARy EquiPMENt

738

INTRODUCTION

738

MATERIAL/PRODUCT HANDLING

756

Material-Handling System

757

Injection Molding

777

Extruding

786

DECORATING

805

JOINING AND ASSEMBLING

807

Adhesive and Solvent Bonding

807

Mechanical Assembly

835

Staking

849

Welding Assembly

863

MACHINING

892

Overview

892

Machining and Cutting Operations

897

Machining

and Tooling

911

Machining

Nonmelt TP

919

Laser Machining

922

Other Machining Methods

923

Machining Safety

924

GloSSARy

925

FuRthER READiNG

953

Figures

Figures

Figure 10.1

Example of industrial coating and drying apparatus.

20

Figure 10.2

The basic drying process and typical drying parameters.

20

Figure 10.3

Temperature distribution in strippable vinyl foam.

44

Figure 10.4

High-speed extrusion coating line.

48

Figure 10.5

Example of roller coating processes.

49

Figure 10.6

Knife spread coating.

50

Figure 10.7

Transfer coating of PUR (top) and PVC.

50

Figure 10.8

Cast coating line for coating by transfer from paper carrier.

51

Figure 10.9

Fabric dip coating line.

52

Figure 10.10

Example of a vacuum coater.

53

Figure 10.12

Electrodeposition for application of coating to magnet wire or strip.

53

Figure 10.11

In-mold coating used in the reaction injection molding process.

53

Figure 10.13

Floor covering coating line.

54

Figure 10.14

Foam plastic carpet backing coating line.

54

Figure 10.15

Vacuum-ultraviolet radiation effects on organic coatings.

63

Figure 10.16

Vacuum-ultraviolet radiation effects on stabilized organic coatings.

63

Figure 10.17

Relationship between solar absorbance, total hemispherical emittance,

and pigment ratios.

64

Figure 10.18

Relationship between solar absorbance and pigment ratios.

64

Figure 10.19

Vacuum-ultraviolet radiation effects on inorganic coatings.

65

Figure 10.20

Effects of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation on pigments.

65

Figure 10.21

Emission of VOCs in the life cycle of a varnish.

87

Figure 10.22

Pressure-temperature and pressure-density behavior of matter.

88

Figure 11.1

Example of the liquid casting process.

92

xviii

Figures

Figure 11.2

Example of a LIM casting process.

95

Figure 11.3

Example of more accurate mixing of components for liquid injection

casting.

95

Figure 12.1

Example of typical PUR RIM process (courtesy of Bayer).

104

Figure 12.2

Diagram highlighting material use and handling in a PUR RIM process

(courtesy of Bayer).

104

Figure 12.3

Example of in-mold coating application.

105

Figure 12.4

Polyurethane RIM product for a computerized tomography (CT) device

(courtesy of Bayer).

106

Figure 12.5

Refrigerator with PUR foam door with no sheet metal (courtesy of Bayer). 107

Figure 12.6

RIM machine with mold in the open position (courtesy of Milacron).

110

Figure 12.7

RIM machine with mold in the closed position (courtesy of Milacron).

111

Figure 12.8

Example of an auto bumper RIM production line (courtesy of Milacron).

112

Figure 12.9

RIM machine with auxiliary clamping system (courtesy of Battenfeld).

113

Figure 12.10

Example of a RIM production line, where molds are on a moving track

permitting final cure of PUR (courtesy of Battenfeld).

114

Figure 12.11

Gating and runner systems demonstrating laminar melt flow and

uniform flow front (courtesy of Bayer).

115

Figure 12.12

Example of a dam gate and runner system (courtesy of Bayer).

116

Figure 12.13

Examples of triangular and quadratic fan gates (chapter 17; courtesy of

Bayer).

117

Figure 12.14

Example of melt flow around obstructions near the vent (courtesy of

Bayer).

118

Figure 12.15

Examples of various ribbing approaches to aid melt flow (courtesy of

Bayer).

118

Figure 12.16

Example of a low gate position with high vent for best results when

foaming (courtesy of Bayer).

119

Figure 12.17

Example of how to properly split a melt stream from the mixer

(courtesy of Bayer).

119

Figure 12.18

Basic schematic for mixing two liquid components to produce a PUR.

122

Figure 12.19

TDI is an isomer comprising toluene-2,4- and 2,6-diisocyanate.

126

Figure 12.20

Diphenylmethane-4,4-diisocyanate (MDI).

127

Figure 12.21

Examples of PUR RIM plastic products.

131

Figure 12.22

Density distribution across the thickness of a foamed part.

132

Figure 12.23

Molding pressure with RIM and RTM measures significantly less in other

processes (courtesy of Bayer).

138

Figure 13.1

RM’s four basic steps (courtesy of The Queen’s University, Belfast).

142

Figure 13.2

Rotational rate of the two axes is at 7:1 for this product.

146

Figure 13.3

Consumption of plastics for RM.

149

Figure 13.4

RM products in North America.

149

Figures

xix

Figure 13.5

RM products in Europe.

149

Figure 13.6

Example of RM products including large tank.

150

Figure 13.7

The effect of maximum inner temperature on the impact strength of the

moldings (a = PE and b = PP).

156

Figure 13.8

Effect of heating rate on the optimum processing temperature of PE.

156

Figure 13.9

Effect of the grinding temperature on the optimum processing

temperature of PE.

156

Figure 13.10

Effect of extrusion on the thermal properties of PE.

157

Figure 13.11

Effect of pigmentation on the thermal properties of turboblended PE.

157

Figure 13.12

Effect of pigmentation and mixing on the impact strength of PE.

158

Figure 13.13

Examples of similar-mold RM machine schematics.

160

Figure 13.14

Dual system with different-sized molds.

160

Figure 13.15

Schematic example of a multilayer RM machine.

161

Figure 13.16

Transfer of additional heat using a heat pipe.

165

Figure 13.17

Schematic of a basic three-station RM machine.

166

Figure 13.18

Example of a shuttle machine.

167

Figure 13.19

Example of a clamshell molding machine.

167

Figure 13.20

Example of a rock-and-roll molding machine.

168

Figure 14.1

Schematic of the CM of a plastic material.

178

Figure 14.2

Compression molded ring-shaped part removed from the mold.

179

Figure 14.3

CM using a molding compound.

182

Figure 14.4

CM using an impregnated material.

182

Figure 14.5

Examples of flash in a mold: (a) horizontal, (b) vertical, and (c) modified

vertical.

184

Figure 14.6

Positive compression mold.

186

Figure 14.7

Flash compression mold.

186

Figure 14.8

Semipositive compression mold.

187

Figure 14.9

Example of mold vent locations.

187

Figure 14.10

Example of vent locations in a mold processing TPs.

188

Figure 14.11

Example of land locations in a split-wedge mold (courtesy of National

Tool and Manufacturing Association).

189

Figure 14.13

The left side is a better edge design when using a draw angle.

190

Figure 14.12

Optimum draft for shear edges in molding sheet-molding compounds.

190

Figure 14.14

Knife shear edge.

190

Figure 14.15

Press with 4 × 4 in platens and ½-ton clamp pressure (courtesy of

Carver Press).

191

Figure 14.16

A 400-ton press with much larger than normal platens that measure

5 × 10 ft; the press has multiple zones of electrically heated platens, an automatic bump cycle, an audible alarm to signal the end of the cure cycle, and front and back safety-light curtains (courtesy of Wabash MPI).

191

xx

Figures

Figure 14.17

A 4000-ton press with 5 × 8 ft platens (courtesy of Erie Press).

192

Figure 14.18

A 400-ton press with 18 platens, each measuring 4 × 6 ft (courtesy of

BaldwinWorks).

193

Figure 14.19

An 8000-ton press with 10 × 10 ft platens that have book-type opening

and closing action (courtesy of Krismer, Germany).

194

Figure 14.20

Processing sequence for compression stamping glass fiber–reinforced TP

sheets.

195

Figure 14.21

Heat-curing cycles for TPs go through A-B-C stages.

195

Figure 14.22

Transition point and linear thermal expansion of PTFE (courtesy of

DuPont).

199

Figure 14.23

Mechanism of sintering PTFE (courtesy of DuPont).

200

Figure 14.24

Example of a sintering cycle.

202

Figure 14.25

Example of a simple loading tray with a retractable slide plate to deliver

material to multicavity mold.

207

Figure 14.26

CM machine with preplasticizer.

208

Figure 14.27

Three screws of the preplasticizer have been retracted from their barrels

for viewing; not in the operating mode.

209

Figure 14.28

Preheated compounds exiting the preplasticizers prior to guillotine

slicing the required shot sizes.

210

Figure 14.29

Schematic of transfer molding.

211

Figure 14.30

Comparing IM, CM, and transfer molding.

211

Figure 14.31

Detail view of transfer molding with two cavities.

212

Figure 14.32

Example of a screw plasticizer preheating plastic that is delivered into

the transfer molding pot for delivery into the mold cavities.

212

Figure 14.33

A 64-cavity transfer mold about to receive electronic devices from a

work-loading frame.

215

Figure 14.34

Principal steps of isostatic molding.

217

Figure 14.35

Basic isostatic compaction process.

219

Figure 14.36

Three ways of molding PTFE tubes: (a) two flexible bags, (b) inner

flexible bag with outer rigid cylinder, and (c) outer flexible bag with inner rigid rod.

220

Figure 15.1

Effect of matrix content on strength (F) or elastic moduli (E) of RPs.

223

Figure 15.2

Properties versus amount of reinforcement.

224

Figure 15.3

Glass fiber-TS polyester-filament-wound RP underground gasoline

storage tank.

226

Figure 15.4

Complete primary and secondary bus structure hand layup of glass

fiber-TS polyester RP.

226

Figure 15.5

Glass fiber swirl mat-TS polyester RP vacuum hand layup boat shell.

227

Figure 15.6

Glass fiber-TS polyester RP robot controlled hand layup 28 ft long boat.

227

Figures

xxi

Figure 15.8

Glass fiber-TS polyester filament wound RP tank trailer that transports

corrosive and hazardous materials.

228

Figure 15.7

Glass fiber tape-TS polyester hand layup smoke stack liner.

228

Figure 15.9

Pultruded glass fiber roving-TS polyester rods in a 370 ft long lift bridge

supports up to 44 T traffic load.

228

Figure 15.10

Glass fiber-TS polyester filament wound RP railroad hopper car body.

229

Figure 15.11

Monsanto House of the future all glass fiber-TS polyester RP hand

layup has four 16 ft long U-shaped (monocoque box girders) cantilever structures 90° apart producing the main interior.

229

Figure 15.12

Interface of a RP.

230

Figure 15.13

Examples of reinforcement types and processing methods.

230

Figure 15.14

Fishbone diagram for an RP process (courtesy of Plastics FALLO).

231

Figure 15.15

Review of different processes to fabricate RP products.

231

Figure 15.16

Modulus of different materials can be related to their specific gravities

with RPs providing an interesting graph.

232

Figure 15.17

Short and long glass fiber-TP RP data (wt% fiber in parentheses).

246

Figure 15.18

Short to long fibers influence properties of RPs.

247

Figure 15.19

Specific tensile strength to specific tensile modulus of elasticity data f

nylon RPs.

247

Figure 15.20

Flexural fatigue data of woven glass fiber roving RPs.

247

Figure 15.21

Common glass fiber-TS polyester resin RP fatigue data versus other

materials (chapter 19).

248

Figure 15.22

Comparing different fiber material strength properties at elevated

temperatures.

248

Figure 15.23

Comparing whisker reinforcements with other reinforcements.

249

Figure 15.24

Schematic example in the manufacture of glass filaments/fibers.

249

Figure 15.25

Staple glass fiber and continuous glass filament fiber process methods.

272

Figure 15.26

Fiber arrangements and property behavior (courtesy of Plastics FALLO).

272

Figure 15.27

RP density versus percentage glass by weight or volume.

273

Figure 15.28

Fiber orientation provides different directional properties.

274

Figure 15.29

Examples of how fiber orientation influences properties of RPs.

275

Figure 15.30

Parallel/bidirectional layup of woven fabric 181 glass fiber (courtesy of

Plastics FALLO).

280

Figure 15.31

Parallel/unidirectional layup woven fabric 143 glass fiber (courtesy of

Plastics FALLO).

280

Figure 15.32

Ply layup at 0° and 90° woven fabric 143 glass fiber construction

(courtesy of Plastics FALLO).

281

Figure 15.33

Ply layup at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° woven fabric 143 glass fiber

construction (courtesy of Plastics FALLO).

281

xxii

Figures

Figure 15.34

Sheet molding compound (SMC) production line using chopped glass

fiber including roving to provide bidirectional properties, cutting continuous rovings for ease of mold-cavity fit.

282

Figure 15.35

These different SMC production lines produce by using chopped glass

fibers (top), including roving to provide bidirectional properties, cutting continuous rovings so that they can fit easily in a mold cavity, and producing thicker SMC (about 4 mm thick by 120 cm wide; bottom).

284

Figure 15.36

Flow of glass fiber rovings traveling through a plenum machine.

287

Figure 15.38

Flow of glass fiber rovings traveling through a water-slurry machine.

287

Figure 15.37

Flow of glass fiber rovings traveling through a direct machine.

287

Figure 15.39

Two-part compression mold.

289

Figure 15.40

Layout of reinforcement is designed to meet structural requirements.

293

Figure 15.41

Automated-integrated RP vacuum hand layup process that uses prepreg

sheets that are in the B-stage (chapter 1).

293

Figure 15.42

Schematic of hand-layup bag molding in an autoclave.

294

Figure 15.43

Early-twentieth-century tape-wrapping patent of a tube-making machine

by Hoganas-Billesholms A.B., Sweden.

297

Figure 15.44

Views of fiber filament-wound isotensoid pattern of the reinforcing

fibers without plastic (left) and with resin cured.

301

Figure 15.45

Box winding machine with position changes of clamp tooling.

301

Figure 15.46

Schematics of “racetrack” filament-winding machines.Top view shows

machine in action; other view is a schematic of a machine built to fabricate 150,000 gal rocket motor tanks.

304

Figure 15.47

Conventional single stage IMM.

306

Figure 15.48

IM with a preloader usually providing heat to the RP compound.

307

Figure 15.49

Schematics of ram and screw IMM.

308

Figure 15.50

Use is made of vacuum, pressure, or pressure-vacuum in the Marco

process.

309

Figure 15.51

Cutaway view of a reinforced RTM mold.

311

Figure 15.52

Lost-wax process fabricated a high-strength RP structural beam.

312

Figure 15.53

Nonatomized, dispensed Glass-Craft spray gun is easy to use and

produces low styrene emissions and is economic to maintain.

313

Figure 15.54

Example of the effect of shrinkage in the longitudinal and transverse

directions of a molded part.

319

Figure 15.55

Tensile stress-strain curves for epoxy-unreinforced and epoxy-reinforced

RPs and other materials.

322

Figure 15.56

Example of crack propagation to fracture that can occur, resulting in

product failure under load.

329

Figure 16.1

Effect of temperature on macromolecular characteristics of PVC plastisol.

337

Figure 16.2

Example of time-dependent viscosity of PVC plastisol.

338

Figures

xxiii

Figure 17.1

Flow chart for typical tool activity.

379

Figure 17.2

Example of a steam chest mold for producing expandable polystyrene

(EPS) foams.

381

Figure 17.3

Examples of dimensional changes of tool materials subjected to heat treatment. 396

Figure 17.4

Terms identifying tool surface roughness per ASA B46.1 standard.

411

Figure 17.5

Symbols identified on tool per ASA B46.1 standard.

411

Figure 17.6

Illustrating roughness at a given point on a tool surface per ASA B46.1

standard.

411

Figure 17.7

Polishability versus hardness.

412

Figure 17.8

Comparison of polishing tool hardness.

413

Figure 17.9

Cost of polishing tool steels.

413

Figure 17.10

Flow of the molding from the process that includes the mold to the

product.

430

Figure 17.11

Mold operation and types.

430

Figure 17.12

Examples of mold layouts, configurations, and actions.

431

Figure 17.13

Sequence of mold operations.

433

Figure 17.14

Mold action during a fabricating molding cycle.

433

Figure 17.15

Examples of precision mold half alignment.

434

Figure 17.16

Examples to simplify mold design and action.

436

Figure 17.17

Examples of different actions in molds.

438

Figure 17.18

Examples of unscrewing molds.

447

Figure 17.19

Examples of mold parts and molds.

450

Figure 17.20

Examples of mold force based on determining clamp force required for

melt flow.

456

Figure 17.21

Examples of melt flow’s path length as a function of part wall thickness

and injection pressures.

457

Figure 17.22

Example of an IM mold and a listing of its principal component parts.

461

Figure 17.23

Examples of two-plate molds.

463

Figure 17.24

Examples of three-plate molds.

466

Figure 17.25

Examples of stacked molds.

469

Figure 17.26

Examples of micromolded products compared to a US coin.

471

Figure 17.27

View of plastic flow from sprue to runner to gate to cavity.

472

Figure 17.28

Examples of cold and heated sprue designs.

473

Figure 17.29

Examples of TP balanced cold runners that include primary and

secondary runners.

474

Figure 17.30

Example of a cold runner mold for processing TS plastics.

475

Figure 17.31

Examples of various gate types.

476

Figure 17.32

Melt flow pattern in cavity can relate to gate-flow pattern based on

single gate (left) or multiple gates.

477

xxiv

Figures

Figure 17.33

Gate temperature/pressure/temperature relationships for amorphous

and crystalline plastics are shown.

478

Figure 17.34

Schematic of gate land location.

479

Figure 17.35

Schematic of heated single-edge gate.

481

Figure 17.36

Schematic of heated double-edge gate.

482

Figure 17.37

These molded test specimens highlight melt flow direction from a gate

or gates.

483

Figure 17.38

Cavity arrangement in balanced and unbalanced runner layouts.

489

Figure 17.39

Example of a melt flow fountain (or balloon) pattern across the thickness

in a mold cavity.

490

Figure 17.40

Examples of cold runner feed systems.

492

Figure 17.41

Common runner configurations.

493

Figure 17.42

Equivalent hydraulic diameters for common runner configurations.

494

Figure 17.43

Balanced cold runner with edge gates.

495

Figure 17.44

Example of dissimilar cavities in a family mold.

495

Figure 17.45

Examples of unbalanced cold runner molds.

496

Figure 17.46

Examples of melt viscosity data.

497

Figure 17.47

Balanced runner system in an eight-cavity mold.

498

Figure 17.48

Unbalanced runner system in a six-cavity mold.

501

Figure 17.49

Unbalanced runner system in a ten-cavity mold.

502

Figure 17.50

Schematics of hot runner mold systems.

503

Figure 17.51

Internally heated hot manifold.

504

Figure 17.52

Insulated hot runner systems.

505

Figure 17.53

Examples of direct hot runner gates.

506

Figure 17.54

Advanced types of hot runner gates.

506

Figure 17.55

Example of a hot manifold support system.

507

Figure 17.56

Example of a hot manifold stack mold with ninety-six cavities.

508

Figure 17.57

Example of a twelve-cavity hot manifold stack mold.

509

Figure 17.58

Heated manifold for TP hot runner system.

514

Figure 17.59

Cooling arrangements for cores of various sizes.

520

Figure 17.60

Cooling channel considerations.

521

Figure 17.61

Poor and good cooling channel layouts.

522

Figure 17.62

Schematic of laminar flow (left) and turbulent flow (right) in coolant

channels.

522

Figure 17.63

Heat-transfer characteristics in a typical hot runner mold (courtesy of

Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.).

525

Figure 17.64

Examples of mold-cooling components.

526

Figure 17.65

Nomogram guide for determining cooling channels.

527

Figure 17.66

Without proper venting, air entrapment can occur in the mold cavity.

529

Figures

xxv

Figure 17.67

Examples of recommended vent dimensions for PP (top view) and other

TPs.

530

Figure 17.68

Examples of vents.

531

Figure 17.69

Example of a vent pin used to break the vacuum between core and plastic.

532

Figure 17.70

Sequence in ejection molded parts using ejection pins.

534

Figure 17.71

Operation of ejector pins (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding

Systems Inc.).

536

Figure 17.72

Operation of stripper plate (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding

Systems Inc.).

536

Figure 17.73

Hydraulic operation of stripper plate (courtesy of Husky Injection

Molding Systems Inc.).

537

Figure 17.74

Chain operation of stripper plate.

537

Figure 17.75

Ejection system incorporating blades.

538

Figure 17.76

Flexible molded parts can easily be ejected from the mold cavity.

538

Figure 17.77

View of undercut that ensures molded part is retained in female cavity.

Data on undercuts that are strippable.

539

Figure 17.78

Examples of dimensional changes of annealed nylon 6/6 versus

temperature at various humidities.

540

Figure 17.79

Nylon 6/6 shrinkage due to annealing versus mold temperature.

541

Figure 17.80

This nomograph for nylon estimates shrinkages.

543

Figure 17.81

Shrinkage as a function of part thickness and gate area.

544

Figure 17.82

Molds can be cored to eliminate or reduce shrinkage.

544

Figure 17.83

Example of shrinkage control and mold dimensions.

545

Figure 17.84

Example of a simplified unscrewing bottle cap mold.

545

Figure 17.85

Examples of sprue pullers.

550

Figure 17.86

Example of the location for a mold pressure transducer sensor.

551

Figure 17.87

Guide to mold alignment.

551

Figure 17.88

Examples of only a few of the many preengineered mold component

parts and devices.

559

Figure 17.89

Preengineered spiral flow test mold.

567

Figure 17.90

Example of an extrusion line that includes a die and downstream

equipment.

573

Figure 17.91

Some identifying terms for dies; other terms are described in the text.

576

Figure 17.92

Location of the extrusion die land.

582

Figure 17.93

Examples of melt flow patterns in a coat hanger die.

586

Figure 17.94

Examples of melt distribution with die geometry via their manifold

channels. Each die has limitations for certain types of melts.

586

Figure 17.95

Examples of melt flow patterns based on minimum die and process

control.

587

Figure 17.96

Schematic of wall-thickness control for extruding blow molded parisons.

589

xxvi

Figures

Figure 17.97

Examples of nonstreamlined and streamlined entrances in dies.

590

Figure 17.98

Flow coefficients calculated at different aspect ratios for various shapes

using the same equation.

593

Figure 17.99

Calculation for the volumetric melt flow rate for this specific shape.

594

Figure 17.100

Shown are the (more conventional) rigid and die-lip lands.

595

Figure 17.101

Example of the land in an extrusion blow molding die that is usually

from 10:1 to 20:1 ratio.

596

Figure 17.102

Examples of different profiles that include using lands of different

configurations.

597

Figure 17.103

Honing extrusion coater die land.

599

Figure 17.104

Schematic of feedblock sheet die.

599

Figure 17.105

Example of a dual chamber of a feedblock and die assembly.

600

Figure 17.106

Specially designed Proteus feedblock (courtesy of EDI).

601

Figure 17.107

Example of heating different dies.

602

Figure 17.108

Melt flow rates versus melt pressure in die openings.

603

Figure 17.109

Examples of flat dies with its controls.

609

Figure 17.110

Examples of deckles that are adjusted during processing (top) and

manually adjusted off-line.

610

Figure 17.111

Examples of a flat die’s automatic control systems.

611

Figure 17.112

Cutaway view of a coat hanger sheet die with a restrictor bar.

612

Figure 17.113

Example of a straight coating or laminating manifold die.

613

Figure 17.114

Examples of a crosshead coating dies.

613

Figure 17.115

Examples of single-layer blown-film dies include side-fed typex (top

left), bottom-fed types with spiders (top center), and spiral-fed types.

614

Figure 17.116

Examples of different pipe die designs.

617

Figure 17.117

Different views of assembled and disassembled profile dies.

618

Figure 17.118

Examples of wire coating dies.

619

Figure 17.119

Schematic for determining wire coated DRB in dies.

620

Figure 17.120

Schematic for determining wire coating DDR in dies.

621

Figure 17.121

Examples of netting and other special forms.

622

Figure 17.122

Examples of underwater pelletizer dies.

624

Figure 17.123

Examples of coextruded dies.

625

Figure 17.124

Examples of feedblock multimanifold coextrusion dies.

629

Figure 17.125

Schematic of the RV feedblock showing melt paths and assembled

RV feedblock with layer control plates and skin flow inserts in the foreground (courtesy of Davis-Standard).

630

Figure 17.126

Example of a coextrusion combining adapter.

631

Figure 17.127

Examples of layered plastics based on four modes of die rotation.

632

Figure 17.128

Example of the multilayer blown-film die.

632

Figure 17.129

Displacement of layers leaving an extruder film die.

633

Figures

xxvii

Figure 17.130

New coextrusion die design (left) is compared to the traditional flat-

plate die.

634

Figure 18.1

Example of AE required for plastics going from a railcar to a silo.

744

Figure 18.2

Closeup view of a piping system to and from silos, with each having a

capacity of 2000 lb.

745

Figure 18.3

Examples of plant layout with extrusion and injection molding primary

and AE.

746

Figure 18.4

Example of an extrusion laminator with AE.

747

Figure 18.5

Example of a blow-molding extruder with AE (rolls, turret winder, etc.).

748

Figure 18.6

Example of an extruder coater with AE.

749

Figure 18.7

Example of plant layout with injection molding primary and AE.

749

Figure 18.8

Example of extruded products requiring AE.

750

Figure 18.9

Example of ventilation AE used with an injection molding machine

(courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.).

751

Figure 18.10

Examples of material handling AE used with an injection molding

machine (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.).

752

Figure 18.11

Example of a pneumatic vacuum venturi flow system.

757

Figure 18.12

Example of continuous pressure pellets with rates based on polystyrene

at 35 lb/ft 3 (560 kg/m 3 ).

760

Figure 18.13

Example of continuous vacuum pellets with rates based on polystyrene

at 35 lb/ft 3 (560 kg/m 3 ).

761

Figure 18.14

Example of continuous vacuum powder with rates based on polyvinyl

chloride (PVC) at 35 lb/ft 3 (560 kg/m 3 ).

762

Figure 18.15

Example of a 10 hp vacuum system conveying polystyrene at 35 lb/ft 3

(560 kg/m 3 ).

763

Figure 18.16

Example of a 25 hp vacuum system conveying polystyrene at 35 lb/ft 3

(560 kg/m 3 ).

764

Figure 18.17

Example of a single pneumatic material-handling line-feeding hoppers.

768

Figure 18.18

Example of the front and side views of a basic hopper.

769

Figure 18.19

Introduction to hopper mixers.

770

Figure 18.20

Example of a dump-type hopper loader.

770

Figure 18.21

Example of a screw-controlled feeding loader (courtesy of Spirex

Corporation).

771

Figure 18.22

Detail view of a hopper screw-controlled feeding loader.

771

Figure 18.23

Example of components in a hopper blender.

772

Figure 18.24

Example of metering a color additive in a blender.

773

Figure 18.25

Example of a hopper power-pump loader.

773

Figure 18.26

Example of a vacuum hopper-loading cycle.

774

Figure 18.27

Systems utilizing a rotary air lock feeder to separate pressure and

vacuum airflow.

775

xxviii

Figures

Figure 18.28

Examples of coarse, dusty, and powder material-filtering systems.

776

Figure 18.29

Example of a positive take-out and transfer mechanism for molded

products (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.).

778

Figure 18.30

Example of a positive take-out system to handle and pack molded

products (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.).

779

Figure 18.31

Example of a free-drop take-out and transfer mechanism of molded

products.

780

Figure 18.32

Example of an unscramble-and-orient system for molded products

(courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.).

781

Figure 18.33

Example of bulk filling with automatic carton indexing of molded