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Chapter 5
Static corrections
Elevation (field) statics

Elevation statics involve the computation and removal of the effect of different source 

and receive elevations. 


This involves bringing the source and receiver to a common datum, usually below the 

elevation of the lowest source or receiver. 


For this, we need a replacement velocity (V _{r} ) for the material between the datum and 

the source or receiver. 


The replacement velocity is either assumed from prior knowledge of the area or can 

be estimated from uphole times or direct arrivals. 


The elevation static correction (t _{D} ) is given by: 

t _{D} = [(E _{S} – Z _{S}  E _{D} ) + (E _{R} – Z _{R}  E _{D} )]/V _{r} , 
(5.1) 

where, E _{S} : ground elevation at shot location (from mean sea level), 

Z _{S} : depth of shot (= 0 for a surface source), 

E _{R} : ground elevation at receiver location (from mean sea level), 

Z _{R} : depth of receiver (= 0 for a surface geophone), and 

E _{D} : datum elevation (from mean sea level). 

_{} 
t _{D} is subtracted from the twoway traveltime of the trace belonging to that particular 

sourcereceiver pair. 


Figure. 
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Nearsurface (weathering) corrections

After elevation statics correction, it is important to correct for the effect of variable 
thickness and lateral velocity variation of the weathering layer. 


The main methods used to correct for these effects are: 
Ø Uphole surveys.
Ø Refraction statics.
Ø Residual statics.
Uphole survey

A deep hole that penetrates below the weathering layer is used for this purpose. 

Several geophones are placed at various (known) depths in the hole. The geophone 
locations must span the weathering and subweathering layers. 


A shot is fired at the surface near the hole and the direct traveltimes to the geophones 
are recorded. 


A plot of the direct traveltimes versus the geophone depths can be used to compute 
the velocities of the weathering and subweathering layers as well as the thickness of 

the weathering layer at that location. 


This method attempts to construct a model of the weathering layer by estimating the 
velocity and thickness of the weathering layer at several locations and interpolating 

between these locations. 


Figure. 
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Refraction statics

This method is especially effective in estimating longwavelength statics. 

Wavelength of statics refers to the width of the lateral (velocity or thickness) change 
in the weathering layer relative to the spread length (maximum offset). 


This method is used to construct a model of the weathering layer by estimating the 
velocity and thickness of the weathering layer. 


The following are some of the methods used for refraction statics calculation: 
Ø Delaytime methods. 

Ø The generalized reciprocal method (GRM). 

Ø Leastsquares methods. 


The first two methods involve picking first breaks, which is difficult, and require 
specific raypath geometries, which might not be available. 


The leastsquares methods employ the same concepts used for the residualstatics 
method, but use refraction rather than reflection data.
Residual statics

This method is especially effective in estimating shortwavelength statics. 

The most widely used method is the surfaceconsistent method. 
Surfaceconsistent residual statics corrections:
The basic assumption of this method is that the static shifts are time delays that only
depend on the source and receiver locations on the surface, not on raypaths in the
subsurface.
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This assumption is valid only if all raypaths, regardless of sourcereceiver offset, are 

vertical in the near surface. 


The surfaceconsistent assumption is generally good because the weathered layer 

usually has a low velocity and refraction towards the normal at its base tends to make 

raypaths vertical. 


The total residual time shift, t _{i}_{j}_{k} , can be expressed as: 

t _{i}_{j}_{k} = r _{i} + s _{j} + G _{k} + M _{k} x _{i}_{j} ^{2} , 
(5.2) 

where r _{i} : is the residual static time shift associated with the i ^{t}^{h} receiver, 

s _{j} : is the residual static time shift associated with the j ^{t}^{h} source, 

G _{k} : is the difference in twoway traveltime at a reference CMP and the traveltime at 

the k ^{t}^{h} CMP, and 

M _{k} x _{i}_{j} ^{2} : is the residual moveout that accounts for the imperfect NMO correction. 


G _{k} is a structural term, while M _{k} is a hyperbolic term. 


The purpose is to determine the unknowns r _{i} , s _{j} , G _{k} , and M _{k} from the known variables 

t _{i}_{j}_{k} and x _{i}_{j} . 


Usually, there are more equations than unknowns; hence, we use leastsquares 
approach to minimize the error energy:
E = Â _{i}_{j}_{k} [(r _{i} + s _{j} + G _{k} + M _{k} x _{i}_{j} ^{2} )  t _{i}_{j}_{k} ] ^{2} .
(5.3)
Residual statics correction in practice
In general, residual statics correction, in practice, involves the following three phases:
(1) Picking (calculating) the time shifts t _{i}_{j}_{k} .
(2) Decomposition of t _{i}_{j}_{k} into receiver, source, structural, and residual terms.
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(3) Application of derived source and receiver terms to traveltimes on preNMO
corrected CMP gathers.
(1) Picking:
Ø It means estimating the time shifts t _{i}_{j}_{k} from the data.
Ø The most widely used method is the pilot trace method, which consists of the
following steps:
(1) A CMP with good S/N ratio is gained and NMOcorrected using a preliminary
velocity function.
(2) A specific horizon (reflection, event) is selected.
(3) The CMP gather is stacked.
(4) Each individual trace in the gather is crosscorrelated with the stack trace.
(5) Time shifts t _{i}_{j}_{k} ^{(}^{1}^{)} , which correspond to maximum crosscorrelations, are picked.
(6) Shift each original trace by its corresponding time shift t _{i}_{j}_{k} ^{(}^{1}^{)} .
(7) A preliminary pilot trace is constructed by stacking the timeshifted traces in
the gather.
(8) This pilot trace is, in turn, crosscorrelated with the shifted traces in the gather
and new time shifts t _{i}_{j}_{k} ^{(}^{2}^{)} are computed.
(9) Shift each onceshifted trace by its corresponding new time shift t _{i}_{j}_{k} ^{(}^{2}^{)} .
(10) 
The total time shift is given as: t _{i}_{j}_{k} = t _{i}_{j}_{k} ^{(}^{1}^{)} + t _{i}_{j}_{k} ^{(}^{2}^{)} . 
(11) 
A final pilot trace is constructed again by stacking the twiceshifted traces. 
(12) 
This final pilot trace is crosscorrelated with the traces of the next gather to 
construct the preliminary pilot trace for that gather.
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(13) The process is performed this way on all CMP gathers moving to left and right
from the starting (reference) CMP.
(14) The picked total time shifts (t _{i}_{j}_{k} ) are passed to the next phase (decomposition).
Ø The following parameters are important when picking the time shifts in practice:
(a) 
Maximum allowable shift: 

v 
It should be greater than all possible combined shot and receiver shifts at 

any given location along the profile. 

v 
However, it should be less than the dominant period of the data in poor 

S/N ratio conditions. 

(b) 
Correlation window: 

v 
It should be chosen in an interval with the highest possible S/N ratio. 

v 
It should be as large as possible and outside the mute zone whenever 

possible. 

(c) 
Other considerations: 
v 
The residual moveout variations should not be large within the correlation 
window. 

v 
In areas of significantly poor S/N ratio, a second pass of residual statics 
corrections must be done. 

v 
A second residual statics correction pass means: 
1. Do velocity analysis.
2. Do residual statics correction.
3. Do velocity analysis again.
4. Do residual statics correction again.
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(2) Decomposition:
Ø It involves leastsquares decomposition of the picked time shifts found in phase
(1) into source, receiver, structural, and residual terms using equation (5.3).
Ø The procedure most widely used for solving the resulting system of linear
equations is the GaussSeidel iterative procedure.
Ø (Not required): For more detail on the GaussSeidel iterative procedure, follow
this link.
(3) Application: The individual static shifts associated with each source and receiver
location are applied to the preNMOcorrected gather traces.
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Appendix A
Elevation Statics
E S
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Appendix B
Uphole Survey
DEPTH (M) 
VELOCITY (M/S) 
TIME (S) 
10 
1000 
0.010 
20 
1000 
0.020 
30 
1000 
0.030 
40 
2000 
0.035 
50 
2000 
0.040 
60 
2000 
0.045 
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