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Chapter 5

Static corrections

Elevation (field) statics

 Elevation statics involve the computation and removal of the effect of different source and receive elevations. This involves bringing the source and receiver to a common datum, usually below the elevation of the lowest source or receiver. For this, we need a replacement velocity (V r ) for the material between the datum and the source or receiver. The replacement velocity is either assumed from prior knowledge of the area or can be estimated from uphole times or direct arrivals. The elevation static correction (t D ) is given by: t D = [(E S – Z S - E D ) + (E R – Z R - E D )]/V r , (5.1) where, E S : ground elevation at shot location (from mean sea level), Z S : depth of shot (= 0 for a surface source), E R : ground elevation at receiver location (from mean sea level), Z R : depth of receiver (= 0 for a surface geophone), and E D : datum elevation (from mean sea level). t D is subtracted from the two-way traveltime of the trace belonging to that particular source-receiver pair. Figure.

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Near-surface (weathering) corrections

 After elevation statics correction, it is important to correct for the effect of variable thickness and lateral velocity variation of the weathering layer. The main methods used to correct for these effects are:

Ø Uphole surveys.

Ø Refraction statics.

Ø Residual statics.

Uphole survey

 A deep hole that penetrates below the weathering layer is used for this purpose. Several geophones are placed at various (known) depths in the hole. The geophone locations must span the weathering and sub-weathering layers. A shot is fired at the surface near the hole and the direct traveltimes to the geophones are recorded. A plot of the direct traveltimes versus the geophone depths can be used to compute the velocities of the weathering and sub-weathering layers as well as the thickness of the weathering layer at that location. This method attempts to construct a model of the weathering layer by estimating the velocity and thickness of the weathering layer at several locations and interpolating between these locations. Figure.

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Refraction statics

 This method is especially effective in estimating long-wavelength statics. Wavelength of statics refers to the width of the lateral (velocity or thickness) change in the weathering layer relative to the spread length (maximum offset). This method is used to construct a model of the weathering layer by estimating the velocity and thickness of the weathering layer. The following are some of the methods used for refraction statics calculation: Ø Delay-time methods. Ø The generalized reciprocal method (GRM). Ø Least-squares methods. The first two methods involve picking first breaks, which is difficult, and require specific raypath geometries, which might not be available. The least-squares methods employ the same concepts used for the residual-statics

method, but use refraction rather than reflection data.

Residual statics

 This method is especially effective in estimating short-wavelength statics. The most widely used method is the surface-consistent method.

Surface-consistent residual statics corrections:

The basic assumption of this method is that the static shifts are time delays that only

depend on the source and receiver locations on the surface, not on raypaths in the

subsurface.

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 This assumption is valid only if all raypaths, regardless of source-receiver offset, are vertical in the near surface. The surface-consistent assumption is generally good because the weathered layer usually has a low velocity and refraction towards the normal at its base tends to make raypaths vertical. The total residual time shift, t ijk , can be expressed as: t ijk = r i + s j + G k + M k x ij 2 , (5.2) where r i : is the residual static time shift associated with the i th receiver, s j : is the residual static time shift associated with the j th source, G k : is the difference in two-way traveltime at a reference CMP and the traveltime at the k th CMP, and M k x ij 2 : is the residual moveout that accounts for the imperfect NMO correction. G k is a structural term, while M k is a hyperbolic term. The purpose is to determine the unknowns r i , s j , G k , and M k from the known variables t ijk and x ij . Usually, there are more equations than unknowns; hence, we use least-squares

approach to minimize the error energy:

E = Â ijk [(r i + s j + G k + M k x ij 2 ) - t ijk ] 2 .

(5.3)

Residual statics correction in practice

In general, residual statics correction, in practice, involves the following three phases:

(1) Picking (calculating) the time shifts t ijk .

(2) Decomposition of t ijk into receiver, source, structural, and residual terms.

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(3) Application of derived source and receiver terms to traveltimes on pre-NMO-

corrected CMP gathers.

(1) Picking:

Ø It means estimating the time shifts t ijk from the data.

Ø The most widely used method is the pilot trace method, which consists of the

following steps:

(1) A CMP with good S/N ratio is gained and NMO-corrected using a preliminary

velocity function.

(2) A specific horizon (reflection, event) is selected.

(3) The CMP gather is stacked.

(4) Each individual trace in the gather is crosscorrelated with the stack trace.

(5) Time shifts t ijk (1) , which correspond to maximum crosscorrelations, are picked.

(6) Shift each original trace by its corresponding time shift t ijk (1) .

(7) A preliminary pilot trace is constructed by stacking the time-shifted traces in

the gather.

(8) This pilot trace is, in turn, crosscorrelated with the shifted traces in the gather

and new time shifts t ijk (2) are computed.

(9) Shift each once-shifted trace by its corresponding new time shift t ijk (2) .

 (10) The total time shift is given as: t ijk = t ijk (1) + t ijk (2) . (11) A final pilot trace is constructed again by stacking the twice-shifted traces. (12) This final pilot trace is crosscorrelated with the traces of the next gather to

construct the preliminary pilot trace for that gather.

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(13) The process is performed this way on all CMP gathers moving to left and right

from the starting (reference) CMP.

(14) The picked total time shifts (t ijk ) are passed to the next phase (decomposition).

Ø The following parameters are important when picking the time shifts in practice:

 (a) Maximum allowable shift: v It should be greater than all possible combined shot and receiver shifts at any given location along the profile. v However, it should be less than the dominant period of the data in poor S/N ratio conditions. (b) Correlation window: v It should be chosen in an interval with the highest possible S/N ratio. v It should be as large as possible and outside the mute zone whenever possible. (c) Other considerations:
 v The residual moveout variations should not be large within the correlation window. v In areas of significantly poor S/N ratio, a second pass of residual statics corrections must be done. v A second residual statics correction pass means:

1. Do velocity analysis.

2. Do residual statics correction.

3. Do velocity analysis again.

4. Do residual statics correction again.

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(2) Decomposition:

Ø It involves least-squares decomposition of the picked time shifts found in phase

(1) into source, receiver, structural, and residual terms using equation (5.3).

Ø The procedure most widely used for solving the resulting system of linear

equations is the Gauss-Seidel iterative procedure.

Ø (Not required): For more detail on the Gauss-Seidel iterative procedure, follow

(3) Application: The individual static shifts associated with each source and receiver

location are applied to the pre-NMO-corrected gather traces.

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Appendix A

Elevation Statics

E S

Ground surface
Z
S
E
R
Z
R
V
r
E S - Z S - E D
E R – Z R - E D
E D
(
E
-
Z
-
E
) + (
E
-
Z
-
E
)
S
S
D
R
R
D
=
t D
V
r

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Appendix B

Uphole Survey

 DEPTH (M) VELOCITY (M/S) TIME (S) 10 1000 0.010 20 1000 0.020 30 1000 0.030 40 2000 0.035 50 2000 0.040 60 2000 0.045

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