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1 Nursing Final Vocabulary Chapter 6 1. Health care system : The totality of services offered

Nursing Final Vocabulary

Chapter 6

1. Health care system: The totality of services offered by all health disciplines.

2. Managed care: A health care system whose goals are to provide cost-effective, quality care that focuses on decreased costs and improved outcomes for groups of clients.

3. Case management: A range of models for integrating health care services for individuals or groups. (This can involve multidisciplinary trams that assume collaborative responsibility for planning, assessing needs, and coordinating, implementing, and evaluating care for groups of clients from preadmission to discharge or transfer and recuperation).

preadmission to discharge or transfer and recuperation). 4. Critical Pathways : Used by case management and

4. Critical Pathways: Used by case management and managed care systems. This is a plan or tool that specifies interdisciplinary assessments, interventions, treatments, and outcomes for health-related conditions across a time line.

5. Patient-Focused Care: a delivery model that brings all services and care providers to the clients.

6. Differentiated Practice: A system in which the best possible use of nursing personnel is based on their educational preparation and resultant skill sets.

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Team Nursing: The delivery of individualized nursing care to clients by a team left by a professional nurse. Provide coordinated care.

Medicare: Protects and provides insurance for adults over the age of 65, as well as people who have permanent disabilities or chronic illness.

Coinsurance: All Medicare clients pay a deductible and this, it is usually 20% of the total cost that will be paid by the client. The remaining 80% is played by the plan.

Medicaid: A federal public assistance program paid out of general taxes to people who require financial assistance, such as people with low incomes.

Supplemental Security Income: (SSI)These will go to people who have disabilities or to those who are blind.

Diagnosis Related Groups: A classification system that has categories that establish pretreatment diagnosis billing categories. This determines that a hospital pays a predetermined amount for clients with a specific diagnosis.

Health Maintenance Organization: (HMO) A group health care agency that provides health maintenance and treatment services to voluntary enrollees. These members will choose a primary care provider.

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2 14. Preferred Provider Organization : (PPO) This consists of a group of providers and perhaps

14. Preferred Provider Organization: (PPO) This consists of a group of providers and perhaps a health care agency (often hospitals) that provide an insurance company or employer with health services at a discounted rate.

15. Preferred Provider Arrangements: (PPA) The can be contracted with individual health care providers. This gives more choices of health care providers. People can choose their provider from a list (limited) or they can choose a provider if they accept the agreement plan (unlimited).

16. Independent practice associations: (IPA) Provide care in offices, and the client will pay a fixed prospective payment to the IPA, and the IPA will pray the provider. Surplus money is divided among the providers, loss is assumed by the IPA.

17. Integrated Delivery System: Incorporate acute care services, home health care, extended and skilled care facilities, and outpatient services. It enhances the continuity of care and communication between professional and various agencies providing managed care.

professional and various agencies providing managed care. Chapter 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Healthy People

Chapter 7

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Healthy People 2010: A project created by the WHO (World Health Organization) that presents health-related objectives that provide a framework for national health promotion, health protection, and disease prevention.

Primary Health Care: An essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self- determination.

Primary Care: Addresses personal health services and not population-based public health services. “The provision of integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health services, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community”.

Community based health care: A primary health care system that provides health-related services within the context of people’s daily lives (where people spend most of their time, like schools, work, shelters)

Community: A collection of people who share some attribute of their lives and interact with each other in some way.

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3 6. Population : Composed of people who share some common characteristic, but who do not

6. Population: Composed of people who share some common characteristic, but who do not necessarily interact with each other.

7. Community health nursing: Focuses on promoting and preserving the health of population groups.

8. Integrated Health Care system: Makes all levels of care available in an integrated form (primary care, secondary care, tertiary care).Its goal is to facilitate care across a setting.

9. Community Nursing centers: provide primary care to specific populations and are staffed by nurse practitioners and community health nurses.

staffed by nurse practitioners and community health nurses. 10. Community - based nursing : Nursing care

10. Community-based nursing: Nursing care directed towards specific individuals.

11. Collaboration: A collegial working relationship with another health care provider in the provision of patient care. (All health care workers do not have to be present when the action is performed.

12. Continuity of Care: (Major responsibility of nurses) This is the coordination of health care services by health care providers for clients moving from one health care setting to another and between and among health care professionals.

13. Discharge Planning: The process of preparing a client to leave one level of care for another within or outside the current health care agency. (Leaving the hospital going home). This begins as soon as the patient is admitted.

Chapter 8 1. 2. 3. 4.
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Home care: A wide range of health care professionals providing services in the home setting to people recovering from an acute illness or injury, or who are disabled, or who have a chronic condition.

Home Health Care Nursing (Visiting Nursing): This includes the nursing services and products provided to clients in their homes that are needed to maintain, restore, or promote their physical, psychological, and social well being.

Hospice Nursing: Support and care of the dying person and family, is often considered a subspecialty of home health nursing because hospice services are frequently delivered to terminally ill clients in their residence.

Registry: An agency that contracts with individual practitioners to care for the client in the home. (The client may require care from 4 to 24 hours a day. This was a question on the CD)

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5. Durable Medical Equipment Company (DME): Provide health care equipment for the client at home. This equipment can range from hospital beds to bedside commodes, to ventilators or apnea monitors.

6. Caregiver Role Strain: When a caregiver feels that they have physical, emotional, social, and financial burdens that can seriously jeopardize their own health and well being.

Chapter 10

jeopardize their own health and well being. Chapter 10 1. Critical Thinking : A nursing practice
jeopardize their own health and well being. Chapter 10 1. Critical Thinking : A nursing practice

1. Critical Thinking: A nursing practice that is a discipline specific, reflective reasoning process that guides a nurse in generating, implementing, and evaluating approaches for dealing with client care and professional concerns.

2. Creativity: Thinking that results in the development of new ideas and products.

3. Critical Analysis: The application of a set of questions to a particular situation or idea to determine essential information and ideas and discard superfluous information and ideas.

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Socratic questioning: A technique one can use to look beneath the surface, recognize and examine assumptions, search for inconsistencies, examine multiple points of view, and differentiate what one knows from what one merely believes.

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Inductive Reasoning: generalizations are formed here from a set of facts or observations.

Deductive Reasoning: This is reasoning from the general premise to the specific conclusion.

Nursing Process: A systematic, rational method of planning and providing individualized nursing care. Phases are Assessing, Diagnosing, Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating.

Problem Solving: This is how a nurse obtains information that clarifies the nature of the problem and suggests possible solutions. Evaluate possible solutions, and choose the best one to implement.

Intuition: The understanding or learning of things without the conscious use of reasoning. (Hunch, instinct, feeling, 6 th sense)

Decision-making: A critical thinking process for choosing the best actions to meet a desired goal.

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5 Chapter 16 1. Holism : Emphasizes that nurses must keep the whole person in mind

Chapter 16

1. Holism: Emphasizes that nurses must keep the whole person in mind and strive to understand how one area of concern relates to the whole person.

2. Homeostasis: The relative constancy of the internal processes of her body, such as blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, blood pressure, body temperature, blood glucose, and fluid and electrolyte balance.

3. Equilibrium: Balance, a physiologic balance through adaptation to that environment.

4. Self-regulation: Homeostasis mechanisms come into play automatically in the healthy person.

5. Compensatory: Counterbalancing, they tend to counteract conditions that are abnormal for the person (a sudden drop in air temperature).

abnormal for the person (a sudden drop in air temperature). 6. Closed System : Does not

6. Closed System: Does not exchange energy, matter, or information with its environment. (Like a test tube reaction)

7. Open System: Energy, output, and information move into and out of the system through the system boundary. (All living systems)

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Negative Feedback: Inhibits change. 13. Positive Feedback: Stimulates change. 14.
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Negative Feedback: Inhibits change.
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Input: Consists of information, material, output, and feedback.

Throughput: A transformation in which the input is absorbed by the system, it is processed in a way useful to the system.

Output: Energy, matter, or information given out by the system as a result of its processes.

Feedback: The mechanism by which some of the output of a system is returned to the system as input.

Psychologic homeostasis: Emotional or psychologic balance or a state of mental well being.

Health Promotion: Behavior motivated by the desire to increase well being and actualize human health potential.

Disease Prevention/Health protection: Behavior motivated by a desire to actively avoid illness, detect it early, or maintain functioning within the constraints of illness.

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17. Precontemplation Stage: The person does not think about changing his or her behavior in the next 6 months.

18. Contemplation Stage: The person acknowledges having a problem, seriously considers changing a specific behavior, actively gathers information, and verbalizes plans to change the behavior in the near future (next 6 months).

19. Preparation Stage: Occurs when the person intends to take action in the immediate future (within the next month)

take action in the immediate future (within the next month) 20. Action Stage : Occurs when

20. Action Stage: Occurs when the person actively implements behavioral and cognitive strategies of the action plan to interrupt previous health risk behaviors and adopt new ones.

21. Maintenance Stage: The person strives to prevent relapse by integrating newly adopted behaviors into his or her lifestyle.

newly adopted behaviors into his or her lifestyle. 22. Termination Stage : The ultimate goal where

22. Termination Stage: The ultimate goal where the individual has complete confidence that the problem is no longer a temptation or threat.

23. Health Risk Assessment: An assessment and educational tool that indicates a client’s risk for disease or injury during the next 10 years by comparing the client’s risk with the mortality risk of the corresponding age, sex, and racial group.

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Wellness Diagnoses: The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) describes human responses to levels of wellness in an individual, family, or community that have a readiness for enhancement.

Health: The presence or absence of disease.

Wellness: A state of well being. Aspects are self-responsibility, a goal, growing process, good decision making.

Well-being: a subjective perception of vitality and feeling well.

Lifestyle: A person’s general way of living, including living conditions and individual patterns of behavior that are influenced by sociocultural factors and personal characteristics.

Risk Factors: Practices that have potentially negative effects on health.

Locus of Control: A concept from social learning theory that nurses can use to determine whether clients are likely to take action regarding health, that is,

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7 whether clients believe that their health status is under their own or others’ control. 7.

whether clients believe that their health status is under their own or others’ control.

7. Adherence: The extent to which an individual’s behavior coincides with medical or health advice.

8. Illness: A highly personal state in which the person’s physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is thought to be diminished.

9. Disease: An alteration in body functions resulting in a reduction of capacities or a shortening of the normal life span.

of capacities or a shortening of the normal life span. 10. Etiology : The causation of

10. Etiology: The causation of a disease.

11. Acute Illness: Typically characterized by severe symptoms of relatively short duration.

12. Chronic Illness: One that lasts for an extended period, usually 6 months or longer, and often for the person’s life.

13. Remission: When the symptoms disappear.

14. Exacerbation: When the symptoms reappear.

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Illness Behavior: A coping mechanism, involves ways individuals describe, monitor, and interpret their symptoms, take remedial actions, and use the health care system.

Caring: Means that people, relationships, and things matter.

Caring Practice: Involves connection, mutual recognition, and involvement.

Empirical Knowing: Ranges from factual, observable phenomena to theoretical analysis.

Aesthetic Knowing: The art of nursing and is expressed by the individual nurse through his or her creativity and style in meeting the needs of clients.

Personal Knowing: Promotes wholeness and integrity in the personal encounter, achieves engagement rather than detachment, and denies the manipulative or impersonal approach.

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6. Ethical Knowing: Focuses on matters of obligation or what ought to be done, and goes beyond simply following the ethical codes of the discipline.

7. Reflection: Thinking from a critical point of view, analyzing why one acted in a certain way, and assessing the results of one’s actions.

Chapter 26

1. Communication: Any means of exchanging information or feelings between two or more people.

information or feelings between two or more people. 2. Encoding : Involves the selection of specific

2. Encoding: Involves the selection of specific signs or symbols to transmit the message, such as which language and words to use, how to arrange the words, and what tone of voice and gestures to use.

3. Decode: To relate the message perceived to the receiver’s storehouse of knowledge and experience and to sort out the meaning of the message.

4. Feedback: The fourth component of the communication process, the response, is the message that the receiver returns to the sender.

is the message that the receiver returns to the sender. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
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Verbal Communication: The spoken or written word.

Nonverbal Communication: Gestures or facial expressions, and touch.

Electronic Communication: A form of communication that has evolved with technology.

Territoriality: A concept of the space and things that an individual considers as belonging to the self.

Personal Space: The distance people prefer in interactions with others.

Proxemics: The study of distance between people in their interactions.

Congruent Communication: When the verbal and nonverbal aspects of the message match.

Elderspeak: A speech style similar to babytalk, that gives the message of dependence and incompetence to older adult. It does not communicate respect.

Therapeutic Communication: Promotes understanding and can help establish a constructive relationship between the nurse and the client.

Attentive Listening: Listening actively, using all the senses, as opposed to listening passively with just the ear.

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15. Helping Relationships: A nursing relationship.

16. Empathy: Can be seen as an intellectual process that involves understanding correctly another person’s emotional state and point of view.

17. Group: Two or more people who have shared needs and goals.

18. Group dynamics: The communication that takes place between members of any group.

19. Process Recording: A verbatim account of a conversation.

that takes place between members of any group. 19. Process Recording : A verbatim account of