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MEEN 364

Parasuram

Lecture 4

April 2, 2003

EXAMPLES ON SAMPLING AND ALIASING PHENOMENA

Example 1:

Consider the following two analog signals

x

x

1

2

(

t

)

(

t

)

=

=

cos 2

π

cos 2

π

(10) ,

t

(50) ,

t

which are sampled at a rate of F s = 40 Hz. The corresponding discrete time signals are

cos 2

10

   

π

   

x 1 (

(

n

)

=

π

x

(

n

)

=

cos 2

π

(

40

50

)

n

)

n

=

=

cos

cos

n ,

2

5

π

n .

 

2

         
 

40

 

2

However,

 
 

5

π

π

n

π

cos

 

=

cos(2

+

)

=

 

n

π

n

 

cos

 
 

2

 

2

2

Hence

x

1

(

)

n = x

2

(

)

n .

n . Thus the signals are identical and consequently indistinguishable.

cos π n , there is some ambiguity as to

If we are given the sampled values generated by

whether these sampled values correspond to x 1 (t) or x 2 (t). Since x 2 (t) yields exactly the

same values as x 1 (t) when the two are sampled at F s = 40 samples per second, we say that the frequency F 2 = 50 Hz is an alias of the frequency F 1 = 10 Hz at the sampling rate of 40 samples per second.

2

Example 2:

Consider the analog signal

x

a

(t )

=

3cos100

π

t .

a)

Determine the minimum sampling rate required to avoid aliasing.

b)

Suppose that the signal is sampled at the rate of Fs = 200 Hz, what is the discrete- time signal obtained after sampling?

c)

Suppose that the signal is sampled at the rate of Fs = 75 Hz, what is the discrete- time signal obtained after sampling?

d)

What is the frequency of a sinusoid that yields samples identical to those obtained in part (c)?

MEEN 364

Parasuram

Lecture 4

April 2, 2003

a) The frequency of the analog signal can be calculated as

2

π F

F

1

1

=

100

π

,

= 50.

Hence the minimum sampling rate required to avoid aliasing is F s = 100 Hz.

b) If the signal is sampled at F s = 200 Hz, then the discrete-time signal is

x ( n )

=

3cos(

100

π

200

2

)

n

=

3cos(

π

)

n

.

c) If the signal is sampled at F s = 75 Hz, then the discrete-time signal is

100 π 4 π x n ( ) = 3cos( ) n = 3cos( 75
100 π
4 π
x n
(
)
=
3cos(
)
n
=
3cos(
75
3
2
=
3cos(2
π
π ) n
3
2
π
= 3cos(
)
n .
3

) n

d) For the sampling rate of F s = 75 Hz, we have

F 2 =

fF

s

=

75

f

The frequency of the sinusoid in part (c) is

F

2

= f =

75

75

3

= 25.

Clearly, the sinusoidal signal

(

y t

=

)

=

3cos 2

t

π

3cos 50

π

F t

2

f =

1

3

.

Hence

sampled at F s = 75 samples per second yields identical samples. Hence F 1 = 50 Hz is an alias of F 2 = 25 Hz for the sampling rate F s = 75 Hz.

MEEN 364

Parasuram

Lecture 4

April 2, 2003

Example 3:

Consider the analog signal

x

a

(t )

=

3cos 50

π +

t

10sin 300

π

t

cos100

π

t .

What is the Nyquist rate for this signal?

The frequencies present in the signal above are

F

1

F

2

F

3

=

=

=

25,

150,

50.

Thus F max = 150 Hz and according to the sampling theorem

F

s

>

2

F

max

=

300

Hz

.

The Nyquist rate is F N = 2F max . Hence

F N = 300 Hz.

Discussion

It should be observed that the signal component 10sin 300π t , sampled at the Nyquist

rate F N = 300 Hz, results in samples 10sinπ n , which are identically zero. In other words, we are sampling the analog signal at its zero-crossing points, and hence we miss the signal component completely. This situation would not occur if the sinusoid is offset in phase by some amount θ. In such a case we have 10sin(300π t + θ ) sampled at the

Nyquist rate F N = 300 samples per second, which yields the samples

10sin(

π

n

+

θ

)

=

10(sin

π

n

cos

θ

+

cos

π

n

sin

θ

)

=

10sin

θ

cos

π

n

n

(

= −

1) 10sin

θ .

Thus if θ 0 or π, the samples of the sinusoid taken at Nyquist rate are not all zero.

However, we still cannot obtain the correct amplitude from the samples when the phase θ is unknown. A simple remedy that avoids this potentially troublesome situation is to sample the analog signal at a rate higher than the Nyquist rate.

MEEN 364

Parasuram

Lecture 4

April 2, 2003

Example 4:

Consider the analog signal

x

a

(t )

=

3cos 2000

π +

t

5sin 6000

π +

t

10 cos12000

π

t .

a) What is the Nyquist rate for this signal?

b) Suppose that the signal is sampled at the rate of Fs = 5000 samples per second, what is the discrete-time signal obtained after sampling?

c) What is the analog signal we can reconstruct from the samples?

a) The frequencies existing in the above signal are

F

1

F

2

F

3

= 1000

=

3000

= 6000

Hz

,

Hz

Hz

,

.

Thus F max = 6000 Hz and according to the sampling theorem,

F

s

>

2

F

max

=

12000

Hz

.

The Nyquist rate is

F N = 2 F max = 12000 Hz.

b) The discrete-time signal of the signal sampled at 5000 samples per second is

2000 π 6000 π 12000 π x ( n ) = 3cos( ) n +
2000 π
6000 π
12000 π
x ( n
)
=
3cos(
)
n
+
5sin(
)
n
+
10 cos(
5000
5000
5000
1
3
6
= 3cos 2
π
(
)
n
+
5sin 2
π
(
)
n
+
10 cos 2
π
(
) n
5
5
5
1
2
1
= 3cos 2
π
(
)
n
+
5sin 2
π
(1
)
n
+
10 cos 2
π
(1
+
) n
5
5
5
1
2
1
= 3cos 2
π
(
)
n
+
5sin 2
π
(
)
n
+
10 cos 2
π
(
) n
5
5
5

Finally, we obtain

x n

(

) = 13cos 2π (

1

2

5

5

) n

5sin 2

π

(

) n

.

) n

Since F s = 5000 Hz, the folding frequency is F s /2 = 2500 Hz. This is the maximum frequency that can be represented uniquely by the sampled signal.

MEEN 364

Parasuram

Lecture 4

April 2, 2003

c) Since only the frequency components at 1000 Hz and 2000 Hz are present in the sampled signal, the analog signal that can be recovered is

y (t ) = 13cos 2π (1000)t 5sin 2π (2000)t

which is obviously different from the original signal x(t). This distortion of the original analog signal was caused by the aliasing effect, due to the low sampling rate used.

Assignment

1) Consider the analog signal

x (t ) = 3cos 600π t + 2 cos1800π t .

a) Determine the minimum sampling rate required to avoid aliasing.

b) What is the Nyquist rate for the signal x(t)?

c) Suppose that the signal is sampled at F s = 2000 Hz, what is the discrete-time signal obtained after the sampling? What are the frequencies in the resulting discrete-time signal?

d) If the sampling rate is F s = 600 Hz, then what is the maximum frequency that can be recovered from the discrete-time signal?

2) An analog signal contains frequencies up to 10 kHz.

a) What range of sampling frequencies allows exact reconstruction of the signal from its samples?

b) What is the Nyquist rate for the signal?

c) If the sampling rate Fs is chosen as 10 kHz, then what is the maximum frequency that can be represented uniquely by the sampled signal?