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SUMMER TRAINING

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Electric power transmission was originally developed with direct current. The availability of transformers and the development and improvement of induction motors at the beginning of the 20th Century, led to greater appeal and use of a.c. transmission. But, later realized D.c. transmission is more practical when long distances were to be covered or where cables were required. The purpose of this study is to examine the HVDC systems & understand the transmission system for transmitting huge chunk of power to various remote locations where generation is not feasible. This study also provides various theories regarding HVDC systems and it also covers the pivotal role played by PGCIL in handling HVDC systems in India. Other Aspects such as Transmission Planning Criteria is also included which is basic requirement of any HVDC Project carried out by PGCIL in India. It covers various factors such as Power Requirement, Type of Conductor, Line Limit, Tariff, & etc. which are necessary to understand beforehand installing any HVDC system. HVDC systems protection (e.g. lightning strike) & human safety measure are briefly discussed .

Table of Contents ABOUT PGCIL.........................................................................................................5 Introduction.................................................................................................................5 Objectives....................................................................................................................5 Establishment of Transmission System.......................................................................7 1 ABOUT HVDC..............................................................................9 Introduction: ..9 1.1 ADVANTAGES OVER AC ................................................................................10 1.2. LIMITATIONS........................................................................................11 2 A HVDC BIPOLE CONVERTER............................................................................12 2.1. COMPONENTS.........................................................................................................12 3 THE THEORY OF CONVERTERS & HVDC............................................... ..........15 3.1 CONVERTOR CONTROL..................................................................................................15 3.2 COMMUTATION PROCESS.............................................................................................17 3.3 HVDC CONFIGURATIONS..............................................................................................17 3.4 CONVERTORS APPLICATIONS......................................................................................20

4 TRANSMISSION PLANNING CRITERIA..............................................................................21 4.1 PLANNING PHILOSPHY..........................................................................................................21 4.2 LOAD GENERATION SCENARIOS........................................................................................23 4.3 GENERAL DISPATCHES..........................................................................................................25 4.4 LINE LIMITS..............................................................................................................................26 4.5 SUB-STATION PLANNING CRITERIA..................................................................................28 4.6 CONDUCTORS & FITTING.....................................................................................................30 4.7 COST ENGINEERING...............................................................................................................38 4.8 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS................................................................................................42 4.9 TARIFF.......................................................................................................................................44

POWER GRID CORPORATION OF INDIA LIMITED (HISTORY):Introduction: Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID,
Founded 23 October 1992)

is a

Navratna state-owned electric utility company headquartered in Gurgaon, India. PowerGrid was incorporated on October 23, 1989 under the companies Act, 1956 as the National Power Transmission Corporation Limited, with the responsibility of planning, executing, owning, operating and maintaining the high voltage transmission systems in the country. The total revenue of company is 7,503.58 crore (2009) with net income 2,040.94 crore. POWERGRID, the Central Transmission Utility (CTU) of the country, is one of the largest and best-managed transmission utilities in the world (3rd largest globally) with its huge transmission network spread over the entire length and breadth of the country. POWERGRID consistently maintaining the availability of its transmission system above 99.50% level through deployment of latest Operation and Maintenance techniques at par with global standards. Mission:Establishment and operation of Regional and National Power Grids to facilitate transfer of power within and across the Regions with reliability, security and economy, on sound commercial principles. Objective:The Corporation has set following objectives in line with its Mission and its status as "Central Transmission Utility": Undertake transmission of energy through Inter-State Transmission System.
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Discharge all functions of planning and coordination relating to Inter-State Transmission System witho State Transmission Utilities; o Central Government; o State Government; o Generating Companies; o Regional Electricity Boards; o Authority; o Licensees; o Transmission Licensees; o Any other person notified by the Central Government on this behalf. Exercise supervision and control over the Inter-State Transmission System. Efficient Operation and Maintenance of Transmission Systems. Establish/augment and operate all Regional Load Dispatch Centers and Communication facilities. To facilitate private sector participation on Transmission system through Independent Private Transmission Company, Joint Ventures. To assist various SEBs and other utilities in up gradation of skills & sharing of expertise by organizing regular conferences, tailor-made training workshops directed towards specific technological and O&M areas and extending laboratory facilities for testing purposes etc.

Restoring power in quickest possible time in the event of any natural disasters like supercyclone, flood etc. through deployment of Emergency Restoration Systems. Developmental Stages: The phased development of POWERGRID at the time of its formation was foreseen as follows: Phase-I: Transfer of Transmission facilities along with related manpower from Central / CentreState Joint Venture Organizations. Phase-II: Transfer of existing Regional Electricity Boards and Regional Load Dispatch Centers together with associated communication facilities. Phase-III: Establish Power Pool to facilitate exchange of power between States/Regions leading to formation of National Power Grid.

Establishment of Transmission System Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. acquired its initial network of assets in 1992 and subsequently through the Power Transmission Systems Ordinance the Government of India acquired and transferred the power transmission infrastructure of four of Indias largest power generating companies to Powergrid. Thereafter, transmission assets from other central generating companies were also transferred to us and POWERGRID has subsequently expanded the transmission infrastructure further all over India. Transmission of electricity is defined as bulk transfer of power over a long distance at a high voltage, generally of 132 kV and above. In India, transmission lines have grown from 3,708 km in 1950 to more than 265,000 km now. There are 5 regional grids: Northern Region:
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Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu And Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh Eastern Region: Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa Sikkim and West Bengal. Western Region: Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Chhattisgarh, Goa Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Southern Region: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Pondicherry and Tamil Nadu. North-Eastern Region: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura POWERGRIDs network, as at September, 2008, comprises of over 69,000 circuit km of high voltage transmission lines and 116 sub-stations spread across the country. The inter-regional power transfer capacity of National Grid has been enhanced to about 17,000 MW from 14,100 MW in FY 2007-08. POWERGRID has further plans to enhance the capacity to more than 37,000 MW by 2012. POWERGRID has envisaged an investment program of Rs.55000 crore towards investment in transmission projects during the Government of INDIAs eleventh five year plan beginning April 1, 2007 and ending on March 31, 2012. In FY 2007-08, it commissioned transmission projects worth about Rs. 6000 crore, thereby adding transmission network of 7,350 circuit kms, 9 EHV AC sub-stations and transformation capacity of more than 13700MVA. POWER GRID: NETWORK CAPABILITIES
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Particulars Transmission network (ckt kms) Substations (number)

2005 50,745 85

2006 55,120 93 54,377 99.64

2007 59,461 104 59,417 99.20

2008 66,800 112 73,100 99.52

Transformation Capacity (MVA) 49,442 System Availability 99.74

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC)


Introduction
A high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electric power transmission system uses direct current for the bulk transmission of electrical power, in contrast with the more common alternating current systems. For long-distance distribution, HVDC systems are less expensive and suffer lower electrical losses. For shorter distances, the higher cost of DC conversion equipment compared to an AC system may be warranted where other benefits of direct current links are useful. The modern form of HVDC transmission uses technology developed extensively in the 1930s in Sweden at ASEA. Early commercial installations included one in the Soviet Union in 1951 between Moscow and Kashira, and a 10-20 MW system in Gotland, Sweden in 1954.

High Voltage Transmission


High voltage is used for transmission to reduce the energy lost in the resistance of the wires. For a given quantity of power transmitted, higher voltage reduces the transmission power loss. Power in a circuit is proportional to the current, but the power lost as heat in the wires is
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proportional to the square of the current. However, power is also proportional to voltage, so for a given power level, higher voltage can be traded off for lower current. Thus, the higher the voltage, the lower the power loss. Power loss can also be reduced by reducing resistance, commonly achieved by increasing the diameter of the conductor; but larger conductors are heavier and more expensive. High voltages cannot be easily used in lighting and motors, and so transmission-level voltage must be reduced to values compatible with end-use equipment. The transformer, which only works with alternating current, is an efficient way to change voltages. Practical manipulation of DC voltages only became possible with the development of high power electronic devices such as mercury arc valves and later semiconductor devices, such as thyristors, insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), high power capable MOSFETs (power metaloxidesemiconductor fieldeffect transistors) and gate turn-off thyristors (GTOs)

Advantages and Limitations of alternating current transmission


The advantage of HVDC is the ability to transmit large amounts of power over long distances with lower capital costs and with lower losses than AC. Depending on voltage level and construction details, losses are quoted as about 3% per 1,000 km. High-voltage direct current transmission allows efficient use of energy sources remote from load centers. In a number of applications HVDC is more effective than AC transmission. Examples include: Undersea cables, where high capacitance causes additional AC losses. Endpoint-to-endpoint long-haul bulk power transmission without intermediate 'taps', for example, in remote areas Increasing the capacity of an existing power grid in situations where additional wires are difficult or expensive to install Power transmission and stabilization between unsynchronised AC distribution systems Connecting a remote generating plant to the distribution grid Stabilizing a predominantly AC power-grid, without increasing prospective short circuit current

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Reducing line cost. HVDC needs fewer conductors as there is no need to support multiple phases. Also, thinner conductors can be used since HVDC does not suffer from the skin effect Facilitate power transmission between different countries that use AC at differing voltages and/or frequencies Synchronize AC produced by renewable energy sources

Long undersea cables have a high capacitance. While this has minimal effect for DC transmission, the current required to charge and discharge the capacitance of the cable causes additional I2R power losses when the cable is carrying AC. In addition, AC power is lost to dielectric losses. HVDC can carry more power per conductor, because for a given power rating the constant voltage in a DC line is lower than the peak voltage in an AC line. In AC power, the root mean square (RMS) voltage measurement is considered the standard, but RMS is only about 71% of the peak voltage. The peak voltage of AC determines the actual insulation thickness and conductor spacing. Because DC operates at a constant maximum voltage without RMS, this allows existing transmission line corridors with equally sized conductors and insulation to carry 29% more power into an area of high power consumption than AC, which can lower costs. Because HVDC allows power transmission between unsynchronised AC distribution systems, it can help increase system stability, by preventing cascading failure from propagating from one part of a wider power transmission grid to another. Changes in load that would cause portions of an AC network to become unsynchronized and separate would not similarly affect a DC link, and the power flow through the DC link would tend to stabilize the AC network. The magnitude and direction of power flow through a DC link can be directly commanded, and changed as needed to support the AC networks at either end of the DC link. This has caused many power system operators to contemplate wider use of HVDC technology for its stability benefits alone

Disadvantages
The disadvantages of HVDC are in conversion, switching and control. Further operating an HVDC scheme requires keeping many spare parts, which may be used exclusively in one system as HVDC systems are less standardized than AC systems and the used technology changes fast. The required static inverter are expensive and have limited overload capacity. At smaller transmission distances the losses in the static inverters may be bigger than in an AC
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transmission line. The cost of the inverters may not be offset by reductions in line construction cost and lower line loss. In contrast to AC systems, realizing multiterminal systems is complex, as is expanding existing schemes to multiterminal systems. Controlling power flow in a multiterminal DC system requires good communication between all the terminals; power flow must be actively regulated by the control system instead of by the inherent properties of the transmission line. High voltage DC circuit breakers are difficult to build because some mechanism must be included in the circuit breaker to force current to zero, otherwise arcing and contact wear would be too great to allow reliable switching. Multi-terminal lines are rare

Costs of high voltage DC transmission

Normally manufacturers such as AREVA, Siemens and ABB do not state specific cost information of a particular project since this is a commercial matter between the manufacturer and the client. Costs vary widely depending on the specifics of the project such as power rating, circuit length, overhead vs. underwater route, land costs, and AC network improvements required at either terminal. A detailed evaluation of DC vs. AC cost may be required where there is no clear technical advantage to DC alone and only economics drives the selection.

A HVDC BIPOLE CONVERTER


Components 1. Thyristor: The thyristor valve is the basic component of the modern HVDC
converter. In real sub station, a real thyristor valve comprises many series-connected thyristors
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in order to provide the necessary blocking voltage capability.Thyristors used for HVDC valves are amongst the largest semiconductors of any type produced for any industry. Figure shows an 8.5 kV thyristor with an active silicon diameter of 115 mm (whichstarts life as a silicon ingot of 125 mm diameter, hence such thyristors are often referred to as125 mm thyristors). Such components are expensive and there may be many thousand such components in a HVDC station. Moreover, they are quite delicate and require a great many additional components to control .

2. Convertor Transformer: The converter transformer is the interface between


the AC system and the thyristor valves. Typically the HVDC converter transformer is subjected to a DC voltage insulation stress as well as the AC voltage stress normally experiencedby a power transformer. it is important that the converter transformer be thermally designed to take into consideration both the fundamental frequency load and the AC harmonic currents that will flow from the converter through the converter transformer to the AC harmonic filters.

3. AC filters: The AC harmonic filters are typically composed of a high voltage


connected capacitor bank in series with a medium voltage circuit comprizing air-cored air-insulated reactors, resistors and capacitor banks. These filters are used to limit the impact of AC harmonics and reactive power generated by Convertors . 4. Smoothing Reactors: These are use to reduce the DC current ripple on the overhead transmission line or cable and also helps in reducing the maximum potential fault current that could flow from the DC transmission circuit into a converter fault. It also protect the thyristor valve from fast front transients originating on the DC transmission line

5. DC switch gear: Switchgear on the DC side of the converter is typically limited to


disconnectors and earth switches for scheme reconfiguration and safe maintenance operation. Interruption of fault events is done by the controlled action of the converter hence sometimes not needed with current interruption capability.

6. Control & Protection: The basic control parameter of a HVDC converter is the DC
current which circulates between the rectifier and inverter assuming that the DC voltage is maintained at a constant value (which is typically true for DC power transmission schemes but not always true for back-to-back schemes).
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a.

Power Control: If the power demand is changed then the power order will ramp to the new
power transfer level at a rate of change (known as the ramp rate) pre-selected by the operator. Typically the maximum power limit is defined by an overload controller which is continuously calculating the thermal capability of the converter station equipment.

b.

Frequency Control: A HVDC scheme can control the AC frequency of an AC system by


automatically adjusting the power being delivered into that AC system in order to balance the load with the supply. The fast power control by the HVDC reduces the under-frequency or over-frequency which can result from a changing load in a small power system such as an island load.

c.

Protection: a HVDC converter station the types of protection utilized fall into two categories Conventional (AC) substation protection D C protection

AC connected equipment such as converter transformers and AC harmonic filter components, along with feeders and busbars, are protected using conventional AC protection relays. The converter, along with the DC circuit, is protected using hardware and software.

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7. DC filters: Converter operation results in voltage harmonics being generated at the


DC terminals of the converter, that is, there are sinusoidal AC harmonic components superimposed on the DC terminal voltage. This AC harmonic component of voltage will result in AC harmonic current flow in the DC circuit and the field generated by this AC harmonic current flow can link with adjacent conductors,such as open-wire telecommunication systems, and induce harmonic current flow in these other circuits. In a back-to-back scheme, these harmonics are contained within the valve hall with adequate shielding and, with a cable scheme, the cable screen typically provides adequate shielding. However, with open-wire DC transmission it may be necessary to provide DC filters to limit the amount of harmonic current flowing in the DC line. The DC filter is physically similar to an AC filter in that it is connected to the high voltage potential via a capacitor bank; other capacitors along with reactors and resistors are then connected to the high voltage capacitor bank in order to provide the desired tuning and

The Theory of the HVDC converter


The considerations are restricted on the line commutated converter which so far has dominantly been used for HVDC systems. Although forced commutated converters have occasionally been proposed for very special applications such as tapping of an HVDC line, the thyristor based converter is still the only economical and well proven solution for bulk power transmission.

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The Three-pulse Commutation group


Of the numerous converter configurations which have come into use for a wide variety of applications, HVDC technology uses exclusively the three phase bridge circuit. In many respects this is optimal converter connection. The three-phase bridge consists of two three-pulse commutation groups connected in series. The star point loading is of no consequence, since it disappears when the circuit is expanded into the six pulse bridge. The starpoint loading has been taken into account by means of delta connection on the primary side. A symmetrical ac network with no impedance and with no impedance and with sinusoidal voltage UL is assumed, as is generally customary in converter theory. In addition, a completely smooth direct current (Id) effected by a smoothing reactor with infinite inductance (ld) is also assumed.

Basic HVDC converter control concepts


The converter valves, as precise and virtually delay-free control elements, are the most important actuators of the HVDC control system. Moreover, in most cases the converter groups have an additional actuator in the form of the transformer tap changer. Although it does not operate on a continuous basis and there are relatively long periods of idle time, it nevertheless is responsible for important control function.

The Commutation process


In actuality, commutation of direct current requires a certain amount of time. This is due to leakage inductances of the converter transformer, which only permit a current change of limited steepness. Thus for a short period of time, the releasing and the receiving phases are carrying current simultaneously. This is referred to as commutation overlap and its duration is defined as the overlap angle U. The leakage inductances are considered lumped elements on the valve side of the transformer. Assume that valve 1 carries the direct current and that at an arbitrary point in time (after the voltage intersection) valve 3 receives a control impulse. A current loop will be created with Uv
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as the driving voltage. The leakage inductances of phases 1 and 3 will be the reactances which determine the current. This is simply a phase to phase short circuit of the transformer. The short circuit current flows through valve 3 in the forward direction and through valve 1 counter to the forward direct current. As soon as the short circuit current has achieved the amplitude of the direct current (the composite current is zero), valve 1 extinguishes. At this point, the commutation process has ended and valve 3 is carrying the entire direct current. Curve of the direct voltage during commutation is along the average value of the voltages of valves 1 and 3.

Current control
Current control mainly determines Steady state transmission power Changes in transmission power according to size and rate of change The dynamic behavior of the system including temporary overload Limitation of transient overcurrents determined by amplitude and duration The loading of all essential components of an HVDC system, with the exception of filter circuits, is determined by the direct current or an alternating current proportional to the direct current. Therefore current control is also a very essential protective function. In HVDC two point systems, the rectifier generally assumes the task of the current control. It is occasionally advantageous to assign the current control function to the inverter. However, since the current control of the rectifier is needed as a proactive function, it is advantageous to also use it for this purpose during normal operation. Then it is always active and monitors itself.
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HVDC Configurations
Monopole and earth return
In a common configuration, called monopole, one of the terminals of the rectifier is connected to earth ground. The other terminal, at a potential high above, or below, ground, is connected to a transmission line. The earthed terminal may or may not be connected to the corresponding connection at the inverting station by means of a second conductor. If no metallic conductor is installed, current flows in the earth between the earth electrodes at the two stations. Therefore it is a type of single wire earth return. The issues surrounding earthreturn current include Electrochemical corrosion of long buried metal objects such as pipelines Underwater earth-return electrodes in seawater may produce chlorine or otherwise affect water chemistry. An unbalanced current path may result in a net magnetic field, which can affect magnetic navigational compasses for ships passing over an underwater cable.

These effects can be eliminated with installation of a metallic return conductor between the two ends of the monopolar transmission line. Since one terminal of the converters is connected to earth, the return conductor need not be insulated for the full transmission voltage which makes it less costly than the high-voltage conductor.

BIPOLAR
In bipolar transmission a pair of conductors is used, each at a high potential with respect to ground, in opposite polarity. Since these conductors must be insulated for the full voltage,
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transmission line cost is higher than a monopole with a return conductor. However, there are a number of advantages to bipolar transmission which can make it the attractive option. Under normal load, negligible earth-current flows, as in the case of monopolar transmission with a metallic earth-return. This reduces earth return loss and environmental effects. When a fault develops in a line, with earth return electrodes installed at each end of the line, approximately half the rated power can continue to flow using the earth as a return path, operating in monopolar mode. Since for a given total power rating each conductor of a bipolar line carries only half the current of monopolar lines, the cost of the second conductor is reduced compared to a monopolar line of the same rating. In very adverse terrain, the second conductor may be carried on an independent set of transmission towers, so that some power may continue to be transmitted even if one line is damaged.

A bipolar system may also be installed with a metallic earth return conductor. Bipolar systems may carry as much as 3,200 MW at voltages of +/-600 kV. Submarine cable installations initially commissioned as a monopole may be upgraded with additional cables and operated as a Bipole.

Corona Discharge
Corona discharge is the creation of ions in a fluid (such as air) by the presence of a strong electric field. Electrons are torn from neutral air, and either the positive ions or else the electrons are attracted to the conductor, while the charged particles drift. This effect can cause
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considerable power loss, create audible and radio-frequency interference, generate toxic compounds such as oxides of nitrogen and ozone, and bring forth arcing. Both AC and DC transmission lines can generate coronas, in the former case in the form of oscillating particles, in the latter a constant wind. Due to the space charge formed around the conductors, an HVDC system may have about half the loss per unit length of a high voltage AC system carrying the same amount of power. With monopolar transmission the choice of polarity of the energised conductor leads to a degree of control over the corona discharge. In particular, the polarity of the ions emitted can be controlled, which may have an environmental impact on particulate condensation. (Particles of different polarities have a different mean-free path.) Negative coronas generate considerably more ozone than positive coronas, and generate it further downwind of the power line, creating the potential for health effects. The use of a positive voltage will reduce the ozone impacts of monopole HVDC power lines.

Applications
Overview
The controllability of current-flow through HVDC rectifiers and inverters, their application in connecting unsynchronized networks, and their applications in efficient submarine cables mean that HVDC cables are often used at national boundaries for the exchange of power. Offshore windfarms also require undersea cables, and their turbines are unsynchronized.

AC network interconnections
AC transmission lines can only interconnect synchronized AC networks that oscillate at the same frequency and in phase. Many areas that wish to share power have unsynchronized networks. However, HVDC systems make it possible to interconnect unsynchronized AC networks, and also add the possibility of controlling AC voltage and reactive power flow. A generator connected to a long AC transmission line may become unstable and fall out of synchronization with a distant AC power system. An HVDC transmission link may make it economically feasible to use remote generation sites. Wind farms located off-shore may use HVDC systems to collect power from multiple unsynchronized generators for transmission to the shore by an underwater cable.
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In general, however, an HVDC power line will interconnect two AC regions of the powerdistribution grid. Machinery to convert between AC and DC power adds a considerable cost in power transmission. The conversion from AC to DC is known as rectification and from DC to AC as inversion. Above a certain break-even distance (about 50 km for submarine cables, and perhaps 600800 km for overhead cables), the lower cost of the HVDC electrical conductors outweighs the cost of the electronics.

Transmission Planning Criteria


Introduction
The objective of system planning is to evolve a power system with a level of performance characterised by an acceptable degree of adequacy and security based on a trade-off between costs and risks involved. Insofar as power transmission systems are concerned , there are no widely adopted uniform guidelines which determine the criteria for transmission planning vis-svis acceptable degree of adequacy and security. The criteria generally depends on the factors such as availability of generation vis--vis demand, voltage levels, and configuration of the system, control and communication facilities and resource constraints. Practices in this regard vary from country to country. The common theme in the various approaches is the acceptable system performance. Even though the factors affecting system performance are probabilistic in nature, deterministic approach has been used most commonly, being rather easy to apply. For adopting probabilistic approach, long operating experience and availability of reliable statistical data regarding performance of system components, namely equipment failure rate, outage duration, etc, are essential. Such data are presently being compiled by a few utilities; but these are still inadequate to go in for a totally probabilistic approach. Hence it is considered prudent to adopt a deterministic approach for the present with a committed thrust towards progressive adoption of probabilistic approach.
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Planning Philosophy
The transmission system shall be planned on the basis of regional self-sufficiency with an ultimate objective of evolving a National Power Grid. The regional self-sufficiency criteria based on load generation balance may still dictate to have inter-regional exchanges with adequate inter-connection capacity at appropriate points taking into account the topology of the two networks, the plant mix consideration, generation shortages due to forced outages, diversity in weather pattern and load forecasting errors in either regions. Such inter-regional power exchanges shall also be considered these studies. The system shall be evolved based on detailed power system studies which shall include:1. Power Flow Studies 2. Short Circuit Studies 3. Stability Studies 4. EMTP Studies to determine switching/temporary overvoltages . The adequacy of the transmission should be rested for different feasible load generation scenarios. The following options may be considered for strengthening of the transmission network:1. Addition of new Transmission lines to avoid overloading of existing system. (Whenever three or more circuits of the same voltage class are envisaged between two sub-stations, the next transmission voltage should also be considered.) 2. Application of Series Capacitors in existing transmission line to increase power transfer capability. 3. Upgradation of the existing AC transmission lines. 4. Reconductoring of the existing AC transmission line with higher size conductors or with AAAC. 5. Adoption of multi-voltage level and multi-circuit transmission lines.
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The choice shall be based on cost, reliability, right-of-way requirements, energy losses, down time (in case of upgradation and reconductoring options) In case of generating station close to a major load centre, sensitivity of its complete closure with loads to be met(to the extent possible)from other generating stations is also studied. In case of transmission system associated with Nuclear Power Stations there shall be two independent sources of power supply for the purpose of providing start-up power facilities. Further the angle between start-up power source and the NPP switchyard should be, as far as possible, maintained within 10 degrees. The evacuation system for sensitive power stations viz., Nuclear power stations shall generally be planned so as to terminate it at large load centres to facilitate islanding of the power station in case of contingency. Contingency is the temporary removal of one or more system elements from service. The cause or reason for such removal may be a fault , planned maintenance/repair etc.

1. Single Contingency The contingency arising out of removal of one system element from service. 2. Double Contingency The contingency arising out of removal of two system elements from service. It includes a D/C line, two S/C lines in same corridor or different corridors, a S/C line and a transformer etc. 3. Rare Contingency Temporary removal of complete generating station or complete substation (including all the incoming & outgoing feeders and transformers ) from service, HVDC bipole and stuck breaker condition.

Where only two circuits are planned for evacuation of power from a generating station, these should be two single lines instead of a double circuit line. Reactive power flow through ICTs shall be minimal. Normally it shall not exceed 10% of the rating of the ICTs. Whenever voltage on HV side of ICT is less than 0.975 pu, no reactive power shall flow through ICT.
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Thermal/Nuclear Generating units shall normally not run at leading power factor. However, for the purpose of charging, generating unit may be allowed to operate at leading power factor as per the respective capability curve. Inter-regional links shall, in the present context, be planned as asynchronous ties unless otherwise permitted from operational consideration.

Load Generation Scenarios


The load-generation scenarios shall be worked out so as to reflect in a pragmatic manner the daily and seasonal variations in the load demand and generation availability.

Load demands
The profile of annual and daily demands will be determined from past data. These data will usually give the demand at grid supply points and for the whole system identifying the annual and daily peak demand.

Active power
The system peak demands shall be based on the latest reports of Electric Power Survey (EPS) Committee. In case these peak load figures are more than the peaking availability, the loads will be suitably adjusted substation wise to match with the availability. The load demands at other periods (seasonal variations and minimum loads)shall be derived based on the annual peak demand and past pattern of load variations. From practical considerations the load variations over the year shall be considered as under:1. Annual Peak Load It is the simultaneous maximum demand of the system being studied. It is based on latest Electric Power Survey (EPS) or total peaking power availability, whichever is less. 2. Seasonal variation in Peak loads(corresponding to high thermal and high hydro generation)

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3. Minimal load It is the expected minimum system demand and is determined from average ration of annual peak load and minimum load observed in the system for the last 5 years. 4. Off-Peak Load relevant where Pumped Storage Plants are involved or inter-regional exchanges are envisaged.

Reactive Power (MVAR)


Reactive Power plays an important role in EHV transmission system planning and hence forecast of reactive power demand on an area-wise or substation-wise basis is as important as active power forecast. This forecast would obviously require adequate data on the reactive power demands at different substations as well as the projected plans for reactive power compensation. For developing an optimal power system, the utilities must clearly spell out the substationwise maximum and minimum demand in MWs and MVARs on seasonal basis. This will require compilation of past data in order to arrive at reasonably accurate load forecast. Recognising the fact that this data is presently not available, it is suggested that pending availability of such data, the load power factor at 120/132KV voltage levels shall be taken as 0.85 lag during peak load condition and 0.9 lag during light load condition expecting areas feeding predominantly agricultural loads where power factor can be taken as 0.75 and 0.85 for peak load and light load conditions respectively. In areas where power factor is less than the limit specified above, it shall be the responsibility of the respective utility to bring the load power factor to these limits by providing shunt capacitors at appropriate places in the system.

Generation Dispatches
Generation despatch of Hydro and Thermal/Nuclear units would be determined judiciously on the basis of hydrology as well as scheduled maintenance program of the generating stations. Various norms are used for working out the peaking availability of different types of generating
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units. In case of nuclear units the minimum level of output shall be taken as not less than 70% of the rated capacity. Generation dispatches corresponding to the following operating conditions shall be considered depending on the nature and characteristics of the system. Annual Peak Load Maximum Thermal generation It is the condition when hydro generation is low(not necessarily minimum)and thermal generation is kept maximum to meet seasonal peak loads(not necessarily annual peak load).In other words it is the condition when the gap between monthly peak demand and hydro power availability is maximum. Maximum Hydro generation It is the condition when hydro power availability is maximum during the year. It is also known as High Hydro condition. Annual Minimum Load Special area dispatches It is the condition when power output from all the generating stations located in an area (in close proximity) is kept at the maximum feasible level. Maximum Feasible level of a generating station is the maximum power output when all the units in a power station are in service, assuming no planned or forced outages. However, in case of power station/complex where six or more units exist, for every six units one unit second largest-is assumed to be under annual planned maintenance. Special dispatches corresponding to high agricultural load with low power factor, wherever applicable. Off peak conditions with maximum pumping load where Pumped Storage stations exist and also with the inter-regional exchanges, if envisaged. Complete closure of a generating station close to a major load centre.

The generation dispatch for purpose of carrying out sensitivity studies corresponding to complete closure of generating station close to a major load centre shall be worked out by increasing generation at other stations to the extent possible keeping in view the maximum likely availability at these stations, ownership pattern, shares etc.
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Permissible Line Loading Limits


Permissible line loading limit depend on many factors such as voltage regulation, stability and thermal capacity etc. Thermal capacity of a line refers to the amount of current that can be carried by a line conductor without exceeding its design operating temperature. Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) means a unit power factor load over a resistance line such that series reactive loss (I^2*R) along the line is equal to shunt capacitive gain (V^2*Y). Under these conditions the sending end and receiving end voltages and current are equal in magnitude but different in phase position. While SIL gives a general idea of the loading capability of the line , it is usual to load the short lines above SIL and long lines lower than SIL (because of the stability limitations).line loading can also be shown (in terms of surge impedance loading of uncompensated line)as a function of line length assuming a voltage regulation of 5% and phase angular difference of 30 degrees between the two ends of the line. In case of shunt compensated lines, the SIL will get reduced by a factor k, where k = sqrt (1-degree of compensation)

For lines whose permissible line loading as determined from the curve is higher than the thermal loading limit, permissible loading limit shall be restricted to thermal loading limit. Thermal loading limits are generally decided by design practice on the basis of ambient temperature, maximum permissible conductor temperature, wind velocity, etc. In India, the ambient temperatures obtaining in the various parts of the country are different and vary considerably during the various seasons of the year. Designs of transmission line with ASCR conductors in EHV systems will normally be based on a conductor temperature limit of 75 deg Celsius. However, for some of the existing lines which have been designed for a conductor temperature of 65 deg Celsius the loading shall be correspondingly reduced. In the case of AAAC conductors, maximum conductor temperature limit will be taken as 85 deg Celsius.

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Temporary Overvoltages
These are power frequency overvoltages produced in a power system due to sudden load rejection, single-phase-to-ground faults etc. 420 kV system 1.5 p.u. peak phase to neutral (343 kV = 1 p.u.) 800 kV system 1.4 p.u. peak phase to neutral (653 kV = 1 p.u.)

Switching Overvoltages
These overvoltages generated during switching of lines, transformers and reactors etc. having wave fronts 250/2500 micro sec. 420 kV system 2.5 p.u. peak phase to neutral (343 kV = 1 p.u.) 800 kV system 1.9 p.u. peak phase to neutral (653 kV = 1 p.u.)

Reactive Power Compensation

Shunt Capacitors
Reactive Compensation should be provided as far as possible in the low voltage systems with a view to meeting the reactive power requirements of load close to the load points thereby avoiding the need for VAR transfer from the high voltage system to the low voltage system. In the cases where network below 132/220 kV voltage level is not represented in the system planning studies, the shunt capacitors required for meeting the reactive power requirements of load shall be provided at 132/220 kV buses.

Shunt Reactors
Switchable reactors shall be provided at EHV substations for controlling voltages within the limits defined without resorting to switching-off of lines. The size of reactors should
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be such that under steady state condition, switching on and off of the reactors shall not cause a voltage change exceeding 5%. The standard sizes(MVAR) of reactors are:-

400 kV (3-ph units) 765 kv (1-ph units)

50, 63 & 80 at 420 kV 50, 63 & 110 at 800 kV

Fixed line reactors may be provided to control Temporary Power Frequency overvoltage [after all voltage regulation has taken place] within the limits defined, under all probable operating conditions.

Line reactors (switchable/controlled/fixed) may be provided if it is not possible to charge EHV line without exceeding the voltage limits defined. The possibility of reducing precharging voltage of the charging end shall also be considered in the context of establishing the need for reactors.

Static VAR Compensation (SVC)


Static VAR compensation shall be provided where found necessary to damp the power swings and provide the system stability under conditions defined. The dynamic range of static compensators shall not be utilised under steady state operating conditions as far as possible.

Sub-Station Planning Criteria


The requirements in respect of EHV sub-stations in a system such as the total load to be catered by the sub-station of a particular voltage level, its MVA capacity, number of feeders permissible etc. are important to the planners so as to provide an idea to them about the time for going in for the adoption of next higher voltage level sub-station and also the number of substations required for meeting a particular quantum of load.
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Keeping these in view the following criteria have been laid down for planning an EHV substation: The maximum fault level on any new substation bus should not exceed 80% of the rated rupturing capacity of the circuit breaker. The 20% margin is intended to take care of the increase in short-circuit levels as the system grows. The rated breaking current capability of switchgear at different voltage levels may be taken as:-

132 kV 220 kV 400 kV 765 kV

-----

25/31 kA 31.5/40 kA 40 kA 40 kA

Higher breaking current capability would require major design change in the terminal equipment and shall be avoided as far as possible. The capacity of any single sub-station at different voltage levels shall not normally exceed :-

765 kV 400 kV 220 kV 132 kV

-----

2500 MVA 1000 MVA 320 MVA 150 MVA

Size and number of interconnecting transformers (ICTs) shall be planned in such a way that the outage of any single unit would not overload the remaining ICT(s) or the underlying system.

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A stuck breaker condition shall not cause disruption of more than four feeders for 220 kV system and two feeders for 400 kV systems and one feeder for 765 kV systems.

Transmission Engineering
Major Components of Transmission Lines
Conductor Tower Design and foundation Earth wire Insulators
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Hardware Fittings Accessories

CONDUCTORS

BUNDLE CONDUCTOR SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION Size, Type and Configuration of conductor influences:-

Tower and its geometry Foundations Optimum spans Rating and configuration of Insulator string Insulator Swings Ground clearance Line interferences like electric field at ground, corona, radio & TV interference, audible noise etc.

CONDUCTOR SELECTION SCENARIO


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SCENARIO A Selection of character for a transmission line of identified voltage level and specified minimum power flow but power flow capacity becomes ruling factor in selection of conductor size (low voltage lines).

SCENARIO B Selection of conductor for a transmission line with identified voltage level and a specified minimum power flow but voltage level become ruling factor in selection of conductor/conductor bundle size (EHV/UHV lines).

SCENARIO C Selection of conductor for high power capacity long distances transmission lines where selection of voltage level and conductor/conductor bundle size are to be done together to obtain most optimum solution (HVDC Bipole)

CONDUCTOR BUNDLE SELECTION METHODOLOGY

Primary set of conductor bundle/sizes identified to start optimization Parameters like insulation requirement, limits for corona, RIV, AN, thermal ratings, line losses and statutory clearances identified
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Detailed analysis of various alternatives in respect of following to be carried out to select the configuration - Basic insulation design and insulator selection Tower configuration analysis

- Tower weight and foundation analysis - Capital line cost analysis and span optimization - Line loss calculation - Economic evaluations(PWRR) of alternatives - Comparison of interference performance - Cost sensitivity analysis

CONDUCTOR OPTMIZATION PROCEDURE

PRIMARY SELECTION Thermal rating of the conductor/conductors Manufacturing facilities Expense of other utilities System voltage alternatives Construction convenience Line loss considerations Terrain conditions and ground profile Span length requirements
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Right Of Way limitations

CONDUCTOR SELECTION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

BASIC CONSIDERATIONS (NON VARIABLE) 1) Loading condition and reliability level for the transmission line. 2) Insulator co-ordination 3) Limit load condition for structure, conductor, insulator, and hardware as well as limit conditions for swing of conductor and insulator strings. 4) Allowable limits for: Electric and magnetic fields Radio and TV interference Space charge density 5) Minimum ground clearance 6) Parameters for economic evaluation

CONDUCTOR SELECTION FOR SPECIAL TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

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UPRATING OF LINES - Sag of the selected conductor at maximum operating temperature should not exceed the sag of the original conductor - No extra loadings on the structure at various design considerations UPGRADING OF LINES - Line interference in respect of RIV, TVI, AN, EF, MF etc. Should be within acceptable limits - Conductor surface gradient within acceptable limits - Asymmetric bundle COMPACT LINES - Lowest possible sag and swing for required quantum of power - Considerations involved in upgrading/up rating

CONDUCTOR BUNDLE SELECTION: ESTIMATION OF TOWER WEIGHTS AND FOUNDATION VOLUMES

For each alternative of conductor and insulator configuration

TOWER WEIGHT ESTIMATION Preliminary tower design studies conducted


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Estimation based on regression analysis and empirical formulae

FOUNDATION VOLUME ESTIMATION Preliminary foundation design studies conducted

CONUCTOR BUNDLE OTIMIZATION: TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 1) Capital cost of line Cost of each item, construction cost 2) Cost of line losses Annual loss cost = Annual demand cost + Annual energy Loss Cost 3) Results of economic evaluation(PWRR or Annual Cost basis) 4) Cost sensitivity

Conductor Types: ACSR AAAC ACAR New Technology Conductors Trapezoidal ACSS INVAR Self Damping
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ALL ALUMINIUM ALLOY CONDUCTOR AAAC

Good Conductivity High Tensile Strength Superior Corrosion resistance compared to ACSR Improved strength to weight ratio resulting in lower sag Lower electrical losses

Aluminium Conductor Steel Supported (ACSS Conductor) Similar to ACSR except Aluminium Steel Core (High Strength) carries most of the load and hence less sag compared to conventional ACSR conductor under emergency loadings. Can be operated at 200 degree C without loss of strength Improved Conductivity Better self damping characteristics

Compact Conductors Aluminium wires/strands shaped trapezoidal Increased Aluminium area and hence higher current carrying capacity

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INVAR Conductors

Core made of alloy of Iron. Nickel having low thermal coefficient of expansion(1/3rd that of steel)

After certain transition temperature all load transferred to the core and hence lower sag compared to ACSR after transition temperature

Can be operated up to 2000C

DESIGN OF TOWERS
SALIENT DESIGN CONDITIONS

The reliability of transmission line towers depends on the appropriate selection of design criteria/parameters. Climatic conditions play an important role in determining the reliability of transmission line tower. A significant number of transmission line failures can be the result of wind speed exceeding design limits due to deficiencies in selection of design parameters/criteria.

EARTHWIRE
Functions of Earth wire To protect conductor against lighting flashovers To provide a path for fault current
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Lighting Flashovers Direct Flashover Occurs due to shielding failure with lighting on the conductor, flashover taking place across the insulator string from conductor to ground.

Back Flashover Occurs due to high towering resistance with a high voltage at the grounded tower cross arm compared to conductor, resulting in a flashover across the insulator string from ground to conductor.

Maximum allowable fault current (I) through earthwire mainly depends upon Area of Earth wire(A) Maximum permissible temperature Time of short circuit(t) I varies proportional to A and inversely proportional to sqrt (t)

HARDWARE FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES FOR CONDUCTOR & EARTHWIRE

HARDWARE FITTINGS For attachment of insulator string to tower D-shackles, Ball clevis, Yoke Plate, Chain link For attachment of insulator string to the conductor
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Suspension & tension assembly Fittings like D-Shackles, socket clevis, chain link For protection of insulator string from power follow current Arcing horn For making electric field uniform and to limit the electric field at live end Corona control ring/Grading ring For fine adjustment of conductor sag -Sag Adjustment plate, Turn Buckle

HARDWARE FITTINGS- Design Arcing Horn The air gap is maintained for satisfactory performance under actual field conditions. For power follow current Yoke Plate To withstand mechanical loads-Thickness & shear edge maintained To maintain sub conductor spacing Corona Control Ring/Grading Horn To cover at least one live and insulator disc To cover hardware fittings susceptible for Corona/RIV Suspension Assembly - Shaped to prevent hammering between clamp & conductor - To minimize static & dynamic stress in conductor under various loading conditions - Minimum level of corona/RIV performance
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- For slipping of conductor under prescribed unbalanced conditions between adjacent conductor spans

Tension Assembly - To withstand loads of atleast 95% of conductor UTS - To have conductivity more than that of conductor Sag Adjustment Plate/Turn Buckle - To adjust sag upto 150mm in steps of 6mm.

Cost Engineering
What is cost engineering?
Cost Engineering is the science of cost finding by analysis of the processes and expenses of production, and charging of particularized expense factors, through process units rates, in the exact ratio of utilization.

Overhead transmission
Overhead conductors are not covered by insulation. The conductor material is nearly always an aluminum alloy, made into several strands and possibly reinforced with steel strands. Copper was sometimes used for overhead transmission but aluminum is lower in weight for equivalent performance, and much lower in cost.

Underground transmission

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Undergrounding is more expensive, since the cost of burying cables at transmission voltages is several times greater than overhead power lines, and the life-cycle cost of an underground power cable is two to four times the cost of an overhead power line.

Abstract cost estimate


1) Preliminary Survey & Soil Investigation 2) Land Acquisition for Substation and R & R Compensation 3) Cost of compensation for transmission lines Compensation towards trees, crops & PTCC Compensation towards forest 4) Civil Works Infrastructure for substation Non Residential Buildings Colony for transmission lines and substation 5) Equipment (Supply & Erection Cost) Transmission Lines Sub Stations 6) Misc. Tools & Plants 7) Maintenance during construction 8) Engineering & administration 9) Losses on stock 10) Contingencies
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11) Custom Duty 12) Interest During Construction (IDC)

Substation Equipments
1) GIS Substation Equipment. 2) Circuit Breakers 3) Isolators 4) Current Transformers 5) Capacitor Voltage Transformers / Voltage Transformers 6) Surge Arresters: They should be provided near line entrances, transformers so as to achieve proper insulation coordination. These shall be fitted with pressure relief devices and diverting ports suitable for shattering of porcelain housing providing path for the flow of rated currents in the event of arresters failure.

Substation Support facilities


1) AC & DC Power supplies 2) Fire Fighting System: Fire fighting system in general conforms to fire insurance regulations of India. The fire fighting system is proposed with both AC motor & diesel engine driven pumps. Automatic heat actuated emulsifying system is proposed for transformers and reactors. 3) Oil evacuating, filtering, testing, & filling apparatus: To monitor the quality of oil for the satisfactory performance of transformers, shunt reactors and for periodical maintenance
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necessary oil evacuating, filtering, testing and filling apparatus would be provided at new substations. 4) Lighting & Communication: Adequate normal and emergency AC & DC lighting shall be provided in the control room of the substation. A telephone exchange of 24 lines shall be provided at new substation as a means of effective communication between various buildings of the substation. 5) Control Room

Line Accessories 1) Mid Span compression joint for conductor / earthwire 2) Repair sleeve for conductor 3) Flexible copper bond for earthwire: Flexible copper bonds shall be used for good electrical continuity between the earthwire and the tower. Two bonds per suspension tower and four bonds per tension tower shall be used. 4) Vibration Dampers for conductor / earthwire: Stockbridge vibration dampers shall be used to reduce the maximum dynamic train caused be Aeolian vibrations to a value of 150 micro-strain. 5) Spacer Dampers

Some Cost Reduction Techniques


By allowing multiple generating plants to be interconnected over a wide area, electricity production cost was reduced. The most efficient available plants could be used to supply the varying loads during the day. Reliability was improved and capital investment cost was reduced, since stand-by generating capacity could be shared over many more customers and a
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wider geographic area. Remote and low-cost sources of energy, such as hydroelectric power or mine-mouth coal, could be exploited to lower energy production cost. The capital cost of electric power stations is so high, and electric demand is so variable, that it is often cheaper to import some portion of the needed power than to generate it locally. Because nearby loads are often correlated, electricity must often come from distant sources. Because of the economics of load balancing, wide area transmission grids now span across countries and even large portions of continents. The web of interconnections between power producers and consumers ensures that power can flow, even if a few links are inoperative. The unvarying (or slowly varying over many hours) portion of the electric demand is known as the "base load", and is generally served best by large facilities (and therefore efficient due to economies of scale) with low variable costs for fuel and operations, i.e. nuclear, coal, hydro. Renewable sources such as solar, wind, ocean/tidal, etc. are not considered "base load" but can still add power to the grid. Smaller and higher cost sources, such as combined cycle or combustion turbine plants fueled by natural gas are then added as needed. Long distance transmission allows remote renewable energy resources to be used to displace fossil fuel consumption. Hydro and wind sources can't be moved closer to populous cities, and solar costs are lowest in remote areas where local power needs are minimal. Connection costs alone can determine whether any particular renewable alternative is economically sensible. Costs can be prohibitive for transmission lines, but various proposals for massive infrastructure investment in high capacity, very long distance super grid transmission networks could be recovered with modest usage fees. High voltage direct current (HVDC) is used to transmit large amounts of power over long distances or for interconnections between asynchronous grids. When electrical energy is required to be transmitted over very long distances, it is more economical to transmit using direct current instead of alternating current. For a long transmission line, the lower losses and reduced construction cost of a DC line can offset the additional cost of converter stations at each end. Also, at high AC voltages, significant (although economically acceptable) amounts of energy are lost due to corona discharge, the capacitance between phases or, in the case of buried cables, between phases and the soil or water in which the cable is buried.

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Environmental and Social Aspects

Forest Involvement / Clearance


As per the practice, preliminary route selection is done by POWERGRID based on such documents as Forest Atlas and the survey of India maps using bee line method, followed by field verification through walk over survey. All possible steps are taken to avoid the route alignment through the forests. In case where it becomes unavoidable due the geography of the terrain, the alignment is made in such a way that the route through forests is barest minimum.

For the selection of optimum route, following points are to be taken into consideration: The route of the proposed transmission line does not involve any human rehabilitation. Any monument of cultural or historical importance is not generally affected. The route does not create any threat to the survival of the community. It does not affect any public utility services like playground , school, other establishments, etc It does not pass through any sanctuaries, national park, etc. It does not infringe with the areas of natural resources.

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Social Issues / R&R measures


As per the prevailing law, land below transmission line is not required to be acquired and only land for substation is acquired. POWERGRID is following the practice of land management to minimize the land requirement to the barest minimum. Generally 20 to 30 hectares of land is required for constructing a substation depending upon the type of the voltage level. Even for this 20 to 30 hectare land, POWERGRID try to locate the substation on government land as far as possible and in the absence of govt. land private land is acquired. In order to insure the indigenous (Tribal) people do not suffer adverse affects, utmost care is taken to avoid acquisition of land belonging to tribal community. In spite of that, POWERGRID has developed an indigenous people (Tribal) Development Plan (IPDP) which ensure that they receive culturally compatible social and economic benefits for any adverse affects.

Risk Analysis
Revenue Risk
The capital cost of the transmission system comprises of i) An equity component ii) A loan component This is recovered through the annual transmission charges consisting of return required for the equity, an interest for the loan component together with the depreciation charges, the O & M charges and interest on working capital from the beneficiaries as per Notification in proportion to the benefits derived by them. These are recovered in monthly fixed charges from the beneficiaries. In addition to annual charges Income Tax, FERV and incentives, etc. as per notification would also be payable. The Bulk Power Transmission Agreement (BPTA) which cover the payments for transmission charges for all the existing projects as well as those that may be included in future after approval by CEA already exists.

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Regulatory Risk
BPTAs have the provision that the transmission tariff for new / existing transmission assets commissioned as well as the additional tariff payable due to additional capitalization from year to year, etc. shall be computed by POWERGRID based on norms / methodology followed in the GOI notification dated 16.12.97 in accordance with norms to be specified by the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) as amended from time to time.

Tariffs
The cost of electric power is normally given by the expression ( a + b*kW + c*kWh) per annum, where a is a fixed charge for the utility, independent of the power output; b depends on the maximum demand of the system and hence on the interest and depreciation on the installed power station; and c depends on the units produced and therefore on the fuel charges and the wages of the station staff.

Tariff structure may be such as to influence the load curve and to improve the load factor.

Tariff should consider the pf (power factor) of the load of the consumer. if it is low, it takes more current for the same kWs and hence T and D(Transmission and Distribution) losses are correspondingly increased. The power has to install either pf correcting (improvement) devices such as synchronous condensors, SVC (Static Var Compensator) or voltage regulating equipment to maintain the voltages within allowed limits and thus the total cost increases. One of the following alternatives may be used to avoid the low pf : 1. To charge the consumer based on KVA rather than KW. 2. A pf penalty clause may be imposed on the consumer. 3. The consumer may be asked to use the shunt capacitors for improving the power factor of his installations.
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