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Section A [50 marks] Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

A1 Carbon dioxide can be formed by a number of different types of reaction. Suggest identities for each of the following: a liquid that burns in excess oxygen to give carbon dioxide and water only. [1]

(a)

______________________________________________________________________ (b) a solid that burns to give carbon dioxide only. [1]

______________________________________________________________________ (c) a gas that burns to give carbon dioxide only. [1]

______________________________________________________________________ (d) a solid that when heated gives carbon dioxide as one of the two products. [1]

______________________________________________________________________ (e) a solution of a solid in water that produces carbon dioxide when yeast is added. [1]

______________________________________________________________________ (f) a soluble compound that reacts with an acid to produce carbon dioxide. [1]

______________________________________________________________________

A2

Dalton (1766 1844) proposed various symbols for different elements. A few are listed below.

(a)

Using Daltons symbols, different substances can be drawn.

F 3

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Name the substances A to F. A B C (b) (i) (ii) (c) ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ D E F

[3] ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ [2] ______________________ ______________________ [1]

Using the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, choose a substance that is obtained by fractional distillation of liquid air; that can be obtained by cracking octane (C8H18).

Suggest one chemical test that could distinguish substance A from the others.

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

A3

The apparatus below was set up to study the rate at which oxygen is evolved from a solution of hydrogen peroxide. As soon as the apparatus had been set up, a stop clock was started.

After a certain length of time, the flask was shaken so that the black powdered catalyst M came into contact with hydrogen peroxide. The graph obtained is shown below.

s4Chem5068/2 AHS Prelim2006

(a)

At what time was the flask shaken?

[1]

______________________________________________________________________ (b) The catalyst M was a metal oxide. Suggest the identity of the catalyst. [1]

______________________________________________________________________ (c) Sketch on the graph on pg 4, the curve that would have been obtained if a lump of catalyst M had been used instead of powdered M. [1] Suggest one other method by which the rate of production of oxygen in the above experiment could be altered. [1] ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ (e) Pyrogallol absorbs oxygen. When the gas in the syringe was shaken with sufficient pyrogallol to absorb all the oxygen present, 40 cm3 of gas remained in the syringe. Name this gas and state how it managed to get into the syringe. [2]

(d)

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

A4

Malachite is one of the minerals in copper ores. The diagram below shows some of the substances that can be made from malachite.
decomposition

Copper oxide

reduction

Malachite, CuCO3

Copper, Cu

dilute acid

Copper sulphate

electrolysis

(a) (i) State how the chemical change from malachite to copper oxide is carried out.

[1]

______________________________________________________________________

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(ii)

Give one observation that would be made during the chemical change in part (i). [1] ______________________________________________________________________

(iii)

Write a balanced chemical equation for the chemical change in (i).

[1]

______________________________________________________________________ (b) Suggest a reducing agent which could be used in the reduction of copper oxide to copper. [1] ______________________________________________________________________ (c) Why is pure copper metal always produced by electrolysis? [1]

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ (d) Scrap copper is recycled. Suggest two reasons for this practice. [2]

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

A5

A double-glazed window is made of two sheets of glass mounted in an aluminium frame. Between these two sheets of glass is a polyester film coated with a very thin layer of silver. This arrangement controls the transmission of heat and light.

(a)

Name the linkage found in polyester and draw the structure of this linkage. Name of linkage:

[2]

____________________________________________________

Structure of linkage: ____________________________________________________

s4Chem5068/2 AHS Prelim2006

(b)

A chemical analyst was asked to show that the polyester film had been coated with silver. A piece of the polyester was dropped into dilute nitric acid; this dissolved the silver. Suggest how the solution formed could be tested for silver ions. [2] ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

(c)

The window was improved by filling the space between the glass with krypton, a noble gas. Krypton is a poorer conductor of heat than air. Suggest a reason for this property of krypton. [1] ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

(d)

State one use for another named noble gas.

[1]

______________________________________________________________________ A6 (a) Sulphuric acid is essential to any country with a chemical industry. The charts below show the uses of sulphuric acid in an industrialized country and a developing country in 1990. By 1994, the chart for the industrialized country had hardly changed, but the chart for the developing country had changed significantly.

(i)

State one major use for sulphuric acid in the developing country in 1990.

[1]

______________________________________________________________________

s4Chem5068/2 AHS Prelim2006

(ii)

Suggest a likely change in the chart for the developing country in 1994 as the country becomes more industrialized. [1] ______________________________________________________________________

(b)

Sulphuric acid is manufactured by the Contact Process. The reactions involved are as follows: sulphur + oxygen gas A + oxygen
catalyst B

gas A sulphur trioxide oleum sulphuric acid [2]

sulphur trioxide + liquid C oleum + liquid D Give the name of (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (c) gas A catalyst B liquid C liquid D

______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________

Sulphuric acid can act as a dehydrating agent, a catalyst, an oxidizing agent, a precipitating agent or an acid. Explain, with reasons how sulphuric acid is acting in each of the following reactions. C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O [1]

(i)

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ (ii) CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3CO2C2H5 + H2O [1]

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ (iii) Ba(NO3)2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 + 2HNO3 [1]

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________
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A7 (a)

In order to survive, fish require water containing dissolved oxygen. Explain briefly how an increase in each of the following factors affects the amount of dissolved oxygen in a lake. temperature [1]

(i)

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ (ii) nitrates [1]

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ (b) In a method to find the concentration of dissolved oxygen in a sample of water, manganese (IV) oxide is formed as shown in equation (1). This is then used to release iodine which is titrated with a solution of sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) of known concentration. The equations for these three steps are: (1) (2) (3) 2Mn 2+ (aq) + 4OH (aq) + O2 (g) MnO2 (s) + 2I (aq) + 4H + (aq) I2 (aq) + 2S2O3 2 (aq) 2MnO2 (s) + 2H2O (l) Mn 2+ (aq) + I2 (aq) + 2H2O (l) S4O6 2 (aq) + 2I (aq)

1000 cm3 of a sample of water was processed by this method. It was found that 10.0cm3 of 0.100 mol/dm3 Na2S2O3 solution were required to react with the iodine produced. Calculate the concentration of dissolved oxygen in g/dm3 in the water sample. [3]

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A8

Look at the list below which shows the structural formulas of six different organic compounds.

Choose the substance A, B, C, D, E or F from the list above to answer the following questions. The letters may be used once, more than once or not at all. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Which substance is an alkane? Which two substances are in the same homologous series? Which two substances are isomers? Which two substances react together to give an ester? What substance is formed when compound A is oxidized? Which substance can undergo polymerization? ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

Draw part of the structure of the polymer formed in (f) showing at least two repeating units. [1]

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Section B [30 marks] Answer all three questions from this section. The last question is in the form EITHER / OR and only one alternative should be attempted. Each question carries ten marks. B9 (a) A labeled diagram of a cell used to produce aluminium metal is shown below.

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (b)

What is the electrode P made from? Give the ionic equation for the reaction which takes place at the cathode. Name the gas given off at the positive electrode. P is hung on a pulley so it can be moved. Suggest two reasons why P have to be moved? Why does the aluminium sink to the bottom of the cell?

[1] [1] [1] might [2] [1]

Drinks used to be packed in glass bottles. Nowadays, most glass bottles are replaced by metal cans made out of aluminium or steel. The graphs on the right show the approximate production of drink cans in the United States from 1960 to 2000.

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(i) (ii)

Suggest two reasons why the change from glass to metal was made.

[2]

Suggest an explanation for the change in the percentage of cans produced from steel. [1] What do you think will happen to the graph of total can production by the year 2100? Explain your answer. [1]

(iii)

B10 (a)

Aluminium forms the compound aluminium hydride. A dot and cross diagram for this compound is shown below.

x x x (i) (ii) (b) How can you tell from the diagram that aluminium hydride contains covalent bonds? [1] State one physical property of aluminium hydride. [1] Electrodes fitted to an astronauts skin to record the electrical signals from his muscles, brain, etc., are first smeared with moist calcium chloride paste. What is the purpose of the paste? Why is calcium chloride used as a paste and not as a solid? When the apparatus below is set up, the bulb lights. [1] [2]

(i) (ii) (c)

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(i) (ii) (iii)

State what is observed at the zinc electrode. Which electrode, zinc or platinum, is the anode? Give a reason for your answer.

[1] [2]

Bubbles of gas are seen to form only on the platinum electrode. What gas is it and explain its formation. [2]

B11 EITHER (a) To find the formula of a compound formed between copper and bromine, different masses of copper was heated with an excess of liquid bromine in the apparatus shown below.

(i) (ii)

Why is a condenser used in the experiment? Explain what should be done to remove the unreacted bromine. The results from the experiment are shown plotted on the graph below.

[1] [1]

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(b) (i) (ii) (c) (i) (ii)

Use the graph to find what mass of bromine would combine with 0.30g of copper; what mass of compound would be formed from 0.50g of copper. A further experiment found that 0.64g of copper combined with 1.60g of bromine. How many grams of bromine would combine with 64g of copper? [1] Hence, write the formula of the compound formed between copper and bromine in these experiments. [1] Copper metal can be obtained from aqueous copper (II) sulphate solution by displacement with another metal. Song Leng suggested using silver and Zi Qi suggested using sodium. However, Xian Zheng disagreed. Give reasons why Xian Zheng thinks both suggestions are unsuitable. [2] Name a metal that would be suitable. [1] Copper is a transition element. Predict a property of copper or its compounds from this fact alone. [1] [1] [1]

(d)

(i) (ii) (iii)

B11 OR (a) Since vegetable oils are not suitable for spreading on bread, they are converted to solid fats, which are used in making margarine. heat with B

vegetable oils + A

solid fats

(i) (ii)

Name the substances A and B necessary for this reaction.

[2]

Name a chemical test which would distinguish between vegetable oils and the fats. What would you see happening in each case? [2] Ethene can be made into poly(ethene). Poly(ethene) can be used to make floats for fishing nets. State one advantage (other than its low density) of using poly(ethene) for this purpose. [1] Poly(ethene) can be disposed of by combustion. Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide measured at room temperature and pressure from the complete combustion of 1.40g of poly(ethene). [2]

(b)

(i)

(ii)

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(c)

A piece of cheese contains protein. Proteins are natural polymers made up of amino acids. There are 20 naturally occurring amino acids. The structure of two amino acids are shown below. Glycine H  H2N C COOH  H Alanine H  H2N C COOH  CH3

(i)

Draw the structural formula to represent the part of the protein chain formed by the reaction between the amino acids shown above. [1] What is the name given to the common linkage present in protein molecules? Why are there such a huge variety of proteins? [1] [1]

(ii) (iii)

**** End of paper ****

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