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Ultrasonic switch Chapter-1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction
Circuit of a new type of remote control switch is described here. This circuit functions with inaudible (ultrasonic) sound. Sound of frequency up to 20 kHz is audible to human beings. The sound of frequency above 20 kHz is called ultrasonic sound. The circuit described generates (transmits) ultrasonic sound of frequency between 40 and 50 kHz. As with any other remote control system this cirucit too comprises a mini transmitter and a receiver circuit. Transmitter generates ultrasonic sound and the receiver senses ultrasonic sound from the transmitter and switches on a relay. The ultrasonic transmitter uses a 555 based astable multivibrator. It oscillates at a frequency of 40-50 kHz. An ultrasonic transmitter transducer is used here to transmit ultrasonic sound very effectively. The transmitter is powered from a 9-volt PP3 single cell. The ultrasonic receiver circuit uses an ultrasonic receiver transducer to sense ultrasonic signals. It also uses a two-stage amplifier, a rectifier stage, and an operational amplifier in inverting mode. Output of op-amp is connected to a relay through a complimentary relay driver stage. A 9-volt battery eliminator can be used for receiver circuit, if required. Ultrasonic sensors (also known as transceivers when they both send and receive) work on a principle similar to radar or sonar which evaluate attributes of a target by interpreting the echoes from radio or sound waves respectively. Ultrasonic sensors generate high frequency sound waves and evaluate the echo which is received back by the sensor. Sensors calculate the time interval between sending the signal and receiving the echo to determine the distance to an object.Because they are not hard to understand and interfacing them is easy, ultrasonic sensors are commonly used in robotics. The sensor works in the following ways: A sonic pulse is emitted from the sensor, then when the pulse bounces off of an object, an echo is returned. The sensor is able to emit the pulse because of a transducer that converts between sonic, electrical and mechanical energies. There are two types of transducers commonly used. The first is called a piezo, and the second is an electrostatic transducer. Distance is calculated by measuring the time from which the pulse is sent to the time that the echo is returned.

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1.2 Literature Survey
The present invention relates to a switch module, and more particularly to a wireless switch module, which can be switch "On" and "Off" via a mechanical means or a wireless digital control signal. In the daily life, for controlling electrical apparatus or electronic devices on and off, a switch assembly is usually provided to be coupled with electrical apparatus and the electronic devices, so that a user can operate a switch button connected to the switch assembly to switch-control electrical apparatus and the electronic devices "On" and "Off". Due to that there are three problems existing in the prior arts, such as the switch assembly cannot meet the requirements of wireless control, the wireless switch assembly cannot spatially compatible to the existed frame and the covering board, and the wireless switch assembly is easier to be blind triggered, the primary objective of the present invention provides a wireless switch module, which can be switchcontrolled either via a mechanical means, or via a wireless digital control signal. Moreover, in spatial, the wireless switch module is compatible to the existed frame and the covering board, so as to directly replace the switch cell(s). The secondary objective of the present invention provides a wireless switch module comprising a micro control circuit, so as to receive and analyze a wireless digital control signal to accordingly switch-control the switch circuit. Another objective of the present invention provides a wireless switch module comprising a wireless signal transceiver. When a wireless digital control signal cannot be effectively received by a wireless module located in a remote end, the wireless digital control signal can be received and transmitted by other wireless switch modules, so as to indirectly transmit the wireless digital control signal to the wireless switch module located in the remote end. Means of the present invention for solving the problems as mentioned above provides a wireless switch module being fitted with a frame and a covering board, so as to form a wireless switch assembly. The wireless switch module comprises at least one switch cell and a control unit. The switch cell comprises a switch circuit, a switch button and a relay, and the control unit comprises a micro control circuit coupling with the relay. Within the wireless switch module, the switch button is applied to switch-control the switch circuit "On" and "Off"; furthermore, the micro control circuit is also applied to switch-control the switch circuit "On" and "Off" via the relay after receiving and analyzing a wireless digital control signal. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the micro control circuit further comprises a wireless signal transceiver. Comparing with the conventional switch assembly, the wireless switch modules as provided in the present invention can be switch-controlled both via the switch button(s) and the wireless digital control signal; therefore, the present invention can meet the requirement of wireless control. Comparing with the existed wireless switch assembly, the wireless switch modules as provided in the

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present invention can be directly connected to the existed frame and the covering board, and can be further electrically connected to a power source and at least one loading via at least one power-in wire and powerout wire. Therefore, both in spatial and electrical, the wireless switch module is compatible to the existed frame, covering board, power-in wire(s), power-out wire(s), so that the wireless switch module can directly replace the conventional switch cell(s). In the present invention, except for receiving the wireless digital control signal, it is still necessary for the wireless switch module to execute a digital analysis to the wireless digital control signal, and then switch-control the switch circuit "On" and "Off" in accordance with the analysis result. Thus, the wireless switch module of the present invention can effectively prevent from being blind triggered by external wireless interference signals. Nevertheless, in the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the micro control circuit further comprises a wireless signal transceiver. When a wireless digital control signal cannot be effectively received by a wireless module located in a remote end, the wireless digital control signal can be received and transmitted by other wireless switch modules, so as to indirectly transmit the wireless digital control signal to the wireless switch module located in the remote end. Therefore, it is obviously that the art of the present invention can control the wireless switch module located in the remote end via the indirectly transmission method.

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Ultrasonic switch Chapter-2 Objective of study


2.1 Components Details/Description 2.1.1 Resistor
A resistor is a two-terminal passive electronic component which implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. When a voltage V is applied across the terminals of a resistor, a current I will flow through the resistor in direct proportion to that voltage. The reciprocal of the constant of proportionality is known as the resistance R, since, with a given voltage V, a larger value of R further "resists" the flow of current I as given by Ohm's law:

Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome). Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analog devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits.

We used resistors of various values listed below1. Two resistors of 4.7k . 2. Two resistors of 220k .

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3. Two resistors of 10k . 4. Two resistors of 15k . 5. Single resistors of these values-18k,1k,100k,12k,33k,390k,470k. 6. Variable resistors of 10k,250k.

2.1.2 Capacitor
A capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a device for storing electric charge. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two conductors separated by a non-conductor. Capacitors used as parts of electrical systems, for example, consist of metal foils separated by a layer of insulating film. A capacitor is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors, a static electric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other plate. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass, in filter networks, for smoothing the output of power supplies, in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies and for many other purposes.

We have used following capacitors 680f,0.01uf,0.22uf,0.1uf,560nf. 5

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2.1.3 Potentiometer
A potentiometer (colloquially known as a "pot") is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used (one side and the wiper), it acts as a variable resistor or rheostat. Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on audio equipment. Potentiometers operated by a mechanism can be used as position transducers, for example, in a joystick. Potentiometers are rarely used to directly control significant power (more than a watt), since the power dissipated in the potentiometer would be comparable to the power in the controlled load (see infinite switch). Instead they are used to adjust the level of analog signals (e.g. volume controls on audio equipment), and as control inputs for electronic circuits. For example, a light dimmer uses a potentiometer to control the switching of a TRIAC and so indirectly control the brightness of lamps.

Symbols:-

Symbol used for Potentiometer In(Europe)

Symbol used for Potentiometer In(U.S.)

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2.1.4 555 IC as an astable multivibrator
The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation and oscillator applications. The IC was designed by Hans R. Camenzind in 1970 and brought to market in 1971 by Signetics (later acquired by Philips). The original name was the SE555 (metal can)/NE555 (plastic DIP) and the part was described as "The IC Time Machine".It has been claimed that the 555 gets its name from the three 5 k resistors used in typical early implementations, but Hans Camenzind has stated that the number was arbitrary. The part is still in wide use, thanks to its ease of use, low price and good stability. As of 2003, it is estimated that 1 billion units are manufactured every year. The 555 has three operating modes:

Monostable mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot". Applications include timers,

missing pulse detection, bouncefree switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) and so on.

Astable - free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp

flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation and so on.

Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the DIS pin is not connected

and no capacitor is used. Uses include bouncefree latched switches.

An astable multivibrator, often called a free-running multivibrator, is a rectangular-wave generating circuit. Unlike the monostable multivibrator, this circuit does not require any external trigger to change the state of the output, hence the name free-running. Before going to make the circuit, make sure your 555 IC is working. For that go through the article: How to test a 555 IC for working An astable multivibrator can be produced by adding resistors and a capacitor to the basic timer IC, as illustrated in figure. The timing during which the output is either high or low is determined by the externally connected two resistors and a capacitor. The details of the astable multivibrator circuit are given below.

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Pin diagram discription

Figure:-Pin Diagram

Pin 1 is grounded; pins 4 and 8 are shorted and then tied to supply +Vcc, output (VOUT is taken form pin 3; pin 2 and 6 are shorted and the connected to ground through capacitor C, pin 7 is connected to supply + VCC through a resistor RA; and between pin 6 and 7 a resistor RB is connected. At pin 5 either a bypass capacitor of 0.01 F is connected or modulation input is applied.

Astable Multivibrator Operation

Standard 555 Astable Circuit In astable mode, the 555 timer puts out a continuous stream of rectangular pulses having a specified frequency. Resistor R1 is connected between VCC and the discharge pin (pin 7) and another resistor (R2) is connected between the discharge pin (pin 7), and the trigger (pin 2) and threshold (pin 6) pins that share a common node. Hence the capacitor is charged through R1 and R2, and discharged only through R2, since pin 7 has low impedance to ground during output low intervals of the cycle, therefore discharging the capacitor.

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In the astable mode, the frequency of the pulse stream depends on the values of R1, R2 and C:

2.1.5 IC CA 3140
CA3140 has gate protected MOSFETs (PMOS) transistors in the input circuit to provide very high input impedance typically around 1.5T Ohms. The IC requires very low input current as low as 10pA to change the output status, high or low. The IC has very fast response and high speed of performance. The output stage of the IC uses bipolar transistors and includes built in protection against damage from load terminal short circuiting to either supply rails or to ground.

The use of PMOS FET in the input stage results in common mode input voltage capabilities down to 0.5 volts below the negative supply terminals. These operational amplifiers are internally phase compensated to achieve stable operation in unity gain follower operation, and additionally, have access terminal for a supplementary external capacitor if additional frequency roll-off is desired. Terminals are also provided for use in applications requiring input offset voltage Nulling.

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Pin connections
The CA3140 Series has the same 8-lead pin out

Figure:-Pin Diagram of CA3140

Pin1Offset Null Pin2 Inverting input INV Pin3 Non inverting input Non-INV Pin4 Ground- Negative supply Pin5 Offset Null Pin6 Output Pin7 Positive supply Pin8 Strobe

Operating Conditions
Supply voltage 36 volt maximum Input terminal current 1mA

2.1.6 Transistor
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. It is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be much more than the controlling (input) power, the 10 Department of E.C.E.

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transistor provides amplification of a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits The essential usefulness of a transistor comes from its ability to use a small signal applied between one pair of its terminals to control a much larger signal at another pair of terminals. This property is called gain. A transistor can control its output in proportion to the input signal; that is, it can act as an amplifier. Alternatively, the transistor can be used to turn current on or off in a circuit as an electrically controlled switch, where the amount of current is determined by other circuit elements.

SL00

S stands for slew and L stands for low frequency... and 100 is the gain of the transistor

SK100

BC548 Transistor
BC548 is general purpose silicon, NPN, bipolar junction transistor. It is used for amplification and switching purposes. The current gain may vary between 110 and 800. The maximum DC current gain is 800.Its equivalent transistors are 2N3904 and 2SC1815. These equivalent transistors however have different lead assignments. The variants of BC548 are 548A, 548B and 548C which vary in range of current gain and other

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characteristics.The transistor terminals require a fixed DC voltage to operate in the desired region of its characteristic curves. This is known as the biasing. For amplification applications, the transistor is biased such that it is partly on for all input conditions. The input signal at base is amplified and taken at the emitter. BC548 is used in common emitter configuration for amplifiers. The voltage divider is the commonly used biasing mode. For switching applications, transistor is biased so that it remains fully on if there is a signal at its base. In the absence of base signal, it gets completely off.

2.1.7 Diode 1N4148


The 1N4148 is a standard silicon switching diode. Its name follows the JEDEC nomenclature. The 1N4148 has a DO-35 glass package and is very useful at high frequencies with a reverse recovery time of no more than 4ns.

2.1.8 Relay
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long

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distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.

We have used 6v,200 relay in this ultrasonic switch.

2.2 Software details/description Diptrace


DipTrace is an advanced PCB design software application that consists of 4 modules: PCB Layout with high-class shape-based auto-router, Schematic Capture, Component and Pattern Editors that allow you to design your own component libraries. Besides being very simple to learn, this software has a very intuitive user interface and many innovative features. For instance, a schematic can be converted to a PCB with one mouse click.

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Chapter-3 Details of Technology


3.1 Ultrasonic Technology
This technology can be used for measuring: wind speed and direction (anemometer), fullness of a tank and speed through air or water. For measuring speed or direction a device uses multiple detectors and calculatesthe speed from the relative distances to particulates in the air or water. To measure the amount of liquid in a tank, the sensor measures the distance to the surface of the fluid. Systems typically use a transducer which generates sound waves in the ultrasonic range, above 18,000 hertz, by turning electrical energy into sound, then upon receiving the echo turn the sound waves into electrical energy which can be measured and displayed.The technology is limited by the shapes of surfaces and the density or consistency of the material. For example foam on the surface of a fluid in a tank could distort a reading.

Ultrasound
Ultrasound is cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing. Although this limit varies from person to person, it is approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz) in healthy, young adults and thus, 20 kHz serves as a useful lower limit in describing ultrasound. The production of ultrasound is used in many different fields typically to penetrate a medium and measure the reflection signature or supply focused energy. The reflection signature can reveal details about the inner structure of the medium, a property also used by animals such as bats for hunting. The most well known application of ultrasound is its use in sonography to produce pictures of fetuses in the human womb. There are a vast number of other applications as well.

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3.2 Wireless Technology:In telecommunications, wireless communication may be used to transfer information over short distances (a few meters as in television remote control) or long distances (thousands or millions of kilometers for radio communications). The term is often shortened to "wireless". It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers and or garage doors, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, satellite television and cordless telephones. Wireless operations permits services, such as long range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network terminals, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio frequency (RF), infrared light, laser light, visible light, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires. Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.

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Chapter-4 Problem Formulation and Methodology


4.1. Problem Formulation: To set the ultrasonic sensor. There is a big problem of sensing the ultrasonic signal from transmitter to receiver In the Ultrasonic switch problem is occurred that the wired circuitry that make circuit

bulky and something less compatible

Solutions: In ultrasonic switch to sense the signal we put the receiver infront of the transmitter. For the proper connection soldering of the components done individually.

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4.2 Block diagram with detail

Figure:-Block Diagram of Ultrasonic Switch

Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of the ultrasonic switch. The transmitter uses a 555 based astable multivibrator. It oscillates at a frequency of 40-50 KHz. An ultrasonic transmitter transducer is used here to transmit ultrasonic sound effectively. The transmitter runs on a 9V battery. The ultrasonic receiver circuit uses an ultrasonic receiver transducer to sense ultrasonic signals. It uses a two-stage amplifier, a rectifier stage, and an operational amplifier in inverting mode. Output of operational amplifier is connected to a relay through a complimentary relay driver stage. A 9V adapter can be used to power receiver circuit. When switch S1 of transmitter is pressed, it generates ultrasonic sound. Ultrasonic receiver transducer receives the sound and converts it to electrical variations of the same frequency. Transistors Q3 and Q4 amplify these signals. The amplified signals are then rectified and filtered. The filtered DC voltage is given to inverting pin of operational amplifier IC2. The non-inverting pin of IC2 is connected to a variable DC voltage through VR2 which determines the threshold value of ultrasonic signal received by the receiver for operation of relay RL1. The inverted output of IC2 is used to bias transistor Q5. When transistor Q5 conducts, it supplies base bias to transistor Q6. When transistor Q6 conducts, it energises the relay RL1. The relay can be used to control any electrical or electronic equipment. Frequency of ultrasonic sound gener-ated can be varied by adjusting VR1. Adjust it for maximum performance. Ultrasonic sounds are highly directional. So when you are operating the switch the ultrasonic transmitter transducer of transmitter should be placed towards ultrasonic receiver transducer of receiver circuit for proper functioning. The receiver is always kept in switched on position.

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4.3 Circuit diagram with details

Working
When switch S1 of transmitter is pressed, it generates ultrasonic sound. The sound is received by ultrasonic receiver transducer. It converts it to electrical variations of the same frequency. These signals are amplified by transistors T3 and T4. The amplified signals are then rectified and filtered. The filtered DC voltage is given to inverting pin of op-amp IC2. The non- inverting pin of IC2 is connected to a variable DC voltage via preset VR2 which determines the threshold value of ultrasonic signal received by receiver for operation of relay RL1. The inverted output of IC2 is used to bias transistor T5. When transistor T5 conducts, it supplies base bias to transistor T6. When transistor T6 conducts, it actuates the relay. The relay can be used to control any electrical or electronic equipment. Important hints: 1. Frequency of ultrasonic sound generated can be varied from 40 to 50 kHz range by adjusting VR1. Adjust it for maximum performance. 2. Ultrasonic sounds are highly directional. So when you are operating the switch the ultrasonic transmitter

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transducer of transmitter should be placed towards ultrasonic receiver transducer of receiver circuit for proper functioning. 3. Use a 9-volt PP3 battery for transmitter. The receiver can be powered from a battery eliminator and is always kept in switched on position. 4. For latch facility use a DPDT relay if you want to switch on and switch off the load. A flip-flop can be inserted between IC2 and relay. If you want only an ON-time delay use a 555 only at output of IC2. The relay will be energised for the required period determined by the timing components of 555 monostable multivibrator. 5. Ultrasonic waves are emitted by many natural sources. Therefore, sometimes, the circuit might get falsely triggered, espically when a flip-flop is used with the circuit, and there is no remedy for that.

4.4 Flow chart process


Ultrasonic Transmitter is based on a 4011 quad 2-input NAND gate. Two of the gates, IC1a and IC1b, are used as a conventional CMOS Astable circuit whose oscillation frequency is set by capacitor C1, resistors R6 and R7, plus preset VR2, which adjusts the frequency. Gates IC1c and IC1d buffer the outputs from IC1a and IC1b and drive the ultrasonic transmitter transducer, X1, in push-pull mode. In the Receiver circuit, ultrasonic echo signal is received by transducer X2. It is first amplified by the 2-stage amplifier based on transistors TR1 and TR2. The output from TR2 is rectified by diode D1 and smoothed by capacitor C4. The result is a voltage level at inverting terminal of IC2 which varies between 14V and 27V when X2 is not receiving ultrasound echoes, but falls to 12V when a strong enough echo from an object is detected. The rectified signal goes to op amp comparator IC2's inverting input, pin 2. The signal is compared with a reference voltage set by preset VR3, and applied to IC2's non-inverting input, pin 3. The output at IC2 pin 6 is low when there is no echo, but swings high when an obstacle ahead of the system is detected.

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4.5 Component list

Transmitter Parts: IC1 VR1 R1 R2 R3 R4, R5 C1 C2 D1, D2 T1 T2 S1 XMTR NE555 timer IC 10k variable resistor 4.7k resistor 18k potentiometer 1k resistor 220 ohm resistor 680 picofarad capacitor 0.01uf capacitor 1N4148 Diode SL100 NPN transistor SK100 PNP transistor SPST momentary contact switch Ultrasonic transmitter 40-50khz

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Receiver Parts RCVR RL1 IC2 VR2 R6 R7 R8, R12 R9 R10, R13 R11 R14 R15 C3 C4 C5 T3,T4 T5 T6 D3,D4,D5 Ultrasonic Receiver 4050khz 6volt 200ohm resistor CA3140 250k Variable Resistor 390k Resistor 470k Resistor 15k Resistor 12k 10k 4.7k 100k Resistor 33 ohm Resistor 0.22uf ceramic capacitor 0.1uf ceramic capacitor 560n ceramic capacitor BC548 NPN Transistor BC558 PNP Transistor SL100 NPN Transistor 1N4148 Diode

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Chapter-5 Simulation & Results


Step-I :- In the step first the power supply of 9volts giving the supply to the circuitry. The 9volts power supply is initially fed on the IC-555.

Step-II:- In the step second frequency of ultrasonic sound generated can be varied from 40 to 50 kHz
range by adjusting VR1. Adjust it for maximum performance.

Step-III:- In the step third the ultrasonic transmitter transducer of transmitter should be placed towards
ultrasonic receiver transducer of receiver circuit for proper functioning.

Step-IV:- For latch facility use a DPDT relay if you want to switch on and switch off the load. A flip-flop
can be inserted between IC2 and relay. If you want only an ON-time delay use a 555 only at output of IC2. The relay will be energised for the required period determined by the timing components of 555 monostable multivibrator. Finally the relay can operated by varying the potentiometer and putting the receiver infront of the transmitter.

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5.1 Layout

Figure:Layout of Transmitter

Figure: Layout of Receiver

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5.2 Project Flow

Figure:- Project Flow

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5.3 Actual Hardware Diagram

Figure: Hardware diagram of Ultrasonic switch

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Ultrasonic switch Chapter-6 Applications,Limitations & Advantages


6.1 Applications
An ultrasonic switch is a sensor that uses sound waves to detect an object. This is done through a technique using high frequency sound waves as the sensing medium. It can be used in either through beam or proximity configurations.The general purpose ultrasonic switch and controller provides non-contect level detection up to 24.6(7.5m) with 3 SPDT 60 VA 1A relays. EchoSwitch 2 features an LCD display with digital push button configuration. Each relay can be configured on a single set point alarm or latched on two set points for automatic fill or empty in simplex, duplex or triplex control modes with integral timer delay. The switch is well suited for a broad range of corrosive,waste and slurry type media.EchoSwitch 2 is broadly selected for atmosphere day tank,pump lift station and sump applications. It is used to control many electrical and electronics components. The output of relay is used in door automation.

6.2 Limitations
One of the drawbacks to ultrasonic sensors is that there's no way to tell the difference between small objects and large objects because the pulse that's emitted is cone shaped. Because of the shape, an echo will be returned by all objects the pulse comes into contact with. A simple fix to this problem is to use rotating sensors or multiple sensors.

6.3 Advantages
When used for sensing functions, the ultrasonic method has unique advantages over conventional sensors: Discrete distances to moving objects can be detected and measured. Less affected by target materials and surfaces, and not affected by color. Solid-state units have virtually unlimited, maintenance free life. Can detect small objects over long operating distances. Resistance to external disturbances such as vibration, infrared radiation, ambient noise, and EMI radiation.

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Ultrasonic switch Chapter-7 Future Scope & Conclusion


7.1 Future Scope
Compared to inductive position sensors or photoelectric sensors, ultrasonic sensors are used less often. However, there are quite a few applications where the use of ultrasound technology has great benefits. In addition to insensitivity to contamination, the decisive advantage is the principle of sonic time-of-flight measurement used in almost all ultrasonic sensors. Even binary sensors are based on a time-of-flight measurement, so a precise switching point and reliable distinction of several targets in the measurement field present no problem. Furthermore, ultrasound technology provides a long sensing range with a comparatively small sensor. A great advantage of ultrasonic sensors is distance measurement. Ultrasonic sensors are particularly wellsuited for filling height measurement. There are a large number of cylindrical and rectangular designs that are suitable for various installation conditions.

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7.2 Conclusion The battery powered ultrasonic level sensor, a non-contact type sensor, is suitable for corrosion prone, hazardous, and maintenance free applications. The devices available in the market all work on the same basic principle of the generation and receiving of acoustic waves, but are different in their designs to fit within specific industrial applications. When selecting an ultrasonic level detector, one needs to check the possible application, working voltage, and operating range.

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References
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultrasonicswitch Ultrasonics Basics (Banner Engineering) http://ultrasonicswitch.com/ultrasonicsensor.june 2010

Wireless Technologies.ultrasonic sensors.April 15 2008

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