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THAILAND Membranophone

The taphon (Thai: , pronounced >WDS R Q@) is a traditional drum of Thailand. It is barrel-shaped, with two heads, and is played by the hands and fingers of both hands. It is used in the classical Thai wind-and-percussion ensemble called piphat. It is considered a particularly sacred instrument in the Thai culture, and is generally kept in a higher place than other instruments.

Glong khaek (Thai: , pronounced >NO N N@, RTGS: klong khaek) is a type of doubleheaded barrel drum used in Thai music. 

The instrument's name comes from glong (meaning "drum") and khaek (meaning "Indian" or "Malay"). There are two types of glong khaek: glong khaek tua phu (which is considered to be male) (Thai: ) and glong khaek tua mia (female) (Thai: ). They are always played in a pair, usually by two players, although if two players are not available a single player may play both drums. The two drums fit their beats together inhocket, or

interlocking form.

Glong Khaek

This drum is shaped like a kind being used in the Puangmangkog set. It is always played with a Pipat ensemble. The Glong song-na is characteristically adorned with raw hides rope tying around its body. Songna means "two faces," and the drum has two heads that are played with the hands. It is used primarily in the piphat ensemble.

Glong Songna

Khlui is a bamboo recorder having seven blowing-out sound holes, of one and half octave. Khlui-u has the lowest pitches; Khlui pieng-o has the middle pitches; and Khlui lip has the highest pitches; but the specially high pitched one is the Khlui gruad or Khlui lip gruad. The Khlui is one of the musical instruments being used in a Mahori ensemble and String ensemble.


Pi is a read instrument with six out-blowing holes capable of a variating sounds to 22 pitches. The reed is made of a kind of palm leaf, called 'Bai tan'. It can imitate the human voice, and therefore, the player uses his tongue technique of playing to touch the reed, thus seeming to be talking' while blowing. There are many kinds of Pi, such as Pi nog, Pi nai, Pi klang, Pi jave, Pimon.


The khaen is a free-reed bamboo mouth-organ from Laos and Northeast Thailand, that can also occasionally be found in parts of Northern Vietnam, and Southern China. Each pipe contains a small brass or silver reed traditionally made by hammering a small coin on an elephant thighbone until it is paper thin and then cut to size. The pipes of the khaen are arranged in two rows and extend through both sides of the wind chamber.



The saw duang (Thai: , pronounced >V G @, RTGS: so duang) is a bowed string instrument used in Thai music. it has a higher pitch than a saw u. It has a hardwood soundbox covered on the playing end with python skin. It is held vertically and has two silk strings that are played with a bow. Like the saw u, the bow is between the strings so the player has to tilt the bow to switch strings.

Saw Duang

Saw-u has its sound chamber made of coconut shell. This fiddle has its bow laid down on the body between the two strings, one of which giving high pitch and the other low pitch, and being tuned in 5th perfect. The Saw-u has a sound chamber covered with normal cow skin, with a sound hole on the opposite side of the skin surfacing; being usually played in accompaniment of a Saw duang.


A plucking string instrument, which is approximately 20 cm. high and 140 cm. long, with its first two strings made of silk yarn and the last of brass. The player using his left hand for pitching the piece while striking the string by his right hand with an ivory plectrum tied to the index finger.

Jakae Idiophone
; Thai: , IPA: >W @; sometimes The ching (Khmer: romanized as chhing) are small bowl-shaped finger cymbals of thick and heavy bronze, with a broad rim commonly used in Cambodia and Thailand. They are made of an alloy (mixture of iron, copper, and gold) mixed with bronze. They measure about 2 inches (5 cm) in diameter and are joined together with a cord, which passes through a small hole at the apex of each one of them. Each cymbal of the pair is held in one hand and the two are struck together. The ching are the timekeepers of the ensemble.

Ranad-ek, this is a type of xylophone in high pitches which consists of 21-22 wooden bars strung together into a bridging set, being hooked on top of a long resonant box by both ends making an oblong curved shape that looks like a boat. The bars can be made either of bamboo or a kind of hard wood called 'Mai ching chan'. Ranad- ek is played as the leading instrument of an ensemble; and its playing method has been known of developing into very high degree of skill, The Ranad- ek is usually played in styles, ie, one style called 'Mai khaeng' (hard sticks); and other is 'Mai nuam' (soft sticks). All kinds of Ranad- ek are tuned to final pitch by the addition of a mixture of beeswax and lead shavings being attached at spots underneath each bar being so tuned.


Ranad-thume, a low pitched xylophone is having 18 bars in the set. Its shape looks like a Ranad- ek, but lower and wider. This type is usually played in accompaniment of a Ranad- ek.


INDONESIA Membranophone
Kendang (Javanese: Kendhang, Malay: Gendang, Tausug/Baj au Maranao: Gandang) is a two-headed drum used by peoples from Maritime Southeast Asia. Kendang is one of the primary instruments used in the Gamelan ensembles of Java, Bali and Terengganu, the Malay Kendang ensemble as well as variousKulintang ensembles in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and the Philippines. It is constructed in a variety of ways by different ethnic groups.


Tifa Musical Instrument is a traditional musical instrument of Papua and Maluku in Indonesia. Tifa music instrument shaped like a gendang. How to play the instrument with Tifa is beaten like a gendang. Tifa musical instrument made of wood. The center of the timber was perforated so that is shaped like a pipe. At one end of the timber was covered with reindeer skins that have been dried to produce a beautiful sound and good.

Kolintang or kulintang is a bronze and wooden percussion instrument native to eastern Indonesia and also The Philippines. In Indonesia it is particularly associated with Minahasa people of North Sulawesi, however it also popular in Maluku and Timor. The instrument called the kulintang (or its other derivative terms) consist of a row/set of 5 to 9 graduated pot gongs, horizontally laid upon a frame arranged in order of pitch with the lowest gong found on the players left.[15] The gongs are laid in the instrument face side up atop two cords/strings running parallel to the entire length of the frame, with bamboo/wooden sticks/bars resting perpendicular across the frame creating an entire kulintang set called a pasangan.


A suling or Seruling is an Indonesian bamboo ring flute. It is used in gamelan ensembles. Sulings are made mainly of 'tamiang' bamboo (Schizostachyum blumei, Nees), a long tube bamboo with a very thin surface. The head of suling, near a small hole, is circled with a thin band made of rattan or rotan to produce air vibration.


The Sroneng (Saronen) is a six-hole double reed wind instrument that plays the melody in the Mandura Ensemble. It produces a sharp, loud, and shrill sound.


This tube-like instrument gradually broadens towards the lower end. It usually has between six and nine holes. It employs two sets of double reeds, making it a quadruple reed woodwind. By controlling the breath, various tunes can be played on it.

Serunai Chordophone
Kacapi is a zither-like Sundanese musical instrument played as the main accompanying instrument in the Tembang Sunda or Mamaos Cianjuran, kacapi suling (tembang Sunda without vocal accompaniment) genre (called kecapi seruling in Indonesian), pantun stories recitation or an additional instrument in Gamelan Degung performance. Word kacapi in Sundanese also refers to santol tree, from which initially the wood is believed to be used for building the zither instrument.

Rebab is a two-stringed fiddle. This instrument are found in many Muslim countries. So, it is generally being considered as an foreign instruments in Indonesian gamelan. Rebab has an almost heart-shaped body made of wood. The body is covered with a thin layer of skin taken from the intestine or bladder of a buffalo. The two strings are usually made of copper. In fact, what appear to be two strings is actually a single long copper string wound around the bottom of the stick and ending in two pegs at the upper part of the stick. These two strings pass over a wide wooden bridge. Unlike other Asian fiddle, the two tuning pegs of Rebab are exaggeratedly long. These two long tuning pegs will break easily, if they are not gripped closer to the neck of the instrument. During playing, the player's palm, which hold the bow, is facing upwards. The player's third and fourth fingers should pull the hair of the bow, to create some tension.

Sasando is a harp-like traditional music string instrument native of Rote island of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The name sasando derived from Rote dialect sasandu means "vibrating" or "sounded instrument". It is believed that sasando already known to Rote people since 7th century. The main part of sasando is a bamboo tube that served as the frame of the instrument. Surrounded the tube is several wooden pieces served as wedges where the strings are stretched from the top to the bottom. The wedges function is to hold the strings higher than the tube surface and also to produce various length of strings to create different musical notations. The stringed bamboo tube is surrounded by a bag-like fan of dried lontar or palmyra leafs (Borassus flabellifer), functioned as the resonator of the instrument.[1] Sasando is played with both hands reaching into the stings on bamboo tube through lontar opening on the

front, and the player's fingers plucked the strings in the fashion similar to playing harp or kacapi.

Sasandro Idiophone
The gong ageng is (Kromo Javanese meaning large gong, ngoko is gong gedhe). It is the largest of the bronze gongs in [citation needed] the Javanese and Balinese gamelan orchestra . Unlike the more famous Chinese or Turkish gongs, Indonesian gongs have fixed, focused pitch, and are dissimilar to the familiar crash cymbal sound. It is circular, with a conical, tapering base of diameter smaller than gong face, with a protruding polished boss where it is struck by a padded mallet. Gongs with diameter as large as 135 centimeters (54 inches) have been created in the past, but gongs larger than about 80 centimeters (32 inches) are more common especially to suit the budget of educational institutions. The gong ageng is considered the most important instrument in a gamelan ensemble: the soul or spirit of the gamelan is said to live in it.

Gong Ageng
Angklung is a musical instrument made out of two bamboo tubes attached to a bamboo frame. The tubes are carved so that they have a resonant pitch when struck. The two tubes are tuned to octaves. The base of the frame is held with one hand while the other hand shakes the instrument rapidly from side to side. This causes a rapidly repeating note to sound. Thus each of three or more angklung performers in an ensemble will play just one note and together complete melodies are produced. Angklung is popular throughout Southeast Asia, but originated from Indonesia and it has been used and played by the Sundanese since the ancient times.

The kenong is one of the instruments used in the Indonesian gamelan. It is technically a kind of gong, but is placed on its side and is roughly as tall as it is wide. It thus is similar to the bonang,kempyang and ketuk, which are also cradled gongs. Kenongs are generally much larger than any of those, however. Its pitch is actually rather high considering its size; its sound stands out however because of its unique timbre. They are usually played with similar padded sticks to the bonang, except larger. The kenong is sometimes played by the same player as the kempyang and ketuk. The kenong usually has a specific part in the colotomic structure of the gamelan, marking off parts of a structure smaller than a gongan (the space between each strike of the gong). The contents of each part between strikes of a kenong is called a nongan. In a fast, short structure these can only last a second or so; in a longer gendhing, particularly in a slow irama, they can last several minutes. There are usually two or four nongans in a gongan.