INTRODUCTION
Newton’s laws and axioms devised in 1600’s. They cannot be proved arithmetically. No experimental evidence up till now has been observed to violate them. These are three laws:
Newton’s First Law: A body at rest tends to stay at rest, and a body in motion tends to stay in uniform motion (direction & magnitude of the velocity not changing) unless a net nonzero force act on it. Newton’s first law is expressed as mathematically;
_{∑} F = 0
v
_{∑} M = 0
Velocities do not necessarily have to be zero. A vector constant means that both its magnitude
and direction are constant. If the direction of the velocity of translating body does not change
it moves on a straight line. If angular velocity is constant, whatever its magnitude, sense of
rotation i.e. clockwise or counterclockwise does not change.
Newton’s Second Law: When a net, nonzero force acts on a body, the body accelerates in
proportion to and in direction of the acting force.
∑
∑
v
F
v
M
∝
∝
v
a
v
α
⇒
⇒
∑
v
F
v
a
= m
∑
v
M
= I
v
α
Where
m is an inertial (related with body on existence of) property of the moving body. It is
called “mass” and defined as the “amount of matter” in a body. Definition of the mass in
terms of dynamics is “resistance of a body against translation”
I is also inertial property of the moving body. It is called “mass moment of inertia”
and defined as the “resistance of a body against rotation”. It is function of a mass &
dimensions of the body and is a relative indication of the distance of the mass particles from
the axis of indication.
Newton’s second law describes the motion of particles, but particles are hypothetical, non realistic. Realistic bodies have finite dimensions. Euler’s law describes the motion of rigid bodies of finite dimensions, which can both rotate and translate, these are more realistic.
Newton’s Third Law: Every force has a reaction; equal in magnitude, collinear, and opposite in direction to the original force.
In determination of the dynamic behavior of a body or system of bodies, we use Newton Euler law. Mass and mass moment of inertia can be easily measured, yet in most cases they are constant. There are two variables; force and acceleration. So, two types of problem can come up:
i. Forward Dynamics Problem: Accelerations are given, forces are required. Solution is simply multiplying mass with acceleration. This is solved with algebraic equation and hence easy. ii. Inverse Dynamics Problem: Forces are given, accelerations are asked. To find the acceleration, we pre multiply both sides of the motion equation by the inverse of mass. In a simple equation; inverse of mass is simply, the reciprocal of mass and calculation is a simple division. However, in a multi degree of freedom system, we have on equation for each freedom. So, we have a set of equations, mass expressions become a square matrix. Then, to find the accelerations we have to find the inverse of it and premultiply both sides of the equations with it. At the end of dynamic analysis, we get accelerations, which are still not too much meaningful. We generally need velocities and positions. Accelerations must be integrated twice to obtain positions. Integration is a difficult operation, often impossible. So, we generally do numerical integration. Inverse dynamics problem is difficult.
STATIC FORCE ANALYSIS
Subject matter of ME 302 is to apply Newton’s laws to multibody, multi degree of freedom mechanical systems (mechanisms) to understand their mechanical behavior. We start with the simple problem where the bodies accelerations are zero. In most machines, accelerations are negligible small. Then all the forces and moments will add to zero. This
is the static condition. Every subcomponent of a static system is also static. So, If a mechanism is static, each of its links are also static. That means we can examine each link by one and apply the law of statics to them. Big problem of the whole mechanism is now broken into several simpler problems. Each body with all the acting forces is called a “free body”. Pictorial representation of a free body is called the free body diagram.
Mechanisms are under the effect of two different forces:
i. 
External forces are generated by effects external to the mechanism, like actuation forces from a motor or actuator. Forces exerted by the mechanism on the external machinery or material doing functional and useful task. Reactions of the external forces are outside our system boundary. 
ii. 
Constraint forces “constraint” means “limitation of freedom”, in our case, limitation of free motion. These forces are applied onto each link to prevent their free motion. Free motion in plane is of three degrees. Translation in x and y directions and rotation about zaxis. Constraint forces are applied through the joints and they act in proper direction and at proper magnitude to limit the motion to the one expected from the mechanism. Reactions of constraint forces are inside the system boundary. 
Forces are vector and have magnitudes and directions.
Fz
y
_{v}
F
= F
x
v
i
+ F
y
v
j
+ F
z
v
k
A force generates a moment (or torque) about a point which is not in its line of action
moment is the turning effect of a force.
Point of application
line of application
v
M
A =
v
r
v
F
x
be
found by right hand rule. İt is
perpendicular to the plane
Moment
direction
can
v
formed by r ^{v} and F .
JOINT TYPES AND CONSTRAINT FORCES
Constraint forces are exerted by the joints and depend on the shape and construction of the joints. A joint cannot transfer force and motion in direction of its Degrees of Freedom. In this sense, freedom is a free motion.
i. Revolute joint:
It has one degree of freedom, which is in rotation
about zaxis. It cannot transfer force or torque or angular motion about zaxis, but it transmits forces and torques and related motions in all the other remaining directions. These are; Forces in x, y and z directions, Torques about x and yaxis.
In case of two dimensions, a revolute joint transmits forces in x and y directions.
It has one degree of freedom, which is a translation along z axis. It cannot transmit a force in z axis, but it can transmit forces in x and y directions and moments x, y, and z axis.
In case of two dimensions, a prismatic joint in a planar mechanism can transmit a force only in y direction, i.e., perpendicular to the sliding axis.
iii. Cylindrical Joint:
It has two degree of freedom; a translation along and
rotation about the same axis, called the cylindrical axis. So, no torque transmission about zaxis, no force transmission along zaxis is possible. In all other directions, there can be forces and moments
transmitted, which are forces in x and yaxis and moments about y and zaxis.
This joint cannot be used in a planar mechanism.
iv.
Screw joint:
There are two apparent motions, which are translation
along and rotation about zaxis, are not independent from each other. Therefore degree of freedom is only one. This is a rotation about zaxis. It cannot take moments about zaxis. It can transmits forces in x, y, z
axis and moments about x and yaxis.
This joint is not used in planar mechanism.
v. Planar pair:
It has three degree of freedom,
translation along x and z directions and a rotation about yaxis. There are no forces and a torque transmission in these directions. In all other directions there
can be force and moment transmitted, which are force in yaxis and moments x and zaxis.
z
This joint is not used in planar mechanisms.
vi. Spherical joint:
It has three rotational degrees of freedom, so it cannot transmit any
moments. It can transmit forces in all directions.
METHOD OF SOLVING STATIC FORCE PROBLEMS
1) Separate the mechanism into its links, considering each a free body with all the acting
2)
∑
external and constraint forces on it.
Apply the rules of statics each free body which are
v
F
=
0
and
∑
v
M
= 0
Solution of vector equations can be by arithmetical and or graphical.
Graphical Approach: We draw straight lines to represent vectors which are in proper directions and lengths proportional to the magnitudes of the vectors and in an articulated manner as depicted in Figure. Vectors form a closed polygon called a “vector loop”
Arithmetical approach: The simplest arithmetical approach is to separate vector equation into components.
F
F
These two component equations are not no longer vector equations. They are scalar and can
be simultanously solved to find max two of the following;
F ,
1
F
2
,
F
3
,
θ ,
1
θ
2
, and
θ
3
.
A similar analysis is requierd for the torques. Torques are calculated with respect to a certain point. The selection of the reference point is immaterial. If the moments acting on an object are in static equilibrium about a point, they are in static equilibrium about any other point also.
Simple cases:
i. If there are only two forces acting on a body and no moments, it is called a “ two force
member”. To satisfy sum of forces eqaual to zero, the two forces should be equal and
∑
v
F
1
F
v v
+ F
= 0;⇒
v
F
1
= −
v
F
2
2
= 0
To satisfy sum of torque is equal to zero distance between the forces must be zero. This
means that the forces are collinear.
ii. Three member is a component on which only three forces acts and no moments. To
, the vectors must form a closed polygon and coplanar. To satisfy
satisfy
∑ F
v
= 0
_{∑} M = 0,
v
the lines of application of all the three forces intersects at one single point.
This point is called the point of concurrency.
Example: An external force of 10 N is acting horizontally on the rocker link, 30 mm from
the point D. Find the amount of torque to be applied to the crank AB to keep the
mechanism in static equilibrium.
a _{1} = 80 mm a _{2} = 30 mm a _{3} = 70 mm a _{4} = 50 mm
Solution: First step is a position analysis to find the angles of the crank CD and the coupler
links. The simplest way is to draw the mechanism to scale and measure the required angles by
a protractor directly from the figure. Or we can take a purely arithmetical approach.
An implicit relation between the position variables θ and φ, Freudenstein’s equation can be
written in the form:
where
A
tan
2
φ
2
+
B
tan
φ
2
+
C = 0
= cosθ (1− K ) + K − K
A
B = −2sinθ
C = − cosθ (1 + K
2
2
3
) + K
3
1
+ K
K
K
1
2
=
=
a
1
a
a
2
1
a
4
1
K
3
=
a
2
1
+
a
2
2
−
a
2
3
+
a
2
4
2a a
2
4
Substituting the link lengths a _{1} , a _{2} , a _{3} , a _{4} and angle θ into above equations:
K
1
=
80
30
= 2.67
K
K
2
3
=
=
80
= 1.60
50
6400
+
900
−
4900
+
2500
2 * 30 * 50
= 1.66
A
B = −2sin 60 = −1.73
C = − cos 60(1 + 1.60) + 1.66 + 2.67 = 3.02
= cos 60(1 −1.60) + 1.66 − 2.67 = −1.30
− 1.30 * tan ^{2}
φ
2
− 1.73* tan
φ
2
+
3.02
=
0
Solving this quadratic equation for φ yiels:
φ
1
= 89.86
o
and φ
2
= − 133.52
o
These two angles refer to two different configurations of the fourbar mechanism as
depicted in figure 1.
Figure 1
Now, to find the angle β:
X
Y
B
B
=
30 * cos 60
=
15,00
mm
=
30 * sin 60
=
25,98
mm
X
Y
C
C
=
80
+
50 * cos89,86
=
50sin 89,86
=
49,90
=
80,75
mm
mm
X
Y
C
C
−
X
−
X
B
B
=
80,75
−
15,00
=
49,90
−
25,98
β
=
tan
− 1
23,92
65,75
= 20,06
o
=
=
65,75
mm
23,92
mm
Solution of static force problems can be by arithmetical or graphical.
Arithmetical method:
a) Separate the mechanism into free bodies of links,
b) Put all the acting and interacting forces,
c) Then, apply the law of statics for each free body.
Static equations for link 4;
∑
∑
∑
F
x
F
y
M
= 0;
F
Dx
+
F
Cx
−10 = 0 ⇒
=
0; F
Dy
+
F
Cy
0
= ⇒
F
Dy
D
=
0;10 * 30 * sin 89,86 −
F
Dx
+
F
Cx
= 10
= −
F
Cy
F
Cx
* 50 * sin 89,86 +
F
Cy
49 ,99 *
F
Cx
− 0,12 *
F
Cy
= 299 ,99
Static equations for link 3;
∑
∑
∑
F
x
F
Y
M
=
0;F
Bx
−
F
Cx
0
= ⇒
F
Bx
=
F
Cx
B
=
0;F
By
−
F
Cy
0
= ⇒
F
By
=
F
Cy
= 0;
F
Cx
* 70 * sin 20,06 −
F
Cy
* 70 * cos 20,06 = 0
24,01*
F
Cx
− 60,75 *
F
Cy
= 0
Static equations for link 2;
∑
F 0;F
x
=
Ax
−
F
Bx
0
= ⇒
F
Ax
=
F
Bx
(1) 

(2) 

* 50 * cos89,856 = 0 
(3) 
∑
_{∑} M
F
y
=
0; F
Ay
−
F
By
0
= ⇒
F
Ay
=
F
By
B
=
0;
− F
By
15,00 *
F
By
* 30 * cos 60,00
+ F
Bx
− 25,98 *
F
Bx
=
T
* 30 * sin 60,00
= T
We have 9 equations to solve simultaneously; F _{A}_{x} , F _{A}_{y} , F _{B}_{x} , F _{B}_{y} , F _{C}_{x} , F _{C}_{y} , F _{D}_{x} , F _{D}_{y} , and T.
From equation 3 and 6 :
49,99 * F 
Cx − 0,12 * 
F Cy 
= 
299,99 

+ 
( 
− 
2,082) * ( 24,01* F Cx 
− 
60,75 * 
F 
Cy 
= 
0) 
126,36 * 
F 
Cy 
= 
299,99 
F
Cy
299,99
=
126,36
= 2,37
N
then, using the equation 6 for F _{C}_{x} :
F
Cx
143,98
=
24,01
= 5,99
N
From equations 2, 5, 8 :
F
Cy
= −
F
Dy
=
F
By
=
F
Ay
= 2,37
N
From equations 1, 4, 7 :
F
Bx
=
F
Cx
=
F
Ax
= 10 −
F
Dx
= 5,99
N
and using the last equation 9:
T
= 15,00 *
F
By
− 25,98 *
F
Bx
= 15,00 * 2,37 − 25,98 * 5,99 = −120,07
Graphical method:
1. Draw the mechanism in scale,
N mm
.
ANS.
2. Measure the unknown quantities directly from the scaled drawing,
3. Separate the mechanism into free bodies of links (scaled drawing),
4. State whether the link is two force  three force member and then put all the acting and
interacting forces,
5. Apply the law of statics for each free body.
Figure 1 is given in 1:1 scale. The unknown quantities φ and β can be directly measured from
this figure by a protractor. They become:
φ ≈ 89,5
Link 2 has 2 forces & 1 torque.
o
and β = 20
o
Link 3 is a two force member, forces at the joints B & C are equal but opposite direction.
Link 4 is a three force member, three forces form a closed vector polygon and intersect at one
point.
F _{1}_{4} & F _{3}_{4} are measured directly from the scaled force polygon.
10 N stands for 50 mm
F _{1}_{4}
F _{3}_{4}
T 12
stands for 22.5 mm F
14
10 * 22.5
=
50
=
4.5 N
10 * 32.5
^{=}
50
126.75 N
stands for 32.5 mm F
34
=
d
1
* F
32
=
19.5 * 6.5
=
^{=}
6.5 N
Example: In the figure a Stephenson mechanism is shown with appropriate dimensions. A
CCW torque of 1 Nm is acting externally on crank FG. Calculate the torque required on
crank AB to keep the mechanism in static equilibrium.
ˆ
BHE = 90
o
Solution:
Link 5 is two force member, forces at E and F are equal magnitude and opposite direction.
Link 6 is two force and one torque member.
Link 4 is two force member, forces at C and D are equal magnitude and opposite direction.
Link 3 is three force member. Line of application, direction and magnitude of the force at E is
known. Line of application of the force at C is also known. Intersecting these already known
two lines, concurrent point can be easily found. Line of application of force at B should pass
from B and this concurrency point. Directions and magnitudes of the force at B and force at C
can be found from the vector loop scaled graph.
Link 2 is the two force and one moment member.
T =
d
*
F
B
=
11,5
1000
*19
=
0,2185
N m CW
.
ANS
Example: Onto link 6 of the mechanism given, a 100 N vertical force acting. Calculate
the amount of the torque required on the crank AB to keep the mechanism in static
equilibrium, using the graphical approach.
E
AB = 2 cm. BC = 3 cm.
AD = 6 cm. DE = 5 cm. AF = 8 cm
θ = 50
o
Solution:
Link 6 is three force member.
From the scaled vector polygon _{N} and
N
F
E
= 32 N
= 105 N
F
E
become:
Link 5 is two force member, forces at E and D are equal magnitude and opposite direction.
F
D
=
F
E
= 105 N
Link 4 is two force member.
Link 3 is three force member. Line of application, direction and magnitude of the force at D is
known. Line of application of the force at C is also known. Intersecting these already known
two lines, concurrent point can be easily found. Line of application of force at B should pass
from B and this concurrency point. Directions and magnitudes of the force at B and force at C
can be found from the vector loop scaled graph.
From force polygon
F
C
= 105 N
and
F
B
= 142 N
Link 2 is the two force and one moment member.
T =
d
*
F
B
=
16
1000
*142
=
2,272
N m CW
.
ANS
A
FB
FD
FA
FE=105 N
N=32 N
FC=240 N
FE=105 N
FB=142 N
100 N
Example: Onto point C of the Peucellier’s inversor mechanism shown in the figure, a
force of 100 N is acting vertically downward. Calculate the amount of torque required on
link EF to keep the mechanism in static equilibrium.
AB 
= 10 cm. 
AD 
= 10 cm. 
AF 
= 4 cm. 
FE = 4 cm.
EB 
= 4 cm 
BC 
= 4 cm. 
ED 
= 4 cm. 
CD 
= 4 cm 
θ = 50
o
Solution:
Link 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 are two force member.
Joint pin at B, E, D, and C are three force member.
Consider joint pin at C, which is good starting point for static force analysis.
From vector loop diagram F _{B}_{C} and F _{C}_{D} become:
F
BC
F
CD
= 35 N
∠186
o
= 109 N ∠71,5
o
Next, consider joint pin at D that is three force member.
From vector loop diagram F _{A}_{D} and F _{E}_{D} become:
F
AD
F ED
= 287 N
∠26
o
= 223 N ∠186
o
Next, consider joint pin at B that is three force member.
From vector loop diagram F _{A}_{B} and F _{E}_{B} become:
F
AB
F EB
= 92 N
∠231
= 72 N ∠71,5
o
o
Now, draw the free body diagrams of the links.
From the free body diagram of Link 2, torque T becomes:
T
ANS
=
d
1
*
F
BE
−
d
2
*
F
ED
=
13
1000
* 66
−
40
1000
* 206
= −
7,382
N m CCW
.
Example: An external torque of 100 Nm ia acting on the crank EF of the mechanism
shown in the figure in CCW direction. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the
external torque required on crank AB to keep the system in static equilibrium.
Link 6 is two force and one torque member.
Link 5, 4, and 3 are two force member. Joint pin at C is three force member.
In this example we are beginning with link 5. Since link 5 is two force member, this requires
that F _{6}_{5} and F _{C}_{5} have equal magnitudes and opposite directions. We can now select the link 6
from which the force analysis can be started. Then, the force of F _{5}_{6} can be calculated as:
v
F
56
v
F
65
T 100
=
=
d 0.059
= −
v
F
56
=
v
F
C5
=
1695
N
= −
v
F
5C
∠
354
o
Link 3 and 4 are two force member, so line of applications of forces acting on these links are
known. Then , we can analyze the joint pin at C that is three force member.
C F5C
Link 3 and 4 are two force member, so line of applications of forces acting on these links are
known. Then , we can analyze the joint pin at C that is three force member.
From the vector loop unknown
forces become:
v
F
v
F
3C
4C
= 1660 N
= 1100 N
∠31,5
∠284
o
o
From the free body diagram of Link 2, torque T becomes:
v 30
T =
d
*
F
32
=
1000
*1660
=
49,8 N.m CW
ANS
Example: Onto the slider at E of the mechanism shown in the figure, a force of 100 N is applied. Calculate the amount of the torque required on AB link. Assume that mechanism is on the horizontal plane and there is no friction between the mating surfaces. Freebody diagram scale: 10 cm stands for 1 m.
T
Example: Find the magnitude and
direction of the moment must be
applied to link 2 to drive the linkage
against 100 N force at the mid point
of the link 3. And also determine the
forces acting on the bearings at A, B,
C and D. Use graphical approach.
AB=4 cm, DC=7 cm, AD=5cm, AB
// CD
Solution:Link 4 is two force member
Link 3 is three force member .
Freebody diagram of these links are
shown below.
B
A
100 N
E
FC
FC
FB
B
FB
3
C
T=?
Line of applications intersect at infinity
D
FA
FD
From the freebody diagram of Link 3, since the forces intersects at ± ∞ :
F Fc
B =
F F
A
=
D
= 100
=
F
B
/
=
2 = 50
F
N
N
C
= 50
and
From the free body diagram of Link 2, torque T becomes:
v
T
= d * F
B
= 0 * 50 = 0
ANS
Example: In the figure Robert’s fourbar approximate straight line mechanism is shown in
scale. A 100 Nm CCW torque is applied onto CD crank. Complete the freebody diagram
showing all forces acting onto the links. Calculate the torque required on crank AB to keep
the mechanism at the given state. Use graphical method.
AB = BE = CE = DC = BC = 5 cm
AD = 10 cm
Link 3 is two force member
FB=FA
B
FB
B
C FC=FB
From the freebody diagram 4’th link;
100
=
F
C
d
1
⇒
F
C
=
100
0 0432
.
=
2314 8
.
N
From the freebody diagram 2’th link;
T
=
F
B
d
2
⇒
T
=
2314 8
.
*
0 0432
.
=
100
Nm CW
ANS.
Example: Find the magnitude
and direction of the moment
must be applied to link 2 to
drive the linkage against a 100
N force at the point E of the
link 4 as shown. Use graphical
approach.
AB=DE=2.5 cm, DC=4 cm,
BC=5.7cm
Solution:
Link 4 is three force member,
Link 3 is two force member,
FD=154.8 N
100 N
T
=
d *
F
B
=
24 6
.
*
1000
74 8
.
=
1 84
.
Nm CCW
ANSWER
Example: Find the magnitude and direction of the moment must be applied to link 2 to drive the linkage against 100 N force at the mid point of the link 3. Use graphical approach.
AB=4 cm, DC=7 cm, AD=5cm, AB // CD
Solution:
Link 4 is two force member Link 3 is three force member . Freebody diagram of these links are shown below.
From the vector loop unknown forces become:
v
F
B
v
F
C
= 58 .4 N
= 58 .4 N
∠153
∠90
o
o
From the free body diagram of Link 2, torque T becomes:
v 35 5
T =
1000
d *
^{F}
.
B
=
*
58 4
.
=
2 073
.
N .m CCW
ANS
FC=58,4 N
Example: Figure shows the sixbar linkage used to obtain a double beatup on a loom. Onto
point H of the mechanism a horizontal force of 100 N is acting rightwards. Calculate the
external motor torque on crank AC to keep the mechanism in static equilibrium.
AB=3 cm, AC=2.5 cm, CD=4.5 cm BD=7 cm, FH=10 cm, DE=2 cm EF=6 cm, =30deg.
Link 6 is three force member
Link 5 is two force member
Link 4 is two force member
Link 3 is two force member
Joint at D is three force member.
100 N
100 N
From the force polygon of the 6’th link, F
_{E}
= 138 N
1 (30%) Find the magnitude and direction of the moment must be applied to link 2 to drive the linkage against a 100 N force at the point D of the link 4 as shown. Use graphical approach. Mechanism is given is scale.
C
Link 2 is two force + one torque member. Link 3 is two force member, Link 4 is two force and one torque member.
At point D there are two forces, the resultant of these force (line of application of this force should be parallel to line of application of F force) can be found easly
by
vector
polygon, as shown below . Then;
C
drawing
scaled
F resul tan t
=
F
C
=
F
B
= 116
N
x
FD
100 N
1 (20%) Complete the freebody diagrams of the links given below. Find the magnitude and direction of the moment must be applied to link 2 to drive the linkage against a 100 N force at the point F of the link 4 as shown. Use graphical approach. Mechanism is given in scale.
T
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