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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Gratitude is something of which none of us can give too much.

For on the smiles, the thanks we give, our little gesture of appreciation, our neighbours build up their philosophy of life (A.J. Cronin)

First and foremost, alhamdulillah and praise be to Allah, The Almighty, thank you for giving me the strength and wisdom to complete this Academic Exercise. I would also like to record my thanks and appreciation to my supervisor, Puan Nurshamshida Bt Md Shamsudin, for all the help and guidance in ensuring this Academic Exercise is completed as required by the Faculty. Thank you again for your precious and valuable advices. I would like to record too, my thanks and strongest admiration to my mother, Asmah, my father, Saharuddin and my friend, Hasnul Hady for being emotionally and financially supportive, not only in helping me completing this AE, but also throughout my four years of studying. Last but not least, too all my family, friends and acquaintances, who are involved directly and indirectly in helping me to complete this study, especially to my fellow juniors who took time to respond to my questionnaires. I give all of you my deepest gratitude.


Chemical bond is one of the most important topics that undergraduate chemistry should learn. The purpose of this study is to identify the students perception on the usage of CD-ROM in learning chemical bonds. This is because most of the students have difficulties in understanding the theory and concepts involved in the topic of chemical bonds. Therefore they need more interactive and interesting method in order to improve their understanding in this topic. In the CD-ROM it was included graphical images, animations and video visualizations of the formation of ionic and covalent bond. 40 forms four science stream students were selected as the sample for this research. The questionnaire was distributed to the sample in order to identify their perception on the usage of CD-ROM in learning chemical bond. The findings of this study revealed that students find difficulties to understand the topic of chemical bonds and students agree by using CD-ROM helped them in learning chemical bonds. These findings will enable various parties such as The Ministry of Education, other teaching training institutions, and teachers to better understand the current trend of the students perception on the topic of chemical bonds.



Ikatan kimia merupakan salah satu topik penting yang harus dipelajari oleh pelajar kimia. Tujuan kajian ini ialah untuk mengenal pasti pandangan pelajar terhadap penggunaan CD-ROM dalam pembelajaran ikatan kimia. Ini kerana terdapat ramai pelajar mengalami kesukaran untuk memahami teori dan konsep yang terdapat didalam topik ikatan kimia. Oleh sebab itu, pelajar memerlukan cara yang lebih interaktif dan menarik untuk memperbaiki pemahaman mereka. Seramai 40 orang pelajar aliran sains telah dipilih sebagai sampel kajian ini. Borang kaji selidik telah diedarkan kepada para pelajar bagi mengenal pasti pandangan pelajar terhadap penggunaan CD-ROM dalam pembelajaran ikatan kimia. Hasil kajian menunjukkan pelajar menghadapi kesukaran dalam memahami topik ikatan kimia dan pelajar bersetuju terhadap penggunaan CDROM dapat membantu pelajar dalam pembelajaran ikatan kimia. Penyelidikan ini secara tidak langsung akan memberi manafaat kepada banyak pihak dalam usaha untuk lebih memahami pandangan pelajar terhadap topik ikatan kimia sekaligus mengenal pasti langkah-langkah penyelesaiannya.




Chapter 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Introduction Background of study Problem statement Research Objective and Research Questions 1.3.1 Aim/ Purpose 1.3.2 Research Objectives 1.3.3 Research Questions 1.4 1.5 1.6 Significance of the Study Limitations of the Study Definition of Terms 1-2 2-4 4-5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8

1.7 Conclusion


Chapter 2


LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 2.1 Introduction Secondary School Education in Malaysia 2.1.1 Chemistry Syllabus for form four students in Malaysia 2.2 Chemical Bonds 2.2.1 Definition of Chemical Bonds 2.2.2 Theory of Chemical Bonds 2.2.3 The difficulties in Learning Chemical Bonds 2.3 Learning 2.3.1 Blended e- Learning Theory 2.3.2 ICT as Learning Tools 2.4 Previous Research on the Advantages of CD-ROM in Learning Chemical Bonds 2.4.1 Stieff et. al, 2003 2.4.2 Harword, 1997 2.4.3 Ardac and Akaygun, 2004 2.4.4 Kamalika, 2006 2.4.5 James et. al, 2000 2.4.6 Ozmen et. al, 2009 21 22 22 23 24 25 9 10 11 12 12 13 14-17 18 18-19 19-20 20

2.4.7 Ozmen et. al, 2009 2.4.8 Brooks et. al,1996 2.4.9 Wu, 2001 2.4.10 Po Lai Yin, 2009 2.4.11 Summary on the previous research on the advantages of CD-ROM in learning Chemical Bonds 2.5 Conclusion

25 26 27 28 29-33


Chapter 3


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Introduction Participants Data Collection Steps The Instruments Data Analysis Reliability Conclusion 34 34 35 36 36 37 37


Chapter 4


FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.0 4.1 4.2 Introduction Findings of the Study Conclusion 38 39-60 60-61

Chapter 5


RECOMMENDATION, SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Introduction Conclusion of the study Recommendations Suggestions Conclusion 62 62-64 62-63 65 65-66


67-70 71 72 73



PAGE Table 2.1: Table 2.2: Chemistry syllabus for form four students in Malaysia Summary of the previous research on the advantages of using CD-ROM in learning chemical bonds Table 4.2: Summary of the findings 59 41 49 11-12 29-33

Table 4.1(b): Students perception on the topic of chemical bonds Table 4.1(c): The advantages of using CD-ROM in learning chemical bonds



PAGE Figure 4.1.1 (a): Respondents gender Figure 4.1.2 (a): Respondents age Figure 4.1.3 (a): Respondents ethnicity Figure 4.1.1 (b): Difficult topic to learn Figure 4.1.2 (b): Unable to draw the figure of electron arrangement Figure 4.1.3 (b): Unable to differentiate ionic and covalent compounds Figure 4.1.4 (b): Chemical bonds is an abstract topic Figure 4.1.1(c): CD-ROM provides engaging learning experiences Figure 4.1.2(c): Learning can be optimized for three learning style via CD-ROM Figure 4.1.3(c): Using CD-ROM can visualize chemical structure of analyze compounds Figure 4.1.4 (c): Shows expected observation Figure 4.1.5 (c): Teaching and learning can be improved by using CD-ROM 56 57 54 39 39 40 42 43 45 47 50 52