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Estrogen inducible genes

Transcriptional

regulation

Expression of IFNα gene targets
Expression of
IFNα gene
targets
regulation Expression of IFNα gene targets +P Ubiquitination Homologus recombination DNA repair

+Pregulation Expression of IFNα gene targets Ubiquitination Homologus recombination DNA repair Mitotic

Ubiquitination

Expression of IFNα gene targets +P Ubiquitination Homologus recombination DNA repair Mitotic Spindle

Homologus

recombination

gene targets +P Ubiquitination Homologus recombination DNA repair Mitotic Spindle assembly Mismatch repair DNA

DNA

repair

Mitotic Spindle assembly

Mismatch

repair

DNA repair Mitotic Spindle assembly Mismatch repair DNA damage ER- α Heterodimenisation DNA damage response

DNA

damage

repair Mitotic Spindle assembly Mismatch repair DNA damage ER- α Heterodimenisation DNA damage response gene
repair Mitotic Spindle assembly Mismatch repair DNA damage ER- α Heterodimenisation DNA damage response gene
repair Mitotic Spindle assembly Mismatch repair DNA damage ER- α Heterodimenisation DNA damage response gene
repair Mitotic Spindle assembly Mismatch repair DNA damage ER- α Heterodimenisation DNA damage response gene

ER-α

Heterodimenisation
Heterodimenisation
DNA damage response gene
DNA damage
response gene
damage ER- α Heterodimenisation DNA damage response gene X-Chromosome Chromatin remodelling silencing Homologous
damage ER- α Heterodimenisation DNA damage response gene X-Chromosome Chromatin remodelling silencing Homologous

X-Chromosome

Chromatin

remodelling

silencing

Homologous

recombination

Non-

homologous end joining

Homologous recombination Non- homologous end joining Growth gene transcription / gene transformation DNA
Homologous recombination Non- homologous end joining Growth gene transcription / gene transformation DNA
Growth gene transcription / gene transformation DNA repair/ Homologous recombination cell cycle
Growth gene
transcription / gene
transformation
DNA repair/
Homologous
recombination
cell
cycle
transcription / gene transformation DNA repair/ Homologous recombination cell cycle Growth arrest + DNA repair genes
transcription / gene transformation DNA repair/ Homologous recombination cell cycle Growth arrest + DNA repair genes

Growth arrest + DNA repair genes

transcription / gene transformation DNA repair/ Homologous recombination cell cycle Growth arrest + DNA repair genes
transcription / gene transformation DNA repair/ Homologous recombination cell cycle Growth arrest + DNA repair genes
transcription / gene transformation DNA repair/ Homologous recombination cell cycle Growth arrest + DNA repair genes
transcription / gene transformation DNA repair/ Homologous recombination cell cycle Growth arrest + DNA repair genes
transcription / gene transformation DNA repair/ Homologous recombination cell cycle Growth arrest + DNA repair genes
cell cycle Growth arrest + DNA repair genes The BRCA pathway is essential for maintaining genome

The BRCA pathway is essential for maintaining genome integrity in multicellular organisms; it responds to DNA damage through activation of DNA repair pathways and regulation of cell cycle checkpoint processes. BRCA1 (breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein), the central molecule to the pathway, is a breast and ovarian tumor suppressor; approximately 50% of hereditary breast cancer cases can be attributed to BRCA1. Women carrying heterozygous BRCA1 mutations have an 80% risk of developing cancer over their lifetimes.

The majority of BRCA1 exists as a heterodimer with BARD1 (BRCA1- associated RING domain protein 1); the two forming an active E3 ubiquitin ligase. The ubiquitination function of BRCA1 associated with BARD1 likely plays an integral role in its tumor suppression. BRCA1 is also implicated in several DNA repair pathways; evidence suggests that the BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer may play a direct role in DNA repair:

it has been observed to interact directly with aberrant DNA structures. The relocation of BRCA1 to these damaged DNA foci coincides with its phosphorylation via ATM, ATR, and chk2 kinases. These kinases phosphorylate several serine sites throughout the length of the protein. Phosphorylated BRCA1 appears to play a role in non-homologous end joining and homology-directed repair as BRCA1 interacts with proteins involved in both pathways. Examples include the Mre11, Rad50, Nbs1 (MRN) complex in non-homologous end-joining and RAD51 and BRCA2 for homologous repair. BRCA1 can also form complexes with

both BACH1 and SWI/SNF to mediate homologous recombination repair and chromatin remodeling. HDACs regulate the access of the SWI/SNF–BRCA1 complex to DNA.

BRCA1 has also been linked with a number of other DNA repair processes, including mismatch repair (through interactions with the mismatch repair proteins MSH2, MSH6, and MLH1) and inter-strand crosslink repair (through the Fanconi anemia pathway, via the FA complex and FANCD2 (Fanconi Anemia subtype D2) protein). DNA damage activates the monoubiquitylation of FANCD2 which co- localizes with BRCA1 and Rad51; BRCA2 functions both upstream and downstream of this event by promoting FA-complex assembly and transducing signals from FA proteins to Rad51 respectively. BRCA1 also plays a role in gene expression and cell cycle control. BRCA1 can trigger a G1 arrest that is mediated by transcriptional activation of p21. In addition to its association with p21, BRCA1 can bind to several different transcription factors, including p53, Myc, STAT1, and CtIP (CBP-Interacting Protein) promoting the expression of their respective genes. Finally, BRCA1 interacts with Chk1 and PLK1 (Polo- Like Kinase-1) to regulate the G2/M and G1/S checkpoints, possibly via GADD45; thereby linking BRCA1 to the regulation of apoptosis.

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For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit
For more information on all the antibodies featured here or to view our extensive catalog, visit