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cBSC6600 V200R006C03

Troubleshooting Guide
Issue Date 01 2009-09-30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2009. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

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and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided AS IS without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but the statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address: Huawei Industrial Base Bantian, Longgang Shenzhen 518129 People's Republic of China http://www.huawei.com support@huawei.com

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cBSC6600 Troubleshooting Guide

About This Document

About This Document


Purpose
This document provides guidelines for BSC troubleshooting. The fault sources include routine maintenance, customer complaint, unexpected faults, and alarm analysis. You can clear faults by following the instructions described in this document.

Product Versions
The following table lists the product version related to this document. Product Name cBSC6600 Product Version V200R006C03

Intended Audience
This document is intended for:
l

System engineers

Change History
Version 01 (20090930) Change History Initial release of the BSC6600 V200R006C03.

Organization
1 Safety Precautions This describes the safety precautions that are taken when installing and maintaining Huawei network equipment. 2 BSC Troubleshooting Process and Methods This topic describes the general process for troubleshooting the BSC. 3 Clearing Access Failures This topic describes the information related to access failures and how to troubleshoot access failures.
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cBSC6600 Troubleshooting Guide

4 Clearing MOC Failures This topic describes the information related to mobile originated call (MOC) failures and how to troubleshoot MOC failures. 5 Clearing MTC Failures This topic describes the information related to mobile terminated call (MTC) failures and how to troubleshoot MTC failures. 6 Clearing Call Failures This topic describes the information related to call failures and how to troubleshoot call failures. 7 Clearing Voice Quality Problems This topic describes the information related to voice quality problems and how to clear voice quality problems. 8 Clearing Packet Data Service Failures This topic describes the information related to packet data service failures and how to troubleshoot packet data service failures. 9 Clearing BSC Handoff Failures This topic describes the information related to BSC handoff failures and how to troubleshoot BSC handoff failures. 10 Clearing Registration Failures This topic describes the information related to registration failures and how to troubleshoot registration failures. 11 Clearing Authentication Failures This topic describes the information related to authentication failures and how to troubleshoot authentication failures. 12 Clearing Encrypted Voice Call Failures This topic describes the information related to encrypted voice call failures and how to troubleshoot encrypted voice call failures. 13 Clearing Voice Service Negotiation Failures This topic describes the information related to voice service negotiation failures and how to troubleshoot voice service negotiation failures. 14 Clearing Service Redirection Failures This topic describes service redirection and how to troubleshoot service redirection failures. 15 Clearing SMS Failures This topic describes the short message service (SMS) and how to troubleshoot SMS failures. 16 Clearing Quasi-Concurrent Service Failures This topic introduces the quasi-concurrent service and describes how to troubleshoot quasiconcurrent service failures. 17 Clearing BTS Management Failures
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This topic introduces the management on base transceiver stations (BTSs) and describes how to troubleshoot BTS management failures. 18 Clearing License Failures This topic introduces the functions of the license file and describes how to troubleshoot license failures . 19 Clearing Clock Failures This topic introduces the clock system and describes how to troubleshoot clock failures . 20 Clearing Switching Module Failures This topic introduces the switching module and describes how to troubleshoot switching module failures. 21 Clearing Link and Circuit Failures This topic introduces links and circuits and describes how to troubleshoot link and circuit failures . 22 Clearing OM Failures This topic introduces the operation and maintenance of the BAM and describes how to troubleshoot OM failures. 23 Clearing Digital Trunking Service Failures This topic describes the information related to digital trunking service failures and the troubleshooting of digital trunking service failures. 24 Template for Troubleshooting Cases Huawei shares the maintenance experiences with you. If you have maintenance experiences, provide feedback by using this template.

Conventions
Symbol Conventions The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Symbol Description Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not avoided,will result in death or serious injury. Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury. Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not avoided,could result in equipment damage, data loss, performance degradation, or unexpected results. Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time.
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cBSC6600 Troubleshooting Guide

Symbol

Description Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

General Conventions The general conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Convention Times New Roman Boldface Italic Courier New Description Normal paragraphs are in Times New Roman. Names of files, directories, folders, and users are in boldface. For example, log in as user root. Book titles are in italics. Examples of information displayed on the screen are in Courier New.

Command Conventions The command conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Convention Boldface Italic [] { x | y | ... } [ x | y | ... ] { x | y | ... }* Description The keywords of a command line are in boldface. Command arguments are in italics. Items (keywords or arguments) in brackets [ ] are optional. Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars. One item is selected. Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by vertical bars. One item is selected or no item is selected. Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars. A minimum of one item or a maximum of all items can be selected. Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by vertical bars. Several items or no item can be selected.

[ x | y | ... ]*

GUI Conventions The GUI conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

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About This Document

Convention Boldface >

Description Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog titles are in boldface. For example, click OK. Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">" signs. For example, choose File > Create > Folder .

Keyboard Operations The keyboard operations that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Format Key Key 1+Key 2 Key 1, Key 2 Description Press the key. For example, press Enter and press Tab. Press the keys concurrently. For example, pressing Ctrl+Alt +A means the three keys should be pressed concurrently. Press the keys in turn. For example, pressing Alt, A means the two keys should be pressed in turn.

Mouse Operations The mouse operations that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Action Click Double-click Drag Description Select and release the primary mouse button without moving the pointer. Press the primary mouse button twice continuously and quickly without moving the pointer. Press and hold the primary mouse button and move the pointer to a certain position.

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Contents

Contents
About This Document...................................................................................................................iii 1 Safety Precautions......................................................................................................................1-1 2 BSC Troubleshooting Process and Methods........................................................................2-1
2.1 BSC Troubleshooting Process.........................................................................................................................2-2 2.2 Methods for Locating Faults...........................................................................................................................2-5 2.3 Troubleshooting Tools.................................................................................................................................... 2-9 2.4 Contacting Huawei for Technical Support....................................................................................................2-11 2.4.1 How to Contact the Huawei Technical Support Center.......................................................................2-11 2.4.2 Information Submitted to the Huawei Technical Support Center........................................................2-11

3 Clearing Access Failures...........................................................................................................3-1


3.1 Introduction to MS Access..............................................................................................................................3-2 3.2 Network Detection Failure upon Power-on.................................................................................................... 3-3 3.3 Slow Network Access..................................................................................................................................... 3-6 3.4 Network Access Failure of Some MSs........................................................................................................... 3-8 3.5 Illegal Access to the CDMA2000 1X Network............................................................................................3-10 3.6 Failure to Access the BSC Owing to License Restriction.............................................................................3-11 3.7 Failure to Access a Module Owing to License Restriction...........................................................................3-13

4 Clearing MOC Failures.............................................................................................................4-1


4.1 Introduction to the MOC Procedure................................................................................................................4-2 4.2 Assignment Failure due to Unavailability of Radio Resource........................................................................4-3 4.3 Assignment Failure Due to Unavailability of Requested Terrestrial Resource.............................................. 4-6 4.3.1 EVC Resources Unavailable..................................................................................................................4-6 4.3.2 A2 Circuit Failure...................................................................................................................................4-7 4.4 Clear Command due to Protocol Error Between BSC and MSC....................................................................4-8 4.5 Clear Command due to Authentication Failure...............................................................................................4-9 4.6 MOC Failure due to a Received N_DISCONNECT_IND Message.............................................................4-12

5 Clearing MTC Failures..............................................................................................................5-1


5.1 Introduction to the MTC Procedure................................................................................................................5-2 5.2 Paging Request Not Received by the BSC......................................................................................................5-3 5.3 Paging Response Not Received by BSC.........................................................................................................5-5 5.3.1 IMSI Inconsistency................................................................................................................................ 5-6 Issue 01 (2009-09-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ix

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cBSC6600 Troubleshooting Guide 5.3.2 LA/Cell Data Not Configured................................................................................................................5-8 5.3.3 MS Registration Failure.......................................................................................................................5-10 5.3.4 Wrong Setting of Zone-Based Registration Parameters.......................................................................5-12 5.3.5 Failure of Extended Boundary Paging Based on Real LAC................................................................5-14 5.3.6 Failure of Extended Boundary Paging Based on Idle Handoff Relation.............................................5-15 5.3.7 Failure of MSC Extended Boundary Paging........................................................................................5-16

5.4 Assignment Failure due to Unavailability of Radio Resource......................................................................5-16

6 Clearing Call Failures................................................................................................................6-1


6.1 Introduction to the Call Procedure..................................................................................................................6-2 6.2 Call Failures of Some V7.0 MSs.....................................................................................................................6-5 6.3 Walsh Code Exception....................................................................................................................................6-7

7 Clearing Voice Quality Problems...........................................................................................7-1


7.1 Knowledge About Voice Quality....................................................................................................................7-2 7.2 Electrical Echo................................................................................................................................................7-4 7.3 Acoustic Echo.................................................................................................................................................7-6 7.4 Voice Loopback..............................................................................................................................................7-9 7.5 Noise..............................................................................................................................................................7-10 7.6 Audio Discontinuity......................................................................................................................................7-12

8 Clearing Packet Data Service Failures...................................................................................8-1


8.1 Introduction to the Packet Data Service..........................................................................................................8-2 8.2 Occasional Data Call Failure...........................................................................................................................8-8 8.3 Constant Data Call Failure............................................................................................................................8-11 8.3.1 No Messages on the A Interface..........................................................................................................8-11 8.3.2 Only Reverse Messages on the A9 Interface........................................................................................8-13 8.3.3 Only Reverse Messages on the A11 Interface......................................................................................8-14 8.3.4 Call Cleared Right After Connection...................................................................................................8-16 8.4 Data Call Handoff Failure.............................................................................................................................8-18 8.5 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Call Failure.............................................................................................................8-20 8.6 No 307.2 kbit/s SCH Allocated for the Packet Data Service........................................................................8-22

9 Clearing BSC Handoff Failures...............................................................................................9-1


9.1 Introduction to Handoff...................................................................................................................................9-3 9.2 MS HHO Trigger Failure................................................................................................................................9-3 9.3 Handoff Required Reject.................................................................................................................................9-6 9.4 Inter-Band HHO Trigger Failure.....................................................................................................................9-8 9.5 SHO Failure...................................................................................................................................................9-10 9.6 Inter-AN Handoff Failure..............................................................................................................................9-13 9.7 Inter-Module Load Balance HHO Failure.....................................................................................................9-16 9.8 AT Not Performing OFS...............................................................................................................................9-19

10 Clearing Registration Failures.............................................................................................10-1


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10.2 MS Registration Initiation Failure...............................................................................................................10-2 10.3 MS Registration Failure..............................................................................................................................10-5 10.4 Mass Registration Messages Received.......................................................................................................10-7 10.5 AT Location Registration Failure...............................................................................................................10-9

11 Clearing Authentication Failures........................................................................................11-1


11.1 Introduction to Authentication....................................................................................................................11-3 11.2 MS Global Challenge Failure....................................................................................................................11-11 11.3 MS Unique Challenge Failure...................................................................................................................11-14 11.4 MS SSD Update Failure............................................................................................................................11-15 11.5 Authentication Initiation Failure...............................................................................................................11-17 11.6 AN AAA Server Authentication Failure...................................................................................................11-19

12 Clearing Encrypted Voice Call Failures.............................................................................12-1


12.1 Introduction to Voice Encryption................................................................................................................12-2 12.2 Voice Call Failure upon Encryption Mode Change....................................................................................12-8

13 Clearing Voice Service Negotiation Failures....................................................................13-1


13.1 Introduction to Service Negotiation............................................................................................................13-2 13.2 Negotiation Failure....................................................................................................................................13-11

14 Clearing Service Redirection Failures................................................................................14-1


14.1 Introduction to Service Redirection............................................................................................................14-2 14.2 Service Redirection Failure.........................................................................................................................14-2

15 Clearing SMS Failures..........................................................................................................15-1


15.1 Introduction to the SMS..............................................................................................................................15-2 15.2 SM-MT Failure...........................................................................................................................................15-5 15.3 System Exception Caused by Centralized Delivery of Short Messages.....................................................15-7

16 Clearing Quasi-Concurrent Service Failures....................................................................16-1


16.1 Introduction to the Quasi-Concurrent Service.............................................................................................16-2 16.2 Clear Command Message Not Received.....................................................................................................16-3 16.3 Service Option Control Message Not Sent.................................................................................................16-4 16.4 Call Answer Failed after Suspending Data Service....................................................................................16-6

17 Clearing BTS Management Failures...................................................................................17-1


17.1 Introduction to the BTS Management.........................................................................................................17-2 17.2 BTS Ping or Login Failure..........................................................................................................................17-2 17.3 BTS Carrier Unavailable.............................................................................................................................17-6

18 Clearing License Failures......................................................................................................18-1


18.1 Introduction to the License..........................................................................................................................18-2 18.2 License Failure When Adding Carriers.......................................................................................................18-2

19 Clearing Clock Failures.........................................................................................................19-1


19.1 Introduction to the Clock System................................................................................................................19-2 19.2 High FER in Markov Call Test...................................................................................................................19-5 Issue 01 (2009-09-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xi

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19.3 A-Interface Slip Frame Alarm.....................................................................................................................19-7 19.4 Inadequate Satellites Traced by the GCKP.................................................................................................19-9 19.5 MS Time Incorrect....................................................................................................................................19-10

20 Clearing Switching Module Failures.................................................................................20-1


20.1 Introduction to the Switching Module........................................................................................................20-2 20.2 Active/Standby Port Switchover Alarm......................................................................................................20-2 20.3 CLPC System Clock Loss Alarm................................................................................................................20-4 20.4 Clock Switchover Alarm.............................................................................................................................20-6 20.5 Interrupted Maintenance Between the Boards and the BAM......................................................................20-8

21 Clearing Link and Circuit Failures.....................................................................................21-1


21.1 Introduction to Links and Circuits..............................................................................................................21-2 21.2 Abis Interface Link Failure.........................................................................................................................21-2 21.2.1 E1/T1 Alarm Indication Signal..........................................................................................................21-2 21.2.2 E1/T1 Link Loopback Alarm.............................................................................................................21-4 21.2.3 IMA Link Receiving End Alarm........................................................................................................21-5 21.3 A1 Interface Signaling Link Failure............................................................................................................21-5 21.3.1 MTP3 Link Failure.............................................................................................................................21-5 21.3.2 MTP2 Link Failure.............................................................................................................................21-7 21.4 A2 Interface Circuit Failure......................................................................................................................21-10

22 Clearing OM Failures............................................................................................................22-1
22.1 Introduction to the OM of the BAM...........................................................................................................22-2 22.2 BAM Failure...............................................................................................................................................22-2 22.2.1 BAM Installation Failure...................................................................................................................22-2 22.2.2 BAM Uninstall Failure.......................................................................................................................22-4 22.2.3 Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat Processes Failure..............................................................................22-5 22.2.4 Load Process Failure..........................................................................................................................22-7 22.2.5 CDR and Performance Data Reporting Failure..................................................................................22-7 22.3 LMT Failure................................................................................................................................................22-9 22.3.1 Intermittent Interruption Between the LMT and the BAM..............................................................22-10 22.3.2 LMT Login Failure...........................................................................................................................22-10 22.4 Loading Failure.........................................................................................................................................22-12 22.4.1 BAM Failure to Receive BOOTP Request for Board Loading........................................................22-12 22.4.2 BAM Failure to Send BOOT Reply to BSC Boards........................................................................22-15 22.4.3 Standby CMPU Failure to Load Program Files from the BAM......................................................22-18 22.5 CMPU External Network Interface IP Address Ping Failure....................................................................22-21

23 Clearing Digital Trunking Service Failures......................................................................23-1


23.1 Introduction to the Digital Trunking Service..............................................................................................23-2 23.2 MOC Failure...............................................................................................................................................23-2 23.3 MTC Failure................................................................................................................................................23-5

24 Template for Troubleshooting Cases.................................................................................24-1


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Figures

Figures
Figure 1-1 Wearing an ESD wrist strap...............................................................................................................1-6 Figure 1-2 Fully unfolded A-shaped ladder.........................................................................................................1-8 Figure 1-3 Ladder slant........................................................................................................................................1-9 Figure 1-4 Using the long ladder in a safe way....................................................................................................1-9 Figure 1-5 Ladder with its top end one meter above the eave............................................................................1-10 Figure 1-6 Hoisting weights...............................................................................................................................1-10 Figure 1-7 Laying down and placing the cabinet upright...................................................................................1-11 Figure 2-1 Troubleshooting process.....................................................................................................................2-2 Figure 3-1 Signaling flow of the calling MS accessing the air interface.............................................................3-2 Figure 3-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the network detection failure upon power-on....................................3-4 Figure 3-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the fault of slow network access........................................................3-7 Figure 3-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the network access failure of some MSs............................................3-9 Figure 3-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the fault of illegal access to the CDMA2000 1X network...............3-10 Figure 3-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the failure to access the BSC owing to license restriction...............3-12 Figure 3-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the failure to access a module owing to license restriction.............3-14 Figure 4-1 MS-Originated Call Procedure...........................................................................................................4-2 Figure 4-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the assignment failure due to lack of radio resource.........................4-4 Figure 4-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the assignment failure due to unavailability of terrestrial resource. ...............................................................................................................................................................................4-6 Figure 4-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the MOC failure due to protocol error between BSC and MSC........4-8 Figure 4-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the MOC failure due to authentication failure.................................4-10 Figure 4-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the MOC failure due to the received N_DISCONNECT_IND message .............................................................................................................................................................................4-13 Figure 5-1 MS-Terminated Call Procedure..........................................................................................................5-2 Figure 5-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to Paging Request not received by the BSC ...............................................................................................................................................................................5-4 Figure 5-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to IMSI inconsistency......................................5-7 Figure 5-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to LA/cell data not configured.........................5-9 Figure 5-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to MS registration failure...............................5-11 Figure 5-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to the wrong setting of zone-based registration parameters...........................................................................................................................................................5-13 Figure 5-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to unavailability of radio resource.................5-17 Figure 6-1 MS-Originated Call Procedure...........................................................................................................6-2 Figure 6-2 MS-Terminated Call Procedure..........................................................................................................6-3 Issue 01 (2009-09-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xiii

Figures

cBSC6600 Troubleshooting Guide Figure 6-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the call failures of some V7.0 MSs....................................................6-5 Figure 6-4 Setting the subscriber interface message tracing function..................................................................6-6 Figure 6-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the Walsh code exception that occurs during radio resource monitoring ...............................................................................................................................................................................6-8 Figure 6-6 Extended Channel Assignment Message............................................................................................6-9 Figure 7-1 Procedure of the CDMA voice service...............................................................................................7-2 Figure 7-2 Principle of echo generation...............................................................................................................7-3

Figure 7-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the electrical echo problem................................................................7-5 Figure 7-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the acoustic echo problem.................................................................7-7 Figure 7-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the voice loopback problem...............................................................7-9 Figure 7-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the noise problem.............................................................................7-11 Figure 7-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the audio discontinuity problem...................................................... 7-13 Figure 8-1 Procedure of the MS-originated data call...........................................................................................8-3 Figure 8-2 Procedure of MS-originated data service release...............................................................................8-4 Figure 8-3 Procedure of the AT-originated data call............................................................................................8-6 Figure 8-4 Procedure of AT-originated connection release.................................................................................8-7 Figure 8-5 Procedure for troubleshooting occasional data call failures...............................................................8-9 Figure 8-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the data call failure due to no messages on the A interface.............8-12 Figure 8-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the data call failure due to only reverse messages on the A9 interface .............................................................................................................................................................................8-13 Figure 8-8 Procedure for troubleshooting the data call failure due to only reverse messages on the A9 interface .............................................................................................................................................................................8-15 Figure 8-9 Procedure for troubleshooting the data call failure that occurs right after the connection...............8-17 Figure 8-10 Procedure for troubleshooting the data call handoff failure...........................................................8-19 Figure 8-11 Procedure for troubleshooting the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO call failure..........................................8-20 Figure 8-12 Procedure for troubleshooting the fault of no 307.2 Kbit/s SCH allocated in the packet data service .............................................................................................................................................................................8-23 Figure 9-1 Procedure for troubleshooting the MS HHO trigger failure...............................................................9-4 Figure 9-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the fault of handoff required reject....................................................9-7 Figure 9-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the inter-band HHO trigger failure....................................................9-9 Figure 9-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the SHO failure................................................................................9-11 Figure 9-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the inter-AN handoff failure............................................................9-14 Figure 9-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the inter-module load balance HHO failure.....................................9-17 Figure 9-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the fault of AT not performing OFS................................................9-20 Figure 10-1 MS registration procedure..............................................................................................................10-2 Figure 10-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the registration initiation failure of an MS.................................... 10-3 Figure 10-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the registration failure of an MS....................................................10-6 Figure 10-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the registration failure due to mass registration messages received by the BSC............................................................................................................................................................... 10-8 Figure 10-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the location registration failure of an AT....................................10-10 Figure 11-1 Authentication procedure for location registration.........................................................................11-4 Figure 11-2 Authentication procedure for mobile-originated calls....................................................................11-5 Figure 11-3 Authentication procedure for mobile-terminated calls...................................................................11-6 Figure 11-4 SSD update procedure initiated in the case of an authentication request failure............................11-7 xiv Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 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Figures

Figure 11-5 SSD update procedure initiated by the AC.....................................................................................11-8 Figure 11-6 Unique challenge procedure initiated in the case of an authentication request failure................11-10 Figure 11-7 Unique challenge procedure initiated by the AC..........................................................................11-11 Figure 11-8 Procedure for troubleshooting the global challenge failure of an MS..........................................11-12 Figure 11-9 Procedure for troubleshooting the unique challenge failure of an MS.........................................11-14 Figure 11-10 Procedure for troubleshooting the SSD update failure of an MS...............................................11-16 Figure 11-11 Procedure for troubleshooting the authentication initiation failure............................................11-18 Figure 11-12 Procedure for troubleshooting the AN AAA server authentication failure................................11-20 Figure 12-1 Voice Encryption When the MS Originates a Call.........................................................................12-3 Figure 12-2 Voice encryption when the MS is called........................................................................................12-5 Figure 12-3 Common code encryption to private code encryption at the request of the MS.............................12-7 Figure 12-4 Private code encryption to common code encryption at the request of the MS.............................12-7 Figure 12-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the encrypted voice call failure......................................................12-9 Figure 13-1 MS-Originated Call........................................................................................................................13-3 Figure 13-2 MS-Originated Call (The A Interface Uses IP Transmission)........................................................13-5 Figure 13-3 MS-Terminated Call.......................................................................................................................13-7 Figure 13-4 MS-Terminated Call (The A Interface Uses IP Transmission)......................................................13-9 Figure 13-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the voice service negotiation failure............................................13-11 Figure 14-1 Procedure for troubleshooting the service redirection failure........................................................14-2 Figure 15-1 Sending of a short message from an MS over an access channel...................................................15-2 Figure 15-2 Delivery of a point-to-point short message to an MS over a paging channel.................................15-3 Figure 15-3 Delivery of a broadcast short message to an MS over a paging channel.......................................15-3 Figure 15-4 Sending of a short message from an MS over a traffic channel.....................................................15-4 Figure 15-5 Delivery of a short message to an MS over a traffic channel.........................................................15-5 Figure 15-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the SM-MT failure.........................................................................15-6 Figure 15-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the system exception caused by centralized delivery of short messages .............................................................................................................................................................................15-7 Figure 16-1 Service procedure of the quasi-concurrent service.........................................................................16-2 Figure 16-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the quasi-concurrent service failure due to Clear Command not received .............................................................................................................................................................................16-3 Figure 16-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the quasi-concurrent service failure due to Service Option Control not sent......................................................................................................................................................................16-5 Figure 16-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the call answer failure after the ongoing data service is suspended .............................................................................................................................................................................16-7 Figure 17-1 Procedure for troubleshooting the BTS ping or login failure.........................................................17-2 Figure 17-2 Procedure for solving the problem of unavailable BTS carriers....................................................17-6 Figure 19-1 Structure of the clock system (large-capacity BSC).......................................................................19-2 Figure 19-2 Clock system structure (small-capacity cBSC6600)......................................................................19-4 Figure 19-3 Procedure for solving the problem of a high FER..........................................................................19-6 Figure 19-4 Procedure for clearing the A-interface slip frame alarm................................................................19-7 Figure 19-5 Procedure for solving the problem of inadequate satellites traced by the GCKP..........................19-9 Figure 19-6 Procedure for solving the problem of incorrect time display on an MS.......................................19-10 Figure 20-1 CSWS in the 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Figures

cBSC6600 Troubleshooting Guide Figure 20-2 Procedure for clearing the active/standby port switchover alarm..................................................20-3 Figure 20-3 Procedure for clearing the CLPC system clock loss alarm.............................................................20-5 Figure 20-4 Procedure for clearing the clock switchover alarm........................................................................ 20-7 Figure 20-5 Procedure for interrupted maintenance between the boards and the BAM....................................20-9 Figure 21-1 Procedure for clearing the E1/T1 alarm indication signal alarm....................................................21-3 Figure 21-2 Procedure for clearing the E1/T1 link loopback alarm...................................................................21-4 Figure 21-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTP3 link failure.....................................................................21-6 Figure 21-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTP2 link failure.....................................................................21-8 Figure 21-5 Normal connection and cross connection of E1 cables................................................................21-10 Figure 21-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the A2 interface circuit failure.....................................................21-11

Figure 22-1 BAM in the BSC.............................................................................................................................22-2 Figure 22-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the BAM installation failure..........................................................22-3 Figure 22-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the BAM uninstall failure..............................................................22-4 Figure 22-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the failure of the Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat processes.......... 22-6 Figure 22-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the Load process failure.................................................................22-7 Figure 22-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the CDR and performance data reporting failure.......................... 22-8 Figure 22-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the LMT login failure..................................................................22-11 Figure 22-8 Procedure for troubleshooting the failure of receiving the BOOTP request................................22-13 Figure 22-9 BAM Load process receiving BOOTP request............................................................................22-14 Figure 22-10 Procedure for troubleshooting the failure of sending the BOOTP Reply...................................22-16 Figure 22-11 Load window..............................................................................................................................22-17 Figure 22-12 Procedure for troubleshooting the failure of program files loading...........................................22-19 Figure 22-13 Querying the MAC address of the active CMPU.......................................................................22-19 Figure 22-14 Modified MAC address of the active CMPU.............................................................................22-20 Figure 22-15 Modified IP address of the standby CMPU................................................................................22-21 Figure 22-16 Procedure for troubleshooting the failure of pinging the CMPU external network interface IP address ...........................................................................................................................................................................22-22 Figure 23-1 BSC in a digital trunking network..................................................................................................23-2 Figure 23-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the MOC failure of the digital trunking service.............................23-3 Figure 23-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure of the digital trunking service.............................23-6

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Tables

Tables
Table 2-1 Categories of faults..............................................................................................................................2-4 Table 2-2 Symptoms of a critical fault.................................................................................................................2-5 Table 2-3 Troubleshooting tools.........................................................................................................................2-10 Table 3-1 Meanings of the operational state........................................................................................................3-5 Table 3-2 Meanings of administrative state.........................................................................................................3-5 Table 3-3 Meanings of the usage state.................................................................................................................3-5 Table 4-1 Meanings of the administrative state....................................................................................................4-5 Table 4-2 Correspondence between ADD BTSTRFLNK and ADD BTSTERTRFLNK....................................4-5 Table 4-3 Description of AUTH values in AUTH_PARA data table................................................................4-11 Table 7-1 Conditions for not introducing acoustic echo gain..............................................................................7-8 Table 9-1 HHO algorithm switch.........................................................................................................................9-4 Table 9-2 HHO threshold.....................................................................................................................................9-5 Table 14-1 Service redirection configuration.....................................................................................................14-4 Table 19-1 Reference for determining inadequate satellites traced by the GCKP.............................................19-9 Table 22-1 Correspondence between the ARP information on the CMPU and that on the BAM...................22-24 Table 24-1 Template for troubleshooting cases.................................................................................................24-1

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1 Safety Precautions

1
1 User Guide
CAUTION

Safety Precautions

This describes the safety precautions that are taken when installing and maintaining Huawei network equipment.

Before performing any operation, read this chapter to prevent accidents. The indications such as Danger, Caution, and Note in the related documents are additional information. They do not contain all the safety precautions for operations. Abide by the local safety regulations during the operations. The safety precautions described in this document are additional information and supplement the local safety regulations. When operating Huawei products and equipment, take the precautions and follow the safety instructions. The safety warnings listed in the document cover only the risks that Huawei is aware of. Huawei is not liable for the consequences resulting from the violation of universal safety regulations for operations and safety codes on design, production, and equipment use. The engineers installing and maintaining Huawei products should be trained. Before performing any operation such as equipment installation and maintenance, the engineers should be familiar with the proper operation methods and safety precautions.

2 Symbols
The safety symbols listed in this document are classified into Danger, Caution, and Note. The safety level is given on the right of the symbol. The safety instructions are given below the symbol.

DANGER
This symbol indicates that a casualty or serious accident may occur if you ignore the safety instruction.

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CAUTION
This symbol indicates that a serious or major injury may occur if you ignore the safety instruction.
NOTE

This symbol indicates that the operation may be easier to perform if you pay attention to the safety instruction.

3 Toxic Articles
Beryllium Oxide

CAUTION
Some equipment parts contain toxic beryllium oxide.
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Beryllium oxide is harmful to humans only when equipment parts containing beryllium oxide are damaged. The engineers handling these parts should be aware of the characteristics of the parts, and take the related preventive measures in advance. Many parts of the equipment contain beryllium oxide, such as the power amplifier circuit and the combiner circuit. Do not store such parts or modules in an environment where the component may be damaged and lead to discharge of beryllium oxide. Dispose of the parts containing beryllium oxide carefully. Abide by the local safety regulations for the treatment of chemicals or waste that contain beryllium oxide.

Hydrochloride

CAUTION
Some parts contain hydrochloride. If burned, these parts generate toxic gases.
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Ensure that the parts are not burned. Dispose of the burned waste carefully. Abide by the local safety regulations for the treatment of parts or waste that contain hydrochloride. When disposing of the parts or waste, adopt necessary measures to avoid inhaling toxic gases.

Hydrofluoride

CAUTION
Some parts contain hydrofluoride. If burned, these parts generate toxic gases.
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Ensure that the parts are not burned.


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Dispose of the burned waste carefully. Abide by the local safety regulations for the treatment of parts or waste that contain hydrofluoride. When disposing of the parts or waste, adopt necessary measures to avoid inhaling toxic gases.

4 Electrical Safety
High Voltage

DANGER
High-voltage power supply is required for the operation of the equipment. Direct or indirect contact with damp objects connected to high-voltage wires or mains supply may be fatal.

CAUTION
Improper high-voltage operations may result in accidents such as a fire and electric shocks. Abide by the local codes and regulations when routing the AC power cables. The engineers performing high-voltage operations should be qualified and trained.
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When mounting the AC power supply equipment, abide by the local safety regulations. The engineers involved in mounting the AC power supply devices should be qualified in high-voltage and AC power operations. Do not wear any electrical conductors such as watches, bracelets, or rings during the operation. If the cabinet is wet, switch off the power supply immediately. Ensure that the equipment is kept dry in a humid environment.

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Power cables

CAUTION
Do not install or remove live power cables. The contact between the power cables and the conductors may cause electric sparks or arcs, thereby causing fire or eye injury.
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Before installing or removing the power cables, switch off the power supply. Before connecting the cable, ensure that the cable and the cable tag to be used match the ones required for the actual installation.

Cable Label

CAUTION
Before connecting a cable, check the labels.

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Binding of Signal Cables

CAUTION
Bind the signal cable and the power cable separately. When the signal cable and the power cable are laid parallel, the distance between them inside the cabinet must be at least 10 mm [0.39 in.]. The distance between the signal cable and the power cable outside the cabinet must be at least 100 mm [3.9 in.]. Leakage Current

CAUTION
To avoid high leakage current, ground the equipment before connecting it to the power supply. Before supplying AC power to the equipment, connect the grounding terminal of the equipment housing to the earth. This should be done to avoid electric shock to the human body due to current leakage. The current is caused by the EMI filter earth capacitance of the equipment AC input terminal or the Y capacitance of the primary power supply. Fuse

CAUTION
Do not install or remove active fuses. Tool

CAUTION
High-voltage and AC power operations require specific tools instead of general-purpose or makeshift tools. Hole Drilling

CAUTION
Do not drill holes on the cabinet without prior permission. Improper drilling may damage the connections and cables inside the cabinet. Metal filings from the drilling may cause short-circuit to the board if the filings fall into the cabinet.

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1 Safety Precautions

Before drilling holes in the cabinet, wear insulated gloves and remove the cables inside the cabinet. Protect your eyes when drilling. Flying metal filings may injure your eyes. Prevent metal filings from falling into the cabinet. Improper drilling reduces the electromagnetic shielding performance of the cabinet. After the drilling, remove all the metal filings immediately.

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Thunderstorm

DANGER
Do not perform operations on towers or poles with high voltage and AC power, during thunderstorms. Thunderstorms can generate a powerful electromagnetic field in the atmosphere. Ground the equipment properly to protect the equipment from lightning. Flammable Environment

DANGER
Do not place the equipment in an environment where inflammable objects, explosives, or smog exists. Do not perform any operation in such an environment.

5 ESD Protection

CAUTION
Static electricity generated by the human body may damage the electrostatic-sensitive parts of the circuit board, such as the large-scale integrated circuit. Wear an ESD wrist strap correctly and insert the ESD plug into the ESD connector. Wear the strap tightly,as shown in Figure 1-1.

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Figure 1-1 Wearing an ESD wrist strap

(1) ESD connector on the cabinet

(2) ESD plug

(3) ESD wrist strap

In dry climate, the electrostatic charge carried by the human body may reach 30 kV. The charge remains in the human body for a long time. The contact between the operator and the equipment parts that have electric discharge damages the parts. Before handling boards or modules, wear an ESD wrist strap to discharge the static electricity. Before handling the equipment, board, or IC chip, wear an ESD wrist strap with one end properly grounded. Before handling the equipment, board, or IC chip, put on the ESD-preventive wrist strap with the other end properly grounded. To prevent accidental shock, ensure that the line between the ESD wrist strap and the grounding point is in serial connection with a resistance greater than 1 megaohm. Check the ESD wrist strap regularly. Do not replace the cable of the ESD wrist strap. Electrostatic-sensitive boards or modules should not come in contact with the objects that have electrostatic or that may easily generate electrostatic charge. For example, the electrostatic-sensitive device may carry electrostatic charge if the packing bag or conveyer box made of insulating materials comes in contact with the conveyer belt, and then the electrostatic-sensitive device may be damaged due to current leakage when it comes in contact with the human body or the ground. Electrostatic-sensitive boards or modules should be packed with discharging materials of superior quality, such as the ESD bag. The boards in stock or in transportation should be packed in an ESD bag. Before connecting any measurement device to a board or module, discharge its electrostatic charge by grounding the device. Keep the board or module away from strong DC magnetic fields, for example, the cathode ray tube of the display. The distance between the board and the tube should be at least 10 cm. Damage caused by electrostatic charge is accumulative in effect. If the damage is slight, the component does not malfunction. Continuous damage, however, causes the parts to suddenly fail. There are two types of damage: explicit damage and implicit damage. Implicit damage is invisible. In case of over-voltage and high-temperature, the parts may become vulnerable to damage.

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6 Microwave and Magnetic Field

CAUTION
When operating high intensity RF signal equipment, remember that high-intensity microwave is detrimental to human health. The equipment antenna in service produces electromagnetic radiation. Standing too close to the antenna is against safety codes. Only trained and qualified engineers must install and maintain the equipment.

7 Laser

CAUTION
The laser beam inside optical fibers may harm your eyes. When installing and maintaining optical cables, avoid looking directly at the optical cable connector.

8 High Temperature

CAUTION
The temperature of some equipment parts may be rather high. Do not touch the surface of such equipment parts to avoid scalding.

9 Working at Heights
General Operations

CAUTION
When working at heights, be careful about objects falling down from a height. High-altitude operations must be in compliance with the related national high-altitude operation codes. When working at heights, take the following precautions:
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High-altitude operators must be trained. Take care of the machines and tools at hand, and prevent them from falling. Place the tools back into the tool bag immediately after using them. Take appropriate safety measures, for example, wear a helmet and safety belt.
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Wear warm clothes before performing high-altitude operations in cold regions. Inspect the equipment used for lifting objects, before working at heights. Check the ladder before using it. Make sure the ladder is safe for use. Do not overload the ladder. Take appropriate safety measures. For example, ask someone to support the ladder when the slant range of the ladder is over 5 m [16.4 ft], when the upright double-foot ladder is over 3 m [9.8 ft] high, or when you work in a dangerous situation.Unfold the A-shaped ladder fully, as shown in Figure 1-2. The recommended slant of the ladder is 75 degrees, as shown in Figure 1-3. When using the ladder, place the wider end of the ladder against the ground or take protective measures against skidding. Keep the ladder in a secure place. Do not place the ladder against a carton or stone that is not stable. When climbing the ladder, face the ladder and keep your center of gravity steady.To ensure safety, keep both feet on the ladder steps and grasp the ladder with one hand, as shown in Figure 1-4. Do not climb the ladder beyond the fourth highest step.If you want to climb to the rooftop, the length of the ladder should be one meter higher than the supporting structure, as shown in Figure 1-5.

Safety Codes on Ladder Use


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Figure 1-2 Fully unfolded A-shaped ladder

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Figure 1-3 Ladder slant

Figure 1-4 Using the long ladder in a safe way

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Figure 1-5 Ladder with its top end one meter above the eave

10 Others
Hoisting Weights

CAUTION
Do not move under the gib arm or the goods in suspension when hoisting the weight.
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The weight hoisting operators should be trained and qualified. Check the weight hoisting tools in advance. Start lifting objects only when the weight hoisting tools are firmly fixed onto a weight-bearing object or the main wall. The slant of the cabinet-top bearing cable for hoisting should not be greater than 90 to prevent the cable from breaking, as shown in Figure 1-6.

Figure 1-6 Hoisting weights

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Moving Heavy Objects

CAUTION
When moving heavy objects such as a cabinet, take appropriate measures to prevent injury. At least two or three persons should be ready to install or maintain the cabinet, for example, slanting, tilting, or placing the cabinet upright. When the cabinet gravity slants over 10 degrees, the cabinet may topple. Figure 1-7 shows how to lay down and place the cabinet upright. Figure 1-7 Laying down and placing the cabinet upright

Sharp Edge of Objects

CAUTION
When handling the equipment, wear gloves to prevent injury from sharp edges.

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2 BSC Troubleshooting Process and Methods

BSC Troubleshooting Process and Methods

About This Chapter


This topic describes the general process for troubleshooting the BSC. 2.1 BSC Troubleshooting Process The BSC troubleshooting process is applicable to various faults. 2.2 Methods for Locating Faults This topic describes the common methods for locating BSC faults. 2.3 Troubleshooting Tools This topic describes the troubleshooting tools and how to use these tools. 2.4 Contacting Huawei for Technical Support If the information in this manual is not enough for you to clear some specific or complicated problems, contact Huawei for technical support.

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2.1 BSC Troubleshooting Process


The BSC troubleshooting process is applicable to various faults. Figure 2-1 shows the general troubleshooting process. Figure 2-1 Troubleshooting process

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Backing Up Data
When a fault occurs, save the data and back up the associated database, alarm information, and log files in time. For the contents to be backed up and the instructions, refer to Backing Up BSC Data.

Collecting and Recording Information


Fault Information The fault information is very important for troubleshooting. You must collect as much information about the fault as possible. When a fault occurs, collect the following data for analysis:
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Symptoms of the fault When, where, and how often the fault occurs Scope and impact of the fault Running status of the equipment before the fault occurs Operations performed on the equipment before the fault occurs Measures taken to handle the fault Alarms and associated alarms generated when the fault occurs Status of board indicators

Information Collection Collect fault information in the following ways:


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Consulting the personnel who reports the fault about fault symptoms and when, where, and how often the fault occurs Consulting maintenance personnel about the running status of the equipment, fault symptoms, operations performed before the fault occurs, and measures taken after the fault occurs Checking board indicators for hardware or software errors Estimating the impact of the fault by demonstrating the service, testing the performance, and tracing interfaces or signaling messages.

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Principles for Information Collection When collecting the information of a fault,


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Do not handle a fault hastily. Collect as much information as possible before clearing the fault. Keep good terms with other sites and contact them for assistance if necessary.

Determining the Scope, Category, and Severity of a Fault


After collecting the information of a fault, you must determine the scope, category, and severity of the fault. Determining the Scope and Category of a Fault
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After obtaining fault information, you need to analyze the information to determine the scope and the category of the fault. Faults described in this document are classified based on fault symptoms. The faults related to a BSC are categorized into:
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Voice call failure Packet data call failure Handoff failure Registration, authentication, and encryption failure Service function failure Equipment component failure Operation and maintenance failure

Table 2-1 lists the categories of faults. Table 2-1 Categories of faults Category Voice call failure Fault Access failure, call failure, mobile originated call (MOC) failure, mobile terminated call (MTC) failure, and voice quality problem Packet data service failure Handoff failure Registration failure, authentication failure, and encrypted voice call failure Voice service negotiation failure, service redirection failure, short message failure, quasiconcurrent service failure, BTS failure, license failure Clock failure, switching module failure, and link and circuit failure Operation and maintenance failure

Packet data call failure Handoff failure Registration, authentication, and encryption failure Service function failure

Equipment component failure Operation and maintenance failure

Some faults, however, cannot be clearly classified. For example, a voice call failure may result from a clock failure. In such a case, refer to chapters related to the clock failure. Determining the Severity of a Fault Determine the severity of a fault based on its symptoms. If the fault is a critical fault, refer to cBSC6600 Emergency Maintenance Guide to handle it. If the fault is not a critical fault, refer to this manual to handle it. Table 2-2 lists the symptoms of a critical fault.
NOTE

The wide area described in Table 2-2 refers to all areas in the coverage of the BSC, areas in the coverage of a certain module of the BSC, and areas in the coverage of certain BTSs.

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Table 2-2 Symptoms of a critical fault Symptoms MSs fail to initiate calls. Call drops or voice quality problems occur. CDMA2000 1X users cannot use the data service. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO users cannot use the data service. Scope Wide area Wide area All CDMA2000 1X data service users All CDMA2000 1xEV-DO data service users

Locating Faults
A fault may result from several causes. You need to eliminate possibilities one by one and find out the actual cause of the fault.

Clearing Faults
After locating a fault, you can clear the fault and restore the system by taking corresponding measures such as correcting connections, replacing boards, modifying data, or resetting boards, and then conduct tests to ensure that the fault is cleared.

Checking Whether Faults are Cleared


After clearing a fault, check equipment running status, board indicators, and alarms, and conduct tests to verify whether the fault is cleared.

Recording the Troubleshooting Process


To avoid the occurrence of similar faults, record the cause of the fault and take preventive or corrective measures.

Contacting Huawei for Technical Support


If the information in this manual is not enough for you to clear some specific or complicated problems, contact Huawei for technical support. For details, refer to Contacting Huawei for Technical Support.

2.2 Methods for Locating Faults


This topic describes the common methods for locating BSC faults.

Tracking User Services


Function Based on the IMSI number of a user, you can track the signaling messages of the user over the standard and internal interfaces and the service status of the user. The tracked messages and
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service status are displayed in the occurrence order on the Service Maintenance System. Tracking user services has the following advantages:
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Viewing tracking results on a real-time basis Providing signaling messages over all standard interfaces Applicable to high traffic hours Applicable to various scenarios such as analyzing call flow and tracking VIP users

Application Scenario This method is used for locating a call failure that can be repeated. Usage For usage of a user-tracking tool, refer to the cBSC6600 Operation Guide and the Airbridge cBSS CDMA Service Maintenance System Online Help.

Tracking Interfaces
Function You can track all signaling messages over a specific standard or internal interface. The tracked signaling message are displayed in the occurrence order on the Service Maintenance System. Tracking interfaces has the following advantages:
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Tacking interfaces on a real-time basis Tracking all signaling messages over a specific interface in a specific time Tracking link management messages

Application Scenario This method is used for locating a call fault that is unknown to users, for example, a low call completion rate. Usage For usage of an interface-tracking tool, refer to the cBSC6600 Operation Guide and the Airbridge cBSS CDMA Service Maintenance System Online Help.

Analyzing Performance Measurement Results


Function You can conduct real-time measurement on call performance (such as drop rate and handoff rate). Different from other troubleshooting methods, this method can reflect the performance (such as call completion rate) of all calls. Application Scenario
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KPI analysis Performance analysis

Usage For details on performance measurement, refer to the Airbridge BSC6680 CDMA Base Station Controller Performance Measurement Reference Manual.
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Analyzing Alarms
Function The alarm information is an important indication of a fault or an event. If a fault occurs in the BSC, an alarm is displayed on the Alarm Management System and, along with the alarm, the procedure for troubleshooting the fault is provided. Each alarm provides the detailed alarm handling procedure. You can perform the alarm handling procedure to clear the fault. Therefore, checking alarms is an important method for troubleshooting faults. By setting parameters, you can choose to be informed of an alarm through short messages or phones. By setting the alarm box, you can choose to identify an alarm by means of sound or light. Application Scenario
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Troubleshooting equipment failures Troubleshooting service failures

Usage For usage of the alarm system, refer to the cBSC6600 Operation Guide and the Airbridge cBSS CDMA Alarm Management System Online Help. For troubleshooting of each alarm, refer to the Airbridge cBSS CDMA Alarm Management System Online Help.

Testing a Service
Function You can initiate a service such as mobile originated call (MOC), data service, short message, or FTP to help determine the cause of a fault, or to check whether a fault is cleared. Application Scenario

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This method is used for Usage This method can help determine the scope and type of an equipment fault. In addition, after the fault is cleared, you can use this method to check whether the service is functional.

Using Instruments and Meters


Function Using instruments and meters is a common technical means for locating a fault. The measured data often directly tells where the fault lies. Application Scenario
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This method is used for locating a failure related to physical interfaces links, system clock, and equipment hardware. This method is used in supply tests, signaling analysis, and bit error rate (BER) check.

Usage
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For usage of an instrument or meter, refer to the related user manual.

Analyzing Measurement Results


Function You can create a performance measurement task and analyze the results to obtain the possible cause and the scope of a fault. Application Scenario This method is especially helpful in locating a fault related to system resources. Usage For usage of the performance management system, refer to the online help of the performance management system.

Using Packet Capturing Tools


Function You can use the Sniffer or Ethereal application to capture packets in an Ethernet network. This is helpful for analyzing a fault related to data transfer. Application Scenario Packet data service failures Usage For usage of the Sniffer or Ethereal application, refer to the related user manual.

Comparing and Interchanging


Function
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You can compare the symptoms of a faulty part with those of a normal part to find out the cause. This method is usually used for locating a fault with a single cause. If you cannot locate the fault after replacing the suspected component (such as a board or an optical fiber) with a spare one, you can replace the suspected component with a normal one, and then observe the changes. This method is usually used for locating a fault with complicated causes.

Application Scenario This method is particularly useful in locating a hardware fault. Usage For details about parts replacement, refer to cBSC6600 Site Maintenance Guide.

Using Drive Test Tools


Function This method is used for collecting air interface data, determining signal quality, and analyzing testing data.
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Application Scenario This method is used in network optimization. Usage For usage of a network-planning tool, refer to the related user manual.

Using Network-Planning Tools


Function This method is used for: $Calculating the number of sites in the target coverage area $Checking site configurations $Emulating the target coverage area $Negotiates cell parameters Application Scenario This method is used in network planning. Usage For usage of a network-planning tool, refer to the related user manual.

Performing a Switchover or Reset


Function You can switch over a device that operates in active and standby mode and compare the running status of the system before and after the switchover. In this way, you can find out whether the active device is faulty or the configuration of the active and standby pair is correct. You can reset a device to check for software problems, for example, the software is running with errors or the application fails to respond. Application Scenario This method is used for locating a fault related to upgrade or board software. Usage Resetting a device or partial of the device may interrupt the ongoing services. Use this method with cautions.

2.3 Troubleshooting Tools


This topic describes the troubleshooting tools and how to use these tools.

Tool List
Table 2-3 lists the tools used for troubleshooting faults.

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Table 2-3 Troubleshooting tools Type General tool Name LMT Purpose Used for troubleshooting a single network element (NE). After the M2000 reports a faulty NE, you can logs to the NE through the LMT and analyze the cause of the fault. You can use the LMT to query the status and parameters of the NE and to track signaling messages. The Alarm Management System reports alarm information on a real-time basis and provides a conditioned search of history alarms. You can locate a fault by analyzing the related alarms. The M2000 client provides performance statistics of a NE. The Nastar is helpful in locating a network fault by analyzing network performance and situations. The Cait is used for analyzing the performance of radio links. The Iperf is used for locating a fault in a wired connection. The DSLA is a device used to analyze the quality of voice. The DSLA is a product of Malden and is an easy-to-use device in analyzing the quality of a point-to-point call. Usage Refer to the Airbridge cBSS CDMA Service Maintenance System Online Help.

Alarm management system

Refer to the Airbridge cBSS CDMA Alarm Management System Online Help.

M2000 client

Refer to the online help delivered with the tool. Refer to the online help delivered with the tool. Refer to the online help delivered with the tool. Refer to the online help delivered with the tool. Refer to the package of DSLA user manuals.

Nastar

Dedicated tools

Cait

Iperf

Meters

Digital Speech Level Analyser (DSLA)

LMT
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Introduction to the LMT

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The LMT is a local maintenance terminal that connects to the BSC boards through the operation and maintenance network. It provides operation and maintenance on the BSC boards.
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Starting the LMT For details, refer to cBSC6600 Operation Guide.

Remote Access
For the principles and methods of remote access, refer to cBSC6600 Software Installation Guide.

2.4 Contacting Huawei for Technical Support


If the information in this manual is not enough for you to clear some specific or complicated problems, contact Huawei for technical support. 2.4.1 How to Contact the Huawei Technical Support Center This topic introduces the contact information of the Huawei Technical Support Center. 2.4.2 Information Submitted to the Huawei Technical Support Center Before contacting Huawei for technical support, collect the following information:

2.4.1 How to Contact the Huawei Technical Support Center


This topic introduces the contact information of the Huawei Technical Support Center. The contact information is listed as follows:
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Tel: +86 0755 28560000 Fax: +86 0755 28560111 E-mail: support@huawei.com Huawei technical support website: http://support.huawei.com

2.4.2 Information Submitted to the Huawei Technical Support Center


Before contacting Huawei for technical support, collect the following information:
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General information related to the fault


Full name of the site Name and telephone number of the contact Time when the fault occurs Symptoms of the fault Board software version of the equipment Measures taken after the fault occurs Severity level of the fault and time expected to clear the fault Alarms
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Information helpful for locating the fault

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cBSC6600 Troubleshooting Guide

Error logs of the boards Error logs of the BAM Operation logs of the maintenance console Diagnosis information CDR of an individual user Signaling message tracked over standard interfaces Data configuration

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3
About This Chapter

Clearing Access Failures

This topic describes the information related to access failures and how to troubleshoot access failures. 3.1 Introduction to MS Access The mobile station (MS) transmits on the Access Channel using a random access procedure. The access attempt is the entire process in which the MS sends a message and receives the response from the base station (BS). The MS performs access by sending access probes. Many access probes compose an access probe sequence, and many access probe sequences compose an access attempt. 3.2 Network Detection Failure upon Power-on After an MS is powered on in a certain area, it cannot detect the network. As a result, services are not available. 3.3 Slow Network Access The process for an MS to access the network in a certain area is very slow. It may take several tens of seconds. 3.4 Network Access Failure of Some MSs Some MSs can detect the network but fail to access it. 3.5 Illegal Access to the CDMA2000 1X Network The IS-95 MS accesses a network that allows only CDMA2000 1X MSs. 3.6 Failure to Access the BSC Owing to License Restriction Calls fail to access the BSC. All boards of the BSC and the CSWS are operational. On the Alarm Management System, a System License Invalid alarm is displayed. 3.7 Failure to Access a Module Owing to License Restriction Calls fail to access a module. All boards of the BSC and the CSWS are operational. The Alarm Management System reports an alarm "The Number of CEs with License Is 0." The cause value is "The allocation proportion of CEs for the module is too low."

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3.1 Introduction to MS Access


The mobile station (MS) transmits on the Access Channel using a random access procedure. The access attempt is the entire process in which the MS sends a message and receives the response from the base station (BS). The MS performs access by sending access probes. Many access probes compose an access probe sequence, and many access probe sequences compose an access attempt. Figure 3-1 shows the signaling flow of the calling MS accessing the air interface. Figure 3-1 Signaling flow of the calling MS accessing the air interface

The signaling flow is described as follows: 1. 2. 3. The MS sends an Origination Meg with the Layer 2 Ack Request on the access channel of the air interface to request services. Upon receipt of the Origination Meg, the BS sends a Base Ack Order to the MS. If the traffic channel is required for the call, the BS sends a Channel Assignment Message on the paging channel of the air interface to initiate the setup of the radio traffic channel and sends Null Traffic Data on the traffic channel to the MS to enable the MS to access the forward channel. The BS sends an ECAM message to the MS. The MS sends the Traffic Channel Preamble on the reverse traffic channel to enable the BS to access the reverse traffic channel.
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6. 7. 8.

After accessing the reverse traffic channel, the BS sends the Base Ack Order with the Layer 2 Ack Request on the forward traffic channel to the MS. Upon receipt of the Base Ack Order, the MS sends the MS Ack Order and sends Null Traffic Data on the reverse traffic channel. The BS sends the Service Connect Meg to the MS to specify the service configuration for the call. The MS begins processing services according to the specified service configuration. Upon receipt of the Service Connect Meg, the MS sends a Service Connect Complete message to the BS. After the radio traffic channel and terrestrial circuits are set up and interconnected, the BS sends an Assignment Complete message to the MSC and considers that the MS is in the conversation state.

9.

3.2 Network Detection Failure upon Power-on


After an MS is powered on in a certain area, it cannot detect the network. As a result, services are not available.

Troubleshooting
Figure 3-2 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the network detection failure upon poweron.

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Figure 3-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the network detection failure upon power-on

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Procedure
Step 1 Check the alarm information. Log in to the alarm management system and check if a BTS WSWR alarm is generated. Step 2 Check the state of the active carriers. Run DSP RES to query the state of the active carriers. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
DSP RES: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0;

The information displayed contains three states: operational state, administrative state, and usage state. The operational state indicates whether the physical equipment is operational. Table 3-1 describes the meanings of the operational state. Table 3-1 Meanings of the operational state Disabled The equipment is faulty. Enabled The equipment is operational.

The administrative state indicates the administration of this carrier by the user. Table 3-2 describes the meanings of the administrative state. Table 3-2 Meanings of administrative state Locked The user is not allowed to use this carrier. Shuttingdown The BLK RES command is being run. Unlocked The user is allowed to use this carrier.

The usage state indicates the usage of this carrier. Table 3-3 describes the meanings of the usage state. Table 3-3 Meanings of the usage state Idle This carrier is not used. Active This carrier is used and there is extra capacity for other users. Busy This carrier is used and there is no extra capacity for other users.

Step 3 Unblock the carrier. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to unblock the carrier:
UBL RES: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0;

After the command is executed, check whether the carrier is unblocked. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
DSP RES: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0;

Step 4 Conduct drive tests.


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Conduct drive tests and check whether there are areas that signals cannot reach, such as in an elevator and at the corners of a building. Step 5 Optimize the network. Improve network coverage. You can contact network planning engineers to optimize the network. Step 6 Check the output power of the BTS. Check the RF system of the BTS for failures in the output power. For information on the check items, refer to the associated BTS documents. Step 7 Clear the failure in the output power of the BTS. For details on how to clear the failure in the output power of the BTS, refer to the BTS maintenance documents. ----End

3.3 Slow Network Access


The process for an MS to access the network in a certain area is very slow. It may take several tens of seconds.

Troubleshooting
Figure 3-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the fault of slow network access.

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Figure 3-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the fault of slow network access

Procedure
Step 1 Check the reverse power control parameters and access parameters of the BSC. Run LST RRMINF to query the algorithm parameters such as the reverse power control parameters. Run LST SYSMSGPARA to query the system message parameters such as the access message parameters. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to query the reverse power control parameters of the BSC:
LST RRMINF: CN=8, SCTID=0, CRRID=10, RRMINF=RCLPC;

Run the following command to query the access parameters of the BSC:
LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=8, SCTID=0, CRRID=10, CCMINF=APM;

Check whether the value of Time of Response Timeout is too large and whether the value of Specified Tx Power Offset is too small. Step 2 Modify the reverse power control parameters and access parameters of the BSC. 1.
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Increase the value of NOMPWR in the reverse power control parameters.


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On the Service Maintenance System, run MOD APM to modify Specified Tx Power Offset. For example,
MOD APM: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, NOMPWR=6;

2.

Decrease the value of ACCTMO in access message parameters. On the Service Maintenance System, run MOD APM to modify the value of ACCTMO. For example,
MOD APM: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, ACCTMO=1;
NOTE

If the value of NOMPWR is too small, the close loop amendment using reverse power control measurement cannot correct the deviation caused in open loop evaluation. This leads to a low initial access power that may result in the failure of initial access for the first several times. The value range recommended by the protocol is from 8 dB to 7 dB. If the value of ACCTMO is too large, the duration between access attempts is long. As a result, the network access slows down. The recommended value range: 0 ms x 80 ms to 15 ms x 80 ms. The improper settings of NOMPWR and ACCTMO may affect the network quality. You must modify them based on the actual conditions and test the modification result. The slow network access may be caused by the incompatible settings of NOMPWR and ACCTMO. Therefore, consider the compatibility between the two parameters NOMPWR and ACCTMO.

Step 3 Conduct drive tests. $ Conduct drive tests and observe whether the following problems exist: Poor signal strength High signal fluctuation Frequent international mobile subscriber identify (IMSI) detach when an MS is in the idle status
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If the test shows that the received signal pilot is lower than 12 dB, the signal is poor. If the test shows that the received signal pilot has a fluctuant change or that the MS frequently falls into the idle status when it travels to the border of the cell an area that suffers from interference of multiple carriers, the process for the MS to access the network becomes slow.

Step 4 Optimize the network. If the drive test shows that the signals are poor and vibrate greatly, contact the network planning engineers to optimize the network. Step 5 Check the BTS faults. For details on how to clear the BTS faults, refer to the BTS manuals. ----End

3.4 Network Access Failure of Some MSs


Some MSs can detect the network but fail to access it.

Troubleshooting
Figure 3-4 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the network access failure of some MSs.

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Figure 3-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the network access failure of some MSs

Procedure
Step 1 Check the minimum protocol version of the BSC. Run LST MDU to query the attributes of modules such as the protocol version and the minimum protocol version. Step 2 Check the protocol version and model of the MS. The query method varies according to the types of MS. For details, refer to the instructions of the MS.
NOTE

An MS of a high version supports overhead messages of a high version only. If the BSC protocol version is too low, the MS fails to access the network due to the different overhead message structures. An MS of a low protocol version supports overhead messages of a low version only. If the BSC protocol version is too high, the MS fails to access the network.

Step 3 Modify the minimum protocol version supported by the network. Run MOD PREV to modify the protocol version and the minimum protocol version supported by the CDMA2000 1X network or the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO network. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD PREV: FN=4, PREV1X =4, MINPREV1X =2;

----End
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3.5 Illegal Access to the CDMA2000 1X Network


The IS-95 MS accesses a network that allows only CDMA2000 1X MSs.

Troubleshooting
Figure 3-5 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the fault of illegal access to the CDMA2000 1X network. Figure 3-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the fault of illegal access to the CDMA2000 1X network

Procedure
Step 1 Check the minimum protocol version of the BSC. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST MDU: FN=4, MN=0;

Step 2 Modify the minimum protocol version supported by the network.


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Run MOD PREV to modify the protocol version and the minimum protocol version supported by the CDMA2000 1X network or the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO network. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD PREV: FN=4, PREV=6, MINPREV=6;

To prohibit an IS-95 MS from accessing the CDMA 1X network, set both MINPREV and PREV to 6. Step 3 Check whether the data on the BSC and on the BAM is consistent. Run STR CRC to check whether the BSC data and the BAM data in the service data table of the main control board are consistent. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
STR CRC: FN=4, BTP=CSPU;

Step 4 Modify the minimum protocol version supported by the network. Run MOD PREV to modify the protocol version and the minimum protocol version supported by the CDMA2000 1X network or the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO network. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD PREV: FN=4, PREV=6, MINPREV=6;

This fault rarely occurs. If such a case occurs, it might be caused by inconsistent data on the BSC and BAM. Contact Huawei engineers to clear the fault. ----End

3.6 Failure to Access the BSC Owing to License Restriction


Calls fail to access the BSC. All boards of the BSC and the CSWS are operational. On the Alarm Management System, a System License Invalid alarm is displayed.

Troubleshooting
Figure 3-6 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the failure to access the BSC owing to license restriction.

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Figure 3-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the failure to access the BSC owing to license restriction

Procedure
Step 1 Query the cause of the System License Invalid alarm. Start the Alarm Management System on the maintenance terminal. Query the history alarms. Find the System License Invalid alarm and double-click it. The cause of the alarm is detailed in the explanation. Step 2 No License file is in the BAM loading directory.
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Check whether the cbsclicense.dat file is in the BAM directory ..\cdma2000\Loaddata. Step 3 Clear the transmission failure between the BAM and the BSC. If the file transmission fails, the transmission link between the BAM and the BAM may be faulty. For details, refer to 22 Clearing OM Failures. Step 4 Recover the license file. If the decoding of the license file fails, the license file is destroyed. Run ULD LICENSE to upload the license file stored in the Flash memory of the XPUOa to the BAM. The uploaded license file is stored in the directory ..\cdma2000\license by default, with the name license.ffss ("ff" is the subrack number and "ss" is the slot number). Step 5 Apply for a new license file. Step 6 Copy the valid license file to the BAM loading directory. Copy the valid License file to the BAM loading directory ..\cdma2000\Loaddata. Step 7 Forcibly load the license file. Run LOD LICENSE on the LMT. Forcible loading of the license file may affect ongoing services. Perform this operation in light traffic hours. Step 8 Check whether the number of configured carriers exceeds the limit. The number of configured carriers exceeds the limit of the license file. Step 9 Delete the redundant carriers. On the LMT, run RMV CDMACH to delete carriers. Ensure that the number of configured carriers is less than or equal to the limit specified in the license file. Step 10 Check whether the equipment ESN matches that specified in the license file. The equipment ESN does not match the ESN specified in the license file. The equipment ESN is written to the flash memory of the CRMU. The license file is requested through the ESNs of the active and standby CRMUs. Therefore, the requested license file is available only for the CRMU. If the CRMU is replaced, the equipment ESN does not match that specified in the license file. The system runs in trial mode for 60 days. If the faults are not cleared 60 days later, the license becomes invalid. Step 11 Change for the CRMU with the matching ESN, or apply for the license file by using a new ESN. Apply for the license file by using a new ESN.

CAUTION
The system backs up the license file from the BAM to the emergency workstation every day. Therefore, if the license file is lost, operators can get it from the loading directory of the emergency workstation. ----End

3.7 Failure to Access a Module Owing to License Restriction


Calls fail to access a module. All boards of the BSC and the CSWS are operational. The Alarm Management System reports an alarm "The Number of CEs with License Is 0." The cause value is "The allocation proportion of CEs for the module is too low."
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Troubleshooting
Figure 3-7 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the failure to access a module owing to license restriction. Figure 3-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the failure to access a module owing to license restriction

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current license configuration information. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP LICENSECFG to query the current License configuration information of each module. For the minimum configuration, the system prompts
System in minimum configuration, each carrier can use 3 CEs.

Step 2 Switch over or reset the CSPU. The system is not operational if the license is in minimum configuration. Run STR MANUALSWITCHING to switch over the CSPU, or run RST BRD to reset it, or right-click on the equipment panel of the Service Maintenance System to switch over or reset the CSPU. Step 3 Query the allocation proportion of CE resources of each module. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST MNCEPERCENT to query the allocation proportion of CE resources of each module.
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Step 4 Set the allocation proportion of CE resources of each module. If the allocation proportion of CE resources is 0 or too small, run MOD MNCEPERCENT to set the allocation proportion of CE resources again. ----End

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4
About This Chapter

Clearing MOC Failures

This topic describes the information related to mobile originated call (MOC) failures and how to troubleshoot MOC failures. 4.1 Introduction to the MOC Procedure This topic describes the MOC procedure in the CDMA2000 1X network. 4.2 Assignment Failure due to Unavailability of Radio Resource Calls originated from an MS fail. The messages traced on the A1 interface show that the cause value of the Assignment Failure message is "no radio resource available, 0x21." 4.3 Assignment Failure Due to Unavailability of Requested Terrestrial Resource Assignment failure occurs during mobile originated calls. The cause value is "requested terrestrial resource unavail." The unavailability of terrestrial resource may be caused by the lack of EVC resource or by an A2 circuit failure. 4.4 Clear Command due to Protocol Error Between BSC and MSC Calls originated from an MS fail. The messages traced on the A1 interface show that the MSC sends a Clear Command after receiving the CM Service request from the BSC, with the cause value of "protocol error between BSC and MSC, 0x60". 4.5 Clear Command due to Authentication Failure Calls originated from an MS fail. The messages traced on the A1 interface show that the MSC sends a Clear Command to the BSC, with the cause value of "Authentication Failure, 0x1A". 4.6 MOC Failure due to a Received N_DISCONNECT_IND Message Calls originated from an MS fail. The messages traced on the A1 interface show that the BSC receives an N_DISCONNECT_IND message after sending the CM Service Request to the MSC. The call setup fails.

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4.1 Introduction to the MOC Procedure


This topic describes the MOC procedure in the CDMA2000 1X network. The CDMA2000 1X MS-originated call procedure is shown in Figure 4-1. Figure 4-1 MS-Originated Call Procedure

The MS-originated call procedure is described as follows: 1. 2. 3. The MS sends the Origination Message to the BSS on the access channel of the air interface and requires an ACK from the BSS. After receiving the Origination Message, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the MS. The BSS constructs the CM Service Request message. After encapsulating the message, the BSS it to the MSC. For calls that require circuit switching, the BSS, in this message, can recommend the required terrestrial circuit and request the MSC to assign this circuit. The MSC sends the Assignment Request to the BSS to request radio resources. If the MSC supports the terrestrial circuit that is recommended by the BSS in the CM Service Request message, the MSC assigns this terrestrial circuit in the Assignment Request message. If the MSC does not supports the terrestrial circuit that is recommended by the BSS in the CM Service Request message, the MSC assigns another terrestrial circuit. After assigning traffic channels for the MS, the BSS sends the Channel Assignment Message or the Extended Channel Assignment Message over the paging channel to start setting up radio traffic channels.
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5.

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6. 7. 8. 9.

The MS sends the Traffic Channel preamble (TCH Preamble) on the specified reverse traffic channel. After acquiring the reverse traffic channel, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order on the forward channel and requires an ACK from the MS. The MS sends the MS Ack Order on the reverse traffic channel as a response to the BS Ack Order from the BSS. The BSS sends the Service Connect Message or the Service Option Response Order to the MS to specify the service configuration used for the call.

10. After receiving the Service Connect Message or the Service Option Response Order, the MS starts to process services according to the specified service configuration and responds with the Service Connect Completion Message. 11. After the radio traffic channel and the terrestrial circuit are both successfully connected, the BSS sends the Assignment Complete Message to the MSC. You can infer that the MS is engaged in a call. 12. If the calling process tone is provided within the TCH frame, the ring back tone is sent to the MS through the voice circuit.

4.2 Assignment Failure due to Unavailability of Radio Resource


Calls originated from an MS fail. The messages traced on the A1 interface show that the cause value of the Assignment Failure message is "no radio resource available, 0x21."

Troubleshooting
Figure 4-2 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the assignment failure due to lack of radio resource.

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Figure 4-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the assignment failure due to lack of radio resource

Procedure
Step 1 Query the AAL2 traffic links configured for the BSC. Run LST AAL2PATH to query the AAL2 traffic links configured for the BSC.
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On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:


LST AAL2PATH: PATHANI="129.11.17.116", PATHID=1;

Step 2 Query the AAL2 traffic links configured for the BTS. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST BTSLNK to query the AAL2 traffic links configured for the BTS. Step 3 Check whether the AAL2 traffic links configured for the BTS and the BSC are consistent. Compare the configuration results in Step 1 and Step 2. The AAL2 traffic links configured for the BSC and the BTS must have the correspondence as listed in Table 4-1. Table 4-1 Meanings of the administrative state Locked The user is not allowed to use this carrier. Shuttingdown The BLK RES command is being run. Unlocked The user is allowed to use this carrier.

Step 4 Configure the AAL2 traffic links for the BSC. Run ADD BTSTRFLNK to configure the AAL2 traffic links for the BSC. For example, configure an AAL2 traffic link at the BSC side. The VPI is set to 1, the VCI is set to 250, and the PVCIDX is set to 1. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
ADD BTSTRFLNK: BTSID=0, FN=4, SN=SN0, LM=IMA, IMAGN=0, TRFLNKLST="1-250-1", LNKBW=BW1.6M;

Step 5 Delete specified AAL2 traffic links from the BTS. Run RMV BTSTERTRFLNK to delete the AAL2 traffic links from the BTS. For example, to delete an AAL2 traffic link at the BTS side. The VPI is set to 1, and the VCI is set to 250. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
RMV BTSTERTRFLNK: BTSID=0, CPMID=0, BTSVCI=250;

Step 6 Configure the AAL2 traffic links for the BTS. Run ADD BTSTERTRFLNK to configure the AAL2 traffic links for the BTS. For example, configure an AAL2 traffic link at the BTS side. The BSCVPI is set to 1, the BSCVCI is set to 250, and the PVCIDX is set to 1. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
ADD BTSTERTRFLNK: BTSID=0, CPMID=0, BCIMID=0, BEARERTP=ATM, LNKGRPID=0, LNKPOR=2, BSCVCI=250, BTSVCI=250, PVCIDX=1;
NOTE

The VCCI value in the parameter TRFLNKLST in the ADD BTSTRFLNK command at the BSC side must be consistent with the value of PVCIDX in the ADD BTSTERTRFLNK command at the BTS side, as listed in Table 4-2. Table 4-2 Correspondence between ADD BTSTRFLNK and ADD BTSTERTRFLNK ADD BTSTRFLNK TRFLNKLST (VPI-VCI-VCCI) 1-250-1, 1-249-2, 1-248-3 ADD BTSTERTRFLNK BSCVPI 1 1 BSCVCI 250 249 PVCIDX 1 2

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ADD BTSTRFLNK ADD BTSTERTRFLNK 1 248

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----End

4.3 Assignment Failure Due to Unavailability of Requested Terrestrial Resource


Assignment failure occurs during mobile originated calls. The cause value is "requested terrestrial resource unavail." The unavailability of terrestrial resource may be caused by the lack of EVC resource or by an A2 circuit failure. 4.3.1 EVC Resources Unavailable Calls originated from an MS fail. The messages traced on the A1 interface show that the cause value of the Assignment Failure message is "requested terrestrial resource unavailable, 0x22". 4.3.2 A2 Circuit Failure Calls originated from an MS fail. The messages traced on the A1 interface show that the cause value of the Assignment Failure message is "requested terrestrial resource unavailable, 0x22".

4.3.1 EVC Resources Unavailable


Calls originated from an MS fail. The messages traced on the A1 interface show that the cause value of the Assignment Failure message is "requested terrestrial resource unavailable, 0x22".

Troubleshooting
Figure 4-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the assignment failure due to unavailability of terrestrial resource. Figure 4-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the assignment failure due to unavailability of terrestrial resource.

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Procedure
Step 1 Check the voice service options of the current call. On the Service Maintenance System, enable A1 interface tracking and use the Assignment Request message whose type is A1 to search the voice service options of the call. Step 2 Query the allocation of EVC resources. If the EVC resources required by the service are used up, or if there are no related EVC resources, the terrestrial circuit becomes unavailable and an assignment failure occurs. Run DSP DSPTCSTAT to check the DSP resource of the DPUTb in the subrack where the allocated circuit resides. For example,
DSP DSPTCSTAT: FN=4;

The output is as follows:


%%DSP DSPTCSTAT: FN=4;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded %%DSP DSPTCSTAT: FN=4;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Query Result -----------UseEVRC+Q8KTotalTimeslots = 160 UseEVRC+Q8KIdleTimeslots = 160 UseEVRC+Q13KTotalTimeslots = 160 UseEVRC+Q13KIdleTimeslots = 160 UseQ8K+Q13KTotalTimeslots = 192 UseQ8K+Q13KIdleTimeslots = 192 --END

Step 3 Adjust the proportion of the EVC resources.


l

If the number of idle timeslots for the service option required by an MS is zero, suspect that the proportions of the EVC voice code algorithms are incorrect. Adjust the proportions based on traffic measurement results such as proportion of resources and number of failures to allocate resources. If the proportions of the EVC voice code algorithms are correct but the EVC resources remains insufficient (with an amount less than that of the radio channel resources), add more CEVCs to expand the capacity.

You can adjust the proportions of the EVC voice code algorithms based on the number of assigned resources and the number of assignment failures. Run MOD EVCDSP to the EVC voice code algorithm configuration. For example,
MOD EVCDSP: FN=4, LODPRGMTP=EVRC+QCELP8K;
NOTE

After the EVC voice code algorithm configuration is modified, the DSP program must be reloaded, and the calls related to the DSP program are affected.

----End

4.3.2 A2 Circuit Failure


Calls originated from an MS fail. The messages traced on the A1 interface show that the cause value of the Assignment Failure message is "requested terrestrial resource unavailable, 0x22".

Troubleshooting
The other cause of required terrestrial resource unavailable is that the mobile switching center (MSC) has no available CIC resources to set up the call.
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Procedure
Step 1 For details about troubleshooting, refer to A2 Interface Circuit Failure. ----End

4.4 Clear Command due to Protocol Error Between BSC and MSC
Calls originated from an MS fail. The messages traced on the A1 interface show that the MSC sends a Clear Command after receiving the CM Service request from the BSC, with the cause value of "protocol error between BSC and MSC, 0x60".

Troubleshooting
Figure 4-4 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the MOC failure due to protocol error between BSC and MSC. Figure 4-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the MOC failure due to protocol error between BSC and MSC

Procedure
Step 1 Check the A interface protocol versions of the BSC and the MSC.

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On the Service Maintenance System, run LST BSCINF to query the A interface protocol version of the BSC. To query the A interface protocol version of the MSC, contact MSC maintenance engineers. Step 2 Compare the A interface protocol versions of the BSC and the MSC. The A interface protocol version of the MSC should match with that of the BSC. Step 3 Modify the A interface protocol versions of the BSC and the MSC to keep them consistent. 1. Run MOD BSCINF to modify the A interface protocol version of the BSC. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD BSCINF: APVER=IOS4.1;

2.

Modify the A interface protocol version of the MSC. For detailed operation, contact MSC maintenance engineers.

----End

4.5 Clear Command due to Authentication Failure


Calls originated from an MS fail. The messages traced on the A1 interface show that the MSC sends a Clear Command to the BSC, with the cause value of "Authentication Failure, 0x1A".

Troubleshooting
Figure 4-5 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the MOC failure due to authentication failure.

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Figure 4-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the MOC failure due to authentication failure

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the BSC enables global challenge. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST SYSMSGPARA to check whether the BSC enables global challenge. For example,
LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, CCMINF=AUTH;

The output is as follows:


%%LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, CCMINF=AUTH;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Authentication Information --------------------------

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Cell ID 20 Sector ID 0 Carrier ID 0 Authentication Flag Not Authenticate

4 Clearing MOC Failures


Auth Random Check Value 100.00

(Total result = 1) --END


NOTE

If the home location register (HLR) or the authentication center (AC) needs to authenticate the MS, you must enable the global challenge on the BSC. During the authentication process, the BSC informs the MS of the authentication request through overhead messages and forwards the calculated AUTHR to the MSC. The authentication parameters are AUTHR, RAND (determined by the BSC), RANDC, and COUNT. The HLR/AC authenticates an MS according to these parameters.

Step 2 Enable BSC global challenge. You can run MOD AUTH to modify the authentication switch parameter. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD AUTH: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, AUTH=YES;

Table 4-3 describes the meanings of the AUTH values. Table 4-3 Description of AUTH values in AUTH_PARA data table AUTH Value 0 1 Meaning The message does not contain the authentication information unit. The message contains the authentication information unit.

Step 3 Query the settings of the authentication parameters in the MS/Removable User Identity Module (R_UIM) and the HLR/AC. Check the values of the IMSI, electronic serial No. (ESN), and A_Key in the HLR/AC and the MS/R_UIM. Compare the values of the IMSI, ESN, and A_Key. Contact HLR/AC and MS/ R_UIM maintenance engineers for help.
NOTE

The R_UIM is an IC card for MSs in a CDMA network. The functions of the R_UIM are similar to those of the SIM card in a GSM network. In the MS with the R_UIM, the UIM ID, in place of the ESN, is used for authentication.

Step 4 Modify the authentication parameters in the MS/R_UIM or the HLR/AC. Modify the authentication parameters in the HLR/AC or the MS to keep them consistent. Check and compare the values of the IMSI, ESN, and A_Key. Contact HLR/AC and MS/R_UIM maintenance engineers for help. Step 5 Perform the service support data (SSD) update and authentication test on the MS. To ensure that the SSD in the HLR/AC matches the SSD in the MS, update the SSD. To trigger an SSD update procedure, run related commands on the HLR/AC or delete the subscriber data and then add the data to the HLR again. For details, contact HLR/AC maintenance engineers. Check whether the global challenge and call setup procedures of other MSs are successful. If a certain MS/R_RIM fails the authentication, insert the R_UIM into another MS that passes authentication and insert another R_UIM that passes authentication into the failed MS to conduct
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a comparison test. Determine whether the problem lies in the R_UIM or the MS, depending on the comparison test result. Step 6 Inhibit the authentication of the specific MS. In the HLR/AC, disable authentication for the MSs that do not support the function. You can infer that the MS does not support authentication if:
l

The MS fails to report authentication parameters in origination messages, paging responses, registration messages, or short messages. The authentication parameters reported by the MS are incomplete. The SSD update fails. The authentication parameters are correct but the specific R_UIM always fails the authentication.

l l

On the HLR/AC, you can disable the authentication to a specific user (such as an MS or a faulty R_UIM) who does not support the authentication mode. After the authentication is disabled, the user can successfully initiate a call. Contact HLR/AC maintenance engineers for help. ----End

4.6 MOC Failure due to a Received N_DISCONNECT_IND Message


Calls originated from an MS fail. The messages traced on the A1 interface show that the BSC receives an N_DISCONNECT_IND message after sending the CM Service Request to the MSC. The call setup fails.

Troubleshooting
Figure 4-6 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the MOC failure due to the received N_DISCONNECT_IND message.

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Figure 4-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the MOC failure due to the received N_DISCONNECT_IND message

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the A1 interface signaling link is operational. For details, refer to A2 Interface Circuit Failure. Step 2 Clear the fault of the A1 interface signaling link. For details, refer to A2 Interface Circuit Failure.
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Step 3 Check whether the base station subsystem application part (BSSAP) in the BSC matches that in the MSC. 1. Run LST SCCPSSN to query the BSSAP in the BSC. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SCCPSSN: SSNIDX=0;

The output is as follows:


%%LST SCCPSSN: SSNIDX=0;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded SCCP Subsystem -------------Subsystem Index = 0 Network Indicator = National Subsystem No. = BSSAP/A Interface DSP = 0x00E003 OSP = 0x00D00A Local Related Subsystem 1 = Invalid Local Related Subsystem 2 = Invalid Local Related Subsystem 3 = Invalid Local Related Subsystem 4 = Invalid Local Related Subsystem 5 = Invalid Backup Subsystem Index = Invalid (Total result = 1) --END

2. 1.

Contact MSC maintenance engineers to check the BSSAP set in the MSC. To modify the BSSAP network indicator in the BSC, run ADD N7OPC on the Service Maintenance System. For example,
ADD N7OPC: OPC="0x00E003", IFSCMP=YES, SSN=BSSAPGS, LNKSMSK=M0000;

Step 4 Modify the BSSAP network indicator in the BSC or in the MSC.

After executing the command, format the data and reset the BSC to make the data effective. 2. To modify the BSSAP in the MSC, contact MSC maintenance engineers. Step 5 Check whether the signaling connection control part (SCCP) subsystem numbers (SSNs) set in the BSC and in the MSC are consistent. If they are not consistent, a fault may occur. 1. Run LST SCCPSSN to query the SCCP SSN in the BSC. For example,
LST SCCPSSN: SSNIDX=0;

The output is as follows:


%%LST SCCPSSN: SSNIDX=0;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded SCCP Subsystem -------------Subsystem Index = 0 Network Indicator = National Subsystem No. = BSSAP/A Interface DSP = 0x00E003 OSP = 0x00D00A Local Related Subsystem 1 = Invalid Local Related Subsystem 2 = Invalid Local Related Subsystem 3 = Invalid Local Related Subsystem 4 = Invalid Local Related Subsystem 5 = Invalid Backup Subsystem Index = Invalid (Total result = 1) --END

2.

Contact MSC maintenance engineers to query the SCCP SSN in the MSC.

Step 6 Modify the SCCP SSN in the MSC or in the BSC. Keep the configurations of the SCCP SSNs in the BSC and in the MSC consistent.
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1.

Run MOD SCCPSSN to modify the SCCP SSN in the BSC. For example,
MOD SCCPSSN: SSNIDX=0, SSN=BSSAPI;

2.

To modify the SCCP SSN in the MSC, contact MSC maintenance engineers.

----End

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5
About This Chapter

Clearing MTC Failures

This topic describes the information related to mobile terminated call (MTC) failures and how to troubleshoot MTC failures. 5.1 Introduction to the MTC Procedure This topic describes the MTC procedure in the CDMA2000 1X network. 5.2 Paging Request Not Received by the BSC Calls to an MS in the idle state fail. The tracing on the A1 interface shows that the MSC does not sends the Paging Request message to the BSC. 5.3 Paging Response Not Received by BSC This topic describes how to troubleshoot the MTC failure due to Paging Response not received by the BSC. 5.4 Assignment Failure due to Unavailability of Radio Resource Calls to an MS fail for several consecutive times. The messages traced on the A interface show that the MSC receives an Assignment Failure message. In addition, a BTS overload alarm is generated on the Alarm Management System.

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5.1 Introduction to the MTC Procedure


This topic describes the MTC procedure in the CDMA2000 1X network. The CDMA2000 1X MS-terminated call procedure is shown in Figure 5-1. Figure 5-1 MS-Terminated Call Procedure

The MS-terminated call procedure is described as follows: 1. 2. 3. When the paged MS is within the servicing area of the MSC, the MSC sends the Paging Request to the BSS to start the process of paging the MS. On the paging channel, the BSS sends the General Page Message that carries the identity code of the MS. After recognizing the Paging Request that is sent on the paging channel and contains its identity code, the MS sends the Page Response Message to the BSS on the access channel.
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4.

The BSS uses information that is received from the MS to form a Paging Response message. After encapsulating this message, the BSS sends it to the MSC. In this message, the BSS can recommend the required terrestrial circuit and request the MSC to assign this circuit. After receiving the Paging Response message, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the MS. The MSC sends the Assignment Request to the BSS to request radio resources. If the MSC supports the terrestrial circuit that is recommended by the BSS in the Paging Response message, the MSC assigns this terrestrial circuit in the Assignment Request message. If the MSC does not supports the terrestrial circuit that is recommended by the BSS in the Assignment Request message, the MSC assigns another terrestrial circuit. After assigning traffic channels for the MS, the BSS sends the Channel Assignment Message or the Extended Channel Assignment Message over the paging channel to start setting up radio traffic channels. The MS sends the Traffic Channel preamble (TCH Preamble) on the specified reverse traffic channel. After acquiring the reverse traffic channel, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order on the forward channel and requires an ACK from the MS.

5. 6.

7.

8. 9.

10. The MS sends the MS Ack Order on the reverse traffic channel as a response to the BS Ack Order from the BSS. 11. The BSS sends the Service Connect Message or the Service Option Response Order to the MS to specify the service configuration used for the call. 12. After receiving the Service Connect Message, the MS starts to process services according to the specified service configuration and responds with the Service Connect Completion Message. 13. After the radio traffic channel and the terrestrial circuit are both successfully connected, the BSS sends the Assignment Complete Message to the MSC. You can infer that the MS is engaged in a call. 14. The BSS sends the Alert with Info to the MS to tell the MS to ring. 15. After receiving the Alert with Info, the MS sends the MS Ack Order to the BSS and starts ringing. 16. When answering this call (off-hook), the MS sends the Connect Order that carries Layer 2 verification request to the BSS. 17. After receiving the Connect Order, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the BSS on the forward traffic channel. 18. The BSS sends the Connect Message to inform the MSC that the MS already answers this call. At this time, you can infer that the MS is engaged in a call.

5.2 Paging Request Not Received by the BSC


Calls to an MS in the idle state fail. The tracing on the A1 interface shows that the MSC does not sends the Paging Request message to the BSC.

Troubleshooting
Figure 5-2 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to Paging Request not received by the BSC.

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Figure 5-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to Paging Request not received by the BSC

Procedure
Step 1 Check the subscription data of the called MS in the HLR. Query the IMSI, MDN, and ESN of the called MS in the HLR. Contact HLR maintenance engineers for help. Step 2 Check the setting of the called MS. Check the ESN of the MS and the values of the IMSI and MDN set in the MS by using the super password. Super passwords vary according to the types of MS.
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Step 3 Check the setting of the BSC Power-up Registration Flag. Run LST SYSMSGPARA to query the Power-up Registration Flag in the overhead message. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, CCMINF=SPM;

If the Power-up Registration Flag is set to Registered, the power-up registration is enabled. Step 4 Enable BSC power-up registration. On the Service Maintenance System, run MOD SPM to modify the parameter settings to enable the power-up registration. Assume that the cell ID of the called MS is 20, the sector ID is 0, and the carrier ID is 0. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD SPM: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, PWRUP=YES;

After running this command, repeat Step 3 to check that the modification is successful. Step 5 Clear MSC and HLR faults. If the subscriber data in the HLR is correct and the MS has registered in the network, the fault does not lie in the BSC. If the MSC does not sends the Paging Request message yet, contact MSC and HLR maintenance engineers to locate and clear the fault. ----End

5.3 Paging Response Not Received by BSC


This topic describes how to troubleshoot the MTC failure due to Paging Response not received by the BSC. 5.3.1 IMSI Inconsistency The MS of a certain type is operational when it serves as the calling party. The MS, however, fails when it serves as the called party. The signaling tracing on the A interface of the MSC shows that the MSC receives no response after sending the paging request to the BSC. The mobile country code of the MS is 450 and cannot be modified. The IMSI registered by the MS is 460000094001xxxx, but the IMSI in the paging request message sent from the MSC to the BSC is 46003094001xxxx. 5.3.2 LA/Cell Data Not Configured In normal cases, the MSC sends the Paging Request message to several BSCs. Some of the BSCs, however, do not receive such a message. After receiving the Paging Request message from the MSC, the BSC does not send a Page Message to the designated cells. 5.3.3 MS Registration Failure Calls to an MS fail. The messages traced on the Um interface show that the BSC receives no Page Response Message. 5.3.4 Wrong Setting of Zone-Based Registration Parameters Calls to an MS fail. The messages traced on the Um interface show that the BSC receives no Page Response Message. 5.3.5 Failure of Extended Boundary Paging Based on Real LAC After receiving the Paging Request from the MSC, the BSC does not send the Page message to the neighbor LACs of the designated LAC. 5.3.6 Failure of Extended Boundary Paging Based on Idle Handoff Relation After receiving the Paging Request from the MSC, the BSC does not send the Page Message to the neighbor cells that have an idle handoff relation with the designated cell.
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5.3.7 Failure of MSC Extended Boundary Paging The extended boundary paging function is enabled on the MSC, but paging still fails.

5.3.1 IMSI Inconsistency


The MS of a certain type is operational when it serves as the calling party. The MS, however, fails when it serves as the called party. The signaling tracing on the A interface of the MSC shows that the MSC receives no response after sending the paging request to the BSC. The mobile country code of the MS is 450 and cannot be modified. The IMSI registered by the MS is 460000094001xxxx, but the IMSI in the paging request message sent from the MSC to the BSC is 46003094001xxxx.

Troubleshooting
Figure 5-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to IMSI inconsistency.

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Figure 5-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to IMSI inconsistency

Procedure
Step 1 Check MSC data configuration. Check the subscription data of the MS and the GT translation data. Contact MSC maintenance engineers for help.

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Step 2 Modify MSC and HLR data configuration. If the subscription data of the MS and the GT translation data are wrong, you must correct them.
l l

If the GT translation data is wrong, contact MSC maintenance engineers to correct it. If the subscription data of the MS is wrong, contact HLR maintenance engineers to correct it.

Step 3 Check whether the data in the Paging Request is consistent with the BSC data configuration. On the Service Maintenance System, trace the signaling on the A1 interface. Check whether the IMSI and the target cell in the paging message are consistent with the actual configuration of the BSC. Step 4 Modify MCC and IMSI values.
l

If the data in the Paging Request queried in Step 3 is inconsistent with the BSC data, check the MSC data and BSC data, and modify wrong data. To modify BSC data, run ADD CELL and RMV CELL. To modify MSC data, contact MSC maintenance engineers.

l l

Step 5 Check whether the BSC sends a Paging Request to the MS. On the Service Maintenance System, trace Um interface signaling messages to see whether the BSC sends a Paging Request to the MS. If the BSC sends no Paging Request , you can infer that a BSC internal error occurs. Step 6 Check whether the MS parameters are consistent with the subscription data in the HLR. Query the MCC and IMSI values in the MS by using the super password. Check whether they are the same as the values defined in the HLR. If they are the same as the values defined in the HLR, you can infer that the MS is faulty. Step 7 Modify MCC and IMSI values. If the MS parameters are inconsistent with the subscription data in the HLR in Step 6, modify the MCC and IMSI values in the MS by using the super password. If some parameters of the MS cannot be modified, contact MSC maintenance engineers to set IMSI conversion for this MS. ----End

5.3.2 LA/Cell Data Not Configured


In normal cases, the MSC sends the Paging Request message to several BSCs. Some of the BSCs, however, do not receive such a message. After receiving the Paging Request message from the MSC, the BSC does not send a Page Message to the designated cells.

Troubleshooting
Figure 5-4 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to LA/cell data not configured.

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Figure 5-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to LA/cell data not configured

Context
NOTE

When an MS is called, the MSC checks the VDB for the LAC where the MS resides. Based on the LAC and cell data configured in the LAC and cell data table, the MSC searches the BSCs associated with the LAC and cell, and then sends the Paging Request message to these BSCs. After receiving the Paging Request message, the BSC checks whether its Cell table contains the LAC and cell data that is carried in the cell list information element of the Paging Request message. If the Cell table contains the LAC and cell data, the BSC sends the Paging Request message to the LAC and the cell. If the Cell table does not contain the LAC and cell data, the BSC does not send the Paging Request message to the LAC or the cell.

Procedure
Step 1 Trace signaling messages on the A1 interface. On the Service Maintenance System, trace signaling messages on the A1 interfaces of each related BSC. Record the BSCs that do not receive the Paging Request message. Step 2 Query the cell data configured in the BSC. Run LST CELL to query the cell information.
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On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:


LST CELL:;

You can obtain the information such as Cell ID and LAC and other information. Step 3 Query the LA and cell data configured in the MSC. Ask MSC maintenance engineers to query the LA and cell data. Step 4 Compare the cell data configured in the MSC and in the BSC. Check whether the data configuration in the BSC is consistent with that in the MSC.
l

If the cell data configured in the MSC and that in the BSC are inconsistent, modify them to keep them consistent. If the cell data configured in the MSC and that in the BSC are consistent, perform subsequent steps.

Step 5 Modify the LAC and cell data configured in the MSC. Ask MSC engineers to modify the LAC and cell data configured in the MSC. Step 6 Clear other faults. If the fault is not caused by incorrect LAC and cell data configured in the MSC, refer to other similar cases for solutions. ----End

5.3.3 MS Registration Failure


Calls to an MS fail. The messages traced on the Um interface show that the BSC receives no Page Response Message.

Troubleshooting
Figure 5-5 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to MS registration failure.

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Figure 5-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to MS registration failure

Procedure
Step 1 Query MS registration status. Run LST SYSMSGPARA to query the registration status of the MS. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=21, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, CCMINF=SPM;

The output is as follows:


%%LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=21, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, CCMINF=SPM;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded System Parameter Message -----------------------Cell ID = 21 Sector ID = 0 Carrier ID = 0 Registration Zone = 0 Reserved Registration Zones = 0 Zone Timer Duration = 60 Minutes Multiple SIDs Storage Flag = No Multiple NIDs Storage Flag = No Paging Channel Number = 1 Max. Timeslot Period Index = 1 Local Registration Flag = Automatic registration is

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required for local MSs (non-roaming MSs) SID Roaming Registration Flag = Automatic registration is required for MSs roaming from other SID NID Roaming Registration Flag = Automatic registration is required for MSs roaming from other NID Power-up Registration Flag = Registered Power-down Registration Flag = Registered System Message Parameter Change Registration Flag = Registered Time Registration = 30.893Minutes Distance Registration = Not Registered Rescan Flag = Not Scan BS Latitude = North Latitude 0 hours 0 minutes 0 seconds BS Longitude = East Longitude 0 hours 0 minutes 0 seconds Base ID = 0 Base Class = Public Microcell System (Total result = 1) --END

In the result, "Reserved Registration Zones=0" indicates that the zone-based registration is disabled. Step 2 Modify registration flags. To enable the registration, run MOD SPM to set both Power-up Registration Flag and Powerdown Registration Flag to YES. If the registration parameters are not set to the recommended values, run MOD SPM to modify them. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD SPM: CN=21, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, REGZN=0, TOTALZN=1, ZNTMR=M1, PWRUP=YES, PWRDWN=YES; l l l

Power-up Registration Flag: YES; Power-down Registration Flag: YES Reserved Registration Zones: 1 Zone Timer Duration: M1 (1 minute)

Step 3 Modify registration parameters. For details, refer to Wrong Setting of Zone-Based Registration Parameters. ----End

5.3.4 Wrong Setting of Zone-Based Registration Parameters


Calls to an MS fail. The messages traced on the Um interface show that the BSC receives no Page Response Message.

Troubleshooting
Figure 5-6 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to the wrong setting of zone-based registration parameters.

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Figure 5-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to the wrong setting of zonebased registration parameters

Procedure
Step 1 Query system parameter messages. Run LST SYSMSGPARA to query system parameter messages. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, CCMINF=SPM;

The output is as follows:


%%LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=106, SCTID=0, CRRID=10, CCMINF=SPM;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded System Parameter Message -----------------------Cell ID = 106 Sector ID = 0 Carrier ID = 10 Registration Zone = 0 Reserved Registration Zones = 0 Zone Timer Duration = 60 Minutes Multiple SIDs Storage Flag = No Multiple NIDs Storage Flag = No Paging Channel Number = 1 Max. Timeslot Period Index = 1 Local Registration Flag = Automatic registration is required for local MSs (non-roaming MSs)

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SID Roaming Registration Flag = Automatic registration is required for MSs roaming from other SID NID Roaming Registration Flag = Automatic registration is required for MSs roaming from other NID Power-up Registration Flag = Registered Power-down Registration Flag = Registered System Message Parameter Change Registration Flag = Registered Time Registration = 30.893Minutes Distance Registration = Not Registered Rescan Flag = Not Scan BS Latitude = North Latitude 0 hours 0 minutes 0 seconds BS Longitude = East Longitude 0 hours 0 minutes 0 seconds Base ID = 0 Base Class = Public Microcell System (Total result = 1) --END

Check the values of Registration Zone, Reserved Registration Zones (TOTAL_ZONES), and Zone Timer Duration (ZONE_TIMER). Step 2 Check the configuration of the registration zone. Run LST SYSMSGPARA to check the configuration of the registration zone. If two cells are configured as the same registration zone, the MS does not trigger zone-based registration. In such a case, ask network planning engineers to modify the configuration. Step 3 Modify the configuration of the registration zone. If the configuration of the registration zone is wrong, contact network planning engineers to modify it. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD SPM: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, REGZN=1;

Step 4 Check the parameter settings of the registration zone. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST SYSMSGPARA to check the parameter settings of the registration zone. To avoid paging failures, the zone-based registration parameters must be set as follows:
l l

Reserved Registration Zones: 1 Zone Timer Duration: M1 (1 minute)

If zone-based registration parameters are not set to the recommended values, modify them to the recommended values. Step 5 Modify zone-based registration parameters. Run MOD SPM to modify zone-based registration parameters. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD SPM: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, TOTALZN=1, ZNTMR=M1;

Step 6 Clear other problems. Clear other problems if all parameters are correct. ----End

5.3.5 Failure of Extended Boundary Paging Based on Real LAC


After receiving the Paging Request from the MSC, the BSC does not send the Page message to the neighbor LACs of the designated LAC.

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Procedure
Step 1 Check the setting of the extended boundary paging mode. 1. To check whether the extended boundary paging mode is set to Based on real LAC, run the following command on the Service Maintenance System:
LST EBPGPARA:;

2.

If the extended boundary paging mode is not set to Based on real LAC, run MOD EBPGPARA to modify it. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD EBPGPARA: EXTBNDPAGEMODE=REALPAGE, STRATTIME=2;

In the command, STARTTIME is the startup parameter. With the above setting, if the BSC fails to receive a Page Response after two successive pagings, it extends the page range based on real LAC and sends the Page Message to the neighbor LACs. Step 2 Check the configuration of neighbor LACs. 1. 2. Run LST NBRLAC to check the configuration of neighbor LACs. If no neighbor relation is defined, add one on the Service Maintenance System. For example, to add a neighbor relation for the LAC1 (0x0001) and LAC2 (0x0002), run the following command: ADD NBRLAC: REALLAC="0x0001", NBRLAC1="0x0002"

----End

5.3.6 Failure of Extended Boundary Paging Based on Idle Handoff Relation


After receiving the Paging Request from the MSC, the BSC does not send the Page Message to the neighbor cells that have an idle handoff relation with the designated cell.

Procedure
Step 1 Check the setting of extended boundary paging mode. 1. 2. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST EBPGPARA to check whether the extended boundary paging mode is set to "Based on idle handoff relation". If the extended boundary paging mode is not set to "Based on idle handoff relation", run the following command to change the paging mode: MOD EBPGPARA: EXTBNDPAGEMODE=NBRPAGE, STRATTIME=2; On the Service Maintenance System, run LST CELL to check whether the configuration of border cells is correct. If the configuration of a border cell is wrong, modify it on the Service Maintenance System. For example, to change cell 1 (0x01) to a border cell, run the following command: MOD CELL: CN=1, IFBORDCELL=YES; Step 3 Check the configuration of the idle handoff relations. 1. 2. To check the configuration of the idle handoff relations, run the following command: LST NBRCDMACH: NBRINF=IDLENBR; If no idle handoff relation is configured for two border cells, add one on the Service Maintenance System. For example, to add an idle handoff relation for cell 1 and cell 2, run the following command: ADD NBRCDMACH: CCDMACH="1-1-1-1",
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NBRCDMACHS="2-2-2-2", SFFLAG=SINGLE, DFFLAG=SINGLE, NBFLAG=SINGLE; ----End

5.3.7 Failure of MSC Extended Boundary Paging


The extended boundary paging function is enabled on the MSC, but paging still fails.

Procedure
Step 1 Check the setting of the extended boundary paging mode. 1. To check whether the extended boundary paging mode is set to Based on MSC, run the following command on the Service Maintenance System:
LST EBPGPARA:;

2.

If the extended boundary paging mode is not set to Based on MSC, run the following command to change it:
MOD EBPGPARA: EXTBNDPAGEMODE=INTERBSC;

Step 2 Check whether the MSC can process the Paging Response reported by another BSC. 1. If the MSC does not support the Paging Response from another BSC, disable the inter-BSC paging message forwarding on the BSC. Run the following command:
MOD SOFTPARA: SRVMN=CCM, PRMNO=20, PRMV="0x00000000";

2.

If the MSC supports the Paging Response from another BSC, enable the inter-BSC paging message forwarding on the BSC. Run the following command:
MOD SOFTPARA: SRVMN=CCM, PRMNO=20, PRMV="0x00000001";

----End

5.4 Assignment Failure due to Unavailability of Radio Resource


Calls to an MS fail for several consecutive times. The messages traced on the A interface show that the MSC receives an Assignment Failure message. In addition, a BTS overload alarm is generated on the Alarm Management System.

Troubleshooting
Figure 5-7 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to unavailability of radio resource.

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Figure 5-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure due to unavailability of radio resource

Procedure
Step 1 Query BTS load information. Run DSP RADIORESINDICATION to query the BTS load information. For example, to query the load of the carrier whose Carrier ID is 0, Sector ID is 0, and Cell ID is 20, run the following command:
DSP RADIORESINDICATION: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0;

Step 2 Check whether the reported BTS load conforms to the actual BTS load. If the BTS fails to report the actual load, the cause may be that the BTS is faulty or that the basic access threshold configured in the BSC is inappropriate.
NOTE

The forward load of the BTS is related to the number of forward common channels of the BTS and the number of data service subscribers. The more the forward common channels and the data service subscribers are, the larger the forward load is. When the forward load exceeds the basic access threshold set in the BSC, the BSC restricts calls and therefore assignment failure occurs.

Step 3 Clear the BTS fault. Contact BTS maintenance engineers to clear the fault. Step 4 Optimize the network. 1. If the actual load of the BTS keeps heavy, ask network optimization engineers to optimize the network.

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2.

If network optimization is not required, ask network optimization engineers to increase the basic access threshold to an appropriate value.

----End

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6
About This Chapter

Clearing Call Failures

This topic describes the information related to call failures and how to troubleshoot call failures. 6.1 Introduction to the Call Procedure This topic describes the MOC and MTC procedures in the CDMA2000 1X network. 6.2 Call Failures of Some V7.0 MSs Some V7.0 MSs can access to the network but fail to initiate a call. 6.3 Walsh Code Exception When a call is set up, the number of idle Walsh codes increases.

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6.1 Introduction to the Call Procedure


This topic describes the MOC and MTC procedures in the CDMA2000 1X network. The CDMA2000 1X MS-originated call procedure is shown in Figure 6-1. Figure 6-1 MS-Originated Call Procedure

The MS-originated call procedure is described as follows: 1. 2. 3. The MS sends the Origination Message to the BSS on the access channel of the air interface and requires an ACK from the BSS. After receiving the Origination Message, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the MS. The BSS constructs the CM Service Request message. After encapsulating the message, the BSS it to the MSC. For calls that require circuit switching, the BSS, in this message, can recommend the required terrestrial circuit and request the MSC to assign this circuit. The MSC sends the Assignment Request to the BSS to request radio resources. If the MSC supports the terrestrial circuit that is recommended by the BSS in the CM Service Request message, the MSC assigns this terrestrial circuit in the Assignment Request message. If the MSC does not supports the terrestrial circuit that is recommended by the BSS in the CM Service Request message, the MSC assigns another terrestrial circuit. After assigning traffic channels for the MS, the BSS sends the Channel Assignment Message or the Extended Channel Assignment Message over the paging channel to start setting up radio traffic channels.
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5.

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6. 7. 8. 9.

The MS sends the Traffic Channel preamble (TCH Preamble) on the specified reverse traffic channel. After acquiring the reverse traffic channel, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order on the forward channel and requires an ACK from the MS. The MS sends the MS Ack Order on the reverse traffic channel as a response to the BS Ack Order from the BSS. The BSS sends the Service Connect Message or the Service Option Response Order to the MS to specify the service configuration used for the call.

10. After receiving the Service Connect Message or the Service Option Response Order, the MS starts to process services according to the specified service configuration and responds with the Service Connect Completion Message. 11. After the radio traffic channel and the terrestrial circuit are both successfully connected, the BSS sends the Assignment Complete Message to the MSC. You can infer that the MS is engaged in a call. 12. If the calling process tone is provided within the TCH frame, the ring back tone is sent to the MS through the voice circuit. The CDMA2000 1X MS-terminated call procedure is shown in Figure 6-2. Figure 6-2 MS-Terminated Call Procedure

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The MS-terminated call procedure is described as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. When the paged MS is within the servicing area of the MSC, the MSC sends the Paging Request to the BSS to start the process of paging the MS. On the paging channel, the BSS sends the General Page Message that carries the identity code of the MS. After recognizing the Paging Request that is sent on the paging channel and contains its identity code, the MS sends the Page Response Message to the BSS on the access channel. The BSS uses information that is received from the MS to form a Paging Response message. After encapsulating this message, the BSS sends it to the MSC. In this message, the BSS can recommend the required terrestrial circuit and request the MSC to assign this circuit. After receiving the Paging Response message, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the MS. The MSC sends the Assignment Request to the BSS to request radio resources. If the MSC supports the terrestrial circuit that is recommended by the BSS in the Paging Response message, the MSC assigns this terrestrial circuit in the Assignment Request message. If the MSC does not supports the terrestrial circuit that is recommended by the BSS in the Assignment Request message, the MSC assigns another terrestrial circuit. After assigning traffic channels for the MS, the BSS sends the Channel Assignment Message or the Extended Channel Assignment Message over the paging channel to start setting up radio traffic channels. The MS sends the Traffic Channel preamble (TCH Preamble) on the specified reverse traffic channel. After acquiring the reverse traffic channel, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order on the forward channel and requires an ACK from the MS.

5. 6.

7.

8. 9.

10. The MS sends the MS Ack Order on the reverse traffic channel as a response to the BS Ack Order from the BSS. 11. The BSS sends the Service Connect Message or the Service Option Response Order to the MS to specify the service configuration used for the call. 12. After receiving the Service Connect Message, the MS starts to process services according to the specified service configuration and responds with the Service Connect Completion Message. 13. After the radio traffic channel and the terrestrial circuit are both successfully connected, the BSS sends the Assignment Complete Message to the MSC. You can infer that the MS is engaged in a call. 14. The BSS sends the Alert with Info to the MS to tell the MS to ring. 15. After receiving the Alert with Info, the MS sends the MS Ack Order to the BSS and starts ringing. 16. When answering this call (off-hook), the MS sends the Connect Order that carries Layer 2 verification request to the BSS. 17. After receiving the Connect Order, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the BSS on the forward traffic channel. 18. The BSS sends the Connect Message to inform the MSC that the MS already answers this call. At this time, you can infer that the MS is engaged in a call.

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6.2 Call Failures of Some V7.0 MSs


Some V7.0 MSs can access to the network but fail to initiate a call.

Troubleshooting
Figure 6-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the call failures of some V7.0 MSs. Figure 6-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the call failures of some V7.0 MSs

Procedure
Step 1 Trace a V7.0 MS that fails to initiate a call. On the Service Maintenance System, choose cdma 1X&EV-DO BSC Maintenance Tool Navigation Tree > Tracing > Subscriber Interface Tracing. The Subscriber Interface Message Tracing Setting dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 6-4. Enter the IMSI No. or ESN No. and select Um and Abis.

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Figure 6-4 Setting the subscriber interface message tracing function

Step 2 Modify the access parameters associated with the ACCT. Query the access parameters associated with the ACCT before modifying them. 1. Query the access parameter messages in the current system. Run LST SYSMSGPARA to query the system message parameters. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=10, SCTID=0, CRRID=9, CCMINF=EAPM;

where, CN is the cell ID, SCTID is the sector ID, and CRRID is the carrier ID. Enter values of CN, SCTID, and CRRID according to the actual conditions. The output is as follows:
%%LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=32, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, CCMINF=EAPM;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded EAPM Parameters --------------Cell ID = 32 Sector ID = 0 Carrier ID = 0 Persistence Parameters Included Indicator = Included Persistence Value for Access Overload Classes 0 through 9 = 0 Persistence Value for Access Overload Classes 10 = 0 Persistence Value for Access Overload Classes 11 = 0 Persistence Value for Access Overload Classes 12 = 0 Persistence Value for Access Overload Classes 13 = 0 Persistence Value for Access Overload Classes 14 = 0 Persistence Value for Access Overload Classes 15 = 0 Access Load Class 0-9 Emergency Call Persistent Duration = 0 Persistence Modifier for EACH Attempts for Message Transmissions Persistence Modifier for EACH Attempts for Registrations = 0 Acknowledgment Timeout(20ms) = 9 Max. ACH Request Probe Sequences = 3 Max. ACH Response Probe Sequence = 3 Number of Entries of the Mode Selection Table = 1

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Gain Adjustment of the EACH/RCCCH Relative to the Reverse Pilot Channel (0.125dB) = 0 Interference Correction Threshold(dB) = 14 The Maximum Interference Correction(dB) = 7 The Number of Mode-Specific Parameter Records = 1 Number of EACH Used for the Basic Access Mode = 1 Supported Rate Words for the Basic Access Mode = 38400bps&20ms+19200bps&20ms +9600bps&20ms ACCT Included Indicator = Included ACCT Included Emergency Calls Indicator = Included ACCT Overload Class Bitmap Included Indicator = Not Included ACCT Service Option Included Indicator = Included ACCT Service Option Number = 0 Access Overload Class 0 = 0 Service Option 0 = 3 Access Overload Class 1 = 0 Service Option 1 = 0 Access Overload Class 2 = 0 Service Option 2 = 0 CCT Service Option Group Included Indicator = Not Included ACCT Service Option Group Number = 0 Access Overload Class Group 0 = 0 Service Option Group 0 = 0 Access Overload Class Group 1 = 0 Service Option Group 1 = 0 (Total result = 1) --END

In the output, Service Option determines which type of call is not allowed to access the network. For example, Service Option 0 = 3 indicates that the voice call is not allowed. 2. Modify the access parameters associated with the ACCT and then cancel the call restriction. Run MOD EAPM to modify the enhanced access parameters associated with the ACCT. For example, run the following command to cancel the voice call restriction:
MOD EAPM: CN=10, SCTID=0, CRRID=9, ACCTINCL=YES, ACCTINCLEMG=NO, ACCTAOCBITMAPINCL=YES, ACCTSOINCL=YES, NUMACCTSO=0, ACCTAOCBITMAP10=1 ,ACCTSO0=0;

CAUTION
By default, the ACCT function is disabled. If the ACCT function is enabled, you can infer that the ACCT settings are changed manually. Therefore, before canceling the ACCT call restriction, ensure that the cancellation is permitted. ----End

6.3 Walsh Code Exception


When a call is set up, the number of idle Walsh codes increases.

Troubleshooting
Figure 6-5 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the Walsh code exception that occurs during radio resource monitoring.

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Figure 6-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the Walsh code exception that occurs during radio resource monitoring

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether a new call is set up. Check whether the increment in the number of FCHs is more than one. If the increment in the number of FCHs is more than one, you can infer that more than one new call is set up simultaneously. Check the number of FCHs during the radio resource monitoring. The number of FCHs increases by 1 when a new call is set up. Step 2 Check whether the RC type of the new call is RC4. On the Service Maintenance System, choose cdma 1X&EV-DO BSC Maintenance Tool Navigation Tree > Tracing > Um Interface Message Tracing. Check whether the value of for-fch-rc in Extended Channel Assignment Message is 4, as shown in Figure 6-6.

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Figure 6-6 Extended Channel Assignment Message

Step 3 Perform the equivalent conversion of Walsh codes. The number of the occupied 128-order Walsh codes = the number of the occupied 64-order Walsh codes x 2 + the number of the 128-order Walsh codes occupied by the new call For example, when carriers are idle, the common channels using 64-order Walsh codes such as the pilot channel, paging channel, and synchronization channel occupy three Walsh code channels. The number of idle Walsh code channels is the difference between 64 and 3, that is, 61. When an RC4 call is added, the original three 64-order Walsh code channels equal to six 128order Walsh code channels (3 x 2 = 6) plus one 128-order Walsh code channel occupied by the RC4 call. Therefore, seven Walsh code channels are occupied, and 121 (128 7) Walsh code channels are remained.
NOTE

The RC3 supports the 64-order Walsh code, and the RC4 supports the 128-order Walsh code. One 64-order Walsh code is equivalent to two 128-order Walsh codes.

----End

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Clearing Voice Quality Problems

About This Chapter


This topic describes the information related to voice quality problems and how to clear voice quality problems. 7.1 Knowledge About Voice Quality This topic describes the voice service procedure and the principles of the audio coder and decoder (CODEC) and the echo canceller (EC). 7.2 Electrical Echo The two parties of a call can communicate normally. However, one hears his own voice when speaking. Weaker than normal voice, the echo may occur only at the beginning of a conversation or during the whole process. 7.3 Acoustic Echo The two parties in a call have a normal conversation. But one party hears his or her own voice when speaking. Weaker than normal voice, the echo may occur only at the beginning of a conversation or during the whole process. 7.4 Voice Loopback After a call is connected, one party can hear only his or her own voice. One-way audio or crosstalk may occur at the same time. 7.5 Noise During a call, one party hears intermittent or continuous noise. 7.6 Audio Discontinuity During a call, party A and party B hear discontinuous voice.

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7.1 Knowledge About Voice Quality


This topic describes the voice service procedure and the principles of the audio coder and decoder (CODEC) and the echo canceller (EC).

Voice Service Procedure


Figure 7-1 shows the procedure of the CDMA voice service. Figure 7-1 Procedure of the CDMA voice service

In the CDMA network, the CODEC and EC are used to process the voice data. The signal streams are described as follows:
l l

Original voice: The original voice is the natural human voice. Modulated radio signals: Modulated radio signals are signals that go through channel coding. As far as voice service is concerned, the functions performed by the MS are the same as the functions performed by the BTS and the BSC. After performing source coding and channel coding, the MS sends the signals to the Um interface. Frame data: The BTS performs basic functions such as channel decoding. After source coding, namely, voice coding and decoding, the output signals are not PCM data but voice data frames. Therefore, the signals decoded by the BTS are also frame data. PCM data: After the BTS sends the frame data to the BSC, the CODEC of the BSC decodes the frame data to PCM data, and then the BSC sends the PCM data to the MSC. The EC can be located in the BSC or the MSC. If the equipment that is connected to the MSC has an EC, the EC is optional in the MSC.

CODEC
The function of the CODEC is to compress the voice data. But the compression the CODEC performs is lossy compression. The compression may reduce the voice quality. CDMA2000 supports four coding and decoding algorithms: QCELP13K, QCELP8K, EVRC, EVRC-B.
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EC
In the CDMA network, besides the CODEC, another important voice processing part is the EC. During a mobile phone call or a fixed phone call, you may hear your own voice, that is, echo. The echo in the system is categorized into electrical echo and acoustic echo. Figure 7-2 shows the principle of echo generation. Figure 7-2 Principle of echo generation

Principle of Echo Generation


l

Electrical echo In the CDMA system, electrical echo is the echo that the mobile subscriber hears during a mobile-to-fixed call. Electrical echo may occur owing to the impedance mismatch of the Hybrid that switches the 2-wire loop and the 4-wire loop. The Hybrid is located in the Analog Subscriber Line (ASL) of a fixed switch. The 2-wire connector is connected to the fixed-line phone, and the 4-wire connector is connected to the digital transmission network. On the fixed-line phone side, some of signals from the 4-wire side to the 2-wire side are lost and return to the 4-wire side after passing through the Hybrid because of the impedance mismatch of the Hybrid, thus causing echo, as shown in Figure 7-2. Electrical echo can be eliminated through an EC device in the system. The EC in the CDMA system can be installed in the MSC or BSC. Generally, the EC is installed in the MSC.

Acoustic echo In the CDMA system, acoustic echo is the echo that the local subscriber (using a mobile phone or a fixed-line phone) hears when the other party is a mobile subscriber. As shown in Figure 7-2, when acoustic echo occurs in the MS, the fixed-line phone user may hear his or her voice, that is, echo. Acoustic echo is produced owing to the MS problem. Sound wave is reflected from the speaker to the sound pick-up, thus causing echo at the other party. The TIA/EIA/IS-127 standard requires that the acoustic echo suppression of an MS should reach at least 45 dB. When an MS meets the requirement, the other party does not hear acoustic echo. If the MS does not meet the requirement, the other party may hear acoustic echo. Another cause of acoustic echo is that the environment causes strong reflection of voice. For example, the MS is placed face down on the desk or placed in drawer. In fact, acoustic echo also occurs at the fixed-line phone. Because the speaker of the fixedline phone is far from the sound pick-up, acoustic echo is weak and can be ignored compared with electrical echo. When the handsfree conversation function is used, acoustic echo easily occurs.

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Acoustic echo is produced owing to the MS problem and the probability of acoustic echo is low. Therefore, the cause is not considered to be the problem of the system equipment. You can, however, set the voice level gain or an acoustic echo cancellation device in the system to solve the echo problem if required. Echo Detection Though the system equipment is configured with an echo cancellation device, echo cannot be eliminated if the echo is too loud or the echo delay is too long. The following are some cases in which the echo cannot be eliminated:
l

The echo is too loud because the ASL performance or the line match performance is poor. When the 2-wire or 4-wire Hybrid in the ASL does not meet the requirement for echo attenuation (the ITU-T G.122 recommendation requires that the echo return loss be at least 6 dB), the echo cannot be eliminated. The echo is too loud because the phone performance is poor. The echo is too loud because the handsfree conversation function is used. The echo delay exceeds the range of the echo canceller. The echo canceller in Huawei CDMA system supports the echo delay of 64 ms. When the echo delay exceeds 64 ms, the echo cannot be eliminated.

l l l

The echo in the earlier mentioned cases exceeds the echo cancellation range of the echo canceller. The system equipment is operational. The echo problem is summarized as follows:
l

For electrical echo, make measurements by dialing different fixed-line phone numbers. When the echo probability is lower than or equal to 5% or echo occurs only in several phones, this is considered to be normal. If the echo probability is large, the echo problem must be solved. For acoustic echo, if it occurs only in several mobile phones, the mobile phones may be faulty. If most mobile subscribers hear acoustic echo, the echo problem must be solved.

7.2 Electrical Echo


The two parties of a call can communicate normally. However, one hears his own voice when speaking. Weaker than normal voice, the echo may occur only at the beginning of a conversation or during the whole process.

Troubleshooting
Figure 7-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the electrical echo problem.

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Figure 7-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the electrical echo problem

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the echo results from the fault of the PSTN. Echo may be caused by the fault of the subscriber board, the subscriber line, or the telephone in the PSTN. Ask PSTN maintenance engineers to locate and clear the fault. Step 2 Check whether the echo probability exceeds the allowed range. The allowed echo probability ranges from 0% to 5%. Make calls (local or toll) to the MS using different types of fixed-line phones. The echo probability at the MS side should be lower than or equal to 5%. Step 3 Clear the fault at the MSC side.
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Contact MSC maintenance engineers to clear the fault. Step 4 Check EC data configuration. Query the EC data configuration of the CEVC. 1. Run the following command to query the data configuration of EC unit 0 in slot 4, subrack 5:
LST EVCEC: FN=5, SN=4, IDX=0;

2.

Check the settings of the EC parameters. The default values of the parameters are as follows:
l l l

Network Level Attenuation = 6 dB Tail Return Loss = 6 dB Nonlinear Processor = On

You can modify the parameter settings according to the actual conditions. 3. Run the following command to check the running status of EC unit 0 in slot 4. subrack 5:
DSP ECSTAT: FN=5, SN=4, OPT=ECUNIT, ECNO=0;

The normal status should be Started. Step 5 Modify the data configuration of the EC. 1. 2. If the parameter value is the default value, check whether it is modified according to the actual conditions. If the status of the EC is Disabled, the EC disabling command may be set. You can run the following command to enable EC unit 0 in slot 4. subrack 5:
SET ECENABLE: FN=5, SN=4, ECNO=0, OPT=ENABLE;

----End

7.3 Acoustic Echo


The two parties in a call have a normal conversation. But one party hears his or her own voice when speaking. Weaker than normal voice, the echo may occur only at the beginning of a conversation or during the whole process.

Troubleshooting
Figure 7-4 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the acoustic echo problem.

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Figure 7-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the acoustic echo problem

Procedure
Step 1 Confirm that the calling party hears echo in a call. If the called party is a mobile subscriber, the echoes that the calling party hears are considered as acoustic echoes. If the echo decreases or disappears after the called party decreases the volume of the MS speaker, you can determine that the echo is acoustic echo. Step 2 Check the peer MS or the peer equipment. Ask the maintenance engineers of the peer equipment to clear the fault or have the peer MS repaired.
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Step 3 Solve the MS problems. The MS problems and the solutions are described as follows:
l

The speaker and the microphone are not well isolated. This is design defect and cannot be cleared. The MS volume is too large. Decrease the volume during the conversation. Some MSs, such as S200, may generate echo when connecting with an earphone. Ask the MS manufacturer to clear the problem.

l l

Step 4 Check the level gains of the EVC DSP and the EC. The EVC DSP supports forward and reverse level gain adjustment. The value of the level gain depends on whether the EC is configured in the BSC. If the combined level gain of the system is too high, acoustic echo is likely to occur. 1. Run the following command to query the forward level gain and the reverse level gain of the EVC DSP (EC unit 0 in slot 4, subrack 5):
LST EVCDSP: FN=5, SN=4, IDX=0;

2.

Run the following command to query the network level attenuation of (EC unit 0 in slot 4, subrack 5):
LST EVCEC: FN=5, SN=4, IDX=0;

3.

Check whether the CDMA system meets the conditions listed in Table 7-1. If the CDMA system meets the conditions, the value setting is appropriate and the fault lies in the MS. If the CDMA system does not meet the conditions, contact technical support engineers to confirm the setting. Table 7-1 Conditions for not introducing acoustic echo gain CDMA Intra-Office Calls EC in the MSC EC in the BSC (Forward Level Gain + Reverse Level Gain) 0 dB (Forward Level Gain + Reverse Level Gain Network Level Attenuation) 0 dB CDMA Outgoing and Incoming Calls (Forward Level Gain + Reverse Level Gain Network Level Attenuation) 0 dB (Forward Level Gain + Reverse Level Gain Network Level Attenuation) 0 dB

NOTE

The EC Network Level Attenuation must be a positive value in dB.

Step 5 Collect information of the MSs that generate echo. Collect the information such as MS model and echo probability. Step 6 Optimize the network according to the collected data. Based on the echo probability and MS model collected, determine whether to optimize the network. ----End
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7.4 Voice Loopback


After a call is connected, one party can hear only his or her own voice. One-way audio or crosstalk may occur at the same time.

Troubleshooting
Figure 7-5 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the voice loopback problem. Figure 7-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the voice loopback problem

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the voice loopback results from the fault at the MSC side. If loopback occurs only in outgoing calls, the fault exists in the MSC. Ask MSC maintenance engineers to locate and clear the fault.
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Step 2 Check the E1/T1 connection between the MSC and the BSC. The voice loopback may be caused by:
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External loopback of E1/T1 cables Wrong connection of E1/T1 cables between different equipment such as the MSC, BSC, and DDF. In this case, alarms may not be generated.

Check the E1/T1 connection between the BSC and the DDF, and that between the DDF and the MSC. Step 3 Check whether loopback is set in the CAIE software. Run DSP RES to query the state of the E1/T1. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
DSP E1T1STAT: FN=5, SN=SLOT15, BTP=CAIE, LNKNO=0;

According to the query result, check whether the E1/T1 is in the Local Loopback, Remote Loopback, Payload Loopback, or Single Loopback state. If the E1/T1 is in the Local Loopback, Remote Loopback, Payload Loopback or Single Loopback state, clear the fault according to the suggestions on the Alarm Management System. Step 4 Modify the loopback setting in the CAIE. Run SET LPBACKE1T1 to set the loopback mode of the E1/T1. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to cancel the loopback setting:
SET LPBACKE1T1: FN=5, SN=SLOT0, BTP=CAIE, LNKNO=0, OPT=NOLOOPBACK;

----End

7.5 Noise
During a call, one party hears intermittent or continuous noise.

Troubleshooting
Figure 7-6 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the noise problem.

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Figure 7-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the noise problem

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the clock is operational. Check the synchronization of the satellite receiver, clock synchronization between the BTS and the BSC, and clock synchronization between the BSC and the MSC. For details, refer to Clock Failure. Step 2 Locate the fault by setting loopback. The purpose is to determine whether the fault exists in the BSS or in the MSC. The method of fault location is similar to the loopback for one-way audio. For details, refer to Network Access Failure upon Power-up.
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If the noise results from the A interface fault, check the E1/T1 connection.

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If the noise results from the MSC fault, contact MSC maintenance engineers to locate and clear the fault.

Step 3 Clear the fault at the MSC side. Contact MSC maintenance engineers to locate and clear the fault.
NOTE

When the MSC is connected with other offices, if the coding scheme (A law or law) of the E1/T1 is not the same, strong noise may occur.

Step 4 Check whether the MS is faulty. Conduct tests using different MSs and check whether the problem occurs in some specific MSs only. Contact the MS manufacturer if the MS is faulty. ----End

7.6 Audio Discontinuity


During a call, party A and party B hear discontinuous voice.

Troubleshooting
Figure 7-7 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the audio discontinuity problem.

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Figure 7-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the audio discontinuity problem

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Procedure
Step 1 Solve the problem of frequent soft handoffs. If the audio discontinuity problem occurs only in a special area, you can infer that the MS frequently performs soft handoff. Because control signaling is transmitted earlier than voice signaling during frequent soft handoff, audio discontinuity occurs. In such a case, run MOD LACCTRL to improve the priority for transmitting voice messages. Step 2 Check whether the FER of the Um interface is too high. On the Service Maintenance System, start Markov Test Call State Monitoring to enable the MS supporting Markov to perform Markov test tracing. Observe whether the FER of the Um interface is too high. Step 3 Modify the FER of the Um interface. Run MOD FER to decrease the FER of the Um interface. Step 4 Set the CFMR at party A to loop back to the MS. Run SET VOICE to start loopback from the CFMR to the MS. For example,
SET VOICE: TYPE=VOICELOOP, SWITCH_LOOP=START, IMSI="460030912120206", LPNT=FMRLOOP, LDRTN=MS;

Step 5 Clear the fault of the link between the CFMR and the MS. After the CFMR at party A is set to loop back to the MS, if the loopback voice is discontinuous, you can infer that the link between the CFMR and the MS is faulty. Check the backplane of the CIPS and the Abis link to locate and clear the fault of the link between the CFMR and the MS. For details, refer to Link and Circuit Fault. Step 6 Set the HPI of the CEVC at party A to loop back to the MS. Run SET VOICE to start loopback from the HPI of the CEVC to the MS. For example,
SET VOICE: TYPE=VOICELOOP, SWITCH_LOOP=START, IMSI="460030912120206", LPNT=HPILOOP, LDRTN=MS;

Step 7 Clear the fault of the link between the CFMR and the CEVC. If the link fault is caused by the backplane fault of the CIPS, contact Huawei technical support engineers for help. Step 8 Set the TDM of the CEVC at party A to loop back to the MS. Run SET VOICE to start loopback from the TDM of the CEVC to the MS. For example,
SET VOICE: TYPE=VOICELOOP, SWITCH_LOOP=START, IMSI="460030912120206", LPNT=TDM, LDRTN=MS;

Step 9 Set the CAIE at party A to loop back to the MS. Run SET VOICE to start loopback from the CAIE to the MS. For example,
SET VOICE: TYPE=VOICELOOP, SWITCH_LOOP=START, IMSI="460030912120206", LPNT=AIELOOP, LDRTN=MS;

Step 10 Clear the fault of the link between the CEVC and the CAIE. If the link fault is caused owing to the backplane fault of the CIPS, contact Huawei technical support engineers for help. Step 11 Set the TDM of the CEVC at party A to loop back to the MSC. Run SET VOICE to start loopback from the TDM of the CEVC to the MSC. For example,
SET VOICE: TYPE=VOICELOOP, SWITCH_LOOP=START, IMSI="460030912120206", LPNT=TDM, LDRTN=MSC;

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Step 12 Set the HPI of the CEVC at party A to loop back to the MSC. Run SET VOICE to start loopback from the HPI of the CEVC to the MSC. For example,
SET VOICE: TYPE=VOICELOOP, SWITCH_LOOP=START, IMSI="460030912120206", LPNT=HPILOOP, LDRTN=MSC;

Step 13 Clear the fault of the CEVC. If the CEVC is faulty, contact Huawei technical support engineers for help. For details, refer to Contacting Huawei for Technical Support. Step 14 Clear the fault of the transmission link between the BSC serving party A and the BSC serving party B. To clear the link fault of the A interface, refer to Link and Circuit Fault. Contact MSC maintenance engineers to clear the fault of the transmission link between MSCs. Step 15 Perform steps Step 4 through Step 9 at party B. Set loopback of the CFMR to the MS, HPI loopback of the CEVC to the MS, TDM loopback of the CEVC to the MS, and loopback of the CAIE to the MS at party B to locate and clear the fault of the BSC serving party B. Step 16 Start recording the MS. Run SET VOICE to start recording the MS. For example,
SET VOICE:TYPE=VOICERCD,SWITCH_RCD=START, IMSI="460030912120206";

Step 17 Save the recording file and the loopback test result. The recording file is reported to the BAM. The path is D:\CDMA2000\Audio, and the file name is audiodemo.hau. Save the recording file and the loopback test result of each time. ----End

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Clearing Packet Data Service Failures

About This Chapter


This topic describes the information related to packet data service failures and how to troubleshoot packet data service failures. 8.1 Introduction to the Packet Data Service This topic describes the procedures of the CDMA2000 1X and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO packet data services. 8.2 Occasional Data Call Failure Data calls originated by the MS fail sometimes. 8.3 Constant Data Call Failure This topic describes how to troubleshoot various data call failures. 8.4 Data Call Handoff Failure Data call handoff always fails. 8.5 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Call Failure Some ATs cannot access the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO network and call reject messages are traced on the Um interface. 8.6 No 307.2 kbit/s SCH Allocated for the Packet Data Service The data call is set up. The data is transmitted in the forward or reverse link. The maximum speed of the SCH allocated by the system is 153.6 kbit/s (16X). No SCH with the speed of 307.2 kbit/s (32X) can be allocated by the system.

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8.1 Introduction to the Packet Data Service


This topic describes the procedures of the CDMA2000 1X and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO packet data services.

CDMA2000 1X Data Service


In the CDMA2000 data service procedure, wireless data users may be in one of the following states:
l

Active: An air traffic channel is available between the MS and the BTS. The MS and the BTS can transmit data. The connections of the Um interface, A8 interface, and A10 interface are retained. Dormant: No air traffic channel is available between the MS and the BTS. But the PPP link connection exists between the MS and the PDSN. The connections of the Um interface and the A8 interface are released. The A10 connection is retained. NULL: No air traffic channel or PPP link exists between the MS and the BTS. The connections of the Um interface, A8 interface, and A10 interface are released.

MS-Originated Data Call Figure 8-1 shows the procedure of the MS-originated data call.

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Figure 8-1 Procedure of the MS-originated data call

The procedure of the MS-originated data call is described as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The MS sends an Origination Message on the access channel of the Um interface to the BSS. Upon receipt of the Origination Message, the BSS sends a BS Ack Order to the MS. The BSS sends a CM Service Request to the MSC. The MSC sends an Assignment Request to the BSS to request the BSS to allocate radio resources. The BSS sends an A9-Setup-A8 message to the PCF to request the setup of an A8 connection. The PCF sends an A11-Registration-Request message to the PDSN to request the setup of an A10 connection. The PDSN accepts the request and sends an A11-Registration-Reply message to the PCF. The PCF sends an A9-Connect-A8 message to the BSS. The A8 and A10 connections are set up. The BSS sends an Extended Channel Assignment Message (ECAM) on the paging channel of the Um interface.
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10. The MS sends the Traffic Channel Preamble (TCH Preamble) on the specified reverse traffic channel. 11. After detecting the reverse traffic channel, the BSS sends a BS Ack Order on the forward traffic channel to the MS. 12. The MS sends an MS Ack Order on the reverse traffic channel to respond to the BS Ack Order and transmits null traffic frames on the reverse traffic channel. 13. The BSS sends a Service Connect Message or a Service Option Response Order to the MS to specify the service configuration for the call. 14. Upon receipt of the Service Connect Message, the MS starts processing services according to the specified service configuration and sends a Service Connect Completion Message to the BSS. 15. After the radio traffic channel and the terrestrial link are set up and interconnected, the BSS sends an Assignment Complete Message to the MSC. 16. The MS negotiates with the PDSN to set up a PPP connection. For the Mobile IP access mode, the Mobile IP connection must be set up. The PPP messages and Mobile IP messages are transmitted on the traffic channel. 17. After the PPP connection is set up, the data service enters the connection state. MS-Originated Data Service Release Figure 8-2 shows the procedure of MS-originated data service release. Figure 8-2 Procedure of MS-originated data service release

The procedure of MS-originated data service release is described as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4.


8-4

The MS sends a Release Order message on the dedicated control channel of the Um interface to the BSS. The BSS sends a Clear Request to the MSC. When releasing network resources, the MSC sends a Clear Command message to the BSS. The BSS sends a Release Order message to the MS.
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5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

The BSS sends an A9-Release-A8 message to the PCF to request releasing the A8 connection. The PCF sends an A11-Registration-Request message to the PDSN to request releasing the A10 connection. The PDSN sends an A11-Registration-Reply message to the PCF. The A10 connection is released. The BSS sends an A9-Release-A8 Complete message to the PCF. The A8 connection is released. The BSS sends a Clear Complete message to the MSC.

CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Data Service


In the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO data service procedure, wireless data users may be in one of the following states:
l

Active: An air traffic channel is available between the AT and the AN. The AT and the AN can transmit data. The A8 and A10 connections are retained. Dormant: No air traffic channel is available between the AT and the AN. But the PPP link connection exists between the AT and the PDSN. The A8 connection is released. The A10 connection is retained. Dormant: No air traffic channel is available between the AT and the AN. The PPP link connection does not exist between the AT and the PDSN. The A8 and A10 connections are released.

During the data service procedure, the AT can switch from one state to another state. AT-Originated Data Call Figure 8-3 shows the procedure of the AT-originated data call in the case of successful authentication.

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Figure 8-3 Procedure of the AT-originated data call

The procedure of the AT-originated data call is described as follows:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

The AT sends a Connection Request and a Route Update message to the AN to request the setup of a connection. The AN constructs a Traffic Channel Assignment message and sends it to the AT. The AT sends messages on the reverse pilot channel and the Data Rate Control channel. The AT sends a Traffic Channel Complete message to acknowledge the setup of the Um interface connection. The AT is ready to negotiate and exchange data on the access stream. The AT and the AN initiate a PPP connection and the Link Control Protocol (LCP) negotiation for access authentication. The AN generates a random challenge and sends it in a CHAP Challenge message to the AT. The AT responds with a CHAP Response message. The AN sends to the AN AAA an A12 Access-Request message on the A12 interface to request the access to the AN AAA. The AN AAA responds with an A12 Access-Accept message on the A12 interface to allow the access.

10. The AN sends access success indication to the AT. 11. The AN sends to the AT a Location Request message to request location update. 12. The AT sends a Location Notification message to the AN. 13. The AN sends to the AT a Location Assignment message to update access network identifiers (ANID). 14. The AT responds with a Location Complete message, indicating the completion of the location update. 15. The AT is ready to exchange data on service stream. 16. The AN sends to the PCF an A9-Setup-A8 message to request the setup of an A8 connection. 17. T PCF sends to the PDSN an A11-Registration-Request message to request the setup of an A10 connection. 18. The PDSN responds with an A11-Registration-Response message. 19. The PCF responds with an A9-Connect-A8 message to the AN, indicating that the A8 and A10 connections are successfully set up. 20. The AT negotiates with the PDSN to set up the PPP connection. For the Mobile IP access mode, the Mobile IP connection must be set up. 21. After the PPP connection is set up, the data service enters the connection state. AT-Originated Connection Release Figure 8-4 shows the procedure of AT-originated connection release. Figure 8-4 Procedure of AT-originated connection release

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The procedure of AT-originated connection release is described as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The AT sends a Connection Close message on the reverse channel, initiating the connection release. The AN sends an A9-Release-A8 message to request the PCF to release the A8 connection. The PCF sends an Active Stop accounting record in the A11-Registration-Request message to the PDSN. The PDSN responds with an A11-Registration-Reply message. The PCF sends an A9-Release-A8 Complete message to the PCF to acknowledge the A8 connection release.

8.2 Occasional Data Call Failure


Data calls originated by the MS fail sometimes.

Troubleshooting
Figure 8-5 shows the procedure for troubleshooting occasional data call failures.

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Figure 8-5 Procedure for troubleshooting occasional data call failures

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether more than one PDSN is configured for the PCF. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST PCF to query the IP address of the PCF. Then, run LST PCFPDSN to query the PDSNs connected with the PCF. Step 2 Check all the PDSNs. 1. Check whether the network connection between the PCF and each PDSN is functional. Check whether the Ethernet cables are securely connected. Ping the PCF from the PDSN. Connect a laptop to the Ethernet switch that connects to the CPDU to ping the PDSN. The purpose is to check whether the link connection between the PCF and the PDSN is functional. For example, use an Ethernet cable to connect a laptop to the Ethernet switch that connects to CPDU optical port. Set the IP address of the laptop and that of the PCF in the same network segment, without conflicting with other IP addresses. If the IP address of the PCF
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is 129.11.17.201, you can set the IP address of the laptop to 129.11.17.209. On the laptop, run ping 129.11.17.136 (129.11.17.136 is the IP address of PDSN). If the PDSN cannot be pinged, you can infer that an error exists on the physical link between the PCF and the PDSN. 2. Check whether the PCF parameters configured in each PDSN are consistent with that configured in the PCF. These parameters are Secret Parameter Index, Secret Key, Verification Algorithm Mode, Verification Algorithm, and Retransmit Protection Mode. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST PCFPDSN to view the information of all PDSNs. The command for querying associated parameters in the PDSN may vary according to equipment of different vendors. For example, the query command in the PDSN of 3COM is LIST VHA SA. This command lists the configuration parameters of the PDSN and the connected PCFs. According to the IP address of the PCF, you can query other associated parameters.

CAUTION
If you want to ping the PCF from the PDSN, log in to the PDSN through Telnet. Do not ping the PCF from the maintenance workstation of the PDSN. If the laptop is connected to an Ethernet switch that connects to the PCF for pinging the PDSN, the IP address of the laptop must be in the same network segment as the PCF. Step 3 Correct the PDSN configuration.
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For the failed PDSN whose physical connection cannot be corrected, remove its data from the PCF. If the parameters of the PDSN are inconsistent, modify the parameters or remove the PDSN.

Run RMV PCFPDSN (the parameter is PCF IP Address) to remove a PDSN connected with the PCF. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to modify PDSN parameters:
MOD PDSN: PDSNIP="129.11.17.136", SCRKEY="1234567890123456", SPI="0x100", CIPHALGM=PRESUFFIX, CIPHALG=MD5, RPM=TMSTMP;

These commands take effect upon the execution, and thus you need not reset boards. You can run LST PCFPDSN to check the binding relationship between the PCF and the PDSN after the removal of the PDSN. If the PDSN does not exist, you can infer that the PDSN has been removed. If you modify parameters, you can run this command to check whether the parameters are modified. Step 4 Check the PDSN or the IP address of the PCF. Check whether any IP addresses conflict in the network where the PCF and PDSN are located. You can run LST PDSN to query the IP address of the PDSN and run LST PCF to query the IP address of the PCF. Step 5 Correct the network configuration. The network devices must be configured correctly according to the requirements for IP network configuration. ----End
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8.3 Constant Data Call Failure


This topic describes how to troubleshoot various data call failures. 8.3.1 No Messages on the A Interface Data calls originated by an MS always fail. No message can be traced on the A1, A9, and A11 interfaces. 8.3.2 Only Reverse Messages on the A9 Interface Data calls originated by an MS fail. Only reverse messages from the BSC to the PCF are traced on the A9 interface. 8.3.3 Only Reverse Messages on the A11 Interface Data calls originated by an MS fail. Both forward and reverse messages are traced on the A9 interface, but only reverse messages from the PCF to the PDSN are traced on the A11 interface. 8.3.4 Call Cleared Right After Connection The data call is released several seconds after the dial-up connection and cannot be set up. Both forward and reverse messages are traced on the A9 and the A11 interfaces.

8.3.1 No Messages on the A Interface


Data calls originated by an MS always fail. No message can be traced on the A1, A9, and A11 interfaces.

Troubleshooting
Figure 8-6 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the data call failure due to no messages on the A interface.

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Figure 8-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the data call failure due to no messages on the A interface

Procedure
Step 1 Check the dial-up settings of the MS. If the MS is used for dial-up, observe whether the MS displays the information of the data service. If the MS does not display the information of the data service, check the dial-up settings of the MS. Ensure that the port rate of the MS is consistent with that of the computer, that the port ID is correct, and that the setting of dial-up attributes is correct. Step 2 Check the configuration of the wireless modem. The wireless modem has an indicator to show the working status. Observe the indicator and ensure that the wireless modem is operating. If the wireless modem is operating, the indicator blinks at 2 Hz. If the wireless modem fails, the indicator blinks fast. You can also check that the port configuration and associated parameters are correct. ----End

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8.3.2 Only Reverse Messages on the A9 Interface


Data calls originated by an MS fail. Only reverse messages from the BSC to the PCF are traced on the A9 interface.

Troubleshooting
Figure 8-7 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the data call failure due to only reverse messages on the A9 interface. Figure 8-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the data call failure due to only reverse messages on the A9 interface

Procedure
Step 1 Check data consistency between the BSC and the BAM. Run STR CRC to check whether the data in the BSC is the same as that in the BAM. For example, to check the data of the CPCU in subrack 2, run the following command:
STR CRC: FN=2, BTP=CPCU;
NOTE

The parameters related to the STR CRC command are Subrack No. and Board Type. You can use this command to check the data consistency of CRMU, CSPU, CPCU, and various CMUXs.

Step 2 Clear the fault of data inconsistency in the BSC and BAM. Reset the board with data inconsistency problem and the associated CMUX. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
RST BRD: FN=2, SN=7, OPT=BOARD

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Step 3 Check the configuration of the transport layer. If the data in the BSC and BAM is consistent, or it is hard to judge, check the configuration of the transport layer, including the configuration of channels between the CRMU and the CPCU and between the CPCU and the CPDU. Run LST IPCPVC to check the channel configuration. You can check whether the IPC channel exists between the CPCU and the CPDU according to the subrack number and slot number in the system output. For example, to check the IPC channel configuration of the CPCU in slot 4 of subrack 2, run the following command:
LST IPCPVC: FN=2, SN=4;

Step 4 Handle the configuration problem of the transport layer. Modify the configuration of the transport layer. ----End

8.3.3 Only Reverse Messages on the A11 Interface


Data calls originated by an MS fail. Both forward and reverse messages are traced on the A9 interface, but only reverse messages from the PCF to the PDSN are traced on the A11 interface.

Troubleshooting
Figure 8-8 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the data call failure due to only reverse messages on the A11 interface.

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Figure 8-8 Procedure for troubleshooting the data call failure due to only reverse messages on the A9 interface

Procedure
Step 1 Check the physical connection between the CPDU and the PDSN. 1. Check the configuration of the FE link for the CPDU to see whether the FE port to which the Ethernet cable is connected is consistent with the configured one. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST FELNK to query the configuration of FE links:

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2.

When the PCF and the PDSN are in different network segments, you must configure the route from the PCF to the PDSN. Check whether the route of the PCF is configured and whether the PCF is connected to the PDSN through a gateway (generally a router). Run LST IPBRDROUTE to check whether the route of the PCF is properly configured. The routing IP address is the port IP address of the router that is connected to the CPDU. The IP address must be in the same network segment with the IP address of the PCF.

3.

If the route is configured, check whether the IP address and the mask of the gateway are correct, whether the IP address and the mask are consistent with the actual configuration of the gateway (generally a router), and whether the ports of the gateway that are connected to the CPDU and the PDSN are correctly set. For details about the query method, refer to the instructions delivered with the router.

Step 2 Configure the binding relationship between the PCF and the PDSN. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST PCFPDSN to query the binding relationship between the PCF and the PDSN. Step 3 Configure the binding relationship between the PCF and the PDSN. On the Service Maintenance System, run ADD PCFPDSN to configure the binding relationship between the PCF and the PDSN. Step 4 Check the route between the CPDU and the PDSN. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST IPBRDROUTE to query the routing information of the CPDU. Step 5 Add a route between the CPDU and the PDSN. On the Service Maintenance System, run ADD IPBRDROUTE to add a route between the CPDU and the PDSN. Step 6 Check PDSN RP interface tracing. Trace the RP interface message on the PDSN. Observe whether the PDSN receives the A11 message from the PCF. If the PDSN does not receive the A11 message, check whether the data configuration of the transport layer between the PDSN and the CPDU is correct. Step 7 Correct the network connection and configuration. The problems may be caused by the loose connection of Ethernet cables, router configuration errors, data script errors, or PDSN or AAA route configuration errors. Perform Step 1 to check the network connection. Then make a test call. ----End

8.3.4 Call Cleared Right After Connection


The data call is released several seconds after the dial-up connection and cannot be set up. Both forward and reverse messages are traced on the A9 and the A11 interfaces.

Troubleshooting
Figure 8-9 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the data call failure that occurs right after the connection.

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Figure 8-9 Procedure for troubleshooting the data call failure that occurs right after the connection

Procedure
Step 1 Check the cause value in the PDSN reply message. 1. 2. Check the cause value in the PDSN reply message traced on the A11 interface. Check the Code field in the A11-Registration-Reply message. The Code field has the following values:
l l

0x00: Accepted. A11 access succeeds. 0x83: Mobile-node-failed-authentication. A11 access fails.

The failure cause is the inconsistency of the parameters configured in the PCF and the PDSN. Step 2 Check the A11 Registration Reply message. Check the A11-Registration-Reply message. The code 0x00 means success and others mean failure.
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Step 3 Trace peer-peer protocol (PPP) messages. Trace PPP messages on the PDSN server and observe the PPP negotiation procedure. Because these operations involve the coordination at the PDSN side, contact PDSN maintenance engineers for help. Step 4 Check whether PPP negotiation is successful. Analyze the PPP messages to check whether the PPP negotiation is successful. Because this step involves the operations on the PDSN server, contact the PDSN server maintenance engineers for help.
NOTE

A common cause of the PPP negotiation failure is Authentication Failure. If the authentication fails owing to incorrect user name or password, contact AAA server maintenance engineers to acquire the correct user name and password.

Step 5 Correct the PDSN or PCF parameter configuration. If the PDSN or PCF parameter configuration is wrong, perform step 3 in Occasional Data Call Failure. Step 6 Correct the PPP or AAA parameters configuration. Check whether the user name and password on the terminal is consistent with that set on the AAA server. If they are inconsistent, obtain the correct user name and password from AAA server maintenance engineers and correct the user name and password on the terminal. Because this step involves the operations on the AAA server, contact the AAA server maintenance engineers for help. ----End

8.4 Data Call Handoff Failure


Data call handoff always fails.

Troubleshooting
Figure 8-10 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the data call handoff failure.

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Figure 8-10 Procedure for troubleshooting the data call handoff failure

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the wireless environment is good. If data calls are successful, you can infer that the A11 interface link is functional and the handoff failure is probably caused by poor wireless environment. You can check the wireless environment quality through voice calls or other methods. Step 2 Improve the wireless environment. Refer to the method of solving the voice call handoff problem to locate and clear the problem. Step 3 Check the protocol versions of the PCF and the PDSN. If the protocol versions of the PDSN and the PCF are different, the handoff message cannot be correctly decoded, and thus the PDSN discards the message. 1. Run LST BSCINF on the BSC to check the protocol version of the PCF, that is, the protocol version of the A interface. You can also check the value of the APVER field in the command in the script. For example, the value of APVER is IOS4.1. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
ADD BSCINF: BSCIP="129.11.17.1", BSCSNM="255.255.0.0", ENTID=5, MSCID="0x36b101", MAXSDB=80, SWT=SWT_8850, RFNBRDCLK=GCKP, A5ENABLEFLAG=NO, LOCTMOFF=LF48, LICENSEMODE=BTS, AIFTPY=TDM, APVER=IOS4.1;

2.
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Check the protocol version of the PDSN.


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For detailed operation, contact PDSN maintenance engineers. Step 4 Solve the protocol matching problem. Upgrade the BSC or PDSN to keep the protocol versions the same. Contact PDSN maintenance engineers if PDSN software need to be upgraded. ----End

8.5 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Call Failure


Some ATs cannot access the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO network and call reject messages are traced on the Um interface.

Troubleshooting
Figure 8-11 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO call failure. Figure 8-11 Procedure for troubleshooting the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO call failure

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Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO CFMR is configured. Run LST DSPTYP to query the DSP program type of the CFMR. There are two types of DSP programs: CDMA2000 1X DSP program and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO DSP program. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to check whether the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO CFMR is configured:
LST DSPTYP: FN=3;

The output is as follows:


%%LST DSPTYP: FN=3; %% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded CFMR DSP Program Type --------------------Subrack No. Slot No. 3 3 3 3 1 2 3 4

CFMR ID

DSP Program Type

80.12.36.0 80.12.68.0 80.12.100.0 80.12.132.0

CDMA2000 1X CDMA2000 1X CDMA2000 1X 1xEV-DO

(Total result = 4) --END

The results show that the CFMRs in slot 4, subrack 3 are CDMA2000 1xEV-DO CFMRs. Step 2 Add a CDMA2000 1xEV-DO CFMR. Run ADD BRD to add a CDMA2000 1xEV-DO CFMR. If no CDMA2000 1xEV-DO CFMR exists, add a CFMR in the service subrack. Then configure the CFMR as a CDMA2000 1xEVDO CFMR. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
ADD BRD: FN=3, SN=10, BTP=CFMR, DSPTYP=EVDO;

Step 3 Check whether the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO CFMR is available. Run DSP BRDINFO to query the board information. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
DSP BRDINFO: FN=3, SN=4;

The output is as follows:


%%DSP BRDINFO: FN=3, SN=4;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Query Result -----------Frame No. = 3 Slot No. = 4 Board Type = CFMR Operational Status = Available Administrative Status = Enable Active/Standby Status = Master ATM Bus Interface = --END

If the Operational Status is Available and the Administrative Status is Enable, the CFMR is functional. Step 4 Reset the CFMR. If the CFMR is not functional, reset it. Step 5 Check the DSP of the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO CFMR.
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Run DSP DSPCPUUSAGE to query the CPU usage of the DSP of the CFMR or the CEVC to see whether the DSP of the CFMR is operational. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
DSP DSPCPUUSAGE: FN=3, SN=4;

Step 6 Load a DSP forcibly. Run LOD DSP to forcibly load a DSP from the BAM or the flash memory. If the DSP on the CFMR is not operational, run the following command to forcibly load a DSP:
LOD DSP: FN=3, SN=4, DSP=1, CTLKEY=FLASH;

Step 7 Check the GPS clock. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to query the status of the RFN clock of the CSPU:
DSP CLKSTAT: FN=4, SN=12;

The output is as follows:


%%DSP CLKSTAT: FN=4, SN=12;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Query Result -----------Backboard8KClk = Normal RFNPulseStatus = Normal RFNSynCellStatus = Normal (Record Number = 1) --END

The result shows that the RFN clock of the CSPU in slot 12, subrack 4 is functional. Step 8 Rectify the GPS clock fault. For details, refer to Clock Failure. ----End

8.6 No 307.2 kbit/s SCH Allocated for the Packet Data Service
The data call is set up. The data is transmitted in the forward or reverse link. The maximum speed of the SCH allocated by the system is 153.6 kbit/s (16X). No SCH with the speed of 307.2 kbit/s (32X) can be allocated by the system.

Troubleshooting
Figure 8-12 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the fault of no 307.2 kbit/s SCH allocated for the packet data service.

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Figure 8-12 Procedure for troubleshooting the fault of no 307.2 Kbit/s SCH allocated in the packet data service

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the MS supports the 32X SCH. Only Release A (the Um interface protocol version is 7) MSs support the 32X SCH. Step 2 Change the MS. If the MS does not support the 32 X SCH, replace it with a Release A MS. Step 3 Check the Um interface protocol version of the BSC.
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On the Service Maintenance System, run LST MDU to query the module information, including the Um interface protocol version of the BSC. Step 4 Modify the Um interface protocol version of the BSC to 7. Run MOD PREV to modify the protocol version and the minimum protocol version supported by the CDMA2000 1X network or the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO network. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to modify the Um interface protocol version of the BSC:
MOD PREV: FN=2, PREV1X=7;

Step 5 Check the 32X SCH switch of the BSC. Run LST MCHM to query the module-level channel management parameters, including Admission Control, Macro Diversity, SCH Assignment, SCH Release, and SCH Extension. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to check whether the 32X SCH switch is on:
LST MCHM: MN=2;

Step 6 Turn on the BSC forward/reverse 32X SCH switch. Run MOD MCHM to modify the module-level channel management parameters, including Admission Control, Macro Diversity, SCH Allocation, SCH Release, and Forward/Reverse SCH Extension. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to turn on the forward 32X SCH switch and the reverse 32X SCH switch:
MOD MCHM: FWDSCH32XSW=ON, REVSCH32XSW=ON, CONFIRM=Y;

Step 7 Query the allocation of the BSC forward SCH. The forward 32X SCH must be allocated with the RC4 other than the RC3. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to check whether the RC4 is allocated for the forward 32X SCH:
LST MCHM: MN=2;

Step 8 Change the forward SCH RC switch to RC4. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to change the forward SCH RC switch to RC4:
MOD MCHM: RCDATASCHSW=RC4, CONFIRM=Y;

----End

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9
About This Chapter

Clearing BSC Handoff Failures

This topic describes the information related to BSC handoff failures and how to troubleshoot BSC handoff failures. 9.1 Introduction to Handoff This topic describes the principles of handoff and the types of handoffs in CDMA2000 1X and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO networks. 9.2 MS HHO Trigger Failure An MS fails to trigger a hard handoff (HHO) in border areas, causing a higher FER and a call drop. 9.3 Handoff Required Reject The BSC receives a Handoff Required Reject message containing the cause value "Requested terrestrial resource unavailable", which means that the MSC cannot obtain any circuit identification code (CIC) for the target BSC. You can perform A1 interface message tracing on the Service Maintenance System. 9.4 Inter-Band HHO Trigger Failure The neighbor cell of a border cell operates in a different band. An MS fails to trigger an interband HHO when moving to the cell operating in a different band, and the BSC system does not send a Handoff Direction Message to the MS. 9.5 SHO Failure When an MS in the call state moves at the edge of a cell, the soft handoff (SHO) fails and a call drop occurs. 9.6 Inter-AN Handoff Failure When an AT in the dormant state moves from the coverage area of the source AN to that of the target AN, a session setup message can be traced on the Um interface, but there is no inter-AN handoff message on the A13 interface. 9.7 Inter-Module Load Balance HHO Failure When configuring the target carrier of the inter-module load balance HHO, you turn on the load balance HHO switch and modify the parameters. The load balance hard handoff, however, cannot be triggered. 9.8 AT Not Performing OFS
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On the Service Maintenance System, different-frequency neighbor carriers are added to the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO carrier. The AT, however, does not perform OFS. That is, the RouteUpdate message does not contain the information of the different-frequency carrier.

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9.1 Introduction to Handoff


This topic describes the principles of handoff and the types of handoffs in CDMA2000 1X and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO networks. Handoff refers to a process in which a new link between the target BTS and the MS is set up when the MS moves to the edge of the serving cell and is about to enter another serving cell. Handoff in the CDMA system is classified into two types: hard handoff and soft handoff.
l

Soft handoff Soft handoff refers to a process in which the MS sets up a new connection with the target cell using the same frequency before the existing connection between the MS and the source cell is broken. This is also called intra-frequency handoff. In a soft handoff, the MS maintains the connection with the source BTS before a new connection with the target BTS is set up.

Hard handoff Hard handoff refers to a process in which the MS disconnects the communication with the source BTS (carrier) before establishing a new connection with the target BTS (carrier). During a hard handoff, the communication link is disconnected transiently.

Handoff in the CDMA2000 1X Network


The CDMA2000 1X system supports the following types of handoff:
l l l l l l

Intra-BSC soft handoff Inter-BSC soft handoff Softer handoff Intra-BSC hard handoff Inter-BSC hard handoff Access handoff

Handoff in the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Network


The CDMA2000 1xEV-DO system supports the following types of handoff:
l l

Handoff in the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO network Handoff between the CDMA2000 1X network and the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO network

9.2 MS HHO Trigger Failure


An MS fails to trigger a hard handoff (HHO) in border areas, causing a higher FER and a call drop.

Troubleshooting
Figure 9-1 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the MS HHO trigger failure.
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Figure 9-1 Procedure for troubleshooting the MS HHO trigger failure

Procedure
Step 1 Check the BTS coverage in the HHO area. 1. 2. In the HHO area, check the coverage information of the BTS, including the signal strength and the engineering parameters such as the tilt angle, azimuth, and height of the antenna. Check the Alarm Management System for alarms.

Step 2 Check whether the HHO algorithm switch is on. The query commands vary according the HHO algorithms. See Table 9-1 for details. Table 9-1 HHO algorithm switch HHO Algorithm Switch SameFrequency Hard Handoff Algorithm Switch Pseudo Pilot Hard Handoff Algorithm Switch Meaning Query Command LST RRMINF Modification Command MOD PHOALG Default Value 1

1: Turn on the samefrequency HHO algorithm switch; 0: Turn off the same-frequency HHO algorithm switch 1: Turn on the pseudo pilot HHO algorithm switch; 0: Turn off the pseudo pilot HHO algorithm switch

LST BSCHO

MOD BSCHO

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HHO Algorithm Switch Mobile Assisted Hard Handoff Algorithm Switch Handdown Hard Handoff Algorithm Switch Direct Hard Handoff Algorithm Switch

Meaning

Query Command LST BSCHO

Modification Command MOD BSCHO

Default Value 1

1: Turn on the mobile assisted HHO algorithm switch; 0: Turn off the mobile assisted HHO algorithm switch 1: Turn on the handdown HHO algorithm switch; 0: Turn off the handdown HHO algorithm switch 1: Turn on the direct HHO algorithm switch; 0: Turn off the direct HHO algorithm switch

LST RRMINF

MOD PHOALG

LST RRMINF

MOD PHOALG

For example, run the following command to check the status of the same-frequency HHO algorithm switch:
LST RRMINF: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, RRMINF=PHOALG;
NOTE

To use a specific HHO algorithm, you must turn on the corresponding HHO algorithm switch and turn off other HHO algorithm switches.

Step 3 Check whether the HHO threshold is correctly set. Run LST RRMINF to query the same-frequency HHO parameters. Table 9-2 lists the basic setting of HHO thresholds. Table 9-2 HHO threshold Field Direct HHO EC/IO Strength Absolute Threshold Direct HHO Max. Loop Delay Threshold Handdown HHO EC/IO Intensity Absolute Threshold Handdown HHO Max. Loop Delay Threshold Pilot Beacon HHO Serving Carrier Threshold
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Modification Command MOD DRCT

Meaning Modify the direct HHO threshold.

Recommen ded Value -16

0, reserved MOD HNDDWN Modify the handdown HHO threshold. -16

0, reserved MOD HHOBPLT Modify the pseudo pilot HHO threshold. -22

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Field Pilot Beacon HHO Target Carrier Threshold Pilot Beacon HHO Relative Threshold Same-frequency HHO Serving Carrier Threshold Same-frequency HHO Target Carrier Threshold Same-frequency HHO Relative Threshold

Modification Command

Meaning

Recommen ded Value -18 5

MOD HHOSF

Modify the same-frequency HHO threshold.

-22 -18 5

On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to query the HHO decision threshold of the same-frequency HHO algorithm:
LST RRMINF: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, RRMINF=HHOSF;

----End

9.3 Handoff Required Reject


The BSC receives a Handoff Required Reject message containing the cause value "Requested terrestrial resource unavailable", which means that the MSC cannot obtain any circuit identification code (CIC) for the target BSC. You can perform A1 interface message tracing on the Service Maintenance System.

Troubleshooting
Figure 9-2 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the fault of handoff required reject.

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Figure 9-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the fault of handoff required reject

Procedure
Step 1 Check the A2 interface circuits of the target BSC. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP A2 to check the A2 interface circuits of the target BSC. In normal cases, the CIC of trunk circuits should be in the Idle state. If it is in the Fault state, you can infer that the A2 interface circuit is faulty. Step 2 Rectify the faults of A2 interface circuits. For details, refer to Link and Circuit Failure. Step 3 Check the location area and cell data configuration of the BSC and the MSC. To ensure that the MS can trigger a HHO between BSCs under the same MSC, the data of BSCs must be consistent with that configured in the MSC. Contact MSC maintenance engineers to check the location area and cell data of the MSC.
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Step 4 Modify the data of the MSC or the BSC. Contact MSC maintenance engineers to modify the data of the MSC if necessary. Step 5 Check the data configuration of the source BSC and the target BSC. The data configuration of the source BSC and the target BSC must be consistent. Otherwise, the handoff between them may fail. 1. 2. 3. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST CELL to check the cell configuration of the source BSC. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST CDMACH to check the data configuration of the target BSC, including the data configuration of external pilots. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST NBRCDMACH to compare the data of the source BSC and the target BSC, especially the configuration of the relationship of neighbor pilots.

Step 6 Modify the data configuration of the source BSC or the target BSC. If the data configuration of the source BSC and the target BSC is inconsistent, you must modify their data configuration. 1. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following commands to delete the wrong data and to add the correct data:
RMV OUTCDMACH; ADD OUTCDMACH;

2.

On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to correct the matching between the cell and the carrier.
MOD OUTCDMACH;

3.

On the Service Maintenance System, run the following commands to delete the wrong neighbor relationship and to add the correct neighbor relationship:
RMV NBRCDMACH; ADD NBRCDMACH;

----End

9.4 Inter-Band HHO Trigger Failure


The neighbor cell of a border cell operates in a different band. An MS fails to trigger an interband HHO when moving to the cell operating in a different band, and the BSC system does not send a Handoff Direction Message to the MS.

Troubleshooting
Figure 9-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the inter-band HHO trigger failure.

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Figure 9-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the inter-band HHO trigger failure

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the MS supports the target band. Check that the MS supports the target band.
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Step 2 Check whether the inter-band HHO switch is on. Run LST BSCHO to query system-level HO parameters to check whether the inter-band HHO switch is on. Step 3 Turn on the inter-band HHO switch. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to turn on the inter-band HHO switch:
MOD BSCHO: BANDHHOSW=ON;

Step 4 Check the neighbor relationship of bands. To enable the MS to search for the pilot of a different band when it detects a worse forward pilot, you must configure the neighbor relationship of bands. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST NBRCDMACH to check whether any carriers that operate in a different band are configured in the neighbor set. For example,
LST NBRCDMACH: NBRINF=DFNBR, BTSID=1, CN=10, SCTID=0;

Step 5 Add the neighbor relationship of bands. Run ADD NBRCDMACH to add the neighbor relationship of bands, including the intra-band neighbor relationship, inter-band neighbor relationship, and idle neighbor relationship. For example, run the following command to add a carrier that operates in a different band to the neighbor set:
ADD NBRCDMACH: CCDMACH="1-10-0-78", NBRCDMACHS="961-20-0-450", SFFLAG=NULL, DFFLAG=SINGLE, NBFLAG=SINGLE;

Step 6 Check whether carriers operating in a different band are configured for direct HHO. When the MS moves to the edge of BTS coverage, the delay increases. If there is no appropriate SHO target and the MS has no detection report of a different band, direct HHO is required. Run LST DRCTTRG to query the target carrier for the direct HHO. For example, run the following command to check whether carriers that operate in a different band are configured for the direct HHO:
LST DRCTTRG: BTSID=1, CN=10, SCTID=0;

Step 7 Add a direct HHO target. Run ADD DRCTTRG to add a direct HHO target. For example, run the following command to add a carrier that operates in a different band as the direct HHO target:
ADD DRCTTRG: CCDMACH="1-10-0-78", NBRCDMACHS="961-20-0-450";

Step 8 Check other inter-band HHO parameters. The method of checking other inter-band HHO parameters is the same as that of checking the intra-band HHO parameters. For details, refer to 9.2 MS HHO Trigger Failure. ----End

9.5 SHO Failure


When an MS in the call state moves at the edge of a cell, the soft handoff (SHO) fails and a call drop occurs.

Troubleshooting
Figure 9-4 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the SHO failure.
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Figure 9-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the SHO failure

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Procedure
Step 1 Check the same-frequency neighbor relationship between the source sector and the target sector. Run LST NBRCDMACH to query the neighbor relationship of frequencies, including samefrequency neighbor relation, different-frequency neighbor relation, and idle neighbor relation. For example, run the following command to list all the sectors that have an intra-frequency neighbor relationship with the source sector:
LST NBRCDMACH : NBRINF=SFNBR ,BTSID=3, CN=4, SCTID=0;

If the output contains the target sector, you can infer that the source and target sectors have the intra-frequency neighbor relationship. Step 2 Modify the intra-frequency neighbor relationship of the source and target carriers. Run ADD NBRCDMACH to add the neighbor relationship of frequencies, including samefrequency neighbor relation, different-frequency neighbor relation, and idle neighbor relation. For example, run the following command to add the intra-frequency neighbor relationship between the source and target carriers:
ADD NBRCDMACH: CCDMACH="958-2-0-283", NBRCDMACHS="119-2310-1-283", SFFLAG=SINGLE, DFFLAG=SINGLE, NBFLAG=SINGLE;

Step 3 Check the handoff threshold. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST DOCNP to check the negotiation parameters of a CDMA2000 1xEV-DO sector and run LST RRMINF to check the negotiation parameters of a CDMA2000 1X sector. The handoff threshold is usually the default value or a value recommended by network planning or optimization engineers. Check whether the handoff threshold is proper.
l

If the value recommended by network planning or optimization engineers is used, check whether the handoff threshold uses the recommended value. If the threshold is the recommended value, the handoff threshold is proper. If the default value is used, check whether the threshold of the target sector is the same as that of other normal sectors. If the thresholds are the same, you can infer that the handoff threshold is proper.

Step 4 Modify the handoff threshold. According to the handoff threshold queried in step 3, modify the handoff threshold of the sector. On the Service Maintenance System, run MOD HO (for CDMA2000 1X) and MOD DOCNP (for CDMA2000 1xEV-DO). Step 5 Check the target carrier. Run DSP RES to query the state of the active carriers. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to check the status of the target carrier:
DSP RES: CN=3, SCTID=5, CRRID=0;

If the Administrative State of the target carrier is Locked, you can infer that this carrier is blocked. Step 6 Unblock the target carrier. Run UBL RES to unblock the target carrier. For example,
UBL RES: CN=3, SCTID=5, CRRID=0;

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Step 7 Check the setting of gain values for the source and target sectors. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to check whether the gain settings of source and target sectors are the same:
LST CDMACH:;

Step 8 Modify the setting of gain values for the source and target sectors. If the gains of the two sectors queried in are different, modify the gain parameter of the sector according to the actual conditions. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD CDMACH:;

Step 9 Check the PNs of the target carrier and other carriers. Run LST CELL to query the cell information to obtain the PNs. For example, run the following command to check PNs of all carriers:
LST CELL:;

The PN value of the target carrier must be unique. Step 10 Modify the PN value of the target carrier. If there is any carrier that has the same PN as the target carrier, modify the PN of the target carrier. Ensure that the PN of the target carrier is different from PNs of other carriers. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD CELL:;

----End

9.6 Inter-AN Handoff Failure


When an AT in the dormant state moves from the coverage area of the source AN to that of the target AN, a session setup message can be traced on the Um interface, but there is no inter-AN handoff message on the A13 interface.

Troubleshooting
Figure 9-5 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the inter-AN handoff failure.

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Figure 9-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the inter-AN handoff failure

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether a PVC link is configured between the source AN and the target AN. Run LST SWPVC to query the configuration of the PVC link. On the Service Maintenance System of the source AN and the target AN, run the following command to check whether the PVC link is configured between the switching subrack of the source AN and the switching subrack of the target AN:
LST SWPVC: LSTFORMAT=VERTICAL;

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Step 2 Add a PVC link between the source AN and the target AN. Run ADD SWPVC to configure a PVC link. If the PVC link is not configured, run the following command to configure a PVC link between the switching subrack of the source AN and the switching subrack of the target AN:
ADD SWPVC: PSN=4, PSSN=0, PPN=0, SSN=11, SSSN=0, SPN=0, VPI=48, VCI=34, VCT=A3PVC;

Step 3 Check whether a neighbor relationship is configured for the source AN and the target AN. Run LST DONBRAN to query the parameters of the neighbor ANs. On the Service Maintenance System of the source AN and the target AN, run the following command to check whether a neighbor relationship is configured for the source AN and the target AN:
LST DONBRAN:;

If the result contains the IP address of the target AN, you can infer that a neighbor relationship is configured. Step 4 Configure a neighbor relationship between the source AN and the target AN. Run ADD DONBRAN to configure the parameters of the neighbor ANs. If the output in step 3 does not contain the IP address of the target AN, run the following command to add a neighbor relationship: On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
ADD DONBRAN: NBRANID="129.9.123.102", NBRCOLORCODE=102;

Step 5 Check whether the neighbor AN link is configured for the source AN and the target AN. Run LST A13LNK to query the physical link configuration of the neighbor ANs. On the Service Maintenance System of the source AN and the target AN, run the following command to check whether a neighbor AN link is configured for the source AN and the target AN:
LST ANAAA:;

If the result contains the IP address of the target AN and the information of the A13 link, you can infer that the neighbor A13 link is configured. Step 6 Configure a neighbor A13 link for the source AN and the target AN. Run ADD A13LNK to configure a neighbor A13 link. If the query result in Step 5 does not contain the IP address of the target AN or the A13 link information, you must configure a neighbor A13 link for the source AN or the target AN. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
ADD A13LNK: BSCIP="129.11.17.102", LM=OPTLNK, A13LFLG="8-60";

Step 7 Check the color code and subnet of the neighbor carriers of the source AN and the target AN. On the Service Maintenance System of the source AN and the target AN, run the following command to check whether the color codes and subnets of the neighbor carriers are the same:
LST DOCS:;

Step 8 Modify the neighbor carrier configuration of the source AN and the target AN. If the query result in Step 7 shows that the color codes and subnets of the neighbor carriers of the source AN and the target AN are the same, you must modify the carrier configuration according to the values specified by network planning engineers. 1. Modify the color code and the subnet of the carrier. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD DOCS:;

2.

After modifying the color code and the subnet of the carrier, you must modify the color code and the subnet of the neighbor AN. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
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MOD DONBRAN:;

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----End

9.7 Inter-Module Load Balance HHO Failure


When configuring the target carrier of the inter-module load balance HHO, you turn on the load balance HHO switch and modify the parameters. The load balance hard handoff, however, cannot be triggered.

Troubleshooting
Figure 9-6 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the inter-module load balance HHO failure.

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Figure 9-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the inter-module load balance HHO failure

Procedure
Step 1 Check the status of the load balance HHO switch. Run LST RRMINF to query the load balance HHO parameters. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST RRMINF: CN=956, SCTID=1, CRRID=0, RRMINF=PHOALG;

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Step 2 Turn on the load balance HHO switch. Run MOD PHOALG to modify handoff algorithm switch parameters, including the samefrequency HHO switch, handdown HHO switch, and direct HHO switch. If the query result in Step 1 is load balance HHO switchoff, you must turn on the load balance HHO switch. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD PHOALG: CN=956, SCTID=1, CRRID=0, LBHHOSW=ON;

Step 3 Check whether the target carrier of the load balance HHO is configured. Run LST HHOLOADTRG to query the target carrier of the load balance HHO. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to check whether the target carrier of the load balance HHO is configured:
LST HHOLOADTRG: BTSID=1, CN=956, SCTID=1, ARFCN=210;

Step 4 Configure the target carrier of the load balance HHO. If the query result in Step 3 is No result!, you must configure the target carrier of the load balance HHO. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
ADD HHOLOADTRG: CCDMACH="1-956-1-210", NBRCDMACHS="10-965-0-210";
NOTE

The relevant commands are RMV HHOLOADTRG (to delete the target carrier of the load balance HHO) and MOD HHOLOADTRG (to modify the target carrier of the load balance HHO).

Step 5 Check the inter-module load notification function. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to check whether the intermodule load notification function is enabled:
LST SOFTPARA: SRVMN=RRM, PRMNO=51;

If the bit 5 of the software parameter value in the query result is 1, the inter-module load notification function is enabled. If the bit 5 is not 1, the inter-module load notification function is disabled. Step 6 Enable the inter-module load notification function. If the query result in Step 5 shows that the inter-SPUO subsystem load notification function is not enabled, you must enable the inter-SPUO subsystem load notification function. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to modify the software parameter of the inter-module load notification function:
MOD SOFTPARA: SRVMN=RRM, PRMNO=51, PRMV="0x20";

CAUTION
You must run LST SOFTPARA to query to initial values of software parameters before modifying the parameter values. You can only modify the value of bit 5. The values of other bits must be the same as their initial values. Step 7 Check the load balance HHO parameters. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to check whether the intermodule load notification function is enabled:
LST RRMINF: CN=956, SCTID=1, CRRID=0, RRMINF=HHOLOAD;

In the query result, check whether the load balance hard handoff parameter is set correctly. Pay special attention to the following two parameters: Overflow Threshold of Load Balance Hard
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Handoff of the Source Carrier and Forward Load of Load Balance Hard Handoff Threshold of the Target Carrier. If the Overflow Threshold of Load Balance Hard Handoff of the Source Carrier exceeds 100%, the load balance hard handoff cannot be triggered even when the source carrier is overloaded. If the Forward Load of Load Balance Hard Handoff Threshold of the Target Carrier is lower than 0%, the load balance hard handoff cannot be performed from other carriers to the target carrier. Step 8 Modify the load balance HHO parameters. If the load balance HHO parameters are not correctly configured, for example, if Overflow Threshold of Load Balance HHO of the Source Carrier is higher than 100%, you must modify the parameters. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to change Overflow Threshold of Load Balance HHO of the Source Carrier to 90%:
MOD HHOLOAD: CN=956, SCTID=1, CRRID=0, OLBHHOFLTHRESH=90;

----End

9.8 AT Not Performing OFS


On the Service Maintenance System, different-frequency neighbor carriers are added to the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO carrier. The AT, however, does not perform OFS. That is, the RouteUpdate message does not contain the information of the different-frequency carrier.

Troubleshooting
Figure 9-7 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the fault of AT not performing OFS.

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Figure 9-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the fault of AT not performing OFS

Procedure
Step 1 Check the different-frequency neighbor carriers of the active set branch of the AT. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to query the differentfrequency neighbor carriers of the active set branch of the AT:
LST NBRCDMACH: NBRINF=DONBR, CN=13, SCTID=0;

Step 2 Configure different-frequency neighbor carriers. Run ADD NBRCDMACH to configure different-frequency neighbor carriers. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to configure differentfrequency neighbor carriers:
ADD NBRCDMACH: CCDMACH="2-13-0-777", NBRCDMACHS="2-13-1-78", SFFLAG=NULL, DFFLAG=SINGLE, NBFLAG=NULL;

Step 3 Check the OFS HHO switch. Run LST DORRMP to query the OFS HHO parameters.
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On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to query whether the OFS hard handoff switch is on:
LST DORRMP: CN=13, SCTID=0, DORRMINF=DOPHOALG;

Step 4 Turn on the OFS HHO switch. Run MOD DOPHOALG to modify the OFS HHO parameters. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to turn on the OFS HHO switch:
MOD DOPHOALG: CN=13, SCTID=0, CRRID=1, OFSDOHHOSW=ON;

----End

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10 Clearing Registration Failures

10
About This Chapter

Clearing Registration Failures

This topic describes the information related to registration failures and how to troubleshoot registration failures. 10.1 Introduction to Registration Registration refers to the process by which an MS informs the BTS of its location and identifies the timeslot period and other features. The MS informs the BTS of its location so that the BTS can efficiently page it. 10.2 MS Registration Initiation Failure The MS fails to initiate registration when it is powered on, powered off, performs an idle handoff to a new location area, or roams to other areas, or the MS fails to initiate timer-based registration, or no registration message can be traced on the Service Maintenance System. 10.3 MS Registration Failure The MSC sends the Location Updating Reject message to the MS. The power-up registration initiated by the MS fails. 10.4 Mass Registration Messages Received In some cases, especially after cutover, upgrade, or expansion, the BSC receives too many registration messages in a short period of time. 10.5 AT Location Registration Failure When the AT in the idle state hands off from a 1X network to a high-rate packet data (HRPD) network, it does not initiate location registration. If you start interface tracing, no related air interface message can be traced.

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10.1 Introduction to Registration


Registration refers to the process by which an MS informs the BTS of its location and identifies the timeslot period and other features. The MS informs the BTS of its location so that the BTS can efficiently page it. The functions of MS registration in the CDMA2000 system are as follows:
l l l

Reporting the location and status of the MS. When the MS serves as the called party, it can be paged. Supporting the provision of the timeslot period index by the MS in slotted mode so that the BSC knows which time slot the MS listens to. Reporting the MS type and the protocol version to the BSS so that the BSS knows the capability of the MS for supporting channels.

The MS registration forms are power-up registration, power-down registration, timer-based registration, distance-based registration, zone-based registration, parameter-change registration, and implicit registration. Figure 10-1 shows the procedure of MS registration. Figure 10-1 MS registration procedure

The procedure of MS registration is described as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. The MS sends a Registration Message to the BSS to initiate the registration procedure. Upon receipt of the Registration Message, the BSS constructs the Location Updating Request message, encapsulates it, and then sends it to the MSC. The MSC sends a Location Updating Accept message to the BSS, indicating that the Location Updating Request message has been processed. The BSS sends a Registration Accepted Order message to the MS to acknowledge successful registration.

10.2 MS Registration Initiation Failure


The MS fails to initiate registration when it is powered on, powered off, performs an idle handoff to a new location area, or roams to other areas, or the MS fails to initiate timer-based registration, or no registration message can be traced on the Service Maintenance System.

Troubleshooting
Figure 10-2 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the registration initiation failure of an MS.
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Figure 10-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the registration initiation failure of an MS

Procedure
Step 1 Query system parameter messages. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST SYSMSGPARA to query the system parameter messages. For example,
LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=1792, SCTID=0, CRRID=11, CCMINF=SPM;

The output is as follows:


%%LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=1792, SCTID=0, CRRID=11, CCMINF=SPM;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded System Parameter Message -----------------------Cell ID Sector ID Carrier ID Registration Zone = = = = 1792 0 11 774

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Reserved Registration Zones Zone Timer Duration Multiple SIDs Storage Flag Multiple NIDs Storage Flag Paging Channel Number Max. Timeslot Period Index Local Registration Flag required for local MSs (non-roaming MSs) SID Roaming Registration Flag required for MSs roaming from other SID NID Roaming Registration Flag required for MSs roaming from other NID Switch-on Registration Flag Switch-off Registration Flag System Message Parameter Change Registration Flag Time Registration Distance Registration Rescan Flag BS Latitude Latitude0hours0minutes0seconds BS Longitude Longitude0hours0minutes0seconds (Total result = 1) --END
NOTE

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= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 1 60 Minutes No No 1 1 Automatic registration is Automatic registration is Automatic registration is Registered Registered Registered 30.893Minutes Not Registered Not Scan North East

Check the displayed values of the system parameters, especially:


l

Local Registration Flag: Select "Automatic registration is required for local MSs (non-roaming MSs)" so that the local MSs (that is, the MSs sharing the same home SID/NID with the local network) can initiate registration automatically. SID Roaming Registration Flag: Select "Automatic registration is required for MSs roaming from other SID" so that the MSs roaming from other SIDs (that is, the MSs using different SIDs from the local network) can initiate registration automatically. NID Roaming Registration Flag: Select "Automatic registration is required for MSs roaming from other NID" so that the MSs roaming from other NIDs can initiate registration automatically. Note that this setting is invalid to the MS roaming from the area with the NID 65535, which matches all the other NIDs. Power-up Registration Flag: specifies whether registration is required upon MS power-up. Set it to "Registered". Power-down Registration Flag: specifies whether registration is required upon MS power-down. Set it to "Registered". System Message Parameter Change Registration Flag: It specifies whether registration is required after system parameters are changed. Set it to "Registered". Time Registration: "0" initiates no time-based registration. Registration Zone: It must be the same as the LAC. Reserved Registration Zones: "0" indicates no zone-based registration.

l l l l l l

Step 2 Query the settings of registration-related parameters of the cell. Run LST CELL to query the settings of registration-related parameters of the cell. On the Service Maintenance System , run the following command:
LST CELL: CN=20, SCTID=0;

If registration is required when the MS performs idle handoff from other cells to the local cell, the following parameters will be compared: System ID (SID) Network ID (NID) Registration Zone The registration zone may be the same as the local area code, or different from that. When the system parameters are correct, and one or several parameters (SIDs, NIDs, or Registration Zones) of the neighbor cells are different, registration will be initiated automatically after the MS performs an idle handoff.
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Step 3 Modify system parameter messages. On the Service Maintenance System , run the following command:
MOD SPM: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, REGZN=3, TOTALZN=1, HOMEREG=YES, FORSIDREG=YES, FORNIDREG=YES, PWRUP=YES, PWRDWN=YES, PRMREG=YES, REGPRD=67;

To enable registration when the MS moves from other cells to the local cell, you can modify the value of Registration Zone. Step 4 Modify cell parameters. Run MOD CELL to modify cell parameters. On the Service Maintenance System , run the following command:
MOD CELL: CN=20, SCTID=0, SID=12062, NID=6, LAC=" 0X3";

To enable the registration when the MS moves from other cells to the local cell, modify the cell parameters so that the parameters of other cells are different from that of the local cell. Step 5 Query MS registration parameters. Check the MS registration parameters if only a few MSs cannot initiate registration. Some MSs allow you to set parameters on the MS to control the initiation of registration. Contact the provider for specific methods. Step 6 Modify MS registration parameters. Modify MS registration parameters if only a few MSs cannot initiate registration. Some MSs allow parameter configuration on the MSs to control the initiation of registration. If the fault is caused by incorrect configuration on an MS, modify registration-specific parameters on the MS. Contact the provider of the MS for specific modification methods. ----End

10.3 MS Registration Failure


The MSC sends the Location Updating Reject message to the MS. The power-up registration initiated by the MS fails.

Troubleshooting
Figure 10-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the registration failure of an MS.

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Figure 10-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the registration failure of an MS

Procedure
Step 1 Check data configuration of the BSC and the MSC. Check whether the cell data on the BSC (to which the MS fails to register) and the cell data on the MSC are consistent. If they are not consistent, the cell ID reported by the BSC is not displayed on the MSC. As a result, the MSC discards the location registration message reported by the BSC. 1. Check the cell configuration of the BSC. On the Service Maintenance System , run the following command:
LST CELL: CN=20, SCTID=0;

2.
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Step 2 Modify the data configuration of the BSC and the MSC. Modify the data configuration of the BSC and the MSC to ensure that the cell configuration on the BSC and the MSC are consistent. For the method of modifying parameters, refer to Paging Response Not Received by BSC. Step 3 Check whether the MS is correctly defined in the HLR. If the MS is not correctly defined in the HLR, the MSC rejects the location update message reported by the BSC, thus causing a registration failure. Contact MSC maintenance engineers for help. Step 4 Modify the subscription data of the MS. Ensure that the subscription data of the MS is correct. To modify the subscription data of the MS, contact MSC maintenance engineers. Step 5 Check whether the authentication is normal. An authentication failure also causes a registration failure. For detailed analysis, refer to Authentication Failure. Step 6 Clear the authentication failure. Ensure that the authentication and registration of the MS are successful. For details on how to clear the authentication failure, refer to Clearing Authentication Failures. ----End

10.4 Mass Registration Messages Received


In some cases, especially after cutover, upgrade, or expansion, the BSC receives too many registration messages in a short period of time.

Troubleshooting
Figure 10-4 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the registration failure due to mass registration messages received by the BSC.

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Figure 10-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the registration failure due to mass registration messages received by the BSC

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether system parameters are modified. If some network parameters (such as SID, NID, and Registration Zone) are modified, the MS will send registration messages. If a great number of (such as dozens of or even hundreds of) network parameters are modified at the same time, many MSs will report registration messages in a short period, affecting network performance. Step 2 Modify system parameters in batches. If you must modify many cell parameters, especially the parameters related to registration such as SID, NID, and Registration Zone, modify them in batches. You can modify the parameters in either of the following ways:
l l

Modify the parameters in batches. Block all carriers, and then modify the parameters. After the modification is complete, unblock the carriers one by one.
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Step 3 Check the value of Time Registration. Run LST SYSMSGPARA to query the Time Registration in the overhead message. If the value of Time Registration is too small, excessive registrations may result. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=1792, SCTID=0, CRRID=11, CCMINF=SPM;

The output is as follows:


%%LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=1792, SCTID=0, CRRID=11, CCMINF=SPM;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded System Parameter Messages -----------------------Cell ID Sector ID Carrier ID Registration Zone Reserved Registration Zones Zone Timer Duration Multiple SIDs Storage Flag Multiple NIDs Storage Flag Paging Channel Number Max. Timeslot Period Index Local Registration Flag required for local MSs (non-roaming MSs) SID Roaming Registration Flag required for MSs roaming from other SID NID Roaming Registration Flag required for MSs roaming from other NID Switch-on Registration Flag Switch-off Registration Flag System Message Parameter Change Registration Flag Time Registration Distance Registration Rescan Flag BS Latitude Latitude0hours0minutes0seconds BS Longitude Longitude0hours0minutes0seconds Base ID Base Class (Total result = 1) --END = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 20 0 0 0 0 60 Minutes No No 1 1 Automatic registration is Automatic registration is Automatic registration is Registered Registered Registered 43.691 Minutes Not Registered Not Scan North East 0 Public Microcell System

Step 4 Modify the value of Time Registration. Run MOD SPM to modify some fields in the overhead message such as Time Registration. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD SPM: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, REGPRD=60;

Time Registration = 2n x 0.08s (n=REGPRD/4). If the registration period (REGPRD) is 60, the MS initiates a registration every other 43.691 minutes. ----End

10.5 AT Location Registration Failure


When the AT in the idle state hands off from a 1X network to a high-rate packet data (HRPD) network, it does not initiate location registration. If you start interface tracing, no related air interface message can be traced.

Troubleshooting
Figure 10-5 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the location registration failure of an AT.
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Figure 10-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the location registration failure of an AT

Procedure
Step 1 Check the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO global configuration negotiation parameters. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to check whether AT location registration is allowed:
LST DOGCNP:;

The output is as follows:


%%LST DOGCNP:;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded EV-DO Global Configuration Negotiation Parameters ------------------------------------------------Session Close Timer(Minute) RANHandoff 3240 (Total result = 1) --END Allowed

Step 2 Modify the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO global configuration negotiation parameters. Run MOD DOGCNP to modify the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO global configuration negotiation parameters. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to set the AT Unsolicited Location Registration to YES (ALLOWED):
MOD DOGCNP: RANHANDOFF=YES;

----End

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11

Clearing Authentication Failures

About This Chapter


This topic describes the information related to authentication failures and how to troubleshoot authentication failures. 11.1 Introduction to Authentication This topic describes the classification and principles of authentication. 11.2 MS Global Challenge Failure After an MS initiates registration, the BSS sends a Location Update Request to the MSC. The MSC then responds with a Location Update Reject message, rejecting the registration. In an MOC, upon receipt of the CM Service message from the BSS, the MSC responds with a Clear Command message with the cause value of 0X1A or an N_DISCONNECT_IND message and releases the call. In an MTC, upon receipt of the Paging Response message from the BSS, the MSC responds with a Clear Command message with the cause value of 0X1A or an N_DISCONNECT_IND message and releases the call. 11.3 MS Unique Challenge Failure The messages traced on the A1 and Um interfaces show that the MSC sends an Authentication Request message to the BSC. After returning an Authentication Response message to the MSC, the BSC receives a Clear Command message from the MSC. The messages traced on the Um interface show that the BSC receives no Authentication Challenge Response message after sending an Authentication Challenge message to the MS. 11.4 MS SSD Update Failure The tracing on the Um interface shows that the BSC sends a Base Station Challenge Confirmation Order message to the MS, but the MS responds with an SSD Update Rejection Order message. The tracing on the A1 interface shows that the BSC sends an SSD Update Response message with a cause value of 0x3B (SSD update rejected) to the MSC, indicating an SSD update failure. 11.5 Authentication Initiation Failure Without the authentication by the system, an illegal MS can register and originate calls successfully. Without the authentication by the system, an illegal MS can be paged successfully. Without the authentication by the system, no SSD update is carried out when a legal MS registers with the network and originates calls for the first time. 11.6 AN AAA Server Authentication Failure
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An AT cannot access the network and there are A12 Interface Authentication Path Fault alarms on the Alarm Management System.

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11.1 Introduction to Authentication


This topic describes the classification and principles of authentication. The authentication aims to verify the validity of subscribers and the network.

Classification of Authentication
Authentication is classified into three types: unique challenge, BTS challenge, and SSD update. The functions of the three types of authentication are as follows:
l l l

Unique challenge is performed to verify the validity of subscribers. BTS challenge is performed to verify the validity of the network. SSD update is performed to update the SSD parameter stored in the MS to ensure the consistency of parameters between the MS and the network.

Unique Challenge Unique challenge is performed to verify the validity of subscribers. Unique challenge is initiated from the network side. Unique challenge can be initiated by the AC at the network side, following the SSD update procedure. The SSD update procedure is followed by the unique challenge procedure each time. The procedure of unique challenge is described as follows: 1. 2. 3. The VLR or the AC at the network side generates a random number (RANDU) and sends it to the MS. Upon receipt of the RANDU, the MS calculates to obtain the AUTHU parameter and sends it to the network side. The AUTHU parameter calculated by the MS are compared with the AUTHU parameter at the network side. If they are inconsistent, unique challenge fails.

BTS Challenge BTS challenge is performed to verify the validity of the network. BTS challenge is initiated by the MS. The BTS challenge procedure is not performed separately. It must be involved in the SSD update procedure. The SSD update procedure must involve the BTS challenge procedure each time. The procedure of BTS challenge is described as follows: 1. 2. 3. The MS generates an RANDBS and sends it to the network side. Upon receipt of the RANDBS, the network side calculates to obtain the AUTHBS parameter and sends it to the MS. The AUTHBS parameter calculated by the network side are compared with the AUTHU parameter calculated by the MS. If they are inconsistent, BTS challenge fails.

SSD Update SSD update is performed to update the SSD stored in the MS. SSD update is initiated from the network side. SSD update can be triggered when the MS fails service access authentication or triggered by the HLR or the AC automatically. The procedure of SSD update is described as follows:
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1. 2. 3. 4.

The AC generates an RANDSSD and sends from the network side to the MS. Upon receipt of the RANDSSD, the MS calculates to obtain a new SSD parameter, uses the new SSD to calculate the AUTHBS, and then initiates the BTS challenge procedure. After the BTS challenge procedure is complete, the MS updates the original SSD with the new SSD and notifies the network side of a successful SSD update. The network side uses the new SSD to calculate the AUTHU and initiates the unique challenge procedure to verify that the SSD update of the MS is successful.

Authentication Procedure
To ensure system security, authentication must be performed when various services are connected to the system. This section describes the authentication procedures for service connection, SSD update, and unique challenge. Authentication Procedure for Service Connection The authentication procedure for service connection includes the authentication procedure for location registration, the authentication procedure for mobile-originated calls, and the authentication procedure for mobile-terminated calls.
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Authentication procedure for location registration Figure 11-1 shows the authentication procedure for location registration. Figure 11-1 Authentication procedure for location registration

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1. 2. 3. 4.

The MS originates a Location Updating Request message, containing the RANDC, RAND, AUTHR, and COUNT. The MSC or the VLR sends an AUTHREQ message with the RAND, AUTHR, and COUNT to the HLR or the AC. The HLR or the AC verifies the validity of the MS and responds with an authreq message and the authentication result to the MSC or the HLR. Upon receipt of the authentication result from the HLR or the AC, the MSC or the VLR determines to connect or reject subsequent service according to the authentication result. If the authentication is successful, the MSC or the VLR sends an REGNOT message to the HLR or the AC. The HLR or the AC responds with an regnot message. The MSC or the VLR responds with a Location Updating Accept message to the BSS.

5. 6.
l

Authentication procedure for mobile-originated calls Figure 11-2 shows the authentication procedure for mobile-originated calls. Figure 11-2 Authentication procedure for mobile-originated calls

1. 2. 3. 4.

The MS originates a CM Service Request message, containing the RANDC, RAND, AUTHR, COUNT, and called number. The MSC or the VLR sends an AUTHREQ message with the RAND, AUTHR, COUNT, and called number to the HLR or the AC. The HLR or the AC verifies the validity of the MS and responds with an authreq message and the authentication result to the MSC or the HLR. Upon receipt of the authentication result from the HLR or the AC, the MSC or the VLR determines to connect or reject subsequent service according to the authentication result. If the authentication is successful, the MSC or the VLR sends an Assignment Request message to the BSS.
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5.
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The BSS sends an Assignment Complete message to the MSC or the VLR.

Authentication procedure for mobile-terminated calls Figure 11-3 shows the authentication procedure for mobile-terminated calls. Figure 11-3 Authentication procedure for mobile-terminated calls

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The MSC or the VLR originates a Paging Request message. The MS sends a Paging Response message with the RANDC, RAND, AUTHR, and COUNT to the MSC or the VLR. The MSC or the VLR sends an AUTHREQ message with the RAND, AUTHR, and COUNT to the HLR or the AC. The HLR or the AC verifies the validity of the MS and responds with an authreq message and the authentication result to the MSC or the HLR. Upon receipt of the authentication result from the HLR or the AC, the MSC or the VLR determines to connect or reject subsequent service according to the authentication result. If the authentication is successful, the MSC or the VLR sends an Assignment Request message to the BSC. The BSS sends an Assignment Complete message to the MSC or the VLR.

6.

SSD Update Procedure SSD update is classified into SSD update initiated in the case of an authentication request failure and SSD update initiated by the AC.
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SSD update initiated in the case of an authentication request failure Figure 11-4 shows the SSD update procedure initiated in the case of an authentication request failure

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Figure 11-4 SSD update procedure initiated in the case of an authentication request failure

1. 2.

The MSC originates an AUTHREQ message. The HLR or the AC detects an authentication failure and initiates the SSD update procedure. The HLR or the AC sends an authreq message to the MSC. The authreq message contains the RANDSSD for calculating the SSD, the AUTHU, and the RANDU for calculating the AUTHU. The MSC sends an SSD Update Request message with the RANDSSD to the MS. The MS sends a Base Station Challenge message with the RANDBS to the MSC to request verifying the validity of the network. The MSC sends a BSCHALL message to the HLR or the AC. The HLR or the AC sends a bschall message with the authentication result to the MSC. The MSC sends a Base Station Challenge Response message with the AUTHBS to the MS. After the verification is complete, the MS updates the original SSD parameter and sends an SSD Update Response message to the MSC.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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9.

After the SSD update is complete, a unique challenge must be initiated. The MSC sends an Authentication Request message with the RANDU to the BSS to request a unique challenge.

10. The MS uses the updated SSD and RANDU to calculate the AUTHU and sends the Authentication Response message with the AUTHU to the MSC or the VLR. 11. The MSC sends an ASREPORT message to the VLR. The ASREPORT message contains the SSD update result SSDUPRT and the unique challenge result UCHALRPT. 12. The VLR responds with an asreport message. 13. The MSC sends an ASREPORT message to the HLR or the AC. The ASREPORT message contains the SSD update result SSDUPRT and the unique challenge result UCHALRPT. 14. The HLR or the AC responds with an asreport message.
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SSD update initiated by the AC Figure 11-5 shows the SSD update procedure initiated by the AC. Figure 11-5 SSD update procedure initiated by the AC

1.

The HLR or the AC originates an AUTHDIR message. The AUTHDIR message contains the RANDSSD for calculating the SSD, the AUTHU, and the RANDU for calculating the AUTHU.
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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

The MSC responds with an authdir message to the HLR or the AC. The MSC sends an SSD Update Request message with the RANDSSD to the MS. The MS sends a Base Station Challenge message with the RANDBS to the MSC to request verifying the validity of the network. The MSC sends a BSCHALL message to the HLR or the AC. The HLR or the AC sends a bschall message with the authentication result to the MSC. The MSC sends a Base Station Challenge Response message with the AUTHBS to the MS. After the verification is complete, the MS updates the original SSD parameter and sends an SSD Update Response message to the MSC. After the SSD update is complete, a unique challenge must be initiated. The MSC sends an Authentication Request message with the RANDU to the BSS to request a unique challenge.

10. The MS uses the updated SSD and RANDU to calculate the AUTHU and sends the Authentication Response message with the AUTHU to the MSC or the VLR. 11. The MSC sends an ASREPORT message to the VLR. The ASREPORT message contains the SSD update result SSDUPRT and the unique challenge result UCHALRPT. 12. The VLR responds with an asreport message. 13. The MSC sends an ASREPORT message to the HLR or the AC. The ASREPORT message contains the SSD update result SSDUPRT and the unique challenge result UCHALRPT. 14. The HLR or the AC responds with an asreport message. Unique Challenge Procedure Unique challenge is classified into unique challenge initiated in the case of an authentication request failure and unique challenge initiated by the AC.
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Unique challenge initiated in the case of an authentication request failure Figure 11-6 shows the unique challenge procedure initiated in the case of an authentication request failure

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Figure 11-6 Unique challenge procedure initiated in the case of an authentication request failure

1. 2.

The MSC originates an AUTHREQ message. The HLR or the AC detects an authentication failure and responds with an authreq message. The authreq message contains the AUTHU and the RANDU for calculating the AUTHU. The MSC sends an Authentication Request message with the RANDU to the BSS to request a unique challenge. The MS uses the updated SSD and RANDU to calculate the AUTHU and sends the Authentication Response message with the AUTHU to the MSC or the VLR. The MSC sends an ASREPORT message to the VLR. The ASREPORT message contains the unique challenge result UCHALRPT. The VLR responds with an asreport message. The MSC sends an ASREPORT message to the HLR or the AC. The ASREPORT message contains the unique challenge result UCHALRPT. The HLR or the AC responds with an asreport message.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
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Unique challenge initiated by the AC Figure 11-7 shows the unique challenge procedure initiated by the AC.

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Figure 11-7 Unique challenge procedure initiated by the AC

1.

The HLR or the AC sends an AUTHDIR message to initiate a unique challenge procedure. The AUTHDIR message contains the AUTHU and the RANDU for calculating the AUTHU. The MSC responds with an authdir message to the HLR or the AC. The MSC sends an Authentication Request message with the RANDU to the BSS to request a unique challenge. The MS uses the updated SSD and RANDU to calculate the AUTHU and sends the Authentication Response message with the AUTHU to the MSC or the VLR. The MSC sends an ASREPORT message to the VLR. The ASREPORT message contains the unique challenge result UCHALRPT. The VLR responds with an asreport message. The MSC sends an ASREPORT message to the HLR or the AC. The ASREPORT message contains the unique challenge result UCHALRPT. The HLR or the AC responds with an asreport message.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

11.2 MS Global Challenge Failure


After an MS initiates registration, the BSS sends a Location Update Request to the MSC. The MSC then responds with a Location Update Reject message, rejecting the registration. In an MOC, upon receipt of the CM Service message from the BSS, the MSC responds with a Clear Command message with the cause value of 0X1A or an N_DISCONNECT_IND message and releases the call. In an MTC, upon receipt of the Paging Response message from the BSS, the MSC responds with a Clear Command message with the cause value of 0X1A or an N_DISCONNECT_IND message and releases the call.

Troubleshooting
Figure 11-8 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the global challenge failure of an MS.

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Figure 11-8 Procedure for troubleshooting the global challenge failure of an MS

Procedure
Step 1 Check the authentication parameters configured at the BSC. Run LST SYSMSGPARA to query the system message parameters such as the authentication parameters. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, CCMINF=AUTH;

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The output is as follows:


%%LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, CCMINF=AUTH;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Authentication Information -------------------------Cell ID Sector ID Carrier ID 20 0 0 (Total result = 1) --END

Authentication Flag Not Authenticate

Auth Random Check Value 100.00

The result shows that the Authentication Flag is set to Not Authenticate, which means authentication is disabled at the BSC. Step 2 Enable the authentication at the BSC. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD AUTH: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, AUTH=YES, RAND=100;

Set AUTH to YES to enable the authentication function. Step 3 Check the A-Key values set on the HLR and the MS. To query the A-Key of the MS, enter the super password. To query the A_key on the MSC, contact the MSC maintenance engineers. Step 4 Modify the A-Key value on the MS or the MSC. To modify the A-Key of the MS, enter the super password and then change the value to the value in the MSC. To modify the A_key on the MSC, contact the MSC maintenance engineers. Step 5 Replace the removable user identity module (R_UIM). Insert the R_UIM of the MS that fails the authentication into the MS that has passed the authentication. If the authentication still fails, you can infer that the R_UIM is faulty. Replace the R_UIM. Step 6 Start Um interface tracing at the BSC. On the Service Maintenance System, track the signaling over the Um interface and then observe the registration messages, origination messages, and paging response messages that are reported by the MS to the BSC. Step 7 Check whether authentication messages are carried in the registration messages, origination messages, or paging response messages. If no authentication information is carried in these messages, you can infer that the MS does not support the authentication function. Step 8 Initiate shared secret data (SSD) update at the MSC. Delete from the HLR the information of the MS that fails global challenge and re-define the MS. Contact HLR maintenance engineers for help. Initiate an SSD update at the MSC. To perform the operation at the MSC, contact MSC maintenance engineers. Step 9 Check whether the SSD update is successful. If the SSD update is successful, the MSC triggers a unique challenge procedure. Successful SSD update ensures consistent SSDs at both the network side and the MS side. Step 10 Disable the authentication function.
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If the MS does not support the authentication function, disable the authentication of the MS at the HLR. For detailed operation, contact HLR engineers. ----End

11.3 MS Unique Challenge Failure


The messages traced on the A1 and Um interfaces show that the MSC sends an Authentication Request message to the BSC. After returning an Authentication Response message to the MSC, the BSC receives a Clear Command message from the MSC. The messages traced on the Um interface show that the BSC receives no Authentication Challenge Response message after sending an Authentication Challenge message to the MS.

Troubleshooting
Figure 11-9 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the unique challenge failure of an MS. Figure 11-9 Procedure for troubleshooting the unique challenge failure of an MS

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Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the A_Key values configured on the HLR and the MS are consistent. 1. 2. 3. To query the A-Key value on the HLR, contact HLR maintenance engineers. To query the A_Key value on the MS, enter the super password. Check that the A-Key values on the MS and the HLR are the same.

Step 2 Modify the A-Key value on the HLR. If the A_Key value on the HLR is incorrect, contact HLR maintenance engineers to modify it. Step 3 Modify the A-Key value on the MS. If the A_Key value on the MS is not consistent with that on the HLR, modify the A_Key value on the MS and keep it consistent with that on the HLR. Enter the super password and change the A-Key value of the MS to that on the HLR. Step 4 Check whether the MS supports unique challenge. On the Service Maintenance System, trace the signaling on the A1 interface. If the BSC receives no Authentication Challenge Response message after it sends an Authentication Challenge message to the MS, you can infer that the MS does not support unique challenge. Step 5 Disable authentication for the MS on the HLR. For detailed operation, contact HLR maintenance engineers. ----End

11.4 MS SSD Update Failure


The tracing on the Um interface shows that the BSC sends a Base Station Challenge Confirmation Order message to the MS, but the MS responds with an SSD Update Rejection Order message. The tracing on the A1 interface shows that the BSC sends an SSD Update Response message with a cause value of 0x3B (SSD update rejected) to the MSC, indicating an SSD update failure.

Troubleshooting
Figure 11-10 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the SSD update failure of an MS.

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Figure 11-10 Procedure for troubleshooting the SSD update failure of an MS

Procedure
Step 1 Modify the A-Key value on the MSC. Check the A_Key value saved on the MSC and modify it if necessary. To modify the A-Key value on the MSC, contact MSC maintenance engineers. Step 2 Modify the A-Key value on the MS. Check the A-Key value on the MS using the super password and change it to the same value as that on the MSC.
NOTE

When an MS is defined, the A_Key of the MS is recorded on the HLR or the AC. If the A-Key on the HLR is inconsistent with that on the MS, the SSD_A_NEW and the SSD_B_NEW generated based on the SSD are different. As a result, the SSD update fails. The A-Key data saved on the MS can be edited or modified. If the A-Key data on the MS is changed to a value different from that on the HLR or the AC, the SSD update may fail.

----End
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11.5 Authentication Initiation Failure


Without the authentication by the system, an illegal MS can register and originate calls successfully. Without the authentication by the system, an illegal MS can be paged successfully. Without the authentication by the system, no SSD update is carried out when a legal MS registers with the network and originates calls for the first time.

Troubleshooting
Figure 11-11 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the authentication initiation failure.

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Figure 11-11 Procedure for troubleshooting the authentication initiation failure

Procedure
Step 1 Check the setting of the authentication flag on the BSC. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, CCMINF=AUTH;

If the authentication function is disabled, run the following command to enable the authentication function:
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MOD AUTH: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, AUTH=YES, RAND=100;

Set the AUTH field in the MOD AUTH command to YES. Step 2 Check the setting of the authentication flag on the MSC. In MAP Configuration Data table, the Authenticate or not field determines whether authentication is to be implemented on the MSs. If the authentication flag is disabled, enable the authentication flag. For detailed operations, contact MSC maintenance engineers. Step 3 Check the setting of the authentication flag on the HLR. Check whether the Authentication Flag is set to Authenticate on the HLR. Step 4 Check the setting of the authentication flag for a specific MS on the HLR. The parameters on the BSC and the MSC specify whether authentication is to be implemented on all the MSs, while the parameter on the HLR specifies whether authentication is needed for a specific MS. If the authentication flag for a specific MS is not enabled on the HLR, the authentication to the MS fails. Contact HLR maintenance engineers to check the authentication flag for a specific MS. If the authentication flag is disabled, ask HLR engineers to enable the authentication flag. ----End

11.6 AN AAA Server Authentication Failure


An AT cannot access the network and there are A12 Interface Authentication Path Fault alarms on the Alarm Management System.

Troubleshooting
Figure 11-12 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the AN AAA server authentication failure.

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Figure 11-12 Procedure for troubleshooting the AN AAA server authentication failure

Procedure
Step 1 Check the user name and password for the CHAP authentication. Check whether the user name and password entered on the AT are consistent with those defined on the AN AAA server. If they are consistent, no fault exists on the AT. If you do not know the user name and password defined on the AN AAN server for the CHAP authentication, contact the service provider.

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Step 2 Enter the correct user name and password on the AT. The user name and password are consistent with those defined on the AN AAA server. Step 3 Query the AN AAA server data configured at the BSC. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST ANAAA:;

The output is as follows:


%%LST ANAAA:;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded AN AAA Information -----------------AN-AAA Server IP Address A12 Request 129.11.18.111

Domain Name

Secret Key

Retransmission Times for an 12345689 1

Administrator@huawei.com_CDMA system 1x-EVDO

(Total result = 1) --END

Check whether the AN AAA server data configured at the BSC are correct:
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Check whether the configured IP address of the AN AAA server is consistent with the actual IP address of the AN AAA server. If they are consistent, the configured IP address is correct. If the actual IP address of the AN AAA server does not exist, contact AN AAA server maintenance engineers. Check whether the configured key is consistent with the NAS password defined on the AN AAA server. If they are consistent, the configured key is correct. If there is no NAS password, contact AN AAA server maintenance engineers.

Step 4 Modify the information of the AN AAA server configured at the BSC. If the information of the AN AAA server is incorrect, run ADD ANAAA to change it according to the values provided by AN AAA server engineers in Step 3. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
ADD ANAAA: ANAAAIP="129.11.11.10", REGION="huawei.com", ANAAAKEY="0123456789";

Step 5 Check whether the PCF is bound with the AN AAA server. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST HACAAA: ;

The output is as follows:


%%LST HACAAA:;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Binding Relationship between CHAC and AN AAA -------------------------------------------CHAC Subrack No. CHAC Slot No. CHAC CPUID 2 2 (Total result = 2) --END 6 9 80.8.203.0 80.9.43.0

PCF IP Address 129.11.17.200 129.11.17.200

The result indicates that the PCF with IP address 129.11.17.182 is bound with the AN AAA server. Step 6 Bind the CHAC and AN AAA server. If the CHAC and the AN AAA are not bound, run ADD HACAAA to bind them. Step 7 Check the channel from the PCF to the AN AAA server.
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Run the PING command on the AN AAA server to check whether the network channel from the PCF to the AN AAA server is functional. For details, contact AN AAA server maintenance engineers. 1. If the command fails, check whether the IP addresses of the PCF and the AN AAA server are in the same network segment. You can obtain the IP address from the output in step 5. For the IP address of the AN AAA server, contact AN AAA server maintenance engineers. Contact AN AAA server maintenance engineers for the IP address of the AN AAA server. If the IP addresses of the PCF and the AN AAA server are in different network segments, check whether a gateway device exists. If a gateway device exists, run LST AAAGW:; on the Service Maintenance System to check the configuration of the gateway device.

2.

Step 8 Modify network configuration. If the IP addresses of the PCF and the AN AAA server are in different network segments, and no gateway device is configured, add a gateway device. Then run the following command to configure the information of the gateway:
ADD AAAGW: FN=2, AAAGWIP="129.11.17.1", AAAGWSNM="255.255.255.0";

----End

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Clearing Encrypted Voice Call Failures

About This Chapter


This topic describes the information related to encrypted voice call failures and how to troubleshoot encrypted voice call failures. 12.1 Introduction to Voice Encryption This topic describes the principle of voice encryption. 12.2 Voice Call Failure upon Encryption Mode Change The MOC and MTC that require only authentication are successful. If the speech encryption mode is set to enhanced speech encryption on the MS, all MOCs and MTCs that require both authentication and encryption fail. On the Service Maintenance System, enable the Abis interface tracing. The traced Assignment Failure message is displayed in the output pane. Double-click the Assignment Failure message and find that the cause value of the Assignment Failure message is "equipment failure, 0x20."

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12.1 Introduction to Voice Encryption


This topic describes the principle of voice encryption. Voice encryption is a process in which the BSS and MS encrypts and decrypts voice streams on the Um interface by using CDMA private long codes to avoid interception. The MS can perform voice encryption according to the indication in the Origination Message or Page Response Message when accessing the network. It can also perform voice encryption through a specific request during the service process. The voice encryption procedures are as follows:
l l l l

Voice encryption when the MS originates a call Voice encryption when the MS is called Common code encryption to private code encryption at the request of the MS Private code encryption to common code encryption at the request of the MS

Voice Encryption When the MS Originates a Call


The process of voice encryption when the MS originates a call is shown in Figure 12-1.

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Figure 12-1 Voice Encryption When the MS Originates a Call

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The MS sends the Origination Message to the BSS. This message carries the PM field and is used to originate the call and request voice encryption. After receiving the Origination Message, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the MS. The BSS sends the CM Service Request to the MSC. This message carries the Voice Privacy Request field, which is used to request voice encryption. The MSC sends the Assignment Request to the BSS. This message is used to request radio resources and carries the private long code mask that is calculated by the network. After assigning traffic channels for the MS, the BSS sends the Channel Assignment Message or the Extended Channel Assignment Message over the paging channel to start setting up radio traffic channels. The MS sends the Traffic Channel preamble (TCH Preamble) on the specified reverse traffic channel. After acquiring the reverse traffic channel, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order on the forward channel and requires the MS to respond. The MS sends the MS Ack Order on the reverse traffic channel as a response to the BS Ack Order from the BSS.
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6. 7. 8.

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9.

The BSS sends the Service Connect Message/Service Option Response Order to the MS to specify the service configuration used for the call.

10. After receiving the Service Connect Message, the MS starts to process services according to the specified service configuration and responds with the Service Connect Completion Message. 11. The BSS sends the Long Code Transition Request Order to the MS, informing the MS to shift to the private long code mask at the specified time. 12. The MS responds with the Long Code Transition Response Order, indicating that the MS accepts the long code mask shift. 13. The BSS uses the Encryption Information field in the Assignment Complete message to inform the MSC to activate voice encryption. 14. The ring back tone is sent to the MS through the voice circuit.

Voice Encryption When the MS is Called


The process of voice encryption when the MS is called is shown in Figure 12-2.

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Figure 12-2 Voice encryption when the MS is called

1. 2. 3.

When the paged MS is within the servicing area of the MSC, the MSC sends the Paging Request to the BSS to start the process of paging the MS. On the paging channel, the BSS sends the General Page Message that carries the identity code of the MS. After recognizing the Paging Request that is sent on the paging channel and contains its identity code, the MS sends the Page Response Message to the BSS on the access channel.
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4.

The BSS uses information that is received from the MS to form a Paging Response Message. After encapsulating this message, the BSS sends it to the MSC. In this message, the BSS can recommend the required terrestrial circuit and request the MSC to assign this circuit. After receiving the Paging Response Message, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the MS. The MSC sends the Assignment Request to the BSS to request radio resources. After assigning traffic channels for the MS, the BSS sends the Channel Assignment Message or the Extended Channel Assignment Message over the paging channel to start setting up radio traffic channels. The MS sends the Traffic Channel preamble (TCH Preamble) on the specified reverse traffic channel. After acquiring the reverse traffic channel, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order on the forward channel and requires an ACK from the MS.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

10. The MS sends the MS Ack Order on the reverse traffic channel as a response to the BS Ack Order from the BSS. 11. The BSS sends the Service Connect Message to the MS to specify the service configuration used for the call. 12. After receiving the Service Connect Message, the MS starts to process services according to the specified service configuration and responds with the Service Connect Completion Message. 13. The BSS sends the Long Code Transition Request Order to the MS, informing the MS to shift to the private long code mask at the specified time. 14. The MS responds with the Long Code Transition Response Order, indicating that the MS accepts the long code mask shift. 15. The BSS uses the Encryption Information field in the Assignment Complete message to inform the MSC to activate voice encryption. 16. The BSS sends the Alert with Info to the MS to tell the MS to ring. 17. After receiving the Alert with Info, the MS sends the MS Ack Order to the BSS. 18. When answering this call, the MS sends the Connect Order that carries Layer 2 verification request to the BSS. 19. After receiving the Connect Order, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the BSS on the forward traffic channel. 20. The BSS sends the Connect Message to inform the MSC that the MS already answers this call. At this time, you can infer that the MS is engaged in a call.

Common Code Encryption to Private Code Encryption at the Request of the MS


The process of the shift from common code encryption to private code encryption at the request of the MS is shown in Figure 12-3.

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Figure 12-3 Common code encryption to private code encryption at the request of the MS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The MS sends the Long Code Transition Request Order to the BSS to request the encryption shift. The BSS sends the Privacy Mode Complete message to the MSC. This messages carries the Voice Privacy Request field, which is used to request the encryption shift. The MSC responds with the Privacy Mode Command, which carries the long code mask. The BSS sends the Long Code Transition Request Order, informing the MS to stop using the common long code and start using the private long code mask at the specified time. The MS responds with the Long Code Transition Response Order, indicating that the MS accepts the long code mask shift. After receiving the Long Code Transition Response Order, the BSS starts using the private long code mask at the same time as the MS does. The BSS sends the Privacy Mode Complete message to the MSC. This message carries the Encryption Information field, which is used to inform the MSC to activate voice encryption.

Private Code Encryption to Common Code Encryption at the Request of the MS


The process of the shift from private code encryption to common code encryption at the request of the MS is shown in Figure 12-4. Figure 12-4 Private code encryption to common code encryption at the request of the MS

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1. 2.

The MS sends the Long Code Transition Request Order to the BSS to request the encryption shift. The BSS sends the Long Code Transition Request Order to the MS, informing the MS to stop using the private long code and start using the common long code mask at the specified time. The MS responds with the Long Code Transition Response Order, indicating that the MS accepts the long code mask shift. After receiving the Long Code Transition Response Order, the BSS starts using the common long code mask at the same time as the MS does. The BSS sends the Privacy Mode Complete message to the MSC. This message carries the Encryption Information field, which is used to tell the MSC to deactivate voice encryption.

3. 4.

12.2 Voice Call Failure upon Encryption Mode Change


The MOC and MTC that require only authentication are successful. If the speech encryption mode is set to enhanced speech encryption on the MS, all MOCs and MTCs that require both authentication and encryption fail. On the Service Maintenance System, enable the Abis interface tracing. The traced Assignment Failure message is displayed in the output pane. Double-click the Assignment Failure message and find that the cause value of the Assignment Failure message is "equipment failure, 0x20."

Troubleshooting
Figure 12-5 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the encrypted voice call failure.

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Figure 12-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the encrypted voice call failure

Procedure
Step 1 Trace the Abis interface signaling. On the Service Maintenance System, trace the Abis interface signaling during the MOC and MTC procedures. Step 2 Check whether the BTS responds to the Long Code transition. The BSC notifies the BTS of using private Long Code Mask through an Abis-Physical Transition Directive message. The BTS returns an Abis-Physical Transition Directive Ack message, indicating whether the Long Code transition succeeds. In the messages traced in Step 1, check whether the BSC receives the Abis-Physical Transition Directive Ack from the BTS. If the BSC does not receive the message, you can infer that a fault occurs in the BTS. Step 3 Clear the fault in the BTS. Contact BTS maintenance engineers to clear the fault in the BTS. Step 4 Check whether the BTS Long Code transition is successful. In the signaling procedure traced in Step 1, check the contents of the Abis-Physical Transition Directive Ack message. If pMC Cause Value is 0, you can infer that the BTS Long Code
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transition is successful. If pMC Cause Value is not 0, you can infer that the BTS Long Code transition fails. Step 5 Adjust the duration of the timer. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to check the duration of timer 13 and timer 20:
LST TMR: MN=CCM, TMRID=13; LST TMR: MN=CCM, TMRID=20;

Add or reduce the values of timers 13 and 20 at the same time. The duration of timer 13 must be greater than that of timer 20. If the BTS Long Code transition fails, increase the values of timers 13 and 20 based on the query result. For example, to add the value of timer 13 from 2s to 3s, and that of timer 20 from 1s to 2s, run the following commands:
MOD TMR: MN=CCM, TMRID=13, TMRV=3000; MOD TMR: MN=CCM, TMRID=20, TMRV=2000;

----End

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Clearing Voice Service Negotiation Failures

About This Chapter


This topic describes the information related to voice service negotiation failures and how to troubleshoot voice service negotiation failures. 13.1 Introduction to Service Negotiation This topic describes the principle of service negotiation. 13.2 Negotiation Failure When an MS or the BSC initiates voice service negotiation, the voice service negotiation fails. At the same time, an Assignment Failure message is displayed on the Service Maintenance System.

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13.1 Introduction to Service Negotiation


This topic describes the principle of service negotiation. Service negotiation is a process in which the BSS and MS determine the call rate and the quality of service through the parameters such as the Service Option (SO), Multiplex Option (MO), and Radio Configuration (RC) specified in the protocol. In the process of voice service negotiation, the BSS and MS exchanges service negotiation messages repeatedly to achieve acceptable service configuration suggested in the service negotiation message. After the A interface is IP-enabled, the codec is deployed in the MGW. Therefore, voice service negotiation should be implemented by the MS, BSS, and MSCe.

MS-Originated Call Procedure


The MS-originated voice call procedure is shown in Figure 13-1. The Origination Message used by the MS to originate a call carries the SO, MO, and RC values that the MS supports. After receiving the Origination Message, the BSS decides whether service negotiation is required:
l

If the BSS accepts the SO, MO, and RC values that the MS supports, service negotiation is not performed. If the BSS does not accept the SO, MO, and RC values that the MS supports, the BSS originates service negotiation, and the service configuration obtained through negotiation is used to set up the call.

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Figure 13-1 MS-Originated Call

1.

On the access channel of the air interface, the MS sends the Origination Message to the BSS. This message carries the parameters SO, MO, and RC that are supported by the MS. The MS requests the BSS to respond. After receiving the Origination Message, the BSS decides whether service negotiation is required. If service negotiation is required, the BSS originates service negotiation in Step 9; if service negotiation is not required, the BSS does not perform Steps 9 and 10. The BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the MS. The BSS constructs the CM Service Request message, encapsulates the message and then sends it to the MSC. For calls that require circuit switching, the BSS, in this message, can recommend the required terrestrial circuit and request the MSC to assign this circuit. The MSC sends the Assignment Request to the BSS to request radio resources. If the MSC supports the terrestrial circuit that is recommended by the BSS in the CM Service Request message, the MSC assigns this terrestrial circuit in the Assignment Request message. If the MSC does not supports the terrestrial circuit that is recommended by the BSS in the CM Service Request message, the MSC assigns another terrestrial circuit. After assigning traffic channels for the MS, the BSS sends the Channel Assignment Message or the Extended Channel Assignment Message over the paging channel to start setting up radio traffic channels.
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3.

4.

5.

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6. 7. 8. 9.

The MS sends the Traffic Channel preamble (TCH Preamble) on the specified reverse traffic channel. After acquiring the reverse traffic channel, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order on the forward channel and requires an ACK from the MS. The MS sends the MS Ack Order on the reverse traffic channel as a response to the BS Ack Order from the BSS. The BSS sends the Service Request Message on the forward traffic channel. Based on its resource status and the assign policies in Table 3-10, the BSS proposes a new service configuration. If service negotiation is not required, Step 11 is performed.

10. The MS responds with the Service Response Message. If the MS accepts the service configuration proposed by the BSS or all the service configurations are already negotiated, Step 11 is performed. If the MS does not accept the service configuration proposed by the BSS, Step 9 is performed to negotiate another service configuration. 11. The BSS sends the Service Connect Message to the MS to specify the service configuration used for the call. 12. After receiving the Service Connect Message, the MS starts to process services according to the specified service configuration and responds with the Service Connect Completion Message. 13. After the radio traffic channel and the terrestrial circuit are both successfully connected, the BSS sends the Assignment Complete Message to the MSC. You can infer that the MS is engaged in a call. 14. If the calling process tone is provided inband, the ring back tone is sent to the MS through the voice circuit.

MS-Originated Call Procedure (The A Interface Uses IP Transmission)


The MS-originated call procedure when the A interface uses IP transmission is shown in Figure 13-2. There are two types of procedures, which are selected through software parameter configuration.
l

The BSS sends the CM Service Request message, which carries the A2p parameter, to the MSCe. The MSCe sends the Assignment Request message, which carries the A2p parameter, to the BSS. The BSS sends the CM Service Request message, which does not carry the A2p parameter, to the MSCe. The BSS sends the Assignment Complete message, which carries the A2p parameter, to the MSCe. The MSCe originates the bearer update procedure. The message carries the A2p parameter.

The differences between these two types of procedures are demonstrated in Steps 3 and 13.

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Figure 13-2 MS-Originated Call (The A Interface Uses IP Transmission)

1.

On the access channel of the air interface, the MS sends the Origination Message to the BSS. This message carries the parameters SO, MO, and RC that are supported by the MS. The MS requests the BSS to respond. The BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the MS. The BSS constructs the CM Service Request message, encapsulates it and sends it to the MSCe. This message carries the A2p parameter that is designated by the MS. The MSCe sends the Assignment Request to the BSS to request radio resources. This message carries the A2p bearer parameter that is designated by the MSCe. If the A2p bearer parameters designated by the MSCe and the MS are different, the BSS originates service negotiation in Step 9; if service negotiation is not required, the BSS does not perform Steps 9 and 10.
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5.

After assigning traffic channels for the MS, the BSS sends the Channel Assignment Message or the Extended Channel Assignment Message over the paging channel to start setting up radio traffic channels. The MS sends the Traffic Channel preamble (TCH Preamble) on the specified reverse traffic channel. After acquiring the reverse traffic channel, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order on the forward channel and requires an ACK from the MS. The MS sends the MS Ack Order on the reverse traffic channel as a response to the BS Ack Order from the BSS. The BSS sends the Service Request Message on the forward traffic channel. Based on the A2p bearer parameter designated by the MSCe, the BSS proposes a new service configuration. If service negotiation is not required, Step 11 is performed.

6. 7. 8. 9.

10. The MS responds with the Service Response Message, indicating that is accepts the service configuration proposed by the BSS. 11. The BSS sends the Service Connect Message to the MS to specify the service configuration used for the call. 12. After receiving the Service Connect Message, the MS starts to process services according to the specified service configuration and responds with the Service Connect Completion Message. 13. After the radio traffic channel and the terrestrial circuit are both successfully connected, the BSS sends the Assignment Complete Message to the MSCe, and the call enters the calling state. If, in Step 3, the message sent by the BSS does not carry the A2p bearer parameter, the Assignment Complete Message carries the A2p bearer parameter designated by the MS, and bearer update is performed in Steps 1517. 14. If the calling process tone is provided inband, the ring back tone is sent to the MS through the voice circuit. 15. The MSCe sends the Bearer Update Request message, which carries the A2p parameter, to the BSS. 16. Based on the A2p bearer parameters designated by the MSCe and the MS, the BSS updates the service configuration. The process is the same as Steps 912. 17. After completing service configuration, the BSS sends the Bearer Update Response message to the MSCe.

MS-Terminated Call Procedure


The MS-terminated call procedure is shown in Figure 13-3. Negotiation in the MS-terminated call procedure is similar to that in the MS-originated call procedure, and the difference is that, in the MS-terminated call procedure, the General Page Message delivered by the BSS carries the parameter SO for service negotiation with the MS. This is equivalent to one negotiation already performed between the BSS and the MS. When the General Page Message carries the parameter SO, the Page Response Message from the MS may be in either of the following situations:
l

The MS accepts the SO value proposed by the BSS, and the BSS does not perform service negotiation. The MS does not accept the SO value proposed by the BSS, and the BSS originates service negotiation.
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Figure 13-3 MS-Terminated Call

1. 2. 3.

When the paged MS is within the servicing area of the MSC, the MSC sends the Paging Request to the BSS to start the process of paging the MS. On the paging channel, the BSS sends the General Page Message that carries the SO value and the identity code of MS. After recognizing the paging request that is sent on the paging channel and contains its identity code, the MS sends the Page Response Message to the BSS on the access channel. Also, this message tells the BSS whether service negotiation is required. If service negotiation is required, the MS provides an available SO value in the Page Response Message, and the BSS originates service negotiation in Step 11. If service negotiation is not required, the SO value provided by the MS in the Page Response Message is the same
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as that sent by the BSS in the General Page Message, and the BSS does not perform Steps 11 and 12. 4. The BSS uses information that is received from the MS to form a Paging Response message. After encapsulating this message, the BSS sends it to the MSC. In this message, the BSS can recommend the required terrestrial circuit and request the MSC to assign this circuit. The BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the MS. The MSC sends the Assignment Request to the BSS to request radio resources. After assigning traffic channels for the MS, the BSS sends the Channel Assignment Message or the Extended Channel Assignment Message over the paging channel to start setting up radio traffic channels. The MS sends the Traffic Channel preamble (TCH Preamble) on the specified reverse traffic channel. After acquiring the reverse traffic channel, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order on the forward channel and requires an ACK from the MS.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

10. The MS sends the MS Ack Order on the reverse traffic channel as a response to the BS Ack Order from the BSS. 11. The BSS sends the Service Request Message on the forward traffic channel. Based on its resource status and the assign policies in Table 3-10, the BSS proposes a new service configuration. If service negotiation is not required, Step 13 is performed. 12. The MS responds with the Service Response Message. If the MS accepts the service configuration proposed by the BSS or all the service configurations are already negotiated, Step 13 is performed. If the MS does not accept the service configuration proposed by the BSS, Step 11 is performed to negotiate another service configuration. 13. The BSS sends the Service Connect Message to the MS to specify the service configuration used for the call. 14. After receiving the Service Connect Message, the MS starts to process services according to the specified service configuration and responds with the Service Connect Completion Message. 15. After the radio traffic channel and the terrestrial circuit are both successfully connected, the BSS sends the Assignment Complete Message to the MSC. 16. The BSS sends the Alert with Info to the MS to tell the MS to ring. 17. After receiving the Alert with Info, the MS sends the MS Ack Order to the BSS. 18. When answering this call (off-hook), the MS sends the Connect Order that carries Layer 2 verification request to the BSS. 19. After receiving the Connect Order, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the BSS on the forward traffic channel. 20. The BSS sends the Connect Message to inform the MSC that the MS already answers this call. At this time, you can infer that the MS is engaged in a call.

MS-Terminated Call Procedure (The A Interface Uses IP Transmission)


The MS-terminated call procedure when the A interface uses IP transmission is shown in Figure 13-4. There are two types of procedures, which are selected through software parameter configuration.
l

The BSS sends the Paging Response message, which carries the A2p parameter, to the MSCe. The MSCe sends the Assignment Request message, which carries the A2p parameter, to the BSS.
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13 Clearing Voice Service Negotiation Failures

The BSS sends the Paging Response message, which does not carry the A2p parameter, to the MSCe. The BSS sends the Assignment Complete message, which carries the A2p parameter, to the MSCe. The MSCe originates the bearer update procedure. The message carries the A2p parameter.

Figure 13-4 MS-Terminated Call (The A Interface Uses IP Transmission)

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1. 2. 3. 4.

When the paged MS is within the servicing area of the MSCe, the MSCe sends the Paging Request to the BSS to start the process of paging the MS. On the paging channel, the BSS sends the General Page Message that carries the SO value and the identity code of MS. After recognizing the paging request that is sent on the paging channel and contains its identity code, the MS sends the Page Response Message to the BSS on the access channel. The BSS uses information that is received from the MS to form a Paging Response message. After encapsulating the message, the BSS sends it to the MSCe. This message carries the A2p bearer parameter designated by the MS. The BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the MS. The MSCe sends the Assignment Request to the BSS to request radio resources. This message carries the A2p bearer parameter that is designated by the MSCe. If the A2p bearer parameters designated by the MSCe is different from the service option of the MS, the BSS originates service negotiation in Step 11; if service negotiation is not required, the BSS does not perform Steps 11 and 12. After assigning traffic channels for the MS, the BSS sends the Channel Assignment Message or the Extended Channel Assignment Message over the paging channel to start setting up radio traffic channels. The MS sends the Traffic Channel preamble (TCH Preamble) on the specified reverse traffic channel. After acquiring the reverse traffic channel, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order on the forward channel and requires an ACK from the MS.

5. 6.

7.

8. 9.

10. The MS sends the MS Ack Order on the reverse traffic channel as a response to the BS Ack Order from the BSS. 11. The BSS sends the Service Request Message on the forward traffic channel. Based on the A2p bearer parameter designated by the MSCe, the BSS proposes a new service configuration. If service negotiation is not required, Step 13 is performed. 12. The MS responds with the Service Response Message, indicating that is accepts the service configuration proposed by the BSS. 13. The BSS sends the Service Connect Message to the MS to specify the service configuration used for the call. 14. After receiving the Service Connect Message, the MS starts to process services according to the specified service configuration and responds with the Service Connect Completion Message. 15. After the radio traffic channel and the terrestrial circuit are both successfully connected, the BSS sends the Assignment Complete Message to the MSCe. If, in Step 4, the message sent by the BSS does not carry the A2p bearer parameter, the Assignment Complete Message carries the A2p bearer parameter designated by the MS, and bearer update is performed in Steps 1517. 16. The MSCe sends the Bearer Update Request message, which carries the A2p parameter, to the BSS. 17. Based on the A2p bearer parameters designated by the MSCe, the BSS updates the service configuration. The process is the same as Steps 1114. 18. After completing service configuration, the BSS sends the Bearer Update Response message to the MSCe. 19. The BSS sends the Alert with Info to the MS to tell the MS to ring.
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20. After receiving the Alert with Info, the MS sends the MS Ack Order to the BSS. 21. When answering this call (off-hook), the MS sends the Connect Order that carries Layer 2 verification request to the BSS. 22. After receiving the Connect Order, the BSS sends the BS Ack Order to the BSS on the forward traffic channel. 23. The BSS sends the Connect Message to inform the MSCe that the MS already answers this call. At this time, you can infer that the MS is engaged in a call.

13.2 Negotiation Failure


When an MS or the BSC initiates voice service negotiation, the voice service negotiation fails. At the same time, an Assignment Failure message is displayed on the Service Maintenance System.

Troubleshooting
Figure 13-5 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the voice service negotiation failure. Figure 13-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the voice service negotiation failure

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Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the voice service negotiation is enabled on the BSC. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SOFTPARA: SRVMN=CCM, PRMNO=7;

The output is as follows:


%%LST SOFTPARA: SRVMN=CCM, PRMNO=7;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Software Parameter -----------------Service Module ID Software Parameter No. CCM (Total result = 1) --END
NOTE

Software Parameter Value 0x00000002

Software parameter 7 determines whether the voice service negotiation and EPACA functions are supported. The default value is 0x00000000, which is defined as follows:
l

Bits 0 to 1: Bit 0 is the EPACA control switch, and bit 1 is the control switch of voice service negotiation. The meanings of values in binary are as follows:
l l l l

00: disables EPACA and voice service negotiation 01: enables EPACA, but not voice service negotiation 10: enables voice service negotiation, but not EPACA 11: enables voice service negotiation and EPACA

Bits 2 to 31: reserved.

Step 2 Enable the voice service negotiation on the BSC. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD SOFTPARA: SRVMN=CCM, PRMNO=7, PRMV="0x00000002";

If software parameter 7 is set to 0x00000002, the voice service negotiation is enabled. If software parameter 7 is set to 0x00000000, the voice service negotiation is disabled. Step 3 Change the voice service negotiation policy of the BSC. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SRVNEGPARA:;

The output is as follows:


%%LST SRVNEGPARA:;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Service Negotiation Parameters ------------------------------ Service Negotiation Parameter Rate set 2 SO negotiate to rate set1 SO (Total result = 1) --END
NOTE

The service negotiation policies are listed as follows:


l l l l l

Use SO Request by MS Use SO Request by MS and 8K Must Negotiate to EVRC Rate Set 2 SO Negotiate to Rate Set 1 SO Negotiation policy EVRC-8k-13k Negotiation policy EVRC-13k-8k

Step 4 Change the voice service negotiation policy of the BSC.


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On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:


MOD SRVNEGPARA: SRVNEGPARA=PARA0;

Step 5 Check the DSP loading program type of the CEVC. Generally, the DSP loading program type of the CEVC supports 8k, EVRC, and 13k. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST EVCDSP:;

The output is as follows:


%LST EVCDSP:;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded DSP Loading Program V110 Switch = Off --END CEVC DSP Parameter -----------Type = EVRC+QCELP8K

Step 6 Change the DSP loading program type of the CEVC. If the DSP loading program type of a CEVC cannot meet the requirements, run the following command to set the CODEC:
MOD EVCDSP: FN=5, SN=3, DSPIDX=1, LODPRGMTP=QCELP8K+QCELP13K;

----End

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Clearing Service Redirection Failures

About This Chapter


This topic describes service redirection and how to troubleshoot service redirection failures. 14.1 Introduction to Service Redirection Service redirection is performed to instruct an MS to access the suggested system, network or channel number. Load sharing can be achieved in the BSC through service redirection. The service redirection function is controlled by the control switch. 14.2 Service Redirection Failure The mismatch of the MS version and cell version or the heavy cell load may cause service redirection failures.

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14.1 Introduction to Service Redirection


Service redirection is performed to instruct an MS to access the suggested system, network or channel number. Load sharing can be achieved in the BSC through service redirection. The service redirection function is controlled by the control switch.

14.2 Service Redirection Failure


The mismatch of the MS version and cell version or the heavy cell load may cause service redirection failures.

Troubleshooting
Figure 14-1 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the service redirection failure. Figure 14-1 Procedure for troubleshooting the service redirection failure

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the BSC sends a service redirection message (SRDM).
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On the Service Maintenance System, trace the signaling on the Um interface to check whether the BSC sends an SRDM to the MS. Step 2 Check whether parameters such as System ID, Network ID, Band Class, and Frequency carried in the SRDM are consistent with those configured on the target system. The parameters such as System ID and Network ID carried in the SRDM are system parameters of the target system to which an MS redirects. If the parameters carried in the SRDM are not consistent with those configured on the target system, you can infer that the service redirection related data on the BSC is incorrect. Step 3 Check the configuration of the carrier. Run LST RRMINF to query the SRDM. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST RRMINF: CN=1, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, RRMINF=SRCFG;

The output is as follows:


%%LST RRMINF: CN=1, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, RRMINF=SRCFG;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Service Redirection Information ------------------------------Cell ID = 20 Sector ID = 0 Carrier ID = 0 Pilot Type = IS95A/IS95B/IS2000 Combined Cell Allow Service Redirection based on Current Cell Type = Not Allowed Redirection on Congestion Switch = Disabled Redirection on Illegal MS Switch = Disabled Service Redirection Function Switch 2 = Disabled Service Redirection Function Switch 3 = Disabled System ID = 0 Network ID = 0 Band Class = 800MHz Frequency 1 for Service Redirection = None Frequency 2 for Service Redirection = None Frequency 3 for Service Redirection = None Frequency 4 for Service Redirection = None Frequency 5 for Service Redirection = None Frequency 6 for Service Redirection = None (Total result = 1) --END

The contents following the Pilot Type are the configuration of the carrier. For the meaning of these parameters, see Table 14-1.

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Table 14-1 Service redirection configuration Parameter PILOT_TYP E Range 0-7 Data Type DBT_UINT 8,* Description Type of carrier. TYP0 S95A/95B cell, TYP1IS2000 cell, TYP2IS95A/ IS2000 combined cell, and TYP3IS95A/ IS95B/IS2000 combined cell. If this parameter is set to TYP3, the redirection between different types of cell is disabled. Allow Service Redirection based on Current Cell Type. NO: Not Allowed; YES: Allowed. Redirection on Congestion Switch. NO: Disabled; YES: Enabled. Redirection on Illegal MS Switch. YES: Enabled; NO: Disabled. Service Redirection Function Switch 2 Service Redirection Function Switch 3 System ID Network ID Band Class = [00000] (Cellular) = [00001] (PCS) Frequency 1 for service redirection Remarks TYP0: redirecting IS2000 MS TYP1: redirecting IS-95A/B MS TYP2: redirecting IS-95A MS TYP3: No redirection between different types of cell

SR_CELLT YPE_SWIT CH

8 bits

DBT_UINT 8,*

None.

SR_LOAD_ SWITCH

8 bits

DBT_UINT 8,*

None.

SR_SWITC H1

8 bits

DBT_UINT 8,*

None.

SR_SWITC H2 SR_SWITC H3 SR_SID SR_NID BAND_CL ASS SR_FREQ1

8 bits 8 bits 15 bits 16 bits 5 bits

DBT_UINT 8,* DBT_UINT 8,* DBT_UINT 16,* DBT_UINT 16,* DBT_UINT 8,* DBT_UINT 16,*

Reserved Reserved Configured depending on target cells Configured depending on target cells Configured depending on target cells Target frequency 1

INTEGE R (0..2047)

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Parameter SR_FREQ2

Range INTEGE R (0..2047) INTEGE R (0..2047) INTEGE R (0..2047) INTEGE R (0..2047) INTEGE R (0..2047)

Data Type DBT_UINT 16,* DBT_UINT 16,* DBT_UINT 16,* DBT_UINT 16,* DBT_UINT 16,*

Description Frequency 2 for service redirection Frequency 3 for service redirection Frequency 4 for service redirection Frequency 5 for service redirection Frequency 6 for service redirection

Remarks Target frequency 2

SR_FREQ3

Target frequency 3

SR_FREQ4

Target frequency 4

SR_FREQ5

Target frequency 5

SR_FREQ6

Target frequency 6

NOTE

l l l

Every record represents the service redirection configuration allowed for the carrier. A maximum of six redirection frequencies can be configured for each record. If no frequency is configured, the value is 0xffff. The redirection frequencies must be configured in sequence. The carrier type indicates the direction and selection for the redirection. If the current cell is an IS95 cell, the system redirects IS2000 MSs. If the current cell is an IS2000 cell, the system redirects IS95 MSs. A maximum of 960 records are allowed in the Service Redirection Configuration table.

Step 4 Configure the carrier as an independent IS95 or IS2000 cell. Check whether the carrier configuration is correct according to the carrier type queried in Step 2. l l If the carrier type is not the expected one, reconfigure the carriers according to the field requirements. See Table 14-1 for configuration parameters. For example, to change the carrier type (Cell ID: 20; Sector ID: 0; Carrier ID: 0) into an IS2000 cell, run the following command:
MOD SRCFG: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, PLTTP=IS2000;

Step 5 Check whether the service redirection switch is on. 1. To check whether the service redirection switch is on, On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST RRMINF: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, RRMINF=SRCFG;

2. If the service redirection switch is off, run MOD SRCFG to turn it on. For example,
MOD SRCFG: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, IFCELLTP=YES, SRLODSWT=ON, SRSWT1=ON;

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Step 6 Check the data configuration for the service redirection. The System ID, Network ID, Band Class, and Frequency in the data script must be set to the actual values of the system to which the MS is redirected. If they are not consistent, the MS fails to find the target system. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to modify the service redirection parameters:
MOD SRCFG: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, SRSID=4, SRNID=1, BNDCLS=BC800, SRFRQ1=78, SRFRQ2=160, SRFRQ3=201, SRFRQ4=242, SRFRQ5=283, SRFRQ6=88;

----End

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15
About This Chapter

Clearing SMS Failures

This topic describes the short message service (SMS) and how to troubleshoot SMS failures. 15.1 Introduction to the SMS This topic describes how the short message service (SMS) is transferred between a base station subsystem (BSS) and a mobile station (MS) when the MS originates or terminates the SMS. Whether a short message is transferred over a control channel or a traffic channel depends on the size of the short message. 15.2 SM-MT Failure MSs cannot receive short messages delivered to them. 15.3 System Exception Caused by Centralized Delivery of Short Messages When short messages are delivered in a centralized manner, the central processing unit (CPU) of the CSPU may become overloaded, thus causing a system exception.

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15.1 Introduction to the SMS


This topic describes how the short message service (SMS) is transferred between a base station subsystem (BSS) and a mobile station (MS) when the MS originates or terminates the SMS. Whether a short message is transferred over a control channel or a traffic channel depends on the size of the short message.

Mobile-originated SMS Transfer (over Access Channel)


When an MS in idle state needs to send a small-sized short message, the short message is transferred over an access channel. Figure 15-1 shows the procedure for sending a short message from an MS over an access channel. Figure 15-1 Sending of a short message from an MS over an access channel

The procedure for sending a short message from an MS over an access channel is as follows: 1. 2. The MS sends an point-to-point short message to the network by sending an Access Channel SMS Deliver message (Data Burst Message) over the access channel. If the MS requests a Layer 2 Ack message, the BSS acknowledges the receipt of the Access Channel SMS Deliver message (Data Burst Message) by sending a Layer 2 Ack message over the paging channel. The BSS sends an Application Data Deliver Service (ADDS) Transfer message to the MSC. The ADDS Transfer message contains the short message received from the MS.

3.

Mobile-terminated SMS Transfer (over Paging Channel)


When a mobile switching center (MSC) needs to send a small-sized short message to an MS in idle state, the short message is transferred over a paging channel. The downlink SMS transfer over a paging channel includes the delivery of a point-to-point short message to an MS and the delivery of a broadcast short message to an MS. Figure 15-2 shows the procedure for delivering a point-to-point short message to an MS over a paging channel.

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Figure 15-2 Delivery of a point-to-point short message to an MS over a paging channel

The procedure for delivering a point-to-point short message to an MS over a paging channel is as follows: 1. The MSC sends an ADDS Page message to the BSS. The ADDS Page message contains the short message in its ADDS User Part information element. If the MSC requests an acknowledgment, the ADDS Page message also contains the Tag information element. The BSS sends a Paging Channel SMS Deliver message (Data Burst message) that contains the short message to the MS over the paging channel. Before sending the short message, the BSS may perform vendor-specific procedures such as paging the MS. If the BSS requests a Layer 2 Ack message, the MS acknowledges the receipt of the short message by sending a Layer 2 Ack message. If the ADDS Page message contains the Tag information element, the BSS sends an ADDS Page Ack message to the MSC after the BSS receives the ADDS Page message. The ADDS Page Ack message contains the Tag information element that is identical with the one contained in the ADDS Page message.

2.

3. 4.

Figure 15-3 shows the procedure for delivering a broadcast short message to an MS over a paging channel. Figure 15-3 Delivery of a broadcast short message to an MS over a paging channel

The procedure for delivering a broadcast short message to an MS over a paging channel is as follows: 1. The MSC sends an ADDS Page message to the BSS. The ADDS Page message contains the SMS broadcast message in its ADDS User Part information element. If the MSC requests an acknowledgment, the ADDS Page message also contains the Tag information element. If the ADDS Page message contains the Tag information element, the BSS receives the ADDS Page message and sends to the MSC an ADDS Page Ack message, containing the
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2.

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Tag information element that is identical with the one contained in the ADDS Page message. 3. The BSS sends a Paging Channel SMS Boardcase Deliver message (Data Burst message) to multiple MSs over the paging channel.

Mobile-originated SMS Transfer (over Traffic Channel)


When an MS in idle state needs to send a short message whose length exceeds the length limit of short messages transferred over the access channel, the MS sends an Origination message (with the service option as short message) to the BSS for setup of a traffic channel over the Um interface. Then the MS uses the traffic channel to send the short message. If a traffic channel is already set up for the MS, the MS sends the short message directly over this channel. Figure 15-4 shows the procedure for sending a short message from an MS over a traffic channel. Figure 15-4 Sending of a short message from an MS over a traffic channel

The procedure for sending a short message from an MS over a traffic channel is as follows: 1. 2. 3. The BSS receives a Traffic Channel SMS Deliver message over the traffic channel. The burst type of this message is SMS. The BSS sends a Layer 2 Ack message to the MS over the traffic channel. The BSS sends an ADDS Deliver message to the MSC. The ADDS User Part element of the ADDS Deliver message contains the short message sent by the MS.

Mobile-terminated SMS Transfer (over Traffic Channel)


When an MSC needs to send to an MS in idle state a short message whose length exceeds the length limit of short messages transferred over the paging channel, the MSC pages the MS and sets up a traffic channel over the Um interface. Then the MSC sends the short message to the MS. If a traffic channel is already set up for the MS, the MSC sends the short message directly over this channel. Figure 15-5 shows the procedure for delivering a short message to an MS over a traffic channel.

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Figure 15-5 Delivery of a short message to an MS over a traffic channel

The procedure for delivering a short message to an MS over a traffic channel is as follows: 1. If the MS is found over a traffic channel when the MSC needs to send a short message to the MS, the MSC sends an ADDS Deliver message that contains the short message to the BSS. The BSS sends a Traffic Channel SMS Deliver message (Data Burst Message) over forward traffic channel. If the BSS does not receive an acknowledgment from the MS after the BSS sends the Traffic Channel SMS Deliver message, the BSS retransmits the message. The maximum number of retransmissions is limited to a specific value. Upon receipt of the short message, the MS sends a Layer 2 Ack message over the traffic channel. If a tag element is included in the ADDS Deliver message sent by the MSC, the BSS returns an ADDS Deliver Ack message to the MSC when the BSS receives the Layer 2 Ack message from the MS. The ADDS Deliver Ack message contains a tag element that is identical with the one contained in the ADDS Deliver message.

2.

3. 4.

15.2 SM-MT Failure


MSs cannot receive short messages delivered to them.

Troubleshooting
Figure 15-6 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the short message-mobile terminated (SMMT) failure.

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Figure 15-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the SM-MT failure

Precautions
The troubleshooting of a SMS failure may involve operations on the HLR, MSC, and Short Message Center (SMC). Therefore, log the troubleshooting process when you handle an SMS failure. Additionally, an SMS failure may arise from an MS fault. For example, in a 450 MHz CDMA system, some H100 or S200 MSs cannot display a calling number and thus cannot display the received message.

Procedure
Step 1 Check the processing of paging messages. Although forward short messages can be transferred in many ways, they are generally carried in paging messages. Therefore, refer to 5 Clearing MTC Failures for troubleshooting of an SM-MT failure. Step 2 Troubleshoot a paging message failure. For details, refer to 5 Clearing MTC Failures. ----End

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15.3 System Exception Caused by Centralized Delivery of Short Messages


When short messages are delivered in a centralized manner, the central processing unit (CPU) of the CSPU may become overloaded, thus causing a system exception.

Troubleshooting
Figure 15-7 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the system exception caused by centralized delivery of short messages. Figure 15-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the system exception caused by centralized delivery of short messages

Procedure
Step 1 Check the parameters of the centralized short-message delivery. The parameters include:
l l l l l

Deliver speed of short messages by the SMC Number of re-deliveries of a short message by the SMC Number of re-deliveries of a short message by the MSC BSC network scale and the number of BTSs under each module Current traffic density

Step 2 Stop delivering short messages in a centralized manner or decrease the speed.
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If the traffic on the A interface is too heavy (over 20 short message pagings delivered each second), or the CPU usage of the CSPU is over 70%, or any other exception alarms are raised, stop the point-to-point short-message delivery and take the following measures:
l l l l

Reducing the number of short messages delivered each second Controlling the deliver speed and the number of messages redelivered Canceling the re-delivery of short messages at the MC Setting the number of re-deliveries of a short messages at the MSC to two and the interval between re-deliveries to five seconds If the number of BTSs in a location area is less than or equal to 16, the number of short messages delivered each second should be less than 5. If the number of BTSs in a location area is more than 16 and less than or equal to 32, the number of short messages delivered each second should be less than 4. If the number of BTSs in a location area is more than 32, the number of short messages delivered each second should be less than 3.

----End

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16

Clearing Quasi-Concurrent Service Failures

About This Chapter


This topic introduces the quasi-concurrent service and describes how to troubleshoot quasiconcurrent service failures. 16.1 Introduction to the Quasi-Concurrent Service The quasi-concurrent service enables a subscriber to suspend any data service so that the subscriber can answer an incoming voice call. After the voice call finishes, the subscriber can resume the data service. The quasi-concurrent service is a supplementary service. You can use this service after the subscription. 16.2 Clear Command Message Not Received An MS is called when it processes data service. The tracing on the A1 interface shows that the MSC sends no Clear Command message to the BSC. 16.3 Service Option Control Message Not Sent An MS is called when it processes data service. The tracing on the Um interface shows that the BSC sends no Service Option Control message to the MS. 16.4 Call Answer Failed after Suspending Data Service An MS is called when it processes data service. The MS fails to answer the call after the data service is suspended.

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16.1 Introduction to the Quasi-Concurrent Service


The quasi-concurrent service enables a subscriber to suspend any data service so that the subscriber can answer an incoming voice call. After the voice call finishes, the subscriber can resume the data service. The quasi-concurrent service is a supplementary service. You can use this service after the subscription. The quasi-concurrent service is implemented at the MSC and requires support from the BSC. Figure 16-1 shows the service procedure of the quasi-concurrent service. Figure 16-1 Service procedure of the quasi-concurrent service

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The subscriber subscribes to the quasi-concurrent service and activates it, the packet data service is in connected state, and the MSC receives a voice call. The MSC sends a Clear Command message to the BSS to request the release of related resources such as terrestrial circuit resource. The BSS transfers the packet service to dormant mode and sends the Service Option Control message to the MS. The MS returns a MS Ack Order message. The BSS sends an A9-Release-A8 message to the PCF to request the release of the A8 connection. The A10/A11 connection is not released.
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6. 7. 8. 9.

The PCF sends an A9-Release-A8 Complete message to acknowledge the successful release of the A8 connection. The BSS performs the over-the-air SCH clearing procedure. The BSS sends a Clear Complete message to the MSC. The MS enters dormant mode. The subscriber enters data dormant mode and the PPP connection is reserved.

10. After the MSC receives the Clear Complete message, the MSC sends a Paging Request message to the BSS to initiate the voice service.

16.2 Clear Command Message Not Received


An MS is called when it processes data service. The tracing on the A1 interface shows that the MSC sends no Clear Command message to the BSC.

Troubleshooting
Figure 16-2 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the quasi-concurrent service failure due to Clear Command not received. Figure 16-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the quasi-concurrent service failure due to Clear Command not received

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Procedure
Step 1 On the HLR, check the parameters of the quasi-concurrent service of the called MS. Check whether the quasi-concurrent service is enabled for the MS. For detailed operations on the HLR, contact HLR maintenance engineers. Step 2 On the HLR, enable the quasi-concurrent service for the MS. Modify the parameters of the quasi-concurrent service. For detailed operations on the HLR, contact HLR maintenance engineers. Step 3 Check the version of the MSC. The quasi-concurrent service requires support from the MSC. Check whether the current MSC supports the quasi-concurrent service. For detailed operations, contact MSC maintenance engineers. Step 4 Upgrade the version of the MSC. Upgrade the MSC to a version that supports the quasi-concurrent service. For detailed operations, contact MSC maintenance engineers. ----End

16.3 Service Option Control Message Not Sent


An MS is called when it processes data service. The tracing on the Um interface shows that the BSC sends no Service Option Control message to the MS.

Troubleshooting
Figure 16-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the quasi-concurrent service failure due to Service Option Control not sent.

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Figure 16-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the quasi-concurrent service failure due to Service Option Control not sent

Procedure
Step 1 Check the status of the quasi-concurrent service switch. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SOFTPARA: SRVMN=CCM, PRMNO=27;

The output is as follows:


%%LST SOFTPARA: SRVMN=CCM, PRMNO=27:;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Software Parameter -----------------Service Module ID Software Parameter No. CCM (Total result = 1) --END 27

Software Parameter Value 0x00001265

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NOTE

cBSC6600 Troubleshooting Guide

Software parameter 27 is a control parameter for the quasi-concurrent service. Its default value is 0x00001265, where,
l l l l

Bit 0 (least-significant bit): represents the control switch of the quasi-concurrent service. 0: support; 1: not support. Bits 18: represents the dormant time for data service. The default value is 50, namely 5 seconds. Bits 915: represents the cause value of the call release. The default value is 0x09. Bits 1631: are reserved bits.

Step 2 On the BSC, enable the quasi-concurrent service. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD SOFTPARA: SRVMN=CCM, PRMNO=27, PRMV="0x00001265";

Set bit 0 of software parameter 27 to 1, indicating that the quasi-concurrent service is supported. Step 3 Check the quasi-concurrent service release cause value on the BSC and that in the Clear Command. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SOFTPARA: SRVMN=CCM, PRMNO=27;

In the output, bits 915 indicate the release cause value. The default value is 0x09. To check the release cause value that is carried in the Clear Command, start the A1 interface signaling tracing. The Clear Command sent by the traced MSC indicates the cause value. Step 4 On the BSC, change the quasi-concurrent service release cause value. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD SOFTPARA: SRVMN=CCM, PRMNO=27, PRMV="0x00001265";

Change the value of software parameter 27 to the quasi-concurrent service release cause value in the Clear Command. ----End

16.4 Call Answer Failed after Suspending Data Service


An MS is called when it processes data service. The MS fails to answer the call after the data service is suspended.

Troubleshooting
Figure 16-4 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the call answer failure after the ongoing data service is suspended.

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Figure 16-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the call answer failure after the ongoing data service is suspended

Procedure
Step 1 Check the processing of paging messages. For the quasi-concurrent service, the MSC informs the called MS of the suspension of the data service. This is the difference of the quasi-concurrent service from a common MTC. After the BSC sends the Service Option Control message, the process of the quasi-concurrent service is the same as the MTC. Step 2 To rectify a fault in the processing of paging messages, refer to 5 Clearing MTC Failures. Step 3 To rectify faults in the HLR or MSC, contact HLR or MSC engineers. ----End

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17

Clearing BTS Management Failures

About This Chapter


This topic introduces the management on base transceiver stations (BTSs) and describes how to troubleshoot BTS management failures. 17.1 Introduction to the BTS Management A base station controller (BSC) controls and manages BTSs through the Abis interface, provides reliable radio connections for upper-layer services by using BTSs, implements setup and release of calls, implements power control, and manages radio resources and BTS equipment. 17.2 BTS Ping or Login Failure Operators fail to ping the OM IP address of the BTS from the BAM or fail to telnet to the BTS, though the BCKM of the BTS and the CBIE of the BSC are normal. 17.3 BTS Carrier Unavailable The BTS can be pinged from the BAM, but all carriers are unavailable. The transceiver (TRX) module of the BTS and the CSPU of the BSC are normal.

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17.1 Introduction to the BTS Management


A base station controller (BSC) controls and manages BTSs through the Abis interface, provides reliable radio connections for upper-layer services by using BTSs, implements setup and release of calls, implements power control, and manages radio resources and BTS equipment.

17.2 BTS Ping or Login Failure


Operators fail to ping the OM IP address of the BTS from the BAM or fail to telnet to the BTS, though the BCKM of the BTS and the CBIE of the BSC are normal.

Troubleshooting
Figure 17-1 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the BTS ping or login failure. Figure 17-1 Procedure for troubleshooting the BTS ping or login failure

Procedure
Step 1 Check the E1 links configured for the BTS.
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To check the E1 links configured for the BTS, run the following command:
LST BTSLNK:;

The output is as follows:


%%LST BTSLNK: BTSID=119;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded BTS Link Information -------------------BTS ID Link Type Module No. 0 OM Link 10 2 OM Link 12 E1/T1 Sequence Bandwidth (K) 0(0,1) 110 1(2) 110 (Total result = 2) --END

Subrack No. 4 4 Link Flag 1-255 1-255

Slot No. 0 0 BOOTP Flag 2-44 4-45

Connection Mode IMA Mode IMA Mode

Step 2 Check the status of E1 links. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
DSP E1T1STAT: FN=4, SN=SLOT0, BTP=CBIE;

The output is as follows:


%%DSP E1T1STAT: FN=4, SN=SLOT0, BTP=CBIE;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Query Result -------Slot E1/T1No. E1/T1OperationalStatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 8 9 23 Available Available Available Has_loss-of-signal_alarm Has_loss-of-signal_alarm Has_loss-of-signal_alarm Has_loss-of-signal_alarm

(Records = 24) --END

Step 3 Check whether the link configuration is consistent with physical connections. As shown in Step 1, E1 8 is connected to BTS 119. If E1 8 is incorrectly connected, the BTS cannot be pinged from the BAM. Step 4 Correct physical connections according to the data configuration. Connect the E1 cables to the BTS correctly according to the data configuration. Step 5 Check the configuration of IP routes of the switching module and the BAM. 1. Check the IP routes configured for the switching module. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SWIPRT: LSTFORMAT=VERTICAL;

2.

Check the IP routes configured for the BAM. In the DOS environment, run the following command: route print The output is as follows:
==================================================================== Active Routes:

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Network Destination Netmask Gateway Interface Metric 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.129.11.254 10.129.10.253 1 129.8.0.0 255.255.0.0 10.12.3.64 10.12.3.128 1 //BTS O&M link route. ====================================================================

Step 6 Check whether the route configuration is correct. The IP address of BTS can be pinged only when the route "129.8.0.0" whose route mask is "255.255.0.0" is configured. Step 7 Delete incorrectly configured routes. If a route is incorrectly configured, delete it as follows:
l l

On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:


RMV SWIPRT: RTDEST="129.8.0.0";

In the DOS environment, run route delete 129.8.0.0 .

Step 8 Add a new route.


l l

On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:


ADD SWIPRT: RTDEST="129.8.0.0", RTDESTMASK="255.255.0.0", NEXTHOP="192.1.1.4";

In the DOS environment, run route delete 129.8.0.0 .

Step 9 Check the IPOA permanent virtual connection (PVC) configuration. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST IPOAPVC to check the IPOA PVC configuration on the MUX. For example,
LST IPOAPVC: FN=4, SN=7;

The output is as follows:


%%LST IPOAPVC: FN=4, SN=7;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded IPOA PVC -------Subrack No. (K) 4 4 7 7 2 4

Slot No. 44 45

VPI

VCI

Peer IP Address Local IP Address 129.8.10.2 129.8.10.2 110 110

Bandwidth

129.8.10.4 129.9.10.5

(Total result = 2) --END

You can obtain the virtual path identifier (VPI) and virtual channel identifier (VCI) of the BTS OM link from the output. Step 10 Check the BOOTP information of the BTS and the correspondence between the subrack and the optical interfaces. 1. Check the BOOTP configuration. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST BTSBTPINFO to check the BOOTP information (including the VPI, the VCI, and the correspondence between the subrack and the optical interfaces). For example,
LST BTSBTPINFO:;

The output is as follows:


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%%LST BTSBTPINFO:;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded

17 Clearing BTS Management Failures

BTS BOOTP Information --------------------BTS ID BTS Name CLPC Slot No. CLPC Subslot No. Optical port No. 0 BTS0 4 0 0 2 BTS2 4 0 0 VPI No. VCI No. BTS Gateway IP Address BTS Gateway Mask 44 129.8.10.2 255.255.0.0 45 129.8.10.2 255.255.0.0 (Number of results = 2) Total reports : 1 --END

VPI

2.

Check the correspondence between the subrack and the optical interface on the CLPC. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to check the correspondence between the subrack and the optical interface on the CLPC:
%%LST FRMPRTMAP:;%%

The output is as follows:


%%LST FRMPRTMAP:;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Subrack-Optical Interface Correspondence -----------------CSWS Subrack Type Subrack No. CLPU Slot No. No. 8850 8850 8850 8850 8850 Switching Switching Switching Switching Switching 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 2 0 2 0 2

CLPU Subslot No. 0 0 1 1 2 2

Optical Port

8850 Switching (Total result = 6) --END

Step 11 Check the configuration of active and standby PVCs of the CSWS. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
DSP SWREDPORT: SN=3;

Step 12 Check the VPI, VCI, and BOOTP information. 1. Compare the VPI and VCI information obtained in Step 9 and Step 10. If they are not consistent, modify the VPI and VCI according to the output of the command LST IPOAPVC. Compare the optical interface information obtained in Step 10 and Step 11.
l

2.

If the BSC supports active/standby switchover and the BTS supports BOOTP configuration for active and standby optical interfaces, two BOOTP records must be configured for each IPOA PVC obtained in Step 9. One BOOTP record corresponds to the active optical interface (for example, 3/0/2) and the other to the standby optical interface (for example, 2/2/2). If the BSC supports active/standby switchover but the BTS does not support BOOTP configuration for active and standby optical interfaces, only one BOOTP record is configured. In this case, the optical interface that receives the BOOTP information must be active.
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Step 13 Modify the configuration. First delete the wrong BOOTP information by using the command RMV BTSBTPINFO and then add the correct BOOTP information by using the command ADD BTSBTPINFO.
NOTE

Compare the BOOTP information with the correspondence between the subrack and the optical interface. If they are not consistent, modify the BOOTP information according to the output of the command LST FRMPRTMAP. If the VPI and VCI information is not consistent with the BOOTP information, you must modify the BOOTP information according to the output of the command LST IPOAPVC. If the CMUX is configured with active and standby optical interfaces and the BTS does not support BOOTP configuration for active and standby optical interfaces, the BOOTP information must contain the number (3/0/2) of the active optical interface. Otherwise, the BTS fails to be pinged.

l l

----End

17.3 BTS Carrier Unavailable


The BTS can be pinged from the BAM, but all carriers are unavailable. The transceiver (TRX) module of the BTS and the CSPU of the BSC are normal.

Troubleshooting
Figure 17-2 shows the procedure for solving the problem of unavailable BTS carriers. Figure 17-2 Procedure for solving the problem of unavailable BTS carriers

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Procedure
Step 1 Check the cell IDs configured at the BTS and the BSC. The configuration script for cell addition at the BSC is as follows:
ADD CELL: BTSID=1, MN=4, CN=1, SCTIDLST="0", PNLST="40", SID=12062, NID=6, PZID=3, LAC="0x3", IFASSALW=NO;

The configuration script for cell addition at the BTS is as follows:


ADD BTSCELL: BTSID=1, LOCALCELLID=1, LOCALSECTORID=0, DIVM=NTD;

The CN value of the command ADD CELL must be identical with the LOCALCELLID value of the command ADD BTSCELL. If they are not identical, all BTS carriers become unavailable. Step 2 Check the carrier ID and optical interface configuration. The configuration script on the BSC is as follows:
ADD CDMACH: CN=1, SCTID=0, CRRIDLST="0", ARFCNLST="160", TYP=CDMA2000;

The configuration script on the BTS is as follows:


ADD BTSBTRM: BTSID=1, BTRMID=0, LOCALCELLID=1, LOCALSECTORID=0, CRRID=0, CPLID=0, BTRMDIVM=NTD, BRDMID=0, FIBPN=1, FIBTS=1;

The CRRIDLST value of the command ADD CDMACH must be the identical with the CRRID value of the command ADD BTSBTRM. The FIBPN value of the command ADD BTSBTRM must comply with physical connections. Incorrect configuration of carrier IDs or optical interfaces may cause unavailability of carriers. Step 3 Check BTS signaling IP address. The configuration script on the BSC is as follows:
ADD BSCBTSINF: BTSTP=IBSC, MN=0, IBTSID=1, OMIP="129.8.10.4", SIGIP="80.17.130.116";

The configuration script at the BTS is generated through the command ADD BTSTERSIGLNK. The SIGIP value of the command ADD BSCBTSINF must be identical with the BTSIP value of the command ADD BTSTERSIGLNK. If they are not identical, all carriers become unavailable. Step 4 Modify the offline configuration script at the BTS according to that at the BSC. If the script at the BTS is not identical with that at the BSC, modify the script at the BTS according to that at the BSC. Step 5 Reconfigure the BTS. On the Service Maintenance System, run CLR BTSCFG to delete the existing BTS configuration. For example,
CLR BTSCFG: BTSID=1;

Then reconfigure the BTS by using the new configuration script. ----End
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18
About This Chapter

Clearing License Failures

This topic introduces the functions of the license file and describes how to troubleshoot license failures . 18.1 Introduction to the License A license helps a network carrier to control the network capacity and to provide paid enhancement functions and services to users. The network carrier encrypts a license in a file and assigns the file to the subscriber who purchases the license-specific equipment. The subscriber can have a desired capacity of the equipment after decrypting the license file. If the decryption fails, only the default minimum configuration can be used. 18.2 License Failure When Adding Carriers After you run ADD CDMACH to add sector carriers, the system prompts "The number of CDMA2000 1X carriers added exceeds the limit of the license.", "The number of CDMA2000 1xEV-DO carriers added exceeds the limit of the license.", "A BTS can be configured with only one CDMA2000 1X carrier if the license file cannot be read or the license is invalid.", or "A BTS can be configured with only one CDMA2000 1xEV-DO carrier if the license file cannot be read or the license is invalid."

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18.1 Introduction to the License


A license helps a network carrier to control the network capacity and to provide paid enhancement functions and services to users. The network carrier encrypts a license in a file and assigns the file to the subscriber who purchases the license-specific equipment. The subscriber can have a desired capacity of the equipment after decrypting the license file. If the decryption fails, only the default minimum configuration can be used. The following explains the steps involved in obtaining a license: 1. 2. 3. 4. The subscriber selects an equipment serial number (ESN). The license management center generates a license file according to the contract with the subscriber. The license management center delivers the license file to the subscriber. The subscriber power on the equipment and load the license file. If a update of the license file is necessary, the subscriber can forcedly load the license file to the related network element (NE) by using the FTP protocol. The subscriber obtains the license file from the system and stores the file on the BAM. The CRMU verifies the validity of the license file. The CRMU sends the analyzed data to the CSPU. The CSPU implements traffic control according to the license file. If necessary, the subscriber can adjust the resources for each module in the BSC.

5. 6. 7. 8.

18.2 License Failure When Adding Carriers


After you run ADD CDMACH to add sector carriers, the system prompts "The number of CDMA2000 1X carriers added exceeds the limit of the license.", "The number of CDMA2000 1xEV-DO carriers added exceeds the limit of the license.", "A BTS can be configured with only one CDMA2000 1X carrier if the license file cannot be read or the license is invalid.", or "A BTS can be configured with only one CDMA2000 1xEV-DO carrier if the license file cannot be read or the license is invalid."

Procedure
Step 1 Apply for a license file with a larger capacity. If the system prompts "The number of CDMA2000 1X carriers added exceeds the limit of the license.", or "The number of CDMA2000 1xEV-DO carriers added exceeds the limit of the license.", apply for a license file with a larger capacity. Step 2 Recopy the license file. If the system prompts "A BTS can be configured with only one CDMA2000 1X carrier if the license file cannot be read or the license is invalid." or "A BTS can be configured with only one CDMA2000 1xEV-DO carrier if the license file cannot be read or the license is invalid.", you can infer that the license file is destroyed or that the license file in the BAM loading directory ..\cdma2000\Loaddata is deleted.
l

If the license file is destroyed, run ULD LICENSE to upload the license file stored in the Flash memory of the CRMU to the BAM, copy the file to the loading directory of the BAM,
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and change the name of the file to cbsclicense.dat. The uploaded licenses file is stored in the directory ..\cdma2000\license by default, with the name license.ffss ("ff" is the subrack number and "ss" is the slot number).
l

If the license file in the BAM loading directory is deleted, copy a license file from the corresponding directory of the emergency workstation to the BAM loading directory.
NOTE

If a license.ffss file already exists in the default directory ..\cdma2000\license before the license file is uploaded, the license file on the CRMU is then attached to the existing license.ffss file after the upload.

----End

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19 Clearing Clock Failures

19
About This Chapter

Clearing Clock Failures

This topic introduces the clock system and describes how to troubleshoot clock failures . 19.1 Introduction to the Clock System The clock system of the BSC implements the functions of transmission synchronization and time synchronization. 19.2 High FER in Markov Call Test The voice quality is poor with intermittent voices. On the Service Maintenance System, if you enable Markov call monitoring, the high frame error rate (FER) exceeds 10%. 19.3 A-Interface Slip Frame Alarm The voice call is normal, but there is an A-interface slip frame alarm reported on the Alarm Management System. 19.4 Inadequate Satellites Traced by the GCKP The ALM indicator on the GCKP is always on. On the Service Maintenance System, if you run DSP SATCARD to check the number of satellites traced by the GCKP, the output shows that the number of satellites is inadequate. 19.5 MS Time Incorrect The time displayed on MSs in some areas may be incorrect. For example, the time displayed on MSs of the same model in different areas differs by two hours.

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19.1 Introduction to the Clock System


The clock system of the BSC implements the functions of transmission synchronization and time synchronization.

The Clock System of a Large-Capacity BSC


System Architecture In the large-capacity BSC, the inter-subrack channels are provided by the CSWS. Figure 19-1 shows the structure of the clock synchronization system. Figure 19-1 Structure of the clock system (large-capacity BSC)

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Transmission synchronization The clock sources available to the BSC system are:
l l

Building integrated timing supply system (BITS) clock Line clock extracted through the A interface (the 2.048 MHz line clock extracted by CAIE/ CSTU) Satellite synchronization clock

The preference of clock reference sources is as follows: BITS clock > line clock extracted from the A interface > satellite synchronization clock.
NOTE

In the case of IP network, the BSC does not need to extract the line clock from the A interface.

The synchronization clock transmission procedure in the BSC is as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The BSC decides the clock reference source, and then sends the clock signal to the CLKM for phase-lock processing to generate the 8 kHz system clock. The CLKM generates the 8 kHz clock and sends it to the CMUX in the CRPS. The CMUX encapsulates the 8 kHz signal in ATM cells, and sends them to the CLPC in the CSWS. The ATM cells are switched by the CSWS to the CMUXs of in service subracks through the optical ports of the CLPCs. The CMUXs of service subracks extract the 8 kHz system clock from the received ATM cells. After the phase locking processing, the CMUXs of service subracks distribute the clock to all boards in the same subrack. The subrack uses the clock as the working clock.

Time Synchronization Time synchronization of the cBSC6600 is achieved by using the GPS/GLONASS. The radio service frames sent by the BSC to the BTS contains Radio Frame Numbers (RFNs), which must be synchronized with the system absolute time. That is, GPS system zero hour (00:00, Jan. 6, 1980) is the RFN 0, and the every 20 ms is counted a frame. The RFN cycle is 015. The time synchronization transmission process in the BSC is as follows: 1. After the CLKM receives the signal from the GPS/GLONASS antenna, the CLKM extracts 1PPS and absolute time information from the signal and processes them. The CLKM then sends the PP16S pulse signal and absolute time information (serial port) to the CMUX of the CRPS. Based on the received signal, the CMUX in the CRPS generates an RFN cell every 320 ms, and then broadcasts the RFN cell to the CMUXs in CIPSs through the optical ports of the CLPCs in the CSWS. The CMUX in the CIPS generates the RFN pulse, a periodic synchronization pulse, and sends it to the CFMR and the CSPU through the backplane bus. The CMUX compensates the RFN cell for the delay before sending it to the CFMR and the CSPU.

2.

3.

The clock system of a Small-capacity BSC


System ArchitectureIn the small-capacity BSC, the inter-subrack channels are provided by the CLIU in the CRPS. Figure 19-2 shows the structure of the clock synchronization system.
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Figure 19-2 Clock system structure (small-capacity cBSC6600)

Transmission synchronization The clock sources available to the BSC system are:
l l

Building integrated timing supply system (BITS) clock Line clock extracted through the A interface (the 2.048 MHz line clock extracted by CAIE/ CSTU) Satellite synchronization clock

The preference of clock reference sources is as follows: BITS clock > line clock extracted from the A interface > satellite synchronization clock.
NOTE

In the case of IP network, the BSC does not need to extract the line clock from the A interface.

The synchronization clock transmission procedure in the BSC is as follows: 1. 2.


19-4

The BSC sends the clock signal through the clock cable to CLKM for the phase locking processing. The CLKM generates the 8 kHz clock and sends it to the CMUX in the CRPS.
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3.

The CMUX in the CRPS sends the system clock to the CLIU in the same subrack. The CLIU distributes the system clock to the CMUXs in the CIPSs through the inter-subrack connections. The CMUX locks the phase of the 8 kHz system clock and distributes the clock to all the boards in the same subrack. This clock is used as the working clock of the subrack.

4.

Time Synchronization Time synchronization of the cBSC6600 is achieved by using the GPS/GLONASS. The radio service frames sent by the BSC to the BTS contains Radio Frame Numbers (RFNs), which must be synchronized with the system absolute time. That is, GPS system zero hour (00:00, Jan. 6, 1980) is the RFN 0, and the every 20 ms is counted a frame. The RFN cycle is 015. The time synchronization transmission process in the BSC is as follows: 1. After the CLKM receives the signal from the GPS/GLONASS antenna, the CLKM extracts 1PPS and absolute time information from the signal and processes them. The CLKM then sends the PP16S pulse signal and absolute time information (serial port) to the CMUX of the CRPS. Based on the received signal, the CMUX in the CRPS generates an RFN cell every 320 ms. The CMUX then broadcasts the RFN cell to the CMUXs in CIPSs. The CMUX in the CIPS generates the RFN cell and sends it to the CFMR and the CEVC/ CEVD through the backplane bus. The CMUX compensates the periodic synchronization cell through periodic pulse for the delay before sending it to the CEVC/CEVD, the CFMR and the CSPU.

2. 3.

19.2 High FER in Markov Call Test


The voice quality is poor with intermittent voices. On the Service Maintenance System, if you enable Markov call monitoring, the high frame error rate (FER) exceeds 10%.

Troubleshooting
Figure 19-3 shows the procedure for solving the problem of a high FER.

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Figure 19-3 Procedure for solving the problem of a high FER

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the DSP loading program is correctly loaded. In the loading folder, check whether the DSP loading program of the CFMR supports the reduced TDMA frame number (RFN) function. By default, the loading folder is located in the path D: \CDMA2000\LoadDATA. It stores all the programs and data to be dynamically loaded when the BSC module starts. You can infer that the DSP loading program is correctly loaded if the following conditions are met:
l

The loading program 100FMR0.dsp (norfn) neither supports the RFN function nor has the GPS clock. The loading program I00FMR0.dsp(rfn) supports the RFN function and has the GPS clock.

Step 2 Load the correct DSP loading program. Copy the correct DSP loading program to the loading folder and, on the Service Maintenance System, run LOD DSP to load the program. For example,
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LOD DSP: FN=5, SN=4, CTLKEY=BAMFLS;

19 Clearing Clock Failures

Step 3 Clear alarms. On the Alarm Management System, check whether the "Satellite Time Information Receiving Abnormal" or "Satellite Clock Signal Receiving Abnormal" alarm exists. If the alarm exists, clear it. Step 4 Check the special status of the BCKM. You can check whether the BTS system is synchronized with the satellite clock by checking the special status of the BCKM. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
DSP CBTSBRDSPECSTAT: BTSID=1, BRDTP=BCKM, BRDID=0;

----End

19.3 A-Interface Slip Frame Alarm


The voice call is normal, but there is an A-interface slip frame alarm reported on the Alarm Management System.

Troubleshooting
Figure 19-4 shows the procedure for clearing the A-interface slip frame alarm. Figure 19-4 Procedure for clearing the A-interface slip frame alarm

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Procedure
Step 1 Check the GCKP clock information. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP CLKSRC to check whether the clock reference source is configured. For example,
DSP CLKSRC:SN=0;

The output is as follows:


%%DSP CLKSRC: SN=0;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Query Result -----------ClockChangeGreenwichTime = 2004-03-23 02:43:03 CurrentClockGrade = 3 CurrentClockStatus = Lock SourceSelectPolity = Auto TypeOfReferenceSourceGrade0 = Self vibrate ReferenceSourceGrade0State = Usable ReferenceSourceGrade0LostReason = TypeOfReferenceSourceGrade1 = 1PPS from GPS ReferenceSourceGrade1State = Usable ReferenceSourceGrade1LostReason = TypeOfReferenceSourceGrade2 = 2MHZ input from SMB1 ReferenceSourceGrade2State = Usable ReferenceSourceGrade2LostReason = TypeOfReferenceSourceGrade3 = 2MHZ input from SMB0 ReferenceSourceGrade3State = Usable ReferenceSourceGrade3LostReason = --END

From the output, you can check whether the clock reference source is configured.
l

If "ReferenceSourceGrade0State = Usable" is present, you can infer that the clock reference source is configured. If no reference source whose status is "Usable" exists, you can infer that the clock reference source is not configured. If the current clock reference source grade is not 0 and the clock phase-locked loop is in "Self vibrate" state, the GCKP starts to trace the selected clock reference source about 10 minutes later.

From the output, you can check whether the switching policy of the clock reference source is "auto".
l

If "SourceSelectPolicy = Auto" is present, you can infer that the switching policy of the clock reference source is "auto". If "SourceSelectPolicy = Auto" is not present, modify the switching policy of the clock reference source to "auto". For details, refer to Step 3.

Step 2 Configure the clock reference source. On the Service Maintenance System, run ADD CLKSRC to configure the clock reference source. For example,
ADD CLKSRC: SN=SN0, CLKPRI=3, CLKTYP=SMB02M;

Step 3 Modify the switching policy of the clock reference source. On the Service Maintenance System, run MOD GCKPPARA to change the switching policy of the clock reference source to "auto". For example,
MOD GCKPPARA: SN=SN0, CLKSWPLC=AUTO;

----End
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19.4 Inadequate Satellites Traced by the GCKP


The ALM indicator on the GCKP is always on. On the Service Maintenance System, if you run DSP SATCARD to check the number of satellites traced by the GCKP, the output shows that the number of satellites is inadequate.

Reference Information
According to Table 19-1, you can determine whether the number of satellites is inadequate. Table 19-1 Reference for determining inadequate satellites traced by the GCKP Working Mode Non-position holdover mode Non-position holdover mode Satellite Card Status GPS satellite card (M12+, K161T) GPS/GLONASS satellite card (JGG20, JGG80, or K161T) Satellite Quantity Less than or equal to four Less than or equal to four if the GPS satellite card is traced Less than or equal to five if the GPS/GLONASS satellite card is traced Position holdover mode Less than or equal to two

Troubleshooting
Figure 19-5 shows the procedure for solving the problem of inadequate satellites traced by the GCKP. Figure 19-5 Procedure for solving the problem of inadequate satellites traced by the GCKP

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Procedure
Step 1 Check the connection of the antenna and the feeder. Ensure that:
l l l l l l

The antenna is vertical and is facing the sky. There is no obstruction around the antenna. There is no high-frequency interference source around the antenna. The antenna and the feeder are securely connected. The feeder is well installed. The feeder and the GCKP are correctly connected.

----End

19.5 MS Time Incorrect


The time displayed on MSs in some areas may be incorrect. For example, the time displayed on MSs of the same model in different areas differs by two hours.

Troubleshooting
Figure 19-6 shows the procedure for solving the problem of incorrect time display on an MS. Figure 19-6 Procedure for solving the problem of incorrect time display on an MS

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Procedure
Step 1 Check the local time offset. The time displayed on an MS is dependent on the GPS time and the local time offset. MSs of the same type displays different local times.
l

Check the local time offset of the 1X carrier. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SYSMSGPARA: CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, CCMINF=SCHM;

The results show that the local time offset is GMT+08:00.


l

Check the local time offset of the EV-DO carrier. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST DOSPM: CN=3, SCTID=3, CRRID=0;

The results show that the local time offset is GMT+08:00. Step 2 Modify the local time offset. If the local time offset is incorrect, run the following command to modify it.
l

Modify the local time offset of the 1X carrier. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD SCHM: SUBITEM=CRR_CLASS, CN=20, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, LOCTMOFF=LF48;

Modify the local time offset of the EV-DO carrier. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
MOD DOSPM: CN=3, SCTID=3, CRRID=0, DOLTMOFF=LF8;

The LOCTMOFF in the MOD SCHM command and the DOLTMOFF in the MOD DOSPM command are used to set the local time offset. The value 32 stands for Greenwich time. With the unit of 30 minutes, the time difference between two neighboring time zones is 2. That is, add 2 for each time zone eastwards, and subtract 2 for each time zone westwards. Step 3 Power down and then power on the MS to make it re-access the network. The local time offset is contained in a synchronization channel message. This message is delivered to the MS only when MS searches the network. Therefore, after modifying the local time offset, power down and then power on the MS so that the MS can re-access the network to obtain the correct local time. Step 4 Verify that the fault is rectified. Observe the time displayed on the MS. If the time is correct, you can infer that the fault is rectified. ----End

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20

Clearing Switching Module Failures

About This Chapter


This topic introduces the switching module and describes how to troubleshoot switching module failures. 20.1 Introduction to the Switching Module The switching module is used in a large-capacity BSC. Its functions are implemented through the CDMA switching subrack (CSWS). The CSWS is installed in the control cabinet of the BSC. As the switching center of the BSC, the CSWS performs central switching, provides channels for the communication between subracks, provides system clock for all CIPSs, and controls and maintains all CIPSs. 20.2 Active/Standby Port Switchover Alarm An event alarm of CLPC active/standby port switchover is reported on the alarm management system. 20.3 CLPC System Clock Loss Alarm On the Alarm Management System, the CLPC system clock loss alarm is raised. 20.4 Clock Switchover Alarm On the Alarm Management System, the clock switchover alarm is raised. 20.5 Interrupted Maintenance Between the Boards and the BAM The CSWS works normally and the CIPSs communicates well with each other. The icons of these subrack, however, are displayed grey on the equipment panel. Additionally, the maintenance personnel fail to configure the boards of these subracks. That is, the maintenance between the boards and the BAM is interrupted.

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20.1 Introduction to the Switching Module


The switching module is used in a large-capacity BSC. Its functions are implemented through the CDMA switching subrack (CSWS). The CSWS is installed in the control cabinet of the BSC. As the switching center of the BSC, the CSWS performs central switching, provides channels for the communication between subracks, provides system clock for all CIPSs, and controls and maintains all CIPSs. Figure 20-1 shows a CSWS in the BSC. Figure 20-1 CSWS in the BSC

The functional boards installed in the CSWS include the CDMA main processing unit (CMPU), the CDMA network transfer and switching unit (CNET), and the CDMA line processing unit with two 622M engines (CLPC).
l

CMPU: manages and maintains each board in the CSWS, provides maintenance on each CIPS in the BSC, and performs functions of signaling processing, resource management, and status monitoring. CNET: performs data packet (with fixed length) switching and provides system synchronization clock. CLPC: is connected to the CMUXs in the CIPS and CRPS and provides channels for the communication between subracks.

l l

20.2 Active/Standby Port Switchover Alarm


An event alarm of CLPC active/standby port switchover is reported on the alarm management system.
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Troubleshooting
Figure 20-2 shows the procedure for clearing the active/standby port switchover alarm. Figure 20-2 Procedure for clearing the active/standby port switchover alarm

Procedure
Step 1 Check the status of the peer CMUX. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP FRMINFO to check the status of the CMUX that is connected to the original active port. For example,
DSP FRMINFO: FN=3;

If the status of the active CMUX is "disable", you can infer that the CMUX is faulty. Step 2 Check the status of the CLPC ports. 1. Check whether the board is normal. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
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DSP SWBRDINFO: SN=9;

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The output is as follows:


%%DSP SWBRDINFO: SN=9;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Query Result -----------Slot No. = 9 Board Type = CLPC Board Status = Normal Mother Board Type = LPUB Type of Subboard 1 = ATM155 Type of Subboard 2 = None Type of Subboard 3 = ATM155 Type of Subboard 4 = None ( Records = 1 ) --END

2.

Check the status of the original active port. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
DSP SWATMPORT: SN=9, SSN=0, PN=0;

The output is as follows:


%%DSP SWATMPORT: SN=9, SSN=0, PN=0;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Query Result -----------Slot No. = 9 Subslot No. = 0 Slot No. = 0 Port Status = UP Port Signaling Status = DOWN Interface Rate(Mbps) = 155 Maximum Number of VPCs = 241 Maximum Number of VCCs = 4096 Number of VPCs Configured = 3 Number of VCCs Configured = 2 VC Sub-space = 1024 Type of UPC and VPC = NPC Loopback or Not = FALSE Maximum Input Bandwidth(MB) = 149760 Maximum Output Bandwidth(MB) = 149760 Currently-Available Input Bandwidth(MB) = 149760 Currently-Available Output Bandwidth(MB) = 149760 Port Alarm Status = FALSE //If there is an alarm, the optical fiber of the CMUX is wrongly connected or is broken. ( Records = 1 ) --END

Step 3 Check the connectors. Secure the connection of the connectors and check whether the alarm is cleared. Step 4 Check the optical fibers. If any damaged optical fiber exists, replace it and check whether the CLPC optical interface alarm is cleared. ----End

20.3 CLPC System Clock Loss Alarm


On the Alarm Management System, the CLPC system clock loss alarm is raised.
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Troubleshooting
Figure 20-3 shows the procedure for clearing the CLPC system clock loss alarm. Figure 20-3 Procedure for clearing the CLPC system clock loss alarm

Procedure
Step 1 Check the status of the CLPC. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP SWBRDINFO to check whether the CLPC that houses the original active port is normal. For example,
DSP SWBRDINFO: SN=9;

The output is as follows:


%%DSP SWBRDINFO: SN=9;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Query Result -----------Slot No. = 9 Board Type = CLPC Board Status = Normal Mother Board Type = LPUB Type of Subboard 1 = ATM155 Type of Subboard 2 = None Type of Subboard 3 = ATM155 Type of Subboard 4 = None ( Records = 1 ) --END

Step 2 Check the status of the CNET.


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The CLPC circuit clock is generated by the local oscillator, which phase-locks the clock signal sent by the CNET. The CLPC system clock alarm is closely related to the clock signal sent by the CNET. If only one CLPC loses the clock, the fault probably lies in this CLPC. If all CLPCs lose the clock, the fault probably lies in the CNET that provides the clock signal. 1. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP SWBRDINFO to check the status of the CNET. For example,
DSP SWBRDINFO: SN=7;

2.

If the CNET is normal, run DSP SWCLKSTAT to check whether there is clock available for the CLPC. For example,
DSP SWCLKSTAT: SN=7;

The output is as follows:


%%DSP SWCLKSTAT:SN=7;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Query Result -----------Current Clock Source Priority = 4 Clock Source Selection Method = GPS1 Slot No. of Active Clock Board = 7 //It means the active board is normal. If "-" is returned, it means the board is abnormal. Working Mode of Clock Board = CLOCK_MODE_3G Status of Current Phase-Locked Loop = CLK_TRACE Slot No. = Subslot No. = Port No. = Reference Source Index = 0 Reference Source Type = SELF Availability of Clock Source = UNKNOWN ( Records = 1 ) --END

If the clock of the active CNET is abnormal, the system switches over the CNETs automatically. In this case, reset the faulty CNET (which is in standby state after the switchover). The resetting does not affect ongoing services. Step 3 Switch over the CNETs. Run SWP SWBRD to switch over the CNETs. For example,
SWP SWBRD: BTP=CNET, SN=8;

CAUTION
The execution of the command SWP SWBRD may disrupt ongoing services. Use this command with cautions. ----End

20.4 Clock Switchover Alarm


On the Alarm Management System, the clock switchover alarm is raised.

Troubleshooting
Figure 20-4 shows the procedure for clearing the clock switchover alarm.
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Figure 20-4 Procedure for clearing the clock switchover alarm

Procedure
Step 1 Check the status of the CLPC. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP SWCLKSTAT to check whether the local oscillator is normal. For example,
DSP SWBRDINFO: SN=9;

The output is as follows:


%%DSP SWBRDINFO: SN=9;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Query Result -------Slot No. Board Type Board Status Mother Board Type Type of Subboard 1 Type of Subboard 2 Type of Subboard 3 Type of Subboard 4 (Records = 1) --END = = = = = = = = 9 CLPC Normal LPUB ATM155 None ATM155 None

Step 2 Check the status of the CNET. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP SWCLKSTAT to check whether the local oscillator is normal. For example,
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SWCLKSTAT: SN=7;

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In the output, check whether the clock reference source whose Reference Source Type is SELF is available. If the clock reference source is unavailable, you can infer that the local oscillator is lost. In this case, replace the CNET. ----End

20.5 Interrupted Maintenance Between the Boards and the BAM


The CSWS works normally and the CIPSs communicates well with each other. The icons of these subrack, however, are displayed grey on the equipment panel. Additionally, the maintenance personnel fail to configure the boards of these subracks. That is, the maintenance between the boards and the BAM is interrupted.

Troubleshooting
The interruption of the maintenance may be caused by a change in the configuration of a CIPS, a wrong connection of the optical fiber, or a damaged optical fiber. Figure 20-5 shows the procedure for solving the problem of interrupted maintenance between the boards and the BAM.

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Figure 20-5 Procedure for interrupted maintenance between the boards and the BAM

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the physical connection between the CSWS and the BAM is normal. Check whether the cables are correctly connected. Choose Start > Run to view the Run dialog box. Enter cmd to view the cmd.exe window. Run PING 10.12.3.64 to check the physical connection between the CSWS and the BAM.
l

If the output is as follows:


Reply from 10.12.3.64:

Then you can infer that the physical connection is normal.


l

If the output is as follows:


Request timed out.

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Then you can infer that the physical connection is incorrect. Step 2 Check the routes from the BAM to the CSWS. 1. 2. In the cmd.exe window, run ROUTE PRINT to check whether the route to the IP address 10.12.3.64 exists. If the route from the BAM to the CSWS is correctly configured, telnet to the CSWS and run PING 10.12.3.128 to check whether communication between the CSWS and the BAM is normal.

Step 3 Add the routes from the BAM to the CSWS. In the cmd.exe window, enter route -p add . For example,
l

To add the route to the network segment 80, run route -p add 80.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0 10.12.3.64. To add the route to the network segment 10, run route -p add 10.12.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0 10.12.3.64. To add the route to the network segment 192, run route -p add 192.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0 10.12.3.64. Check the correspondence between the CBSC and the ATM port. Run the following command:
LST SWFRMPORT: LSTFORMAT=HORIZONTAL;

Step 4 Check the configuration of the CSWS. 1.

2.

Check the active-standby relations between the optical interfaces. Run the following command:
LST SWREDPORT: LSTFORMAT=HORIZONTAL;

3.

Check the correspondence between the optical interfaces and the CIPSs. Run the following command:
DSP SWIPOAPVC;

4.

Check whether the CSWS is configured with routes to each CIPS. Run the following command:
DSP SWIPRT;

The command DSP SWIPRT displays the routes configured on the CSWS. If the CSWS is not configured with a route to a CIPS, run ADD SWIPRT to add the route to the CIPS. For example, For example,
ADD SWIPRT: RTDEST="80.8.0.0", RTDESTMASK="255.252.0.0", NEXTHOP="192.1.1.2";

Step 5 Add or change the configuration of the CSWS. If you find any missed or incorrect configuration of the CSWS in Step 4, add or change the configuration. Run the following command:
SET SWFRMPORT: FN=2, SN=4, SSN=0, PN=0;

Step 6 Check the PVC traffic of the subrack that fails to be maintained. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
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DSP SWPVC: SN=4, SSN=0, PN=0, VPI=1, VCI=33;

20 Clearing Switching Module Failures

In the output, the received cells and the transmitted cells come from cell flows of the boards and the CSWS respectively. Run twice (with an interval of three seconds). If the cells on one side remain the same, you can infer that certain boards on this side are faulty. Step 7 Rectify faults in the CSWS boards. If the transmitted cells remain the same, the CNET or CLPC in the CSWS may be faulty. In this case, contact local Huawei technical support engineers. Step 8 Rectify faults in the CIPS boards. If the received cells remain the same, the CMUX of the BSC may be faulty. In this case, contact the local Huawei office. ----End

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21

Clearing Link and Circuit Failures

About This Chapter


This topic introduces links and circuits and describes how to troubleshoot link and circuit failures . 21.1 Introduction to Links and Circuits Link management involves the management of E1/T1 links and IMA links. 21.2 Abis Interface Link Failure This topic describes how to troubleshoot the Abis interface failures, including the E1/T1 signal loss alarm and the E1/T1 frame out of synchronization alarm. 21.3 A1 Interface Signaling Link Failure This topic describes how to troubleshoot A1 interface signaling link failures such as the MTP link failure. 21.4 A2 Interface Circuit Failure On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP A2 to check the A2 interface circuits of the target BSC. If the CICStatus of the A2 interface circuit is Fault, you can infer that the A2 interface circuit is faulty.

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21.1 Introduction to Links and Circuits


Link management involves the management of E1/T1 links and IMA links. Circuit management involves the operations such as querying, resetting, blocking, and unblocking A2 circuits. The Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) function is to distribute the high-speed cell flow at the transmitting end to multiple low-speed physical links, to combine them to a cell flow at the receiving end, and then to deliver the cell flow to the ATM layer. E1/T1 links and IMA links belong to the physical layer of the ATM protocol layer.
l

The lowest layer of the physical layer is the Physical Medium Sublayer. The Abis interface in the BSC system uses E1/T1. The layer above the physical medium sublayer is the Transmission Convergence (TC) layer. The TC layer delimits and scrambles/descrambles ATM cells and perform the Header Error Check (HEC). The IMA sublayer is above the TC sublayer. The IMA sublayer processes ATM cells.

21.2 Abis Interface Link Failure


This topic describes how to troubleshoot the Abis interface failures, including the E1/T1 signal loss alarm and the E1/T1 frame out of synchronization alarm. 21.2.1 E1/T1 Alarm Indication Signal On the Alarm Management System, an alarm indication signal (AIS) alarm associated with a certain link is raised. If the link works in UNI mode, the traffic carried by this link is interrupted. If the link works in IMA mode and if there are normal links in the IMA group corresponding to the link, the volume of traffic carried by this IMA group drops. 21.2.2 E1/T1 Link Loopback Alarm On the Alarm Management System, the E1/T1 link loopback alarm associated with a certain link is raised. 21.2.3 IMA Link Receiving End Alarm On the Alarm Management System, an IMA link receiving end failure alarm is raised. The traffic carried by this IMA link is interrupted. If there are normal links in the IMA group corresponding to the IMA link, the volume of traffic carried by this IMA group drops.

21.2.1 E1/T1 Alarm Indication Signal


On the Alarm Management System, an alarm indication signal (AIS) alarm associated with a certain link is raised. If the link works in UNI mode, the traffic carried by this link is interrupted. If the link works in IMA mode and if there are normal links in the IMA group corresponding to the link, the volume of traffic carried by this IMA group drops.

Troubleshooting
Figure 21-1 shows the procedure for clearing the E1/T1 alarm indication signal alarm.
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Figure 21-1 Procedure for clearing the E1/T1 alarm indication signal alarm

Procedure
Step 1 Check the peer equipment. Check whether the peer equipment is in local loopback state. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP E1T1STAT to check the status of the E1/T1 at the BTS. For example,
DSP E1T1STAT: FN=3, SN=SLOT0, BTP=CBIE, LNKNO=4;

Step 2 Cancel the local loopback. If the peer equipment is in local loopback state, run SET LPBACKE1T1 to cancel the loopback. For example,
SET LPBACKE1T1: FN=3, SN=SLOT0, BTP=CBIE, LNKNO=4, OPT=NOLOOPBACK;

Step 3 Check the upper-level transmission equipment. Check whether the E1/T1 signal loss (LOS) alarm or the E1/T1 frame out of synchronization (LFA) alarm occurs in the peer equipment. For example, if the BSC is connected to BTSs through optical transmission equipment and the transmission line from a BTS to the optical transmission equipment is broken, the BSC receives an AIS. In this case, contact transmission engineers to clear transmission equipment alarms. ----End
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21.2.2 E1/T1 Link Loopback Alarm


On the Alarm Management System, the E1/T1 link loopback alarm associated with a certain link is raised.

Troubleshooting
Figure 21-2 shows the procedure for clearing the E1/T1 link loopback alarm. Figure 21-2 Procedure for clearing the E1/T1 link loopback alarm

Procedure
Step 1 Check the status of the E1/T1 link. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP E1T1STAT to check the status of the E1/T1 link. For example,
DSP E1T1STAT: FN=3, SN=SLOT0, BTP=CBIE, LNKNO=4;

If the E1/T1 link is in local loopback, remote loopback, load loopback, or single channel loopback state, the E1/T1 link loopback alarm is raised. Step 2 Set the mode of the E1/T1 link to "No Loopback". Check whether the E1/T1 link associated with the E1/T1 link loopback alarm is in loopback testing state.
l l

If the link is in loopback testing state, neglect the alarm. If the link is not in loopback testing state, set the mode of the link to "No Loopback". On the Service Maintenance System, run SET LPBACKE1T1 to set the mode of the E1/T1 link to "No Loopback". For example,
SET LPBACKE1T1: FN=3, SN=SLOT0, BTP=CBIE, LNKNO=4, OPT=NOLOOPBACK;

----End
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21.2.3 IMA Link Receiving End Alarm


On the Alarm Management System, an IMA link receiving end failure alarm is raised. The traffic carried by this IMA link is interrupted. If there are normal links in the IMA group corresponding to the IMA link, the volume of traffic carried by this IMA group drops.

Troubleshooting
The IMA link receiving end alarm is usually caused by wrong connection of IMA links.

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the links are connected correctly.
l

Check whether the links of the local IMA group are connected to the links of two different IMA groups. Check whether the receive end of any link is cross-connected. Check whether a link is connected to different BTSs. For example, a link that is looped back and activated is connected to a different BTS, or a link is connected to one BTS and then to another. For such problems, first ensure the correct connection of links, and then run RST IMAGRP to recover the IMA group. For example,
RST IMAGRP: FN=3, SN=SLOT0, IMAGN=2;

l l

----End

21.3 A1 Interface Signaling Link Failure


This topic describes how to troubleshoot A1 interface signaling link failures such as the MTP link failure. 21.3.1 MTP3 Link Failure On the Service Maintenance System, you can run DSP N7LNK to check the status of the MTP link. In the output, TransferService indicates the state of links at the MTP3 layer. If TransferService is "No" and LinkFault is "No", you can infer that the MTP3 link is faulty. 21.3.2 MTP2 Link Failure On the Service Maintenance System, you can run DSP N7LNK to check the status of the MTP link. In the output, LinkFault indicates the state of links at the MTP2 layer. If TransferService is No and LinkFault is Yes, you can infer that the MTP2 link is faulty.

21.3.1 MTP3 Link Failure


On the Service Maintenance System, you can run DSP N7LNK to check the status of the MTP link. In the output, TransferService indicates the state of links at the MTP3 layer. If TransferService is "No" and LinkFault is "No", you can infer that the MTP3 link is faulty.

Troubleshooting
Figure 21-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the MTP3 link failure.

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Figure 21-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTP3 link failure

NOTE

The problem that "MTP2 link is normal while MTP3 link is faulty" is usually caused by inconsistent data between the BSC and the MSC. Therefore, check whether the data configured on the BSC and the MSC are consistent.

Procedure
Step 1 Check the data configured on the BSC and the MSC. Check the data as follows:
l

Check whether the destination signaling point codes (DPCs) configured on the BSC and the MSC are identical. Check whether the formats of source signaling points (14-bit or 24-bit) of the BSC and the MSC are identical. The formats of two interconnected source signaling points must be identical. Check whether the signaling link codes (SLCs) configured on the BSC and the MSC are identical. The SLCs at the two ends of a signaling link between the BSC and the MSC must be identical. The SLCs on the same signaling point but on different links must be different.

To correct data configured on the MSC, contact MSC maintenance engineers. Step 2 Check the physical connection.
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Check whether the E1 connection is consistent with the data configuration and whether there are cross connections. If the physical connection is incorrect, connect the cables according to the data configuration. Step 3 Rectify the MSC faults. If the physical connection is correct, contact MSC maintenance engineers to rectify related MSC faults. ----End

21.3.2 MTP2 Link Failure


On the Service Maintenance System, you can run DSP N7LNK to check the status of the MTP link. In the output, LinkFault indicates the state of links at the MTP2 layer. If TransferService is No and LinkFault is Yes, you can infer that the MTP2 link is faulty.

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Troubleshooting
Figure 21-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTP2 link failure

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Procedure
Step 1 Check the status of the CLAP associated with the faulty link. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP FRMINFO to check the status of the CLAP. For example,
DSP FRMINFO: FN=5;

If the OperationalStatus of the CLAP is Unavailable, replace the board. Step 2 Check the status of the CAIE associated with the faulty link. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP FRMINFO to check the status of the CAIE. For example,
DSP FRMINFO: FN=5;

The output is as follows:


%%DSP FRMINFO: FN=5;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Query Result -------Slot No. Board Type AdministrativeStatus 0 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 (Records = --END CBIE CFMR CFMR CFMR CEVC CEVC CMUX CMUX CEVC CEVC CLAP CSPU CLIU CAIE 14)

ATMBusInterface OperationalStatus Active_StandbyStatus 0 2 3 5 4 6 7 9 10 11 13 14 15 Available Available Available Available Available Available Available Unavailable Available Available Available Available Available Available Enable Enable Enable Enable Enable Enable Enable Enable Enable Enable Enable Enable Enable Enable Master Master Slave Slave Master Slave Master Master Master Master Master Master Master

If the OperationalStatus of the CAIE is Unavailable, replace the board. Step 3 Check the status of the E1 link associated with the faulty link. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP E1T1STAT to check the status of the E1 link. For example,
DSP E1T1STAT: FN=5, SN=SLOT0, BTP=CAIE;

If E1/T1OperationalStatus is Has_loss-of-signal_alarm, replace the faulty E1 cable. Step 4 Check the physical connection. Check whether the E1 connection is consistent with the data configuration and whether there are cross connections. If the physical connection is incorrect, connect the cables according to the data configuration.
NOTE

Figure 21-5 shows the normal connection and cross connection of E1 cables.

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Figure 21-5 Normal connection and cross connection of E1 cables

Step 5 Check the quality of transmission between the BSC and the MSC. Use a BER tester to check whether the BER is too high. If the BER is too high, solve the transmission problem. Step 6 Contact MSC engineers to rectify the MSC fault. ----End

21.4 A2 Interface Circuit Failure


On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP A2 to check the A2 interface circuits of the target BSC. If the CICStatus of the A2 interface circuit is Fault, you can infer that the A2 interface circuit is faulty.

Troubleshooting
Figure 21-6 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the A2 interface circuit failure.

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Figure 21-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the A2 interface circuit failure

Procedure
Step 1 Check the related E1 interface board at the MSC. Contact MSC maintenance engineers to ensure that the E1 interface board that is connected to the BSC is normal.
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An A2 interface circuit connects the BSC and the MSC. If the A2 interface circuit becomes faulty, first check whether the fault is caused by the problems at the MSC, such as the E1 interface board failure and the MSC status exception (including power-off status). Step 2 Check the physical status of each board in the BSC. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP FRMINFO to check the status of each board, especially the status of the CAIE and CRMU. If the CAIE or CRMU is faulty, replace it. Step 3 Check the connection of E1 cables on the digital distribution frame (DDF). Contact MSC maintenance engineers to check whether the E1 cables are correctly connected on the DDF. You can also loop back an E1 cable on the DDF and run DSP E1T1STAT to check for any wrong connection.
NOTE

If an E1 cable is not connected but the data on the E1 cable is configured in the script, the A2 circuit may become faulty and one-way audio may occur in some calls.

Step 4 Check the status of the E1 cables. On the Service Maintenance System, run DSP E1T1STAT to check the status of the E1 cable. If the fault persists, replace the E1 cable. ----End

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22
About This Chapter

Clearing OM Failures

This topic introduces the operation and maintenance of the BAM and describes how to troubleshoot OM failures. 22.1 Introduction to the OM of the BAM In the BSC, the back administrative module (BAM) is connected to boards in a subnet and is connected to the local maintenance terminal (LMT) in another subnet. 22.2 BAM Failure This topic describes how to troubleshoot BAM failures. The BAM failures include BAM installation failed, BAM uninstall failed, Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat processes abnormal, and load process abnormal. 22.3 LMT Failure This topic describes how to troubleshoot LMT failures such as intermittent interruption between the LMT and the BAM and LMT login failure. 22.4 Loading Failure This topic describes how to troubleshoot loading failures such as BAM failure to receive BOOTP request for board loading, BAM failure to send BOOT reply to BSC boards, and standby CMPU failure to load program files from the BAM. 22.5 CMPU External Network Interface IP Address Ping Failure If you ping the external network interface IP address of the CMPU in the switching module, the operation fails and the returned output shows that the connection between the CMPU and the BAM is interrupted.

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22.1 Introduction to the OM of the BAM


In the BSC, the back administrative module (BAM) is connected to boards in a subnet and is connected to the local maintenance terminal (LMT) in another subnet. Figure 22-1 shows a BAM in the BSC. Figure 22-1 BAM in the BSC

The BAM serves as the server in TCP/IP. On one hand, the BAM responds to connection setup requests from an LMT. Then the BAM sets up the connection and analyzes and processes commands issued from the LMT. On the other hand, the BAM responds to connection setup requests from boards. Then the BAM sets up the connection, receives and processes data loading requests, and reports alarms associated with the boards.

22.2 BAM Failure


This topic describes how to troubleshoot BAM failures. The BAM failures include BAM installation failed, BAM uninstall failed, Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat processes abnormal, and load process abnormal. 22.2.1 BAM Installation Failure During the installation of the BAM program, the system prompts The database initialization fails. or The BAM program is not uninstalled. The BAM server or the workstation already exists. 22.2.2 BAM Uninstall Failure The BAM software cannot be uninstalled because some uninstall files cannot be found or opened. 22.2.3 Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat Processes Failure On the BAM Manager, the Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat processes are shown in the Exception state. 22.2.4 Load Process Failure On the BAM Manager, the Load process is in the Exception state and fails to start. 22.2.5 CDR and Performance Data Reporting Failure The CDR.dat file cannot be found in the path F:\cdma2000\TRACE\CDR. The performance data task is registered on the M2000, but no performance data is reported. The performance data file cannot be found in the path F:\cdma2000\M2000.

22.2.1 BAM Installation Failure


During the installation of the BAM program, the system prompts The database initialization fails. or The BAM program is not uninstalled. The BAM server or the workstation already exists.
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Troubleshooting
Figure 22-2 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the BAM installation failure. Figure 22-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the BAM installation failure

Procedure
Step 1 Uninstall the BAM program.
l

Choose Start > Program > Airbridge cBSS cdma 1X Administration System, and then click Uninstall Airbridge cBSC6600 System. Run the Uninstall.EXE file in the installation directory.

Step 2 Disconnect the SQL Server from all applications. 1. 2. 3. 4. Choose Start > Control Panel. In Administrative Tools, run Service. In the service list, select MSSQL Server and quit the service. All applications are disconnected from the SQL Server. Restart the MSSQL Server.

Step 3 Delete the BAM database processes such as BAM, Alarm, Perf, Cdr, CSWS, and RFMT manually. 1. 2. After Step 2 is complete, start SQL Server Enterprise Manager. Choose Database > BAM (Alarm, Perf, Cdr, CSWS, RFMT). Right-click the database and then choose Delete from the shortcut menu.

----End
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22.2.2 BAM Uninstall Failure


The BAM software cannot be uninstalled because some uninstall files cannot be found or opened.

Troubleshooting
Figure 22-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the BAM uninstall failure. Figure 22-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the BAM uninstall failure

NOTE

The common causes of the BAM uninstall failure are as follows:


l l l

The uninstall file is deleted by mistake. The uninstall procedure is interrupted, and the uninstall file is destroyed. After the BAM software is installed, the computer does not restart.

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Procedure
Step 1 Quit the BAM Manager. 1. On the Windows operating system, choose Start > Control Panel > Service and stop the BAM service and the Smirror service (a program to synchronize the emergency workstation and the BAM). On the BAM Manager, choose File > Close All to stop all BAM services. Then, quit the BAM Manager.

2.

CAUTION
After the BAM Manager exits, start the BAM uninstall program within five minutes. Otherwise, the BAM service will automatically restart the computer without giving any prompt. Step 2 Delete the BTS installation information from the registry. 1. 2. 3. On the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run. Enter regedit and then click OK to start the Registry Editor. Delete My Computer\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\HuaWei \cdma2000\Installation\BTS from the registry.

Step 3 Delete or modify relevant files under the BAM installation directory. 1. 2. 3. 4. Delete the files in the path d:\Airbridge\Onlinehelp\bsstoc.idx. Delete the files in the path d:\Airbridge\Data\bsstoc.idx. Copy the bscdoc.idx file in c:\WINNT to d:\Airbridge\Onlinehelp and change the file name to Bsstoc.idx. Copy the file c:\WINNT\bscdoc.idx to d:\Aribridge\Data and change the file name to Bsstoc.idx.

Step 4 Delete relevant contents in the cdma2000.ini file. Delete all contents related to the BDataman and the BMaintain in the file d:\Airbridge \cdma2000.ini. Step 5 Delete the BSS installation information from the registry. 1. 2. On the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run. Enter regedit and then click OK to start the Registry Editor. Delete all contents under My Computer\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE \HuaWei\cdma2000 in the registry.

Step 6 Delete the BAM installation directory. Delete all files and directories in the path d:\Airbridge. ----End

22.2.3 Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat Processes Failure


On the BAM Manager, the Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat processes are shown in the Exception state.
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Background Information
l

During the initialization, the Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat processes reads the internal network IP address of the BAM from cdma2000.ini. If this IP address is incorrect, the BAM Manager displays Initialization Failed. The Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat processes are shown in the Exception state on the BAM Manager. For CBSC V100R003C03 or later versions, the Stat process reads the M2000 data directory from the cdma2000.ini file to determine the location for storing traffic statistic data. If the directory cannot be created, the Stat process exits. The Stat process is shown in the Exception state on the BAM Manager.

Troubleshooting
Figure 22-4 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the failure of the Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat processes. Figure 22-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the failure of the Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat processes

Procedure
Step 1 Change the value of InnerNetAddr in cdma2000.ini to the actual internal network IP address of the BAM. Open the cdma2000.ini file by using the WordPad or other editing tools and change the value of the InnerNetAddr field in System to the actual internal network IP address (usually 10.12.3.128) of the BAM. Step 2 Restart the Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat processes. Start the BAM Manager and restart the Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat processes. For CBSC V100R003C03 or later versions, if the Stat process remains exceptional, check whether the M2000 data directories configuration in System\Stat of the cdma2000.ini file are
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correct. Ensure that the drive letter is correct. If the drive letter is wrong, the Stat process may fail to start. ----End

22.2.4 Load Process Failure


On the BAM Manager, the Load process is in the Exception state and fails to start.

Troubleshooting
Figure 22-5 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the Load process failure. Figure 22-5 Procedure for troubleshooting the Load process failure

Procedure
Step 1 Check the TFTP program. On the Windows operating system of the BAM, choose Start > Run. Enter cmd to view the cmd.exe window. Run netstat a to check whether the TFTP program is running. Both the TFTP program and the Load process use port 69. Check whether the TFTP program uses port 69. If the TFTP program is running, the Load process cannot use port 69, thus causing a Load process failure. Step 2 Quit the TFTP program. ----End

22.2.5 CDR and Performance Data Reporting Failure


The CDR.dat file cannot be found in the path F:\cdma2000\TRACE\CDR. The performance data task is registered on the M2000, but no performance data is reported. The performance data file cannot be found in the path F:\cdma2000\M2000.
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Troubleshooting
Figure 22-6 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the CDR and performance data reporting failure. Figure 22-6 Procedure for troubleshooting the CDR and performance data reporting failure

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the Cdr and Stat processes are normal. For the troubleshooting procedure, refer to 22.2.3 Exchange, Load, Cdr, and Stat Processes Failure. Step 2 Check whether the Cdr data directory in the cdma2000.ini file is configured to disk F. If you find in the cdma2000.ini file the following result:
[System\Stat] M2000=F:\cdma2000\M2000 [Cdr] TimeLimit =7 FileFullName=F:\cdma2000 \TRACE\CDR\Cdr.dat

you can infer that the data is configured in the path F:\cdma2000. Step 3 Search files in the specified directory. Generally, during the installation of the BAM, the data file directory of the CDR and traffic measurement is configured to disk F. If the query result in the cdma2000.ini file shows that the data file directory of the CDR and traffic measurement is not configured to disk F, you must search files in the specified directory. Step 4 Check whether the CDR filter switch is on. Run the following command:
LST CDRFILTER: FN=5;

The output is as follows:


%%LST CDRFILTER: FN=5;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded CDR Filter Switch

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----------------Subrack No. SPUO Slot No. Type Filter Switch 5 off 5 off 5 off 5 off 5 off 5 off 5 off 5 off 5 off 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 SPUO Subsystem No. 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

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Call Release Type MSC normal release MS normal release

Call Release

MS reject order to release OAM release Dormant normal release RESERVED6 RESERVED7 RESERVED8 RESERVED9

(Total result = 23) ----End

The output information shows that the CDR filter switch is off. Step 5 Turn on the CDR filter switch by running the following command:
MOD CDRFILTER: FN=5, CFC= MS_NORMALL, SWT=ON;

The output information shows that the CDR records the calls that are released normally by the MS.
NOTE

The CDR records data conditionally. For example, it only records the data of calls that are released abnormally. The traffic measurements are unconditional data records.

----End

22.3 LMT Failure


This topic describes how to troubleshoot LMT failures such as intermittent interruption between the LMT and the BAM and LMT login failure. 22.3.1 Intermittent Interruption Between the LMT and the BAM After you log in to the BAM through the LMT, the connection between the LMT and the BAM is interrupted and the LMT automatically logs in to the BAM every other 10 seconds. You can ping the BAM successfully through the LMT. But pinging the LMT through the BAM may fail. 22.3.2 LMT Login Failure The LMT installed with the Windows 2000 and configured with two IP addresses cannot be connected to the BAM. The LMT is installed with the Windows 2000 and equipped with only one network adapter. The Service Maintenance System and the M2000 run on the LMT. The LMT is configured with two IP network segments: 130.5.1.x and 10.12.x.x. When a workstation is added to the BAM, the IP address in the network segment 130.5.1.x can be added. When the Service Maintenance System connects to the BAM, however, the BAM shows that this workstation is not registered, only the GUEST authority is available.
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22.3.1 Intermittent Interruption Between the LMT and the BAM


After you log in to the BAM through the LMT, the connection between the LMT and the BAM is interrupted and the LMT automatically logs in to the BAM every other 10 seconds. You can ping the BAM successfully through the LMT. But pinging the LMT through the BAM may fail.

Background Information
l

The BAM is equipped with at least two network adapters: one internal network adapter and one external network adapter. The internal network adapter is connected to the BSC, and the external network adapter to the LMT. The recommended IP address of the BAM external network interface is 16.17.18.120, that of the LMT is 16.17.18.20, and that of the external network gateway is 16.17.18.254. If a wrong IP route to the LMT is configured on the BAM, the BAM cannot send IP packets to the LMT. Therefore, the BAM can be pinged from the LMT, but the LMT cannot be pinged from the BAM. In this case, the BAM automatically disconnects with the LMT, thus causing intermittent interruption.

Procedure
Step 1 Check the route configuration of the BAM. 1. 2. Under the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run. Enter cmd to view the cmd.exe window. Run route print in the MS-DOS window to check the route configuration of the BAM.

Step 2 Add a route to the BAM. On the Windows operating system of the BAM, run route -p add in the MS-DOS window to add a permanent route from the BAM to the LMT. For example, route -p add 16.17.18.20 mask 255.255.255.0 16.17.18.254
NOTE

If no route from the BAM to the LMT is available, you must add a route from the BAM to the LMT.

----End

22.3.2 LMT Login Failure


The LMT installed with the Windows 2000 and configured with two IP addresses cannot be connected to the BAM. The LMT is installed with the Windows 2000 and equipped with only one network adapter. The Service Maintenance System and the M2000 run on the LMT. The LMT is configured with two IP network segments: 130.5.1.x and 10.12.x.x. When a workstation is added to the BAM, the IP address in the network segment 130.5.1.x can be added. When the Service Maintenance System connects to the BAM, however, the BAM shows that this workstation is not registered, only the GUEST authority is available.

Troubleshooting
Figure 22-7 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the LMT login failure.

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Figure 22-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the LMT login failure

Procedure
Step 1 Run netstat -n to check the actual IP address for the connection between the workstation and the BAM. 1. 2. 3. Ensure that the workstation is registered. On the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run. Enter cmd to view the cmd.exe window. Run netstat -n to check the actual IP address for the connection between the workstation and the BAM. If the registered IP address is not the actual one, register the workstation again.

Step 2 Register the workstation again. The actually connected IP address is used as the IP address of the workstation. On the Service Maintenance System, run ADD WS to register the workstation again.
l

The workstation information such as the workstation name and IP address is stored in a database table on the BAM. When the LMT sends a connection request to the BAM, the BAM checks the IP address of the peer end in the TCP connection. If the IP address is not
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found in the database table, the BAM considers the workstation a non-registered one and provides only GUEST authority.
l

On the LMT, the IP address 130.5.1.x is successfully added, but the BAM prompts that this workstation is not registered. Therefore, you can infer that the cause lies in the wrong IP address registered. The cause may be that the network adapter of the LMT is bound to two IP addresses.

----End

22.4 Loading Failure


This topic describes how to troubleshoot loading failures such as BAM failure to receive BOOTP request for board loading, BAM failure to send BOOT reply to BSC boards, and standby CMPU failure to load program files from the BAM. 22.4.1 BAM Failure to Receive BOOTP Request for Board Loading When the system is powered on or a board is reset, message tracing on the BAM Manager shows that no BOOTP request is reported to the BAM. 22.4.2 BAM Failure to Send BOOT Reply to BSC Boards The messages traced on the Load window show that the BOOTP request is sent to the BAM, but the window of board loading still displays Error of Bootp. The cause of the error is that the BOOTP Reply is not sent to BSC boards. 22.4.3 Standby CMPU Failure to Load Program Files from the BAM The active CMPU is operational, but the standby CMPU fails to load program files from the BAM. You can see the failure messages on the Hyper terminal.

22.4.1 BAM Failure to Receive BOOTP Request for Board Loading


When the system is powered on or a board is reset, message tracing on the BAM Manager shows that no BOOTP request is reported to the BAM.

Troubleshooting
Figure 22-8 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the failure of receiving the BOOTP request.

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Figure 22-8 Procedure for troubleshooting the failure of receiving the BOOTP request

Procedure
Step 1 Ping the external network IP address of the CMPU on the BAM. 1. 2. 3. On the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run. Enter cmd to view the cmd.exe window. Run ping to check whether communication between the BAM and the switching module is functional. The communication is functional if the peer end responds with the following message:
C\>ping 10.12.3.64 Pinging 10.12.3.64 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 10.12.3.64: bytes=32 time<10ms Reply from 10.12.3.64: bytes=32 time<10ms Reply from 10.12.3.64: bytes=32 time<10ms Reply from 10.12.3.64: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=255 TTL=255 TTL=255 TTL=255

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Step 2 Check whether the Load process receives the BOOTP request. 1. 2. Start the BAM manager. Press CTRL+SHIFT+F12 to display the Debug menu on the Load window. Select Window Trace Filter to display the Window Trace Filter dialog box. Select the check box before Level 2. Click OK. The BOOTP request is displayed in the Load window, as shown in Figure 22-9. Figure 22-9 BAM Load process receiving BOOTP request

Step 3 Check the boards in the switching subrack. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
DSP SWBRDINFO: SN=0;

The output is as follows:


%%DSP SWBRDINFO: SN=0;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded Query Result -----------Slot No. Board Type Board Status Mother Board Type Type of Subboard 1 Type of Subboard 2 Type of Subboard 3 Type of Subboard 4 ( Records = 1 ) --END = = = = = = = = 9 CLPC Normal LPUB ATM155 None ATM155 None

Step 4 Check BOOTP-related data of the switching subrack. 1. The internal network IP address of the BAM set in the cdma2000.ini file is correct. Open the cdma2000.ini file and check whether the value of InnerNetAddr in System is the actual internal network IP address (10.12.3.128) of the BAM. The BAM sends this IP address to the switching subrack which takes it as the DHCP Server address. Therefore, the IP address must be correct.
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2.

Check whether the IPoA configuration is correct. Run LST SWIPOAPVC to query the IPoA configuration. Check whether the peer IP address and the subrack number correspond to the actual optical port. Check whether the optical port of the CLPC connected to the BSC is activated. Run DSP SWATMPORT to check whether the optical port is activated.

3.

Step 5 Modify the data configuration. Compare the actual configuration with the configuration listed in Step 4. Check whether some data is not configured or some data is wrong. If the problem exists, use MML commands to perform data configuration again. 1. Configure the internal network IP address of the BAM. To modify the internal network IP address of the BAM, open the cdma2000.ini file and change the value of InnerNetAddr to the actual internal IP address (10.12.3.128) of the BAM. Reconfigure the IPoA data. Check the number of the subrack that does not receive the BOOTP request and the optical port number of the CLPC. If they are wrong, run RMV SWFRMPORT to remove the wrong data, and then run SET SWFRMPORT to add the correct data. Activate the optical port. If the optical port is not activated, run ACT SWATMPORT to activate the optical port.

2.

3.

Step 6 Check the optical port of the CLPC for alarms. Observe the alarm status by using the following methods:
l l

Observe the red indicator of the optical port. If the indicator is on, an alarm is generated. Run Telnet to log in to the external network port of the CMPU, and then run show interface to check the optical port status.
NOTE

The optical port of the CLPC may generate alarms only when it is activated.

----End

22.4.2 BAM Failure to Send BOOT Reply to BSC Boards


The messages traced on the Load window show that the BOOTP request is sent to the BAM, but the window of board loading still displays Error of Bootp. The cause of the error is that the BOOTP Reply is not sent to BSC boards.

Troubleshooting
Figure 22-10 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the failure of sending the BOOTP Reply.

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Figure 22-10 Procedure for troubleshooting the failure of sending the BOOTP Reply

Procedure
Step 1 Trace BOOTP messages. 1. 2. Start the BAM manager. Press CTRL+SHIFT+F12 to display the Debug menu on the Load window. Contact Huawei for technical support. Select Window Trace Filter to display the Window Trace Filter dialog box. Select the check box before Level 2. Click OK. On the Load window as shown in Figure 22-11, you can see that the BOOTP Reply is not sent to the loading board.

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Figure 22-11 Load window

Step 2 Modify or add the mapping between the switching subrack and the CLPC optical port. If the following information is displayed in the Load window:
Failed to obtain BOOTP reply information. Please checking config data!

Then you can infer that the connection of the CLPC optical port in the data configuration is inconsistent with the physical configuration. You cannot modify the mapping information directly. You must remove the incorrect data and then add the new mapping.
l

Add the mapping between the subrack and the CLPC optical port. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
ADD FRMPRTMAP: SWT=SWT_8850,FN=2,SN=SN11,SSN=2,PN=0;

Delete and then add the binding relation between the subrack and the CLPC optical port. If the binding relation between the subrack and the optical port is incorrect, run the following commands to remove the original binding relation and then add a new one: For example,
RMV SWFRMPORT: FN=2; SET SWFRMPORT: FN=2, SN=11, SSN=2, PN=0;

Step 3 Check the route information of the BAM. On the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run, enter cmd to view the cmd.exe window, and then run route print.
C:\> route print ==================================================================== Interface List 0x1 ........................... MS TCP Loopback interface 0x2 ...00 02 55 58 ba 36 ...... AMD PCNET Family Ethernet Adapter 0x3 ...00 03 47 6b f2 c9 ...... Intel 8255x-based Integrated Fast Ethernet ==================================================================== ==================================================================== Active Routes: Network Destination Netmask Gateway Interface Metric 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.129.11.254 10.129.10.103 1 192.1.0.0 255.255.255.0 10.12.3.64 10.12.3.128 1 10.12.3.128 255.255.255.255 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 1 10.129.10.0 255.255.254.0 10.129.10.103 10.129.10.103 1

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10.129.10.103 10.255.255.255 ...... 255.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 127.0.0.1 10.12.3.128 127.0.0.1 10.12.3.128

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1 1

Step 4 Add or modify the route to the BAM. On the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run, enter cmd to view the cmd.exe window, and then run route print.
l

Run the following commands to add specific routes: route p add 192.1.0.0 mask 255.255.255.0 10.12.3.64 route p add 80.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0 10.12.3.64 route p add 129.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0 10.12.3.64

Run the following command to add a default route: route p add 0.0.0.0 mask 0.0.0.0 10.12.3.64

Step 5 Check the route information of the switching subrack. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
LST SWIPRT: LSTFORMAT=HORIZONTAL;

The output is as follows:


%%LST SWIPRT: LSTFORMAT=HORIZONTAL;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution Succeed. Query IP Route ---------SUBRACK NAME

Logical slot No.

Destination network address 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.252.0.0 255.252.0.0 255.252.0.0 192.1.1.3 192.1.1.4 192.1.1.2 192.1.1.3 192.1.1.4

CSWS 0 129.9.0.0 CSWS 0 129.10.0.0 CSWS 0 80.8.0.0 CSWS 0 80.12.0.0 CSWS 0 80.16.0.0 (Total result = 5) --END

Step 6 Add or modify routes for the switching subrack. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command:
ADD SWIPRT: RTDEST="80.12.0.0", RTDESTMASK="255.252.0.0", NEXTHOP="192.1.1.3"; ADD SWIPRT: RTDEST="129.10.0.0", RTDESTMASK="255.255.0.0", NEXTHOP="192.1.1.4";

----End

22.4.3 Standby CMPU Failure to Load Program Files from the BAM
The active CMPU is operational, but the standby CMPU fails to load program files from the BAM. You can see the failure messages on the Hyper terminal.

Troubleshooting
Figure 22-12 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the failure of program files loading.

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Figure 22-12 Procedure for troubleshooting the failure of program files loading

Procedure
Step 1 Check the MAC address of the active CMPU. Connect the serial port of the WS to the active CMPU. Run the Hyper terminal. When the active CMPU resides in slot 1, run ESR# show interface ethernet 1/0/0 to query the MAC address of the active CMPU, as shown in Figure 22-13. Figure 22-13 Querying the MAC address of the active CMPU

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Step 2 Modify the MAC address of the active CMPU. Run the following command: ESR# c t //acronym of config terminal ESR(config)# interface ethernet 1/0/0 ESR(config-if-Ethernet1/0/0)#mac 00e0.fc09.33be Figure 22-14 shows the modified MAC address of the active CMPU. Figure 22-14 Modified MAC address of the active CMPU

After the MAC address of the active CMPU is modified, the following may be recorded in the Exchange log:
Level: 5001 Monday, June 21, 2004 10:48:51 MSG: Receive an error frame from IP=10.12.3.64! Data Size = -20 Level: 5001 Monday, June 21, 2004 10:50:08 MSG: Receive an error frame from IP=10.12.3.64! Data Size = -20

Such information does not affect normal communication. Step 3 Reset the standby CMPU. Connect the serial port of the WS to the standby CMPU. Then reset the standby CMPU. Step 4 Modify the IP address of the standby CMPU. For details, refer to 22.5 CMPU External Network Interface IP Address Ping Failure. During the reset, select CONFIG RESUME MODE and set the IP address on LAN2 to 10.12.3.65, as shown in Figure 22-15.
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Figure 22-15 Modified IP address of the standby CMPU

----End

22.5 CMPU External Network Interface IP Address Ping Failure


If you ping the external network interface IP address of the CMPU in the switching module, the operation fails and the returned output shows that the connection between the CMPU and the BAM is interrupted.

Troubleshooting
Figure 22-16 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the failure of pinging the CMPU external network interface IP address.

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Figure 22-16 Procedure for troubleshooting the failure of pinging the CMPU external network interface IP address

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Introduction to Route Commands in the BAM


On the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run, enter cmd to view the cmd.exe window, and then run the route commands. The following route commands are commonly used:
l l l l l l

arp a: This command displays current ARP information. arp d ip_address: This command deletes the binding of this IP and MAC addresses. route print: This command displays the route table. route delete: This command deletes a route. route add: This command adds a route. ipconfig : This command displays the IP address, mask, and gateway of each adapter.

Procedure
Step 1 Check the cable connection between the BAM and the switching module. You can use a straight-through cable or a crossover cable to connect the BAM and the switching module.
l l

If the BAM and the switching module are connected directly, use a crossover cable. If the BAM and the switching module are connected through a local area network (LAN) switch, use straight-through cables.

Step 2 Ping the external network interface IP address of the CMPU from the BAM. On the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run, enter cmd to view the cmd.exe window, and then run ping to check whether the communication between the BAM and the CMPU is normal. For example, ping 10.12.3.64. The output is as follows:
Pinging 10.12.3.64 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 10.12.3.64: bytes=32 time<10ms Reply from 10.12.3.64: bytes=32 time<10ms Reply from 10.12.3.64: bytes=32 time<10ms Reply from 10.12.3.64: bytes=32 time<10ms TTL=255 TTL=255 TTL=255 TTL=255

If the reply from the peer end is received, you can infer that the communication between the BAM and the CMPU is normal. Step 3 Check the IP address and status of the CMPU external network interface. 1. Use the RS232 serial cable to connect the serial port of a local computer to the serial port of the CMPU. Start the HyperTerminal service on the computer, select serial port 1 or 2 according to the actual situations, and then recover the port parameters to default values. Click Ok to enter the HyperTerminal interface. Run show interface Ethernet 0/0/0 or show interface Ethernet 1/0/0 to check the IP address and status of the CMPU external network interface.
NOTE

2. 3.

The default IP address of the external network interface is 10.12.3.64 and the default mask is 255.255.255.0. Correct the data if the configuration is incorrect. For details, refer to Step 5.

Step 4 Check the IP address of the BAM that is connected to the CMPU external network interface. 1. 2. On the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run. Enter cmd to view the MS-DOS window, and then run ipconfig /all to check the IP address of the BAM.
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For example, ipconfig /all The output is as follows:


Ethernet adapter AMDPCN1: Description Physical Address DHCP Enabled IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway : : : : : : AMD PCNET Family Ethernet Adapter 00-02-55-58-BA-36 //Adapter MAC address No 10.12.3.128 //Adapter IP address 255.255.255.0

Step 5 Modify the IP address of the CMPU external network interface and activate the interface. Log in to the CMPU external network interface by using HyperTerminal, and then modify the IP address of the interface and set the status of the interface to "UP". For example,
ESR#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. Ctrl + Z to end ESR(config)#interface ethernet 0/0/0 ESR(config-if-Ethernet0/0/0)#ip address 10.12.3.64 255.255.255.0 ESR(config-if-Ethernet0/0/0)#no shutdown ESR(config-if-Ethernet0/0/0)# end ESR#write //Save the configuration

Step 6 Check the ARP information of the CMPU and the BAM. 1. Check the ARP information of the CMPU external network interface. Log in to the CMPU external network interface by using HyperTerminal, and then run show arp to check the ARP information of the CMPU external network interface. For example,
ESR#show arp Total : 2, Interface : 1, Static : 0, Dynamic : 1 IpAddress Mac_Address Type =================================================== 10.12.3.64 00e0.fc09.33bd Interface 10.12.3.128 0002.5558.ba36 Dynamic ===================================================

2.

Check the ARP information of the BAM. On the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run, enter cmd to view the MSDOS window, and then run arp -a to check the ARP information of the BAM. For example, arp -a The output is as follows:
Interface: 10.12.3.128 on Interface 2 Internet Address Physical Address 10.12.3.64 00-e0-fc-09-33-bd Type dynamic

Step 7 Check whether the ARP information configured on the CMPU and the BAM is consistent. Based on the outputs obtained in Step 3, Step 4, and Step 6, check the correspondence between the ARP information on the CMPU and that on the BAM. See Table 22-1 for the correspondence. Table 22-1 Correspondence between the ARP information on the CMPU and that on the BAM Output from the CMPU BAM IP address
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Output from the BAM BAM IP address 10.12.3.128


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Output from the CMPU BAM MAC address ARP information 00-e0-fc-09-33-bd 10.12.3.128 0002.5558.ba36

Output from the BAM BAM MAC address ARP information 00-02-55-58-BA-36 10.12.3.64 00-e0-fc-09-33-bd

NOTE

ARP information reflects the binding relation of the IP addresses and MAC addresses between two peer ends. The configurations at the CMPU and the BAM, as described in Table 22-1, should be consistent. If they are not consistent, refer to Step 8 to delete the incorrect information.

Step 8 Delete the incorrect ARP information of the BAM.


l

You can use either of the following methods to delete the incorrect ARP information of the CMPU:

Method 1: Disconnect and then connect the network cable between the CMPU and the LAN Switch. Do not disconnect the cable between the BAM and the LAN Switch.
NOTE

When the network cable between the CMPU and the LAN Switch is disconnected, the CMPU external network interface is in "Down" state, and accordingly, the existing ARP information is deleted.

Method 2: Log in to the external Ethernet interface of the CMPU by using the Telnet and then run no arp. For example,
ESR#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. Ctrl + Z to end. ESR(config)#interface ethernet 0/0/0 ESR(config-if-Ethernet0/0/0)#no arp 10.12.3.128 Delete ARP success!

On the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run, and then run cmd to view the MSDOS window. Then run arp d to delete the ARP information of the BAM interface that is connected to the CMPU. For example, arp d 10.12.3.64 On the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run. Run cmd to view the MS-DOS window, and then run route add to add routes.

Step 9 Check the route information of the BAM. 1. 2.

For example,
C:\> route print ==================================================================== Interface List 0x1 ........................... MS TCP Loopback interface 0x2 ...00 02 55 58 ba 36 ... AMD PCNET Family Ethernet Adapter 0x3 ...00 03 47 6b f2 c9 ...Intel 8255x-based Integrated Fast Ethernet ==================================================================== ==================================================================== Active Routes: Network Destination Netmask Gateway Interface 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.129.11.254 10.129.10.103 1 192.1.0.0 255.255.255.0 10.12.3.64 10.12.3.128 1

Metric

Step 10 Check whether the route information is complete.


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In the output obtained in Step 9, the route whose Destination and Netmask are both 0.0.0.0 is the default route. It serves as the forwarding IP address when no destination IP address is found in the Route Data table. The destination IP address of the forwarding IP address is the gateway of the default route. When the BAM has multiple adapters, several default routes will be generated on the Windows operating system. When the BAM has no specific routes, the Windows system cannot decide which default route to select. Therefore, if the specific following route does not exist, you must add one. Corresponding routes must also be added for other boards in the BSC.
Network Destination Netmask Gateway Interface 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.129.11.254 10.129.10.103 1 192.1.0.0 255.255.255.0 10.12.3.64 10.12.3.128 1 Metric

Step 11 Add routes to the BAM. 1. 2. On the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run. Run cmd to view the MS-DOS window, and then run route add to add routes.

For example, route p add 192.1.0.0 mask 255.255.255.0 10.12.3.64 route p add 80.0.0.0 mask 255.252.0.0 10.12.3.64 Run the following command to add a default route: route p add 0.0.0.0 mask 0.0.0.0 10.12.3.64 ----End

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23 Clearing Digital Trunking Service Failures

23

Clearing Digital Trunking Service Failures

About This Chapter


This topic describes the information related to digital trunking service failures and the troubleshooting of digital trunking service failures. 23.1 Introduction to the Digital Trunking Service Huawei TruStar system introduces the CDMA2000 1X-based digital trunking technology. Huawei TruStar system is compatible with the CDMA2000 1X network and can provide services of both the CDMA2000 1X network and the digital trunking network. 23.2 MOC Failure Digital trunking calls originated from an MS fail. 23.3 MTC Failure Digital trunking calls terminated by an MS fail.

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23.1 Introduction to the Digital Trunking Service


Huawei TruStar system introduces the CDMA2000 1X-based digital trunking technology. Huawei TruStar system is compatible with the CDMA2000 1X network and can provide services of both the CDMA2000 1X network and the digital trunking network. Figure 23-1 shows the BSC in a digital trunking network. Figure 23-1 BSC in a digital trunking network

23.2 MOC Failure


Digital trunking calls originated from an MS fail.

Troubleshooting
Figure 23-2 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the MOC failure of the digital trunking service.

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Figure 23-2 Procedure for troubleshooting the MOC failure of the digital trunking service

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the trunking service is configured. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST TRRMP to check whether the trunking service is configured. If the value of Trunking Service Priority is Support, you can infer that the corresponding sector carrier is configured with the trunking service. Step 2 Configure the trunking service.
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On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to add the trunking service to relevant sector carrier:
MOD TRRMP: CN=10, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, CTFLAG=SUPPTT; MOD TRRMP: CN=10, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, CTFLAG=PTTFIRST; MOD TRRMP: CN=10, SCTID=0, CRRID=0, CTFLAG=PTTSPEC;

Step 3 Check whether the MSC supports the trunking service. On the Service Maintenance System, start A1 interface tracing, and then initiate a trunking call. Check that the value of Service Option in the CM Service Request message is 0xC800. If the N_DISCONNECT message from the MSC is received, you can infer that the MSC does not support the 0XC800 service. Step 4 Shield A interface messages of trunking calls. If the MSC does not support the 0XC800 service, contact Huawei engineers to shield A interface messages of trunking calls. Step 5 Check whether the TSC is configured. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST TSC to check whether the TSC is configured. The output is as follows:
%%LST TSC:;%% RETCODE = 0 Execution succeeded TSC information ---------------IP address of TSC 129.11.17.231 (Number of results --END = 1)

If the IP address of the TSC is contained in the output, you can infer that the TSC is configured. Step 6 Configure the TSC. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to add the TSC:
ADD TSC: TSCIP="129.11.17.9";

The value of TSCIP should be consistent with the actual IP address of the TSC. Step 7 Check whether the TSC gateway is configured. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST TSCGW to check whether the TSC gateway is configured. If the IP address of the TSC gateway is contained in the output, you can infer that the TSC gateway is configured. Step 8 Handle TSC gateway faults. On the Service Maintenance System, run LST TSC and LST PCF to check the IP addresses of the TSC and the PCF respectively. If the IP addresses of the TSC and the PCF are not in the same network segment, you need to add a TSC gateway. On the Service Maintenance System, run the following command to add a TSC gateway:
ADD TSCGW: FN=2, TSCGWIP="129.11.17.1", TSCGWSNM="255.255.0.0";

You can configure the IP address of the TSC gateway on the gateway router. Step 9 Check whether the connection between the PCF and the TSC is normal. Check the connection of physical cables and logical links between the PCF and the TSC.
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23 Clearing Digital Trunking Service Failures

Check whether an ACT interface alarm (with ID 1182) is reported on the UI alarm console. Ask Huawei engineers to run DSP PCFACTVER on a TSC client to check whether the ACT interface version is successfully negotiated.

Step 10 Handle connection faults. 1. Check whether the physical connection between the PCF and the TSC is correct. a. b. c. 2. Check whether the LAN Switch allocates the Ethernet ports of the PCF and TSC to the same VLAN. Check whether the LAN Switch optical module that is connected with the CHAC is in the same VLAN with the Ethernet port that is connected with the TSC. Clear the fault by checking the network connection segment by segment.

Check whether the ACT interface version configured on the TSC matches that configured on the BSC. If no ACT interface alarm is reported on the BSC, but the PCF version displayed on the TSC is 0xFFFF, ask Huawei engineers to run LST TSCACTVER to check the ACT interface version configured on the TSC. a. Start ACT interface tracing on the TSC. Disconnect the Ethernet cable between the TSC and the PCF. Recover the connection after an ACT interface alarm is reported on the BSC. At this time, the BSC generates an ACT interface negotiation message. Analyze the ACT version information contained in the message and check whether the ACT version configured on the TSC is correct. If the ACT version configured on the TSC is incorrect, ask Huawei engineers to run ADD TSCVER to configure the ACT version. Repeat Step 9, and run DSP PCFACTVER to check whether the negotiation between the TSC and the PCF is successful.

b.

Step 11 Make a test call. Use an MS to make an MOC of the digital trunking service. If the call succeeds, you can infer that the fault is rectified. ----End

23.3 MTC Failure


Digital trunking calls terminated by an MS fail.

Troubleshooting
Figure 23-3 shows the procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure of the digital trunking service.

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Figure 23-3 Procedure for troubleshooting the MTC failure of the digital trunking service

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the BSC receives a paging message. On the Service Maintenance System, start user interface tracing. You can trace user interface based on the IMSI or the GID. If the Act Down Deliver message that contains the PTT Call Invite message is received, you can infer that the BSC receives a paging message. Step 2 Handle TSC faults. For troubleshooting of TSC faults, contact TSC engineers. Step 3 Check whether the MS is registered. Ask TSC engineers to run DSP USRINFO to query the status of the MS.
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If the MS is not registered, a message indicatingthat the subscriber does not exist is displayed. If the MS is registered, check whether the registered location area of the MS is consistent with the actual location area (including cell and sector information) of the MS.

Step 4 Register the MS. Restart the MS to trigger the power-up registration procedure. Step 5 Make a test call. Call the faulty MS using an MS that is in the same trunking service group as the faulty MS. If the call succeeds, you can infer that the fault is rectified. ----End
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24 Template for Troubleshooting Cases

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Template for Troubleshooting Cases

Huawei shares the maintenance experiences with you. If you have maintenance experiences, provide feedback by using this template. Please share your troubleshooting cases according to Table 24-1. Table 24-1 Template for troubleshooting cases Title: Service type (optional) + Failure cause + Symptom (Mandatory, less than 30 characters) Symptom description [Mandatory, including version information (including the version of the equipment interconnected), networking information, and the description of the fault] Version information: Networking information: Fault description: Alarm information [Optional. Record the reported alarm information.] Fault analysis [Mandatory. The analysis should be clear and logical in style and meaning. Troubleshooting [Mandatory. The troubleshooting procedure should be paragraphed as "1, 2, and 3" for better understanding.] Suggestions and summary Appendix [Optional. Only one appendix is allowed.] Filename: [The appendix can be in one of the following formats: txt; html; htm; lwp; pdf; zip; bmp; 123; jpg; rtf; HTM; HTML; doc; JPG] Other information [Optional, no more than 500 characters.]

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24-1