Sei sulla pagina 1di 19

fontes: Lec. Notes in Solid Mechanics Part II: Engin. Solid Mechanics, Piaras Kelly, The Univ.

of Auckland, 2009; Advanced Strength of Materials, J. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, 1952; Resistncia dos Materiais (5a. edio), R. C. Hibbeler, Pearson, 2006

PLACAS FINAS DEFLEXES, ESFOROS INTERNOS E TENSES INTRODUO Uma placa um elemento estrutural originalmente plano, em que a espessura pequena quando comparada com as demais dimenses. A espessura , via de regra, constante, sendo medida perpendicularmente ao plano mdio da placa (vide figura 1).

Figura 1 Placa sob carregamento transversal Abordar-se- aqui o comportamento de placas retangulares e circulares, sob diversas condies de carregamento transversal e condies de contorno, com base na teoria de placas de Kirchhoff.

fontes: Lec. Notes in Solid Mechanics Part II: Engin. Solid Mechanics, Piaras Kelly, The Univ. of Auckland, 2009; Advanced Strength of Materials, J. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, 1952; Resistncia dos Materiais (5a. edio), R. C. Hibbeler, Pearson, 2006

INTRODUO (cont.) Essa abordagem, embora aproximada, fornece resultados bastante satisfatrios, desde que: (a) a placa seja relativamente fina; (b) as deflexes sejam pequenas em relao espessura. Observa-se, nos desenvolvimentos subsequentes, a seguinte orientao da placa nos eixos cartesianos. O plano mdio encontra-se no plano xy, ao passo que o eixo z est orientado ao longo da espessura, indicada por h (vide figura 2).

Figura 2 Orientao da placa nos eixos cartesianos

fontes: Lec. Notes in Solid Mechanics Part II: Engin. Solid Mechanics, Piaras Kelly, The Univ. of Auckland, 2009; Advanced Strength of Materials, J. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, 1952; Resistncia dos Materiais (5a. edio), R. C. Hibbeler, Pearson, 2006

TENSES E ESFOROS INTERNOS As foras e momentos externos que atuam numa placa provocam tenses e esforos internos. As tenses e os esforos internos correspondentes, por unidade de comprimento, so os seguintes:
h/2

tenses normais: foras axiais momentos fletores tenses laterais de cisalhamento: foras cortantes laterais momentos de toro tenses transversais de cisalhamento: foras cortantes transversais

Nx =

h / 2 h/2

h/2

xx dz ; N y =

h / 2 h/2

yydz

Mx =

h / 2

z xx dz ; M y =

h / 2

z yy dz

h/2

Vxy =

h / 2

h/2

xydz ; Txy =

h / 2

z xy dz

h/2

Vx =

h / 2

h/2

zx dz ; Vy =

h / 2

yz dz

fontes: Lec. Notes in Solid Mechanics Part II: Engin. Solid Mechanics, Piaras Kelly, The Univ. of Auckland, 2009; Advanced Strength of Materials, J. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, 1952; Resistncia dos Materiais (5a. edio), R. C. Hibbeler, Pearson, 2006

CURVATURAS E TORO Tambm em decorrncia das aes externas, a placa se deforma, fazendo com que o plano mdio ocupe a superfcie w = w(x,y), com w denotando a deflexo da placa (vide figura 3).

Figura 3 Placa deformada Assim, as inclinaes da placa ao longo de x e y so dadas, respectivamente, por w x e w y . Em geral, a placa pode tanto fletir para cima ou para baixo quanto torcer (vide figuras 4, 5 e 6). A partir desses comportamentos fundamentais e com algumas hipteses simplificadoras, podem ser obtidas as deformaes correspondentes na placa, em funo das curvaturas apresentadas.

fontes: Lec. Notes in Solid Mechanics Part II: Engin. Solid Mechanics, Piaras Kelly, The Univ. of Auckland, 2009; Advanced Strength of Materials, J. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, 1952; Resistncia dos Materiais (5a. edio), R. C. Hibbeler, Pearson, 2006

Figura 4 Placas em flexo e toro

fontes: Lec. Notes in Solid Mechanics Part II: Engin. Solid Mechanics, Piaras Kelly, The Univ. of Auckland, 2009; Advanced Strength of Materials, J. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, 1952; Resistncia dos Materiais (5a. edio), R. C. Hibbeler, Pearson, 2006

Figura 5 Placa em flexo ao longo de x e y

Figura 6 Placa em toro ao longo de x e y

fontes: Lec. Notes in Solid Mechanics Part II: Engin. Solid Mechanics, Piaras Kelly, The Univ. of Auckland, 2009; Advanced Strength of Materials, J. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, 1952; Resistncia dos Materiais (5a. edio), R. C. Hibbeler, Pearson, 2006

HIPTESES PARA OBTENO DAS DEFORMAES 1) O plano mdio um plano neutro O plano mdio da placa permanece livre de tenses e deformaes longitudinais. Assim, a flexo da placa ir causar deformaes abaixo e acima desse plano. O plano mdio desempenha, na teoria das placas, o mesmo papel do eixo neutro na teoria das vigas. 2) Os elementos de linha permanecem normais ao plano mdio Os elementos de linha orientados de forma perpendicular ao plano mdio da placa permanecem perpendiculares ao plano mdio ao longo da deformao (vide figura 7). Essa hiptese similar quela de sees planas permanecem planas da teoria das vigas. 3) A deformao vertical desprezada Os elementos de linha orientados de forma perpendicular ao plano mdio no mudam de comprimento durante a deformao. Essa outra hiptese que encontra similaridade na teoria das vigas.

fontes: Lec. Notes in Solid Mechanics Part II: Engin. Solid Mechanics, Piaras Kelly, The Univ. of Auckland, 2009; Advanced Strength of Materials, J. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, 1952; Resistncia dos Materiais (5a. edio), R. C. Hibbeler, Pearson, 2006

DEFORMAES Pode-se mostrar ento que, com base nas hipteses acima, de um estado geral de deformaes (vide figura 8), as resultantes na placa so
xx xy 2w 2w = z 2 ; xx = z 2 ; zz = 0 x y 2w ; xz = 0; yz = 0 = 2z xy

Figura 8 Estado geral de tenses e deformaes

fontes: Lec. Notes in Solid Mechanics Part II: Engin. Solid Mechanics, Piaras Kelly, The Univ. of Auckland, 2009; Advanced Strength of Materials, J. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, 1952; Resistncia dos Materiais (5a. edio), R. C. Hibbeler, Pearson, 2006

TENSES E RELAES MOMENTOSCURVATURAS De posse das deformaes obtidas anteriormente, pode-se encontrar, a partir da lei de Hooke generalizada, as tenses correspondentes, uma vez que xx = 1 1 2(1 + ) xx yy ; yy = yy xx ; xy = xy E E E E E

Resolvendo-se para as tenses, resulta que xx 2w 2w E 2w E 2w E 2w z 2 + 2 ; yy = z 2 + 2 ; xy = z = 2 2 (1 + ) xy (1 ) x y (1 ) y x

Substituindo-se as tenses acima nas expresses dos momentos fletores e de toro, tem-se 2w 2w 2w 2w 2w M x = D 2 + 2 ; M y = D 2 + 2 ; Txy = D(1 ) xy y x x y onde D = Eh 3 12(1 2 ) a rigidez flexo da placa, que equivale ao termo EI da teoria das vigas.
d2v M As expresses dos momentos, apresentadas acima, so anlogas expresso 2 = . EI dx

fontes: Lec. Notes in Solid Mechanics Part II: Engin. Solid Mechanics, Piaras Kelly, The Univ. of Auckland, 2009; Advanced Strength of Materials, J. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, 1952; Resistncia dos Materiais (5a. edio), R. C. Hibbeler, Pearson, 2006

TENSES E RELAES MOMENTOSCURVATURAS (cont.) Verifica-se, das equaes anteriores, que xx M yz Txy z Mxz = 3 ; yy = 3 ; xy = 3 h /12 h /12 h /12

Essas expresses so similares expresso = My / I , encontrada na teoria de vigas, com


I = h 3 /12 vezes a largura da viga. Por essas relaes, observa-se que as tenses mximas

( xx ) mx. ,( yy ) mx. e ( xy ) mx. ocorrem nas faces superior e inferior da placa, onde z = h 2 .

A conveno de sinal para os momentos fletores encontra-se ilustrada na figura 9 (para se visualizar a deformao correspondente um momento de toro negativo, vide figura 4).

Figura 9 Conveno de sinal para momentos fletores

fontes: Lec. Notes in Solid Mechanics Part II: Engin. Solid Mechanics, Piaras Kelly, The Univ. of Auckland, 2009; Advanced Strength of Materials, J. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, 1952; Resistncia dos Materiais (5a. edio), R. C. Hibbeler, Pearson, 2006

EQUAO DIFERENCIAL DA DEFLEXO Nos casos de maior interesse, uma placa, num ponto qualquer, estar sujeita a um dado carregamento transversal, momentos fletores e de toro e foras cortantes transversais (vide figura 10). Todas esses esforos estaro relacionados entre si atravs das equaes de equilbrio.

Figura 10 Placa sujeita a carregamento transversal, momentos e foras cortantes Das equaes de equilbrio na direo vertical e em torno do eixo x, decorre que
Vx Vy + = q, x y M x Txy Vx = x y e Vy = M y y Txy x

Essas equaes so anlogas, respectivamente, s equaes dV dx = q e V = dM dx das vigas.

fontes: Lec. Notes in Solid Mechanics Part II: Engin. Solid Mechanics, Piaras Kelly, The Univ. of Auckland, 2009; Advanced Strength of Materials, J. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, 1952; Resistncia dos Materiais (5a. edio), R. C. Hibbeler, Pearson, 2006

EQUAO DIFERENCIAL DA DEFLEXO (cont.) Eliminando-se as foras de cisalhamento das equaes anteriores, chega-se a
2Txy 2 M y 2M x 2 + = q 2 2 xy x y

equao anloga equao d 2 M dx 2 = q da teoria das vigas. Por fim, substituindo-se as relaes entre momentos e curvaturas, chega-se a 4w 4w 4w q 2 2 2 + 4 = D x 4 x y y 2 2 onde o Laplaciano, tal que = 2 + 2 . x y
2 2

ou

4w =

q D

A equao diferencial parcial acima resolvida sujeita s condies de contorno experimentadas pela placa. Uma vez que uma expresso para a deflexo w seja obtida, deformaes, tenses, foras e momentos pode ser calculados como mostrado nos desenvolvimentos anteriores.

fontes: Lec. Notes in Solid Mechanics Part II: Engin. Solid Mechanics, Piaras Kelly, The Univ. of Auckland, 2009; Advanced Strength of Materials, J. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, 1952; Resistncia dos Materiais (5a. edio), R. C. Hibbeler, Pearson, 2006

TENSES COMPLEMENTARES Para se complementar a descrio de um estado geral de tenses (vide figura 11), deve-se, alm das tenses j abordadas acima, quais sejam, xx 2w 2w E 2w E 2w E 2w = z 2 + 2 ; yy = z 2 + 2 ; xy = z 2 2 (1 + ) xy y x (1 ) x (1 ) y

determinar tambm xz , yz e zz . Das equaes de equilbrio, obtem-se xz 3V = x 2h z 2 1 h/2

yz

3Vy z 2 = 1 2h h / 2

J quanto a zz , ela nunca exceder a intensidade da carga externa na placa. Como essa carga pequena em comparao com as demais tenses normais, zz pode ser desprezada, como, alis, j se fez.

fontes: Lec. Notes in Solid Mechanics Part II: Engin. Solid Mechanics, Piaras Kelly, The Univ. of Auckland, 2009; Advanced Strength of Materials, J. P. Den Hartog, McGraw-Hill, 1952; Resistncia dos Materiais (5a. edio), R. C. Hibbeler, Pearson, 2006

ALTERNATIVA TEORIA DE PLACAS FINAS Quando a placa relativamente grossa, pode-se recorrer teoria de placas de Mindlin. Por essa teoria, os elementos de linha orientados de forma perpendicular ao plano mdio da placa no tm que permanecer perpendiculares ao plano mdio ao longo da deformao, embora devam permanecer retos. Assim sendo, as deformaes ao cisalhamento xz e yz podem ser diferentes de zero, ainda que constantes ao longo da espessura da placa. A hiptese de zz = 0 , contudo, mantida. Para placas relativamente grossas, a teoria de Kirchhoff (placas finas) apresenta valores de deflexo inferiores aos fornecidos pela teoria de Mindlin. COMPILAO DE RESULTADOS Apresenta-se, na sequncia, uma compilao de resultados (vide Den Hartog, 1952), obtidos para placas circulares e retangulares, sob diversas condies de carregamento e condies de contorno, pela teoria de placas finas. Entre a nomenclatura adotada anteriormente e a que se segue, deve-se utilizar a seguinte correspondncia:
h = t ; ( xx ) mx. ou ( yy )mx. = s mx. ; M x ou M y = M1 ; = .

126

BENDING

OF FLAT

PLATES

CATALOGUE

OF RESULTS

127

a solution exists with finite deflections w (from physical experience), and then the slope at the center must be zero. Hence from page 122 we find w:.o

The maximum deflection in the center is'


Wmax

C' .--2 r

+ Ca

,
X O

+ C4

X O

+O

PR~
161rD

(clamped edge)

(82)

~nd the bending moments are plotted in Fig. 88. They become "log~rithmically infinite" near the concentrated load. This makes thestress, likewiseinfinite, which should not surprise us, because if we prescribe an impossible loading ("concentrated" P), . W13 shall get an impossiblestress ("infinit" stress). This, however, "'-4~ ~.. . does not make o:urresult useless. By ~2~~ Saint- Venant's principie (page 117) Fig. 88 givesthe stress distribution t correctly at some distance from the concentrated load if that load is (eplaced by another one, distributed w over some small central areaand FIG.88. Deflection and bending-moment liaving a total resultant P. curves for solid circular Disks with a central hole under at the edgea andloaded by plate, clamI{t;4 a concentrated various loadings and with various centralload P. This illustrates Eqs. (81) . .edge conditions can be calculated by the same method. Much work has been expended on this, and some of the results are given n the next section. 19. Catalogue oi Results. ln the last two sections we have soon that the r:clculation of plate deflections and stresses is a very laborious prqcess, even in the simplest cases of circular plates without central hole. When a hole is present or when the plate is rectangular, the work oi computation becomes so large that no one is justified inperforming it for use on a given practical case. ln the course of time many cases have boon worked out:

If tl1e constant C2 exists, we get a stoop slope at the center, so that we conclude C2 = O. The second condition to be met is that the unit shear force Su, immediately adjacent to the center, becomes infinite in the proper manner; in the ttlanner we have just soon:
lim Su r-O

-i~

= 2P

1rT

From Eqs.' (74), for the case that


r-O

po

= O,we have, on the other hand,

lim Su sothat
C4

= =

4DC4 r

P
87rD

The remaining two boundary conditions are on the outside of the plate and are the same ones we saw before. We pursue the case for a clamped outside edge:
r r

= R: = R:
PR2 161rD

= O = CI + CaR2 = O=
2CaR
Ca:

+ 8:D R2

log R

=O =O P
'

w'

+ PR (1 + 2 log R) 87rD
(1 + 2 log R)
C4

From these we solve for CI and CI

P
Ca

= P

-161rD

= 87rD

Substituting this into the general result, Eq. (73)1 with C2 = Oand Po = O, we finally obtain for the circular plate R with clamped outer edge loaded by
a cemral concentrated force

w =l61rD PR2('

1-

r2 R2

2 R2 10g'R r2 r)

MIm

= =

Mu

r[ + r +
1 [p.

(1 + p.) log

~J (1 + p.) log ~J

.t~e fundamental theory principally by Navier and laterbyLevy, both in France, the numerical computations by Galerkin in Russia, by Wahl in' the United States, and by others.1 ' The results are here listed for practical applicatin. With them comes the oft-repeated warning that they are valid only for plates, which means t R, and, moreover, only for small deflections w < t, aswill be shown later in Fig. 91. The stresses are found from thebending moments listed, by Eq. (68), reprinted below: '

(81)

8max

? M1

(68)

Su =~27rr

1The sources and details of these results can be found in the two standard works on plates: Nadai, "Elastische Platten," Verlag Julius Springer, Berlin, 1925; Timoshenko, "Theory o Plates and Shells," McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1940.

128

BENDING

OF FLAT

PLATES below is the plate stiffness


3

CATALOGUE
Case 6.

OF RESULTS

129

The symbol D appearing in the formulae defined by Eq. (64), reprinted:


Et3

Circular plate R, no hole, with total load P distributed line a, simply supported edge;

over

= 12(1 _ ,/)

= 0.091Et

(64)
Wmax

=
=

1671'D
00

1 P [3 +

JL

(R2

a 2)

+ 2a 2 1 Fi og, a]

Here JL has been taken as 0.3, usual for steel and for practically all other materiaIs. ln the tabulations that follow, sometimes JL has been absorbed in the numerical coefficients, and in those cases it has been taken as JL = 0.3. The shear stresses due to transverse shear are negligible, as was discussed on page 125. All results listed are to be interpreted in the light of Saint- Venant's principIe (page 117). Here they are: Case 1. Circular plate R, no hole, uniform load Po, clamped edge:

M1 7. Circular placed eccentrically

tnax

plate R, no hole, with a single concentrated load P at distance a from the center; various edge conditions.

~
WC6nter

f~nl
Case 2.

Wmx

=
=

POR4

64D
poR2

0.

M,

m.x

Circular plate R, no hole, uniform load Po, simply supported


Po
Wmx

edge:

POR4

= 0.063 =

~
Case 3.

L-R:J

M,

m.x

0.206poR2

The results of cases 5 and 6 apply here, except that the Wmx listed there must be interpreted here as the deflection of the center, which in this case is not the maximum deflection, although quite close to it. This is based on a remark by the great Saint-Venant that a load element p,a dO of cases 5 or 6 causes the same central deflection as another load p,a dO, placed elsewhere on the same circle, on account of symmetry. Hence if the circular1y distributed load of cases 5 or 6 is shifted in any manner around the a circle, the center deflection of the plate does not change. Case 8. Circular plate R, no hole, with a total load P, distributed uniformly over an inner circle of radius a, 80 that p = P lia", clamped

Circular plate R, no hole, central concentrated

force P, clamped
PR2 1671'D
CO

edge:

Wmax

1671'D P(R2

4a 3221

~~I
I

Wmx

= =

+a
a for a

og li a)

0. R---..J

MI

m.x

(see case 8) force P, simply


PR2
M1
ma.x

M, max = 471' ( 1 P
= 47r P
(1

2R2 a2)

Fi> 0.57

Cse 4.

supported

Circular plate R, no hole, central concentrated edge; JL =' 0.3: P


Wmx

JL)

4R2 (a2

logo

li a)

for

li < 0.57

0.05-' D

~I\

M,

m.x

= co

(see case 9)

that this reduces to case 1for a = R and to case 3 for a = O. Circular plate R, no hole, with a totalload P distributed uniformly over an inner circle of radius a, so that p = P 71'a2, simply supported edge;
Case 9.

Case 5. Circular plate R, no hole, loaded with a total force P distributed uniformly over a circular line of radius a, so that P, = P j271'a; clamped edge:

(ll~1
~

GrlJ~~

Wmax

P = 167r15(3 + p. R2 1
JL

7 4

+ 31' 41'

a2

+a

1 Fi og. a)

Wma<

= =

1671'D (R2 P
00

a2

+ 2a 21 og, Fi a)

= 47r [ 1 - -4-R2 - (1 + JL) log Fi P 1 - l' a2 a] that this case reduces to caSe 2 for a = R and to case 4 for a = O.
M,
max

M1

ma"

130
Case

BENDING

OF FLAT

PLATES

CATALOGUE

OF RESULTS

131

10. Circular plate R with hole r, built in at the inside edge r, free at the outer edge R, uniformly loaded with pressure Po ("umbrella" plate),
Wmu

VAl,UES OF COEFFICIENTS FOR STRESS AND DEFl,ECTIONFOR CASES 10 TO 14 OF PLATES WU'H A CENTRAl, HOLE UNDER UNIFORMl,Y DISTRIBUTED LOADING Po OVER THE ENTIRE ANNULAR AREA

= a =
{3

PoR' Et3-

R/r
10, a 11, 'Y Defiection

1.25 0.0023 0.0008 0.0034 0.202 0.184 0.135 0.090 0.122 0.66 0.59

1.50 0.018 0.006 0.031 0.491 0.414 0.410 0.273 0.336 1.19 0.976

2
0.094 0.033 0.125 0.902 0.664

3
0.293 0.110 0.291 1.22 0.824 2.15 1.54 1.21 3.34 1.88
i
I

4
0.448 0.179 0.417 1.30 0 .. 830 2.99 2.23 1.45 4.30 2.08 /_0,813 I 3.00 i 2.80

~n~nl ~;L'lw_<
1

I ,

5 0.564
0.234

Smax

poR2 t2

12,
13, 14,
'T'J

where the values of a and {3as functions of the ratio R/r are given in the table below. Case 11. Circular plate R, with hole r, built in and supported at the inner edge r, the outer edge being prevented from rotating, but not contributing to the reaction F, loaded uniformly with pressure Po,
Wmax

I' 0.492 1.31

10, /3 Stress

1.04
0.71 0.74 2.04 1.44

11, li 12, r
13, IJ 14, X

= 'Y Ef
==

PoR'

1.59 5.10 2.19

m~~1
Po

8me.:;;;:

o poR2

t2

where the values of 'Y and o are given in the table below. Case 12. Circular plate R with hole rJ loaded uniformly with Po over the annular portion only, freely supported at the outer edge R, the inner edgebeing prevented from rotation, but not contributing to the reaction F,
poR4 Wmu

Case 15. Circular plate R with hole r, clamped and supported at the illSide edge r, the outer edge R being prevented from rotation and loaded 'Witha totalload P, linearly distributed around the peripheryR.
PR2
Wmax

fi, Et3

1 ~r~
jJ

~I~
Sma"

jJ

Et3
t2

J~g!~~~~1F
where
e

8max ==

rPoR2

where fi, and are to be taken from the table below. Case 16. Circular plate R with hole r,' clamped and supported at the inner edge r, loaded by a total force P, linearly distributed along the free periphery R,
PR2
Wmo.x, ==

be taken from the table below. Case 13. Circular plate R, with hole r, simply supported at the inside edge r; free outer edge R, uniformly loaded with po,

and

r are to

rR
.~

r~
Stres8 17, T Defiection I 17, (]'
15,

~cJP
where tand
0.350
I

~ Et3

8max

P
Pf

Wmax

7]PoR~

Et"

are to be taken from the.table below.

Sma.x

==

e poR2
t2

R/r

2.34 0.0051 0.209 0.088 0.025 0.0013 1.1016, 0.0064 1.51 0.428 1.26 1.21 0.52 0.293 1.48 0.062 0.024 0.753 1.88 0.405 0.220 0.70 0.73 0.703 1.13 1.75 I 0.3416, ~ 1.25 VALUESIIiOF2.17 COEFFICIENTS 0.092 0.227 I 0.115 p I FOR STRESS AND DEFLECTION FOR CASES 15 TO 17 OF PLATES [ 0.933 '1 0.67 4 2 1.50 3 Al,ONG A CIRCULAR TOTAl, FORCE P LINEARI.y DISTRIBUTED WITH A iCENTRAL HOl,E, LOADED WITH A PERIPHERY I

15,

p.

l-o:"

where

7]

Case edge R;

and e are shown in the table below. 14. Circular plate R, with hole r, simply supported at the outer free inner edge r, loaded with a uniform po,

~I~
where
K

rR

r~

Wmax:

PoR

Et3

Smax

==

poR2
t2

and

are shown in the table below.

132

BENDING

OF FLAT

PLATES
b/a
-y

CATALOGUE
4

OF RESULTS

133

Case 17. Circular plate R with hole r, simply supported at the inner edge r, and loaded with a total force P linearly distributed along the free outer periphery R,
Wmax

---------0.042 0.043 1.5 0.022 0.026 1

0.25
'

= =

PR2 (j Et3

li

0.064 0.071

0.063 0.070

0.061 0.055 0.0671 0.053

0.012 0.0037 0.0004 0.021 0.0139 0.0051 0.751 0.50

PL---0J r/\-JP '-- R \..:-.where


(j

P
Smax: T

Case 21. Rectangular plate ab, on four simply supported edges loaded with a single concentrated force P in its exact center,
Pa2
Wmax

are to be taken from the preceding table. Original Case). Rectangular plate ab, with b > a, loaded sinusoidally p = po sin (7rx/a) sin (7ryjb) on simply supported edges with corner forces to hold it down:
T

and

Case 18.

(Navier's

Et3

M1

ma.x:

= 00

C2 + b2) Case 19. Rectangular plate ab, with b > a, simply supported at the edges, under uniform pressure loading Po with sufficient comer forces to hold it down on the foundation,
o

U =.-/U

Wmax

= 7r4D(a2 + [;2
=
poa4b4 7r2(a2 b2)2

poa4b4

'where is given in the table below:


b/a

1.1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

fio/bT

M1

max

J.L

0.12710.13810.14810.16210.171

10.177 10.180 I 0.185 10.185


Po,

Case 22. ' Rectangular plate ab, under ulliform load Clamped and the b edges simply supported,

with the

edges

Wmax

= a Et
=
{3poa2

poa

0-/
with the values of a and {3in the table below:
'"

MIma"

J:fft7 Lo-l
I

Wniax

= r poa4 Et3
1]Poa2

M1

max

0.044 0.048 1.2 1 0.134 0.102 0.062 0.140 0.111 4 32 1.6 1.4 0.063 0.095 0.091 0.077 0.142 0.124 0.119 0,086 0.125 1.8 5 0.075

---

where
b/a

r and
'"

1]

are to be taken from the table below:


3
2

1.6

1.3 0.070

0.75
I

0.50 1 0.25

t
'ti

0.125 0.125 0.119 0.109 O.094 0.14210.12810.09910.06610.04210.021

0.045 0.021 0.0052 0.00~1Io.00177Io.00011

Case 20. Rectangular plate ab, simply supported on alI four sides, subjected to a linear1y increasing hydraulic pressure along the a sides, one b side having zero pressure, the opposite b side having Po. The maximum defiection occurs just off the middle of the plate toward the Po side (at about 0.55a), the maximum stress somewhat farther off side (at about 0.60a).

Case

23. Rectangular plate

ab,

pnder uniform loading .Po, clamped along


poa
Wfnax
4

a edge, and simply supported along the three remaining edges,

)7 b
K

Et3

{:~
?<'ti

Wma"

'Y

poa Et3

---

---21 1.2 0.101 0.50 0.122 0.112 0.098 1.5 0.142 0.070 0.084 0.031 0.0077 0.047 and 0.75 0.125the folIowing table: Xare in 0.058 0.25
I I
co
I

1 ma<

Xpoa2

0.030

0.01331 0.00331 0.0002

b/a

MIInRX = ~ ~ where'Y and o are to be taken from the table below:

;;::~'!:l

poa2

134

BENDING

DF FLAT PLATES

LARGE DEFLECTIONS

135

Case 24. Rectangular plate ab under uniform loading Po, clamped along alI edges (section of a continuous floor slab in a building, supported by beams on alI sides):

--rr---rr--77--~
/~/ J..L L//j/

__

--rr---77---77-// // /,/ ////. // .LL. LL_-.JJ-/~/ J.L_-=..../

__ .LL

/~/

LL __ -"....t __

//;/

//;/
4

Wmax

=
=

poa
P.

Et3
2

b
Ml
max

plate (which was assumed to be stressles$, page 104) becomes stretched, like a membrane, and in that state can carry the loading Po or P partly as a curved membrane. This limitation in general does not apply to beams, and in order to explain it, we start with the case (Fig. 89) of a beam, built in at both ends and loaded with a central force P. The simple eam theory for this case teUs us that .edeflection is
Pl3 li

~
L-o....l
b/a 0.0138 0.0513 CP 1.2 1.8 1.4 2 0.0726 0.0226 0.0251 0.0188 0.0285 1.6 0.0829 0.0812 0.0639 0.0833 0.0267 0.0277 1 0.0780

PPOa

= 192EI

Case 25. Rectangular plate ab, under uniforrn load Po, being a section ofa large continuous concrete building floor slab and supported at the corners of the sections ab by c<1lumns:
4 Wmax

= ~ Et3

poa

At the columns: Ml = 00 ln the center of each field: Nfl = ppoa2


b/a 1 I CP 0.063 1.2 1.5 1.4 2 0.053 1.1 0.036 0.039 0.041 1.3 0.047 0.037 0.028 0.038 0.042 0.0.32

ow we make the preposterous assump.tloIlthat the two side walIs do not move FIG. 89. Beam clamped at both ends walIs. This atall; they do not move together by an between imnwvable causes a tension in. the beam, which ~Illount of order li, or by an amount of then carries part of the Ioad P by rder li2/l even. Such immovable waUs string action. rdly exist, but if the walI were realIy ovable, thenthe beam center line would be in tension under the load P, ause the curved deflected line is longer than the straight distance be,-ween waUs. Tension in the beam wiU caus a certain portion of the the 'ad P to be carried by string action, as in a suspension bridge, and if the ad P* so carried becomes comparable with P itself, then of course aIl ,ur beam theory becomes inapplicable to the case. We shall now pursue his numerically. The length of ~he deflected beam is
s s

---~----

= J ds = { ~II

+ y'2

dx

= { (1 + 'y~2) dx

= l. + - y,2 11' 2
o

dx

=l+

strain in the center line then is ljl, and the tensile force T of the
IS

ln concluding this catalogue we mention an interesting reciprocal theorem. It is contended by some erithusiastic proponents of classical educatin that if a person has had a good training in Latin and Greek, he is then ready to tackle anything else, such as the theory f flat plates. The reciprocal of this point of view is that if a student has mastered the use of these 25 plate formulae, he has incidentally -learned the Greek alphabet and hence is quite ready to start reading and enjoying Attic poetry. 20. Large Deflections. We now have to make good on our promise to show that alI previous formulae on plates are true in general only if the deflection Wmax is smalI in comparison with the thickness t of the plate. Trus is due to the fact that for larger deflections the middle surface of the

l T=AET=2f

AE

l'
o
o

,2 y.dx

tension Tis mostly horizontal, but its maximum vertical component is


T vert -' Ymar.

AE 2l

l'

y ,2

dx

we should calculate the deflected shape y by beam theory, but for of integration we assume reasonably that it is a displaced sine

Y=

(j
"2 -

(j
"2

27rx

cos -l-