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Unit-V Welding

Gas Welding Gas Welding Processes - Gas welding is a fusion welding process. It joins metals, using the heat of combustion of an oxygen/air and fuel gas (i.e acetylene, hydrogen, propane or butane) mixture. The intense heat (flame) thus produced melts and fuses together the edges of the parts to be welded, generally with the addition of a filler metal

Oxy Acetylene Welding Principle of Operation - When acetylene is mixed with oxygen in correct proportions in the welding torch and ignited, the flame resulting at the tip of the torch is sufficiently hot to melt and join the parent metal. The oxyacetylene flame reaches a temperature of about 3200C and thus can melt all commercial metals which, during welding, actually flow together to form a complete bond. A filler metal rod is generally added to the molten metal pool to build up the seam slightly for greater strength. Oxyacetylene welding does not require the components to be forced together under pressure until the weld forms and solidifies. Gas Welding Equipment The basic equipments used to carry out gas welding are: 1. Oxygen gas cylinder. 2. Acetylene gas cylinder. 3. Oxygen pressure regulator. 4. Acetylene pressure regulator. 5. Oxygen gas hose(Blue). 6. Acetylene gas hose(Red). 7. Welding torch or blow pipe with a set of nozzles and gas lighter 8. Trolleys for the transportation of oxygen and acetylene cylinders 9. A set of keys and spanners. 10. Filler rods and fluxes. 11. Protective clothing for the welder (e.g., asbestos apron, gloves, goggles, etc

Oxygen Gas Cylinder - Oxygen cylinders are painted black and the valve outlets are screwed right handed. The usual sizes of oxygen cylinders are 3400, 5200 and 6800 litre. Oxygen cylinder is a solid drawn cylinder out of mild steel or alloy steel. Mild steel cylinder is charged to a pressure of 13660 KN/m2 (136.6 bar) and alloy steel cylinders to 17240 KN/m2 (172 bar). The oxygen volume in a cylinder is directly proportional to its pressure. In other words, if the original pressure of a full oxygen cylinder drops by 5% during welding, it means 1/20 of the cylinder contents have been consumed. Because of the possibility of the oxygen pressure becoming high enough to rupture the steel cylinder in case the temperature rises, an oxygen cylinder is equipped with a safety nut that allows the oxygen to drain slowly in the event the temperature increases the gas pressure beyond the safety load of the cylinder. An oxygen cylinder has an inside diameter of 21.6 cm, wall thickness 6.50 mm and length 127.5 cm. In order to protect cylinder valve from getting damaged, a removable steel cap is screwed on the cylinder at all times when the cylinder is not in use. The cylinder valve is kept closed when the cylinder is not in use and even when cylinder is empty. Acetylene Gas Cylinder - An acetylene cylinder is painted maroon and the valves are screwed left handed; to make this easily recognizable they are chamfered or grooved. An acetylene cylinder is also a solid drawn steel cylinder which is charged to a pressure of 1552 KN/m2 (15.5 bar). The usual size of acetylene cylinders are 2800 and 5600 litre. An acetylene cylinder has an inside diameter of 30 cm, wall thickness 4.38 mm and a length of 101.25 cm. An acetylene cylinder is filled with a spongy (porous) material such as balsa wood or some other absorptive material which is saturated with a chemical solvent called acetone. Since high pressure acetylene is not stable, it is dissolved in acetone, which has the ability to absorb a large volume of the gas and release it as the pressure falls. The small compartments in the porous material (filled in the cylinder) prevent the sudden decomposition of the acetylene throughout the mass, should it be started by local heating or other causes. An acetylene cylinder is always kept upright for safety reasons. The acetone in the cylinder must not be permitted to enter the blowpipe, otherwise an explosion could result. The acetylene cylinder valve can only be opened with a special wrench and this wrench is kept in place whenever the cylinder is in use. An acetylene cylinder has a number of fusible plugs, at its bottom, designed to melt at 104C. These plugs melt and release the pressure in case the cylinder is exposed to excessive heat. Acetylene Gas Generator - If large quantities of acetylene gas are being consumed, it is much cheaper to generate the gas at the place of use with the help of acetylene gas generators. Acetylene gas is generated by carbide to water method, i.e., the generator unit feeds controlled amounts of calcium carbide into the water. When these ingredients are mixed, acetylene gas is produced.

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In order to make the operation of acetylene generators safe, various devices are incorporated in it. There are two types of acetylene generators. (i) Low pressure generator which delivers the gas at pressures of less than 0.1 bar. With this kind of generator only the injector type of blow pipes can be used. Low pressure generator is considered portable and it produces acetylene above 15litres per minute. (ii) Medium pressure generator which delivers the gas at a pressure of up to 0.6 bar. Medium pressure generator is considered stationary and it can produce acetylene up to 3000 litres per minute. This generator is the one that is more commonly used. In control valve opens and closes automatically as the acetylene in the chamber decreases or increases. This automatically regulates the amount of calcium carbide falling in water. Acetylene generators have certain disadvantages: Greater safety precautions are required. 2. Labour is required to charge carbide and clean out sludge. 3. Gas obtained is not so pure as available in cylinders. 4.There is a tendency towards pressure fluctuations with resultant unsteady flame, if the low pressure type of generator is used. Pressure Regulators - The pressure of the gases obtained from cylinders/generators is considerably higher than the gas pressure used to operate the welding torch.The purpose of using a gas pressure regulator is, therefore (i) to reduce the high pressure of the gas in the cylinder to a suitable working pressure, and (ii) to produce a steady flow of gas under varying cylinder pressures. A pressure regulator is fitted with two pressure gauges. One indicates the gas pressure in the cylinder and the other shows the reduced pressure at which the gas is going out. A pressure regulator is connected between the cylinder/generator and the hose leading to welding torch. (ii)Gas pressure regulators may be classified as: 1.Single stage Regulator 2. Two stage Regulator. Welding Hoses and Clamps(a) Hoses: The hose for the supply of oxygen (from the pressure regulator) to the welding torch is coloured blue or black and has right handed thread connections, whereas the acetylene hose is coloured red or maroon and has left handed thread connections with

chamfers or grooves on the nuts. For welding purposes, the hoses to be used should be strong, non porous, flexible and not subject to kinking. Welding hose has a seamless lining which is manufactured from rubber (or a rubber compound) which is reinforced with canvas or wrapped cotton plies. The hose is resistant to the action of gases normally used in welding. The outer casing is made of tough abrasion resistant rubber. The hose is very robust and capable of withstanding high pressure. Some precautions are to be taken when using reinforced rubber hoses: (i) Only one gas should be used in a hose. For example, using an oxygen hose to carry acetylene could cause a serious accident. (ii) The hose should never be patched or repaired. (iii) Hot metal (job) should never be placed on the hose. (b) Hose Clamps (Clips): A metal clamp is used to attach the welding hose to a nipple. The clamp squeezes the hose around the nipple to prevent it from working loose. A nut on the other end of the nipple is connected to the regulator or torch. Welding Torch and Blow Pipe - Oxygen and the fuel gas having been reduced in pressure by the gas regulators are fed through suitable hoses to a welding torch which mixes and controls the flow of gases to the welding nozzle or tip where the gas mixture is burnt to produce a flame for carrying out gas welding operation. There are two types of welding torches, namely: (i) High pressure (or equal pressure) type. (ii) Low pressure (or injector) type. High pressure blowpipes or torches are used with (dissolved) acetylene stored in cylinders at a pressure of 8 bars. Low pressure blowpipes are used with acetylene obtained from an acetylene generator at a pressure of 200 mm head of water (approximately 0.02 bars). (a) Working of a low pressure blowpipe: It is termed as a low pressure blowpipe because it can be operated at low acetylene pressures; it is frequently used with acetylene generators. As acetylene is of low pressure, it is necessary to use oxygen at a high pressure (2.5 bar). The oxygen enters the mixing chamber through a passage located in the centre of the torch. The oxygen passage is surrounded by the one carrying the acetylene. The high pressure oxygen passes through a small opening in the injector nozzle, enters the mixing chamber and pulls (or draws) the acetylene in after it. An advantage of low pressure torch is that small fluctuations in the oxygen supplied to it will produce a corresponding change in the amount of acetylene drawn; thereby making the proportions of the two gases constant while the torch is in operation. (b) Working of a high pressure blowpipe: In this type of blowpipe both the oxygen and acetylene are fed to the blow pipe at equal pressures and the gases are mixed in a mixing chamber prior to being fed to the nozzle tip. The equal pressure or high pressure type of blowpipe is the one most generally used because (i) It is lighter and simpler. (ii) It does not need an injector. (iii) In operation, it is less troublesome since it does not suffer from

backfires to the same extent. To change the power of the welding torch, it is only necessary to change the nozzle tip (size) and increase or decrease the gas pressures appropriately

Welding Nozzles or Tips: Depending upon the design of the welding torch (or the blow pipe) the interchangeable nozzles may consist of :(i) Either, a set of tips which screw onto the head of the blowpipe, or(ii) As a set of gooseneck extensions fitting directly onto the mixer portion of the blowpipe. The welding nozzle or tip is that portion of the torch which is located at the end of the torch and contains the opening through which the oxygen and acetylene gas mixture passes prior to ignition and combustion. A welding nozzle enables the welder to guide the flame and direct it with the maximum ease and efficiency. The following factors are important in the selection of appropriate welding nozzle: (i) The position of the weld.(ii) The type of joint.(iii) Job thickness and the size of welding flame required for the job.(iv) The metal/alloy to be welded. To provide for different amounts of heat, to weld metals of different thicknesses, welding tips are made in various sizes. The size of a welding tip is determined by the diameter of the opening or orifice in the tip. As the orifice size increases, greater amounts of the welding gases pass through and are burnt to supply a greater amount of heat. The choice of the proper tip size is very important to good welding. A chart giving sizes of tips for welding various thicknesses of metal along with oxygen and acetylene pressures used is generally provided by the manufacturers.

Gas Lighter A gas (spark) lighter provides a convenient, safe and inexpensive means of lighting the torch. Match sticks should never be used for this purpose because the puff of the flame produced by the ignition of the acetylene flowing from the tip is likely to burn the welder's hand. Spark lighters are constructed from flint and steel. Gas Cylinder Trolleys - Trolleys should be capable of accommodating one oxygen cylinder and one acetylene cylinder required for gas welding. Normally cylinders can be mounted on a trolley side by side, but where work has to be done on plant with access only by narrow gangways the, has an advantage. Trolleys may have rubber tires or steel rim wheels. The gas cylinders are held in place with chains and supported on the bottom with a steel platform. Types of Flames 1. Neutral Flame (Acetylene oxygen in equal proportions) 2. Oxidising Flame (Excess of oxygen) 3. Reducing Flame (Excess of acetylene) In oxyacetylene welding, flame is the most important tool. All the welding equipment simply serves to maintain and control the flame. The correct type of flame is essential for the production of satisfactory welds. The flame must be of the proper size, shape and condition in order to operate with maximum efficiency. Neutral Flame - A neutral flame is produced when approximately equal volumes of oxygen and acetylene are mixed in the welding torch and burnt at the torch tip. (More accurately the oxygen-to-acetylene ratio is 1.1 to 1). The temperature of the neutral flame is of the order of about 3260C. The flame has a nicely defined inner cone which is light blue in colour. It is surrounded by an outer flame envelope, produced by the combination of oxygen in the air and superheated carbon monoxide and hydrogen gases from the inner cone. This envelope is usually a much darker blue than the inner cone.

A neutral flame is named so because it effects no chemical change in the molten metal and therefore will not oxidize or carburize the metal. The neutral flame is commonly used for the welding of: (i) Mild steel (ii) Stainless steel (iii) Cast Iron (iv) Copper (v) Aluminium Oxidising Flame - If, after the neutral flame has been established, the supply of oxygen is further increased, the result will be an oxidising flame. An oxidising flame can be recognized by the small white cone which is shorter, much bluer in colour and more pointed than that of the neutral flame. The outer flame envelope is much shorter and tends to fan out at the end on the other hand the neutral and carburizing envelopes tend to come to a sharp point. An oxidising flame burns with a decided loud roar. An oxidising flame tends to be hotter than the neutral flame. This is because of excess oxygen and which causes the temperature to rise as high as 3500C. The high temperature of an oxidizing flame (O2: C2H2 = 1.5: 1) would be an advantage if it were not for the fact that the excess oxygen, especially at high temperatures, tends to combine with many metals to form hard, brittle, low strength oxides. Moreover, an excess of oxygen causes the weld bead and the surrounding area to have a scummy or dirty appearance. For these reasons, an oxidising flame is of limited use in welding. It is not used in the welding of steel. A slightly oxidising flame is helpful when welding most (i) Copper base metals (ii) Zinc base metals, and (iii) A few types of ferrous metals, such as manganese steel and cast iron The oxidizing atmosphere, in these cases, creates a base metal oxide that protects the base metal. For example, in welding brass, the zinc has a tendency to separate and fume away. The formation of a covering copper oxide prevents the zinc from dissipating. Reducing Flame - If the volume of oxygen supplied to the neutral flame is reduced, the resulting flame will be a carburising or reducing flame, i.e. rich in acetylene. A reducing flame can be recognized by acetylene feather which exists between the inner cone and the outer envelope. The outer flame envelope is longer than that of the neutral flame and is usually much brighter in colour. A reducing flame does not completely, consume the available carbon; therefore, its burning temperature is lower and the left over carbon is forced into the molten metal. With iron and steel it produces very hard, brittle substance known as iron carbide. This chemical change makes the metal unfit for many applications in which the weld may

need to be bent or stretched. Metals that tend to absorb carbon should not be welded with reducing flame. A reducing flame has an approximate temperature of 3038C. A reducing flame may be distinguished from a carburizing flame by the fact that a carburizing flame contains more acetylene than a reducing flame. A carburizing flame is used in the welding of lead and for carburizing (surface hardening) purposes. A reducing flame, on the other hand, does not carburize the metal, rather it ensures the absence of the oxidizing condition. It is used for welding with low alloy steel rods and for welding those metals, (e.g. non ferrous) that do not tend to absorb carbon. This flame is very well used for welding high carbon steel To conclude, for most welding operations the Neutral Flame is correct, but the other types of flames are sometimes needed for special welds, e.g., non-ferrous alloys and high carbon steels may require a reducing flame, whilst zinc bearing alloys may need an oxidising flame for welding purposes.

The neutral flame, which results from burning a mixture containing approximately equial volumes of oxygen and acetylene. The well-defined core of the flame (extremely bright pale blue) is known as the inner cone.

The excess acetylene flame, which has a whitish feather around and beyond the inner cone.

The oxidizing flame, which results from an excess of oxygen in the gas mixture, has a shorter, more sharplypointed inner cone than the neutral flame. Welding Technique: To light the flame, the acetylene valve on the torch is opened slightly and lighted with the help of a friction spark lighter. The flame draws the oxygen from the atmosphere and thus results in a reducing flame. Then the acetylene valve is opened to get the required flow of acetylene. The oxygen valve is then slowly opened till

the intermediate flame feather of the reducing flame recedes into the inner white cone. The actual adjustment of the flame depends on the type of material to be joined.

The choice of the torch size depends on the thickness of the metal to be joined. Larger torch tip sizes cause higher amount of oxygen and fuel to flow out causing the release of more heat. All joints except outside corner joint require a filler metal to be added to fill the joint. This is done with the help of a welding rod whose composition depends on the parent metal of the joint. The torch tip should be positioned above the metal plate so that the white cone is at a distance of 1.5 to 3.0 mm from the plate. The torch should be held at an angle of 30 to 450 from the horizontal plane. The torch movement along the joint should be either oscillating or circular. In forehand welding, the torch is moved in the direction of the tip. This tends to preheat before the white cone of the tip melts it. In backhand welding the torch moves backwards. The outer blue flames are directed on the already welded joint. This allows the joint to be continuously annealed relieving the welding stresses. This welding allows a better penetration as well as form bigger weld. Backhand welding is generally used for thicker materials. When the welding rod is used to provide filler material, it is necessary to hold it at a distance of 10 mm from the flame and 1.5 to 3.0 mm from the surface of the weld metal pool or puddle. This way the rod gets preheated and when dipped into the puddle would readily get melted.

Oxy-fuel welding can be used for all the types of joints in all positions. Overhead usage requires additional skill to safeguard the welder. The various butt joint edge preparations are shown in the adjacent figure. Thicker plates require more than one pass of the gas torch along the length to complete the joint. In multi pass welding, the first pass (root pass) is very critical in any welding operation.

Gas Cutting: It is possible to rapidly oxidise (burn) iron and steel when it is heated to a temperature between 800 to 1000 0C. When a high pressure oxygen jet with a pressure of the order of 300 KPa is directed against a heated steel plate, the oxygen jet burns the metal and blows it away causing the cut. This process is used for cutting steel plates of various thicknesses (can go up to 2 m) mainly because the equipment required is simple and can be carried anywhere without handling the heavy steel plates. Oxy-acetylene gas cutting outfit is similar to that of the oxy-acetylene welding except for the torch tip. Here the torch tip has a provision for preheating the plate as well as providing the oxygen jet. Thus the tip has a central hole for oxygen jet with surrounding holes for preheating flames. The cutting tip should be chosen for the intended application. The size is normally dependent on the thickness of the plate which determines the amount of preheating as well as the oxygen jet flow required for cutting. After the steel is heated to the kindling temperature which is about 870 0C, it gets readily combined with oxygen giving iron oxide with the following reactions:
3 Fe + 2 O2 -- Fe3O4 + 6.67 MJ/Kg of iron 2Fe + O2 -- 2FeO + 3.18 MJ/Kg of iron 4 Fe + 3 O2 -- 2Fe2O3 + 4.90 MJ/Kg of iron

All the above reactions are exothermic in nature and as such would provide a good amount of heat to preheat the steel. But this energy may not be sufficient to bring the steel to its kindling temperature, and hence preheating flames may have to be continued as somewhat lower rate. The heat generated causes the metal to melt and get blown away by the oxygen pressure. About 30 to 40 % of metal is simply blown away, while the rest is oxidised. The cutting can start at the edge or in the middle of the plate. After the plate has reached the kindling temperature, the operator should release the oxygen jet to start the cutting, moving the torch in the forehand direction to achieve the desired cut. Drag is the amount by which the lower edge of the drag line trails from the top edge.

A good cut is characterised by very small or negligible drag. When the torch is moved too rapidly, the metal at the bottom does not get sufficient heat to get oxidized and cut and hence there is a large drag. When the torch is moved slowly, all the preheated metal is burnt away by the oxygen jet and a large amount of slag is generated.

Though the gas cutting is more useful with thick plates, thin sheets (less than 3 mm) can also be cut by this process taking special precautions. Tip size chosen should be as small as possible. If small tips are not available, then the tip is inclined at an angle of 15 to 20 degrees. Gas cutting can be done manually or by a machine. The manual cutting is used for general purpose work and for straight line cutting. In machine cutting the torch is mounted on a rail and both rail and the torch can move simultaneously along the two mutually perpendicular axes in the horizontal plane with the help of servo motors. There is provision in the machine to hold more than one torch so that large number of identical pieces can be cut at the same time.

Oxygen cutting would be useful only for those materials which readily get oxidised and the oxides have lower melting points than the metals. So it is most widely used for ferrous materials. But it cannot be used for materials like aluminium, bronze, stainless steel which resist oxidation. Cutting of high carbon steels and cast irons require special attention due to formation of heat affected zone (HAZ) where structural transformation occurs. Advantages of gas welding: It is one of the versatile methods of welding. The same equipment with a range of torches would be used for welding, cutting, brazing and braze welding. Rate of heat generation is less so thin sheets can be welded. As the source of heat and filler metal are separated, the metal deposition can be easily controlled and heat properly adjusted giving rise to a satisfactory weld. Welding equipment is portable and can be operated at remote places. The cost of equipment is not so high. Heat affected zone (HAZ) is very narrow. Limitations of gas welding: Heavy sections cannot be joined efficiently. For heavy sections proper penetration may not be achieved. Slower speed of welding compared electric arc welding. Flux used in the filler metal provides fumes which are irritating to the eyes, nose, throat and lungs. More safety is recommended in gas welding. Acetylene and oxygen are expensive gases. Prolonged heating of the joint may results in large HAZ. Applications: For joining of thin materials. For joining materials in whose case excessively high temperature or rapid heating and cooling of the job would produce unwanted changes in the metal. For welding both ferrous and non-ferrous metals. In automotive &aircraft industries, project site works, workshops etc. Arc Welding Arc welding is the fusion of two pieces of metal by an electric arc between the pieces being joined the work pieces and an electrode that is guided along the joint between the pieces. The electrode is either a rod that simply carries current between the tip and the work, or a rod or wire that melts and supplies filler metal to the joint.

The basic arc welding circuit is an alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) power source connected by a work cable to the work piece and by a hot cable to an electrode. When the electrode is positioned close to the work piece, an arc is created across the gap between the metal and the hot cable electrode. An ionized column of gas develops to complete the circuit.

The arc produces a temperature of about 3600C at the tip and melts part of the metal being welded and part of the electrode. This produces a pool of molten metal that cools and solidifies behind the electrode as it is moved along the joint. There are two types of electrodes. Consumable electrode tips melt, and molten metal droplets detach and mix into the weld pool. Non-consumable electrodes do not melt. Instead, filler metal is melted into the joint from a separate rod or wire. The strength of the weld is reduced when metals at high temperatures react with oxygen and nitrogen in the air to form oxides and nitrides. Most arc welding processes minimize contact between the molten metal and the air with a shield of gas, vapour or slag. Granular flux, for example, adds deoxidizers that create a shield to protect the molten pool, thus improving the weld. The Five Most Common Arc Welding Processes

Welding Power Sources: The main requirement of a power source is to deliver controllable current at a voltage according to the demands of the welding process being used. Each welding process has distinct differences from one another, both in the form of process controls required to accomplish a given operating condition and the consequent demands on the power source. Therefore, arc welding power sources are playing very important role in welding. The conventional welding power sources are: Power Source Supply Power Source (i) Welding Transformer (ii) Welding Rectifier (iii) Welding Generators Supply AC DC AC or DC (Depending on generator)

Types of Power Source sand characteristics Two types of electrical devices can be used to produce low-voltage, high-amperage current combination that arc welding requires. One type uses electric motors or internal combustion engines to drive alternators or generators. The other types use step-down transformers. Because transformer-type welding transformers are quieter, are more energy efficient, require less maintenance and are less expansive, they are now the industry standards. However, engine-powered generators are still widely used for portable welding. Welding transformers, rectifiers and DC generators are being used in shop while engine coupled AC generators as well as sometimes DC generators are used at site where line supply is not available. Normally rectifiers and transformers are preferred because of low noise, higher efficiency and lower maintenance as compared to generators. Selection of power source is mainly dependent on welding process and consumable. The open circuit voltage normally ranges between 70-90 V in case of welding transformers while in case of rectifiers it is 50-80 V. However, welding voltages are lower as compared to open circuit voltage of the power source. Based on the static characteristics power sources can be classified in two categories Constant current or drooping or falling characteristic power source. Constant potential or constant voltage or flat characteristic power source. Constant voltage power source does not have true constant voltage output. It has a slightly downward or negative slope because of sufficient internal electrical resistance and inductance in the welding circuit to cause a minor droop in the output volt ampere characteristics. With constant voltage power supply the arc voltage is established by setting the output voltage on the source. The power source shall supply necessary current to melt the electrode at the rate required to maintain the preset voltage or relative arc length. The speed of electrode drive is used to control the average welding current. The use of such power source in conjunction with a constant electrode wire feed results in a self regulating or self adjusting arc length system. Due to some internal or external fluctuation

if the change in welding current occurs, it will automatically increase or decrease the electrode melting rate to regain the desired arc length.

Fig 4.1: Constant Potential or Constant Voltage or Flat Characteristic.

Fig 4.2: Drooping or Constant current or Falling Characteristic. The volt ampere output curves for constant current power source are called drooper' because of substantial downward or negative slope of the curves. The power source may have open circuit voltage adjustment in addition to output current control. A change in either control will change the slope of the volt ampere curve. With a change in arc voltage, the change in current is small and, therefore, with a consumable electrode welding process, electrode melting rate would remain fairly constant with a change in arc length. These power sources are required for processes using relatively thicker consumable electrodes which may sometimes get stubbed to workpiece or with nonconsumable tungsten electrode where during touching of electrode for starting of arc may lead to damage of electrode if current is unlimited. Under these conditions the short circuiting current shall be limited leading to safety of power source and the electrode.

Some power sources need high frequency unit to start the arc, which may be requirement of processes like TIG and plasma arc. High frequency unit is introduced in the welding circuit but in between the control circuit and HF unit, filters are required so that high frequency may not flow through control circuit and damage it. High frequency unit is a device which supplies high voltage of the order of few KV along with high frequency of few KHz with low current. This high voltage ionizes the medium between electrode and workpiece/nozzle starting pilot arc which ultimately leads to the start of main arc. Although high voltage may be fatal for the operator but when it is associated with high frequencies then current does not enter body but it causes only skin effect i.e. current passes through the skin of operator causing no damage to the operator. Duty Cycle: Duty cycle is the ratio of arcing time to the weld cycle time multiplied by 100. Welding cycle time is either 5 minutes as per European standards or 10 minutes as per American standard and accordingly power sources are designed. It arcing time is continuously 5 minutes then as per European standard it is 100% duty cycle and 50% as per American standard. At 100% duty cycle minimum current is to be drawn i.e. with the reduction of duty cycle current drawn can be of higher level. The welding current which can be drawn at a duty cycle can be evaluated from the following equation;

Duty cycle and associated currents are important as it ensures that power source remains safe and its windings are not getting damaged due to increase in temperature beyond specified limit. The maximum current which can be drawn from a power source depends upon its size of winding wire, type of insulation and cooling system of the power source. Table 4.1: Welding Processes, Type of Current and Static Characteristic Type ofStatic Characteristic of Welding Process Current The Power Source Manual Metal Arc Welding Tungsten Inert Gas Welding Plasma Arc Welding Submerged Arc Welding Gas Metal Arc Welding / Metal Inert Gas Welding / Metal Active Gas Welding Constant Current Constant Current Constant Current Constant Current (if electrode = 2.4 mm ) Constant Potential (if electrode = 2.4 mm ) Constant Potential

Static Type Power Sources - Static type power sources are all of those that use commercially generated electrical power to energize a transformer that, in turn, steps the line voltage down to useable welding voltages. The two major categories of static power sources are the transformer type and the rectifier type. The transformer type produce only alternating current. They are commonly called "Welding Transformers." All AC types utilize single-phase primary power and are of the constant current type. The rectifier types are commonly called "Welding Rectifiers" and produce DC or, AC and DC welding current. They may utilize either single phase or three phase input power. They contain a transformer, but rectify the AC or DC by the use of selenium rectifiers, silicon diodes or silicon controlled rectifiers. Available in either the constant current or the constant voltage type, some manufacturers offer units that are a combination of both and can be used for coated electrode welding, non-consumable electrode welding and for welding with solid or flux cored wires. Rotating Type power Sources - Rotating type power sources may be divided into two classifications: 1. Motor-Generators 2. Engine-Driven. Motor-generator types consist of an electric motor coupled to a generator or alternator that produces the desired welding power. These machines produced excellent welds, but due to the moving parts, required considerable maintenance. Few, if any, are being built today. Engine driven types consist of a gasoline or diesel engine coupled to a generator or alternator that produces the desired welding power. They are used extensively on jobs beyond commercial power lines and also as mobile repair units. Both rotating types can deliver either AC or DC welding power, or a combination of both. Both types are available as constant current or constant voltage models. AC Transformers or AC welding machine: A welding transformer uses the alternating current (AC) supplied to the welding shop at a high voltage to produce the low-voltage power. As electrons flow through a wire they produce a magnetic field around the wire. If the wire is wound into a coil the weak magnetic field of each wire is concentrated to produce a much stronger central magnetic force. Because the current being used is alternating or reverse each 1/60 of a second, the magnetic field is constantly being built and allowed to collapse. By placing a second or secondary winding of wire in the magnetic field produced by the first or primary winding a current will be induced in the secondary winding. The placing an iron core in the center of these coils will increase the concentration of the magnetic field as shown in Fig.3-14. A transformer with more turns of wire in the primary winding than in the secondary winding is known as step-down transformer. A step-down transformer takes a highvoltage, low-amperage current changes it into a low-voltage, high-amperage current. Except for some power lost by heat within a transformer, the power (Watts) into a transformer equals the power (Watts) out because the volts and amperes are mutually increase and decreased.

A transformer welder is step-down transformer. It takes the high line voltage (220V, 440 V etc.) and low amperage current (50A, 60 A etc.)and changes it into 17V to 45V at 190A to 590 A. Welding machines can be classified by the method by which control or adjust the welding current. The major classifications are multiple-coil, called taps, movable coil or movable core, Fig. 3-15, and inverter type. The multiple-coil or tap-type machine, allows the selection of different current settings

by tapping into the secondary coil at a different turn value. The greater the number of turns, the higher is the amperage induced in the turns. These machines may have a large number of fixed amperes or they may have two or more amperages that can be adjusted further with a fine adjusting knob. The fine adjusting knob may be marked in amperes, or it may be marked in tenths, hundredths, or in any other unit. DC Welding Machine: Although much welding is accomplished with AC welding power sources, the majority of industrial welding is done with machines that produce a direct current arc. The commercially produced AC power that operates the welding machine must then be changed (rectified) to direct current for the DC arc. This is accomplished with a device called a rectifier. Two types of rectifiers have been used extensively in welding machines, the old selenium rectifiers and the more modern silicon rectifiers, often referred to as diodes. See Figure 16

SILICON RECTIFIER

SELENIUM RECTIFIER

Fig. 16

The function of a rectifier in the circuit can best be shown by the use of the AC sine wave. With one diode in the circuit, half-wave rectification takes place as shown in Figure 17. The negative half-wave is simply cut off and a pulsating DC is produced. During the positive half-cycle, current is allowed to flow through the rectifier. During the negative half-cycle, the current is blocked. This produces a DC composed of 60 positive pulses per second. By using four rectifiers connected in a certain manner, a bridge rectifier is created, producing full wave rectification. The bridge rectifier results in 120 positive half-cycles per second, producing a considerably smoother direct current than half-wave rectification. See Figure 18.

Fig. 17 SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE RECTIFICATION Fig. 18 SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE RECTIFICATION

Three-phase AC can be rectified to produce an even smoother DC than single-phase AC. Since three-phase AC power produces three times as many half-cycles per second as single- phase power, a relatively smooth DC voltage results as shown in Figure 19.
1 Cycle

Fig. 19. 3 PHASE FULL WAVE RECTIFICATION

Alternating-Current Transformer Welding Machines. Practically all the alternating current (AC) arc-welding machines in use are the static-transformer type, as shown in figure. These types of machines are the smallest, least expensive, and the lightest type of welders made. Industrial applications for manual operation use machines having 200, 300, and 400 ampere ratings. Machines with a 150- ampere rating are used in light industrial, garage, and job/shop welding. The transformers are usually equipped with arc- stabilizing capacitors. Current control is provided in several ways by the welding transformer manufacturers. One such method is an adjustable reactor that is set by turning a crank until the appropriate setting is found. Another method is by plugging the electrode cable into different sockets located on the front of the machine. One major advantage of ac transformers is the freedom from arc blow, which often occurs when welding with direct-current (dc) machines. Arc blow causes the arc to wander while you are welding in corners on heavy metal or using large coated electrodes. DC Generator Sets - A DC welding generator produces direct current in either straight or reverse polarity. The polarity selected for welding depends upon the kind of electrode

used and the material to be welded. A DC generator is powered either by an electric motor or a diesel engine. Diesel operated generator sets are suitable for out-door applications or other areas where power is not available. The current supplied by a DC generator is created by an armature rotating in an electrical field. The armature is rotated by an electric motor or an engine. The current is drawn off for welding use by a commutator. A polarity switch on most machines provides reversed or straight polarity. Generators are designed to rotate at speeds of 1500, 1800 or 3600 rpm to give optimum current values. Generator supplies voltage usually in the range from 15 to 45 volts across the arc. The open circuit voltage is between 50 and 100 volts. Current output will vary depending upon the type of unit. A generator is designed such that it will compensate for any change in the arc column voltage, thus ensuring a stabilized arc. Three V-I (Voltage-current) characteristics used in arc welding DC machines to help control fluctuating currents are: (i) Drooping arc voltage or constant current. (ii) Constant arc voltage. (iii) Rising arc voltage. In drooping characteristics as the arc length increases, arc voltage rises and the current decreases and vice versa. Machine with drooping characteristics is used for standard shielded arc manual welding. Constant voltage characteristics are preferred for semi- automatic (MIG) or automatic welding processes, because they maintain a preset voltage regardless of the amount of current being drawn from the machine. In rising voltage characteristics, as the current increases, voltage also increases. Fully automatic welding processes use rising voltage characteristic machines. Advantages of DC Generator Sets (i) Straight and reverse polarities can be employed to advantage. (ii) Welding can be carried out in all positions. (iii) Nearly all ferrous and non-ferrous metals can be welded. (iv) Diesel driven generators form self-contained units. (v) Generator output (as it does in transformer and rectifier sets) is not affected by normal variations in power line voltage. (vi) DC is most universal in application; it can be used in practically all welding operations. An exception is TIG welding of Al and Mg, usually done with AC. Disadvantages of DC generator sets (i) Higher initial cost. (ii) Higher maintenance cost. (iii) Noisy machine operation. With ac welding machines, polarity is not a problem. When using dc welding machines, you can weld with either straight polarity or reverse polarity. Polarity is the direction of the current flow in a circuit, as shown in figure 7-9. In straight polarity, the electrode is negative and the workpiece positive; the electrons flow from the electrode to the workpiece. In reverse polarity, the electrode is positive and the workpiece negative; the electrons flow from the workpiece to the electrode. To help you remember the difference,

think of straight polarity as a SENator and reverse polarity as a REPresentative. Use only the first three letters of each key word. SEN stands for Straight Electrode Negative; REP for Reverse Electrode Positive. On some of the older machines, polarity is changed by switching cables. On many of the newer machines, the polarity can be changed by turning a switch on the machine. Polarity affects the amount of heat going into the base metal. By changing polarity, you can direct the amount of heat to where it is needed. When you use straight polarity, the majority of the heat is directed toward the workpiece. When you use reverse polarity, the heat is concentrated on the electrode. In some welding situations, it is desirable to have more heat on the workpiece because of its size and the need for more heat to melt the base metal than the electrode; therefore, when making large heavy deposits, you should use straight polarity. On the other hand, in overhead welding it is necessary to rapidly freeze the filler metal so the force of gravity will not cause it to fall. When you use reverse polarity, less heat is concentrated at the workpiece. This allows the filler metal to cool faster, giving it greater holding power. Cast-iron arc welding is another good example of the need to keep the workpiece cool; reverse polarity permits the deposits from the electrode to be applied rapidly while preventing overheating in the base metal. In general, straight polarity is used for all mild steel, bare, or lightly coated electrodes. With these types of electrodes, the majority of heat is developed at the positive side of the current, the workpiece. However, when heavy-coated electrodes are used, the gases given off in the arc may alter the heat conditions so the opposite is true and the greatest heat is produced on the negative side. Electrode coatings affect the heat conditions differently. One type of heavy coating may provide the most desirable heat balance with straight polarity, while another type of coating on the same electrode may provide a more desirable heat balance with reverse polarity. Reverse polarity is used in the welding of nonferrous metals, such as aluminum, bronze, Monel, and nickel. Reverse polarity is also used with some types of electrodes for making vertical and overhead welds. You can recognize the proper polarity for a given electrode by the sharp, crackling sound of the arc. The wrong polarity causes the arc to emit a hissing sound, and the welding bead is difficult to control. One disadvantage of direct-current welding is arc blow. As stated earlier, arc blow causes the arc to wander while you are welding in corners on heavy metal or when using largecoated electrodes. Direct current flowing through the electrode, workpiece, and ground clamp generates a magnetic field around each of these units. This field can cause the arc to deviate from the intended path. The arc is usually deflected forward or backward along the line of travel and may cause excessive spatter and incomplete fusion. It also has the tendency to pull atmospheric gases into the arc, resulting in porosity. Arc blow can often be corrected by one of the following methods: by changing the position of the ground clamp, by welding away from the ground clamp, or by changing the position of the workpiece.

Inverter Since the advent of high-power semiconductors such as the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), it is now possible to build a switching power supply capable of coping with the high loads of arc welding. These designs are known as inverter welding units. They generally first rectify the utility AC power to DC; then they switch (invert) the DC power into a step down transformer to produce the desired welding voltage or current. The switching frequency is typically 10,000 Hz or higher. Although the high switching frequency requires sophisticated components and circuits, it can drastically reduce the bulk of the step down transformer. The circuitry can also provide features such as power control and overload protection. The high frequency inverter-based welding machines can be more efficient and have better control than non-inverter welding machines. The IGBTs in an inverter based machine are controlled by a microcontroller, so the electrical characteristics of the welding power can be changed by software in real time updates. Typically the controller software will implement features such as pulsing the welding current, variable ratios and current densities through a welding cycle, variable frequencies, and automatic spot-welding; all of which would be prohibitively expensive in a transformer-based machine but require only program space in software-controlled inverter machine Manual Metal Arc Welding: Manual metal arc welding (MMAW) or shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) is the oldest and most widely used process being used for fabrication. The arc is struck between a flux covered stick electrode and the workpieces. The workpieces are made part of an electric circuit, known as welding circuit. It includes welding power source, welding cables, electrode holder, earth clamp and the consumable coated electrode. Figure 5.1 Shows details of welding circuit. Figure 5.2 shows the fine molten droplets of metal and molten flux coming from the tip of the coated electrode. The flux melts along with the metallic core wire and goes to weld pool where it reacts with molten metal forming slag which floats on the top of molten weld pool and solidifies after solidification of molten metal and can be removed by chipping and brushing.

Welding power sources used may be transformer or rectifier for AC or DC supply. The requirement depends on the type of electrode coating and sometimes on the material to be welded. The constant-current or drooping type of power source is preferred for manual metal arc welding since it is difficult to hold a constant arc length. The changing arc length causes arc voltage to increase or decrease, which in turn produces a change in welding current. The steeper the slope of the volt-ampere curve within the welding range, the smaller the current change for a given change in arc voltage. This results into stable arc, uniform penetration and better weld seam in-spite of fluctuations of arc length. The welding voltages range from 20 to 30 V depending upon welding current i.e. higher the current, higher the voltage. Welding current depends on the size of the electrode i.e. core diameter. The approximate average welding current for structural steel electrodes is 35.d (where d is electrode diameter in mm) with some variations with the type of coating of electrode. Table 5.1 shows influence of welding parameters on weld characteristics. Table 5.1: Welding Variables and Their Influence Welding Condition Main Effects Current in excess of Excess spatter. Flat wide deposit. Deep crater. Deep penetration. optimum Electrode overheats. Current less than Slag difficult to control. Metal piles up. Poor dead shape. Poor optimum penetration. Voltage in excess of Deposit irregular and flat. Arc wander. Porosity. Spatter. optimum Voltage less than Irregular piling of weld metal. Arc extinctions. Little optimum penetration. Travel speed in excess of Narrow thin weld bead. Undercut. optimum Travel speed less than Wide thick deposit. Difficulty in slag control. optimum Optimum Welding Smooth even weld deposit. Stable arc condition. Easily conditions controlled slag. Little spatter produced. The output voltage of the power source on no load or open circuit must be high enough to enable the arc to be started. A value of 80 V is sufficient for most electrodes but certain types may require more or less than this value.

A manual welding power source is never loaded continuously because of operations such as, electrode changing, slag removal etc. Most MMA welding equipment has a duty cycle of around 40% at maximum welding current. Equipment & Operation - One reason for the wide acceptance of the SMAW process is the simplicity of the necessary equipment. The equipment consists of the following items. 1. Welding power source 2. Electrode holder 3. Ground clamp 4. Welding cables and connectors 5. Accessory equipment (chipping hammer, wire brush) 6. Protective equipment (helmet, gloves, etc.) Welding Power Sources - Shielded metal arc welding may utilize either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC), but in either case, the power source selected must be of the constant current type. This type of power source will deliver a relatively constant amperage or welding current regardless of arc length variations by the operator. The amperage determines the amount of heat at the arc and since it will remain relatively constant, the weld beads produced will be uniform in size and shape. Whether to use an AC, DC, or AC/DC power source depends on the type of welding to be done and the electrodes used. The following factors should be considered: Electrode Selection - Using a DC power source allows the use of a greater range of electrode types. While most of the electrodes are designed to be used on AC or DC, some will work properly only on DC. Metal Thickness - DC power sources may be used for welding both heavy sections and light gauge work. Sheet metal is more easily welded with DC because it is easier to strike and maintain the DC arc at low currents. Distance from Work - If the distance from the work to the power source is great, AC is the best choice since the voltage drop through the cables is lower than with DC. Even though welding cables are made of copper or aluminum (both good conductors), the resistance in the cables becomes greater as the cable length increases. In other words, a voltage reading taken between the electrode and the work will be somewhat lower than a reading taken at the output terminals of the power source. This is known as voltage drop. Welding Position - Because DC may be operated at lower welding currents, it is more suitable for overhead and vertical welding than AC. AC can successfully be used for outof-position work if proper electrodes are selected. Arc Blow - When welding with DC, magnetic fields are set up throughout the weldment. In weldments that have varying thickness and protrusions, this magnetic field can affect the arc by making it stray or fluctuate in direction. This condition is especially troublesome when welding in corners. AC seldom causes this problem because of the rapidly reversing magnetic field produced. Combination power sources that produce both AC and DC are available and provide the versatility necessary to select the proper welding current for the application. When using a DC power source, the question of whether to use electrode negative or positive polarity arises. Some electrodes operate on both DC straight and reverse polarity, and others on DC negative or DC positive polarity only. Direct current flows in one direction in an electrical circuit and the direction of current flow and the composition of the electrode coating will have a definite effect on the welding arc and weld bead. Figure 3 shows the connections and effects of straight and reverse polarity.

Electrode negative (-) produces welds with shallow penetration; however, the electrode melt-off rate is high. The weld bead is rather wide and shallow as shown at "A" in Figure 3. Electrode positive (+) produces welds with deep penetration and a narrower weld bead as shown at "B" in Figure 3.
DC Power Source

A
Higher burn-off rate Less penetration Electrode

B
Low burn-off rate Deep penetration Electrode

DC Power Source

Fig.3

Workpiece

Workpiece

Straight polarity

Reverse polarity

While polarity affects the penetration and burn-off rate, the electrode coating also has a strong influence on arc characteristics. Electrode Holder - The electrode holder connects to the welding cable and con- ducts the welding current to the electrode. The insulated handle is used to guide the electrode over the weld joint and feed the electrode over the weld joint and feed the electrode into the weld puddle as it is consumed. Electrode holders are available in different sizes and are rated on their current carrying capacity. Ground Clamp - The ground clamp is used to connect the ground cable to the work piece. It may be connected directly to the work or to the table or fixture upon which the work is positioned. Being a part of the welding circuit, the ground clamp must be capable of carrying the welding current without overheating due to electrical resistance. Welding Cables - The electrode cable and the ground cable are important parts of the welding circuit. They must be very flexible and have a tough heat-resistant insulation. Connections at the electrode holder, the ground clamp, and at the power source lugs must be soldered or well crimped to assure low electrical resistance. The cross-sectional area of the cable must be sufficient size to carry the welding current with a minimum of voltage drop. Increasing the cable length necessitates increasing the cable diameter to lessen resistance and voltage drop. Coated Electrodes - Various types of coated electrodes are used in shielded metal arc welding. Welding electrodes are used in welding various metals in the fabrication of equipment for chemical & Allied industries, construction of steel structures such as bridges, factory sheds, in the manufacture of ships, Vehicles and engineering equipment. Mild steel is welded by electrodes to a maximum among all the metals & Alloys. Therefore M.S. Welding Electrode is the most widely used core wire. Besides this, special grade electrodes are being developed for specific applications. Welding electrodes comprise basically of steel core wire and coating ingredients or flux mild steel core wires are used in majority of unalloyed steel electrodes. Besides mild steel, nickel, Nickel-copper, Nickel irons are also used in MIG & TIG welding. Stainless steel wires are also used for welding in fertilizer, chemical & surgical instrument making industry. Coating ingredients are basically rutile, potassium silicate, sodium silicate and

minerals like quartz, calcite and mica. Ferro-alloys are also used in the formulations of fluxes. Coated Electrodes are specified based on core wire diameter. Commonly used electrode diameters are 2, 2.5, 3.18, 4, 5 and 6 mm. Length of electrodes may depend on diameter of core wire ranging from 250 to 450 mm i.e. larger the core diameter larger the length. However, special electrodes may be of 8-10 mm diameter. Table 5.2 gives the details of electrode sizes and currents. Table 5.2: Size and Welding Current for Stick Mild Steel Electrodes Diameter d 2.0 2.5 3.18(1/8") 4.0 5.0 6.0 mm Length L 250/300 350 350/450 450 450 450 mm Welding I 50-80 70-100 90-130 120-160 160-200 190-240 Current A Electrode coating performs many functions depending upon coating constituents, during welding to improve weld metal properties. The important functions are as follows: 1. Improve the electric conductivity in the arc region to improve the arc ignition and stabilization of the arc. 2. Formation of slag, which; (a) Influences size of droplet. (b) Protects the droplet during transfer and molten weld pool from atmospheric gases. (c) Protects solidified hot metal from atmospheric gases. (d) Reduces the cooling rate of weld seam. 3. Formation of shielding gas to protect molten metal. 4. Provide deoxidizers like Si and Mn in form of FeSi and FeMn. 5. Alloying with certain elements such as Cr, Ni, Mo to improve weld metal properties. 6. Improve deposition rate with addition of iron powder in coating. Various constituents of electrode coating are cellulose, calcium fluoride, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, clay, talc, iron oxide, asbestos, potassium / sodium silicate, iron powder, ferro-maganese, powdered alloys, silica etc. Each constituent performs either one or more than one functions. Electrode metallic core wire is the same but the coating constituents give the different characteristics to the welds. Based on the coating constituents, structural steel electrodes can be classified in the following classes; Cellulosic Electrodes Coating consists of high cellulosic content more than 30% and TiO2 up to 20%. These are all position electrodes and produce deep penetration because of extra heat generated during burning of cellulosic materials. However, high spatter losses are associated with these electrodes. Rutile Electrodes Coating consists of TiO 2 up to 45% and SiO2 around 20%. These electrodes are widely used for general work and are called general purpose electrodes. Acidic Electrodes

1.

2. 3.

4.

Coating consists of iron oxide more than 20%. Sometimes it may be up to 40%, other constituents may be TiO2 10% and CaCO3 10%. Such electrodes produce self detaching slag and smooth weld finish and are used normally in flat position. Basic Electrodes Coating consist of CaCO3 around 40% and CaF2 15-20%. These electrodes normally require baking at temperature of approximately 250 C for 1-2 hrs or as per manufacturer's instructions. Such electrodes produce high quality weld deposits which has high resistance to cracking. This is because hydrogen is removed from weld metal by the action of fluorine i.e. forming HF acid as CaF2 generates fluorine on dissociation in the heat of arc.
Table 5.3: Coating Constituents and Their Functions

Functions Main Functions Other Functions Cellulose Gas former Coating Strength and Reducing agent Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) Slag basicity and metal Slag former fluidity, H2 removal Clay (Aluminum Silicate) Slag former Coating strength Talc (Magnesium Silicate) Slag former Arc stabilizer Rutile (TiO2 ) Arc stabilizer, Slag former, Slag removal and bead Fluidity appearance Iron Oxides Fluidity, Slag former Arc Stabilizer, improved metal transfer, Calcium Carbonate Gas former, Arc stabilizer Slag basicity, Slag former Asbestos Coating strength Slag former Quartz (SiO2 ) Slag fluidity, Slag former Increase in current carrying capacity. Sodium Silicate / Potassium Binder, Arc stabilizer Slag former Silicate FeMn / FeSi Deoxidizer Iron Powder Deposition Rate Powdered Alloys Alloying Starting the Arc: Two basic methods are used for starting the arc: the striking or brushing method (fig. 7-10) and the tapping method (fig. 7-11). In either method, the arc is started by short circuiting the welding current between the electrode and the work surface. The surge of high current causes the end of the electrode and a small spot on the base metal beneath the electrode to melt instantly. In

Coating Constituent

the striking or brushing method, the electrode is brought down to the work with a lateral motion similar to striking a match. As soon as the electrode touches the work surface, it must be raised to establish the arc (fig. 7-10). The arc length or gap between the end of the electrode and the work should be equal to the diameter of the electrode. When the proper arc length is obtained, it produces a sharp, crackling sound. In the tapping method, you hold the electrode in a vertical position to the surface of the work. The arc is started by tapping or bouncing it on the work surface and then raising it to a distance equal to the diameter of the electrode (fig. 7-11). When the proper length of arc is established, a sharp, crackling sound is heard. When the electrode is withdrawn too slowly with either of the starting methods described above, it will stick or freeze to the plate or base metal. If this occurs, you can usually free the electrode by a quick sideways wrist motion to snap the end of the electrode from the plate. If this method fails, immediately release the electrode from the holder or shutoff the welding machine. Use alight blow with a chipping hammer or a chisel to free the electrode from the base metal. Setting the Current The amount of current used during a welding operation depends primarily upon the diameter of the electrode. As a rule, higher currents and larger diameter electrodes are better for welding in the flat position than the vertical or overhead position. Manufacturers of electrodes usually specify a current range for each type and size of electrode; this information is normally found on the face of the electrode container. Since most recommended current settings are only approximate, final current settings and adjustments need to be made during the welding operation. For example, when the recommended current range for an electrode is 90-100 amperes, the usual practice is to set the controls midway between the two limits, or at 95 amperes. After starting the weld, make your final adjustments by either increasing or decreasing the current. When the current is too high, the electrode melts faster and the molten puddle will be excessively large and irregular. High current also leaves a groove in the base metal along both sides of the weld. This is called undercutting, and an example is shown in figure 7-12, view C.

With current that is too low, there is not enough heat to melt the base metal and the molten pool will be too small. The result is poor fusion and a irregular shaped deposit that piles up, as shown in figure 7-12, view B. This piling up of molten metal is called overlap. The molten metal from the electrode lays on the work without penetrating the base metal. Both undercutting and overlapping results in poor welds. When the electrode, current, and polarity are correct, a good arc produces a sharp, crackling sound. When any of these conditions are incorrect, the arc produces a steady, hissing sound, such as steam escaping. Procedure for Welding 1 Workpiece Make sure workpiece is clean before welding. 2 Work Clamp Place as close to the weld as possible. 3 Electrode Before striking an arc, insert an electrode in the electrode holder. A small diameter electrode requires less current than a large one. Follow recommendations of the electrode manufacturer when setting weld amperage . 4 Insulated Electrode Holder 5 Electrode Holder Position 6 Arc Length Arc length is the distance from the electrode to the workpiece. A short arc with correct amperage will give a sharp, crackling sound. Correct arc length is related to electrode diameter. Examine the weld bead to determine if the arc length is correct. Arc length for 1/16 and 3/32 in diameter electrodes should be about 1/16 in (1.6 mm); arc length for 1/8 and 5/32 in electrodes should be about 1/8 in (3 mm). 7 Slag Use a chipping hammer and wire brush to remove slag. Remove slag and check weld bead before making another weld pass.

WELD JOINTS

The weld joint is where two or more metal parts are joined by welding. The five basic types of weld joints are the butt, corner, tee, lap, and edge, as shown in figure 3-6.

A butt joint is used to join two members aligned in the same plane (fig. 3-6, view A). This joint is frequently used in plate, sheet metal, and pipe work. A joint of this type may be either square or grooved. Corner and tee joints are used to join two members located at right angles to each other (fig. 3-6, views B and C). In cross section, the corner joint forms an L-shape, and the tee joint has the shape of the letter T. Various joint designs of both types have uses in many types of metal structures. A lap joint, as the name implies, is made by lapping one piece of metal over another (fig. 3-6, view D). This is one of the strongest types of joints available; however, for maximum joint efficiency, you should overlap the metals a minimum of three times the thickness of the thinnest member you are joining. Lap joints are commonly used with torch brazing and spot welding applications. An edge joint is used to join the edges of two or more members lying in the same plane. Inmost cases, one of the members is flanged, as shown in figure 3-6, view E. While this type of joint has some applications in platework, it is more fixquently used in sheet metal work An edge joint should only be used for joining metals 1/4 inch or less in thickness that are not subjected to heavy loads. The above paragraphs discussed only the five basic types of joints; however, there are many possible variations. PARTS OF JOINTS

While there are many variations of joints, the parts of the joint are described by standard terms. The root of a joint is that portion of the joint where the metals are closest to each other. As shown in figure 3-7, the root may be a point, a line, or an area, when viewed in cross section. A groove (fig. 3-8) is an opening or space provided between the edges of the metal parts to be welded. The groove face is that surface of a metal part included in the groove, as shown in figure 3-8, view A. A given joint may have a root face or a root edge. The root face, also shown in view A, is the portion of the prepared edge of a part to be joined by a groove weld that has not been grooved. As you can see, the root face has relatively small

dimensions. The root edge is basically a root face of zero width, as shown in view B. As you can see in views C and D of the illustration, the groove face and the root face are the same metal surfaces in some joints. The specified requirements for a particular joint areexpressed in such terms as bevel angle, groove angle, groove radius, and root opening. A brief description of each term is shown in figure 3-9. The bevel angle is

the angle formed between the prepared edge of a member and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the member. The groove angle is the total angle of the groove between the parts to be joined. For example, if the edge of each of two plates were beveled to an angle of 30 degrees, the groove angle would be 60 degrees. This isoften referred to as the included angle between the parts to be joined by a groove weld. The groove radius is the radius used to form the shape of a J- or U-groove weld joint. It is used only for special groove joint designs. The root opening refers to the separation between the parts to be joined at the root of the joint. It is sometimes called the root gap. To determine the bevel angle, groove angle, and root opening for a joint, you must consider the thickness of the weld material, the type of joint to be made, and the welding process to be used. As a general rule, gas welding requires a larger groove angle than manual metal-arc welding. The root opening is usually governed by the diameter of the thickness filler material. This, in turn, depends on the of the base metal and the welding position. Having an adequate root opening is essential for root penetration. Welding Positions The types of welds, joints, and welding positions used in manual-shielded metal arc welding are very similar to those used in oxygas welding. Naturally, the techniques are somewhat different because of the equipment involved is different. Flat-Position Welding The welding can be done in any position, but it is much simpler when done in the flat position. In this position, the work is less tiring, welding speed is faster, the molten puddle is not as likely to run, and better penetration can be achieved. Whenever possible, try to position the work so you can weld in the flat position. In the flat position, the face of the weld is approximately horizontal. Butt joints are the primary type of joints used in the flat position of welding; however, flat-position welding can be made on just about any type of joint providing you can rotate the section you are welding on to the appropriate position. Horizontal-Position Welding You will discover that it is impossible to weld all pieces in the flat position. Often the work must be done in the horizontal position. The horizontal position has two basic forms, depending upon whether it is used with a groove weld or a fillet weld. In a groove weld, the axis of the weld lies in a relative horizontal plane and the face of the weld is in a vertical plane (fig. 3.29). In a fillet weld, the welding is performed on the up per side of a relatively horizontal surface and against an approximately vertical plane. An inexperienced welder usually finds the horizontal position of arc welding difficult, at

least until he has developed a fair degree of skill in applying the proper technique. The primary difficulty is that in this position you have no shoulder of previously deposited weld metal to hold the molten metal.

Horizontal-position welding can be used on most types of joints. The most common types of joints it is used on are tee joints, lap joints, and butt joints. Vertical-Position Welding A vertical weld is defined as a weld that is applied to a vertical surface or one that is inclined 45 degrees or less. Erecting structures, such as buildings, pontoons, tanks, and pipelines, require welding in this position. Welding on a vertical surface is much more difficult than welding in the flat or horizontal position due to the force of gravity. Gravity pulls the molten metal down. To counteract this force, you should use fast-freeze or fill-

freeze electrodes. Vertical welding is done in either an upward or downward position. The terms used for the direction of welding are vertical up or vertical down. Vertical down welding is suited for welding light gauge metal because the penetration is shallow and diminishes the possibility of burning through the metal. Furthermore, vertical down welding is faster which is very important in production work. Vertical welding is used on most types of joints. The types of joints you will most often use it on are tee joints, lap joints, and butt joints. Overhead-Position Welding Overhead welding is the most difficult position in welding. Not only do you have to contend with the force of gravity but the majority of the time you also have to assume an awkward stance. Nevertheless, with practice it is possible to make welds equal to those made in the other positions. Electrode Movements Each welder has a preference in this area. Some prefer a simple, straight-line drag at a slow and steady pace to get the job done. Others will make a "C" shape with the tip of the rod as they weld for better coverage and a slick-looking end product. You also can use a zig-zag technique, pausing for a second or two on each side before moving diagonally to the next and pausing there. Most beginning welders simply use the straight drag technique. Whichever technique you choose, the goal is to get strong, complete coverage over the entire weld area. Some of the electrode movements are shown below.

Pressure Welding Hot pressure welding: Hot-pressure-welding is a solid state process that produces joints between the faying surfaces of two bodies, by application of heat and of pressure. Fusion temperature is not reached, filler metal is not needed, and substantial plastic deformation is generated. Heat is generally applied by flames of oxy-fuel torches directed on the surfaces to be joined. Upon reaching the correct temperature (about 1200 0C), the torches are suddenly removed, not to stand in the way, and the two bodies, solid bars or hollow sections, are brought to contact and upset together under pressure, usually by hydraulic equipment.

This variant is properly called the open joint process. Alternatively, when the parts are making contact under pressure before heat application from the outside, also by electrical induction, it is called the closed joint process. In either case flash material is expelled and a bulge is formed at the joint. Hot-pressurewelding is similar in a way to both friction welding and flash welding, although the source of heating is different. For obtaining the best results the surfaces should be machined square and clean. Some beveling can be used to control the amount of upset. The process as described is performed as a manual operation. The materials to be welded must exhibit hot ductility or forgeability. Therefore cast iron cannot be Hot-pressure-welded. The materials commonly joined by Hotpressure-welding are carbon, low alloy steels, and certain nonferrous metals. Certain dissimilar materials combinations are weldable by Hot-pressure-welding. Materials that easily form on the surface adherent oxides upon heating cannot be eaasily welded in air by this process, typically among them aluminum alloys and stainless steels. Tests were performed in a vacuum chamber. Advantages Simple process Simple joint preparation Relatively low cost equipment Quick weld production High quality joints No filler metal needed Minimally skilled operators required Limitations Not all metals are weldable Not easily automated Length of cycle dependent on time for heating Removal of flash and bulge required after welding. Only simple sections readily butt weldable. The most important parameter is the pressure sequence cycle, possibly being developed by trial and error. Pressure in the range of 40 to 70 MPa must be available. Typical application reported, refer to butt Hot-pressure-welding of railroad rails sections and steel reinforcing bars, especially in Japan. For use in the production of weldments for the aerospace industry with delicate materials Hot-pressure-welding can be carried out in closed chambers with vacuum or a shielding medium. Mechanical properties tend to be near those of the base materials, but depend upon materials composition, cooling rate and quality. Hot-pressure-welding can be an economic and successful process for performing butt joints of simple shapes if the materials are easily weldable.

Cold pressure Welding: Cold pressure welding is a solid state welding process which uses pressure at room temperature to produce coalescence of metals with substantial deformation at the weld. Welding is accomplished by using extremely high pressures on extremely clean interfacing materials. Sufficiently high pressure can be obtained with simple hand tools when extremely thin materials are being joined. When cold welding heavier sections a press is usually required to exert sufficient pressure to make a successful weld. Indentations are usually made in the parts being cold welded. The process is readily adaptable to joining ductile metals. Aluminum and copper are readily cold welded. Aluminum and copper can be joined together by cold welding. Resistance Welding Resistance welding processes are pressure welding processes in which heavy current is passed for short time through the area of interface of metals to be joined. These processes differ from other welding processes in the respect that no fluxes are used, and filler metal rarely used. All resistance welding operations are automatic and, therefore, all process variables are preset and maintained constant. Heat is generated in localized area which is enough to heat the metal to sufficient temperature, so that the parts can be joined with the application of pressure. Pressure is applied through the electrodes. The heat generated during resistance welding is given by following expression: H=I2RT Where, H is heat generated I is current in amperes R is resistance of area being welded T is time for the flow of current. The process employs currents of the order of few KA, voltages range from 2 to 12 volts and times vary from few ms to few seconds. Force is normally applied before, during and after the flow of current to avoid arcing between the surfaces and to forge the weld metal during post heating. The necessary pressure shall vary from 30 to 60 N mm-2 depending upon material to be welded and other welding conditions. For good quality welds these parameters may be properly selected which shall depend mainly on material of components, their thicknesses, type and size of electrodes. Apart from proper setting of welding parameters, component should be properly cleaned so that surfaces to be welded are free from rust, dust, oil and grease. For this purpose components may be given pickling treatment i.e. dipping in diluted acid bath and then washing in hot water bath and then in the cold water bath. After that components may be dried through the jet of compressed air. If surfaces are rust free then pickling is not required but surface cleaning can be done through some solvent such as acetone to remove oil and grease. The current may be obtained from a single phase step down transformer supplying alternating current. However, when high amperage is required then three phase rectifier may be used to obtain DC supply and to balance the load on three phase power lines. The material of electrode should have higher electrical and thermal conductivities with sufficient strength to sustain high pressure at elevated temperatures. Commonly used electrode materials are pure copper and copper base alloys. Copper base alloys may consist of copper as base and alloying elements such as cadmium or silver or chromium

or nickel or beryllium or cobalt or zirconium or tungsten. Pure tungsten or tungsten-silver or tungsten-copper or pure molybdenum may also be used as electrode material. To reduce wear, tear and deformation of electrodes, cooling through water circulation is required. Figure 11.1 shows the water cooling system of electrodes.

Fig 11.1: Water Cooling of Electrodes (a) Spot Welding (b) Seam Welding. Commonly used resistance welding processes are spot, seam and projection welding which produce lap joints except in case of production of welded tubes by seam welding where edges are in butting position. In butt and flash welding, components are in butting position and butt joints are produced. 1. Spot Welding In resistance spot welding, two or more sheets of metal are held between electrodes through which welding current is supplied for a definite time and also force is exerted on work pieces. The principle is illustrated in Figure 11.2.

Fig 11.2: Principle of Resistance spot Welding The welding cycle starts with the upper electrode moving and contacting the work pieces resting on lower electrode which is stationary. The work pieces are held under pressure and only then heavy current is passed between the electrodes for preset time. The area of metals in contact shall be rapidly raised to welding temperature, due to the flow of

current through the contacting surfaces of work pieces. The pressure between electrodes, squeezes the hot metal together thus completing the weld. The weld nugget formed is allowed to cool under pressure and then pressure is released. This total cycle is known as resistance spot welding cycle and illustrated in Figure 11.3

Fig 11.3: Resistance Spot Welding Cycle Spot welding electrodes of different shapes are used. Pointed tip or truncated cones with an angle of 120 - 140 are used for ferrous metal but with continuous use they may wear at the tip. Domed electrodes are capable of withstanding heavier loads and severe heating without damage and are normally useful for welding of nonferrous metals. The radius of dome generally varies from 50-100 mm. A flat tip electrode is used where minimum indentation or invisible welds are desired.

Fig 11.4: Electrode Shapes for Spot Welding Most of the industrial metal can be welded by spot welding, however, it is applicable only for limited thickness of components. Ease of mechanism, high speed of operation and dissimilar metal combination welding, has made is widely applicable and acceptable process. It is widely being used in electronic, electrical, aircraft, automobile and home appliances industries.

Spot Welding machine Spot welding involves three stages; the first of which involves the electrodes being brought to the surface of the metal and applying a slight amount of pressure. The current from the electrodes is then applied briefly after which the current is removed but the electrodes remain in place in order for the material to cool. Weld times range from 0.01 sec to 0.63 sec depending on the thickness of the metal, the electrode force and the diameter of the electrodes themselves. The equipment used in the spot welding process consists of tool holders and electrodes. The tool holders function as a mechanism to hold the electrodes firmly in place and also support optional water hoses which cool the electrodes during welding. Tool holding methods include a paddle-type, light duty, universal, and regular offset. The electrodes generally are made of a low resistance alloy, usually copper, and are designed in many different shapes and sizes depending on the application needed. The two materials being welded together are known as the workpieces and must conduct electricity. The width of the workpieces is limited by the throat length of the welding apparatus and ranges typically from 125 to 1250 mm. Workpiece thickness can range from 0.2 to 30 mm After the current is removed from the workpiece, it is cooled via the coolant holes in the center of the electrodes. Both water and a brine solution may be used as coolants in spot welding mechanisms. Spot welding is one of the oldest welding processes. It is used in a wide range of industries but notably for the assembly of sheet steel vehicle bodies in the automobile manufacturing industry, where it is used almost universally to weld the sheet metal to form a car. Spot welders can also be completely automated, and many of the industrial robots found on assembly lines are spot welders.This is a type of resistance welding where the spot welds are made at regular intervals on overlapping sheets of metal. Spot welding is primarily used for joining parts that are normally up to 3 mm in thickness. Thickness of the parts to be welded should be equal or the ratio of thickness should be

less than 3:1. The strength of the joint depends on the number and size of the welds. Spot-weld diameters range from 3 mm to 12.5 mm. Materials suitable for spot welding Steel has a higher electrical resistivity and lower thermal conductivity than the copper electrodes, making welding relatively easy. Low carbon steel is most suitable for spot welding. Higher carbon content or alloy steel tend to form hard welds that are brittle and could crack. Aluminium has an electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity that is closer to that of copper. However, aluminium's melting point is much lower than that of copper, making welding possible. Higher levels of current must be used for welding aluminium because of its low resistivity. Galvanized steel (i.e. steel coated with zinc to prevent corrosion) requires a different welding approach than uncoated steel. The zinc coating must first be melted off before the steel is joined. Zinc has a low melting point, so a pulse of current before welding will accomplish this. During the weld, the zinc can combine with the steel and lower its resistivity. Therefore, higher levels of current are required to weld galvanized steel. 2. Seam Welding: In seam welding overlapping sheets are gripped between two wheels or roller disc electrodes and current is passed to obtain either the continuous seam i.e. overlapping weld nuggets or intermittent seam i.e. weld nuggets are equally spaced. Welding current may be continuous or in pulses. The process of welding is illustrated in Figure 11.5.

Fig 11.6: Type of Seam Welds

Fig 11.7: Electrode Shapes of Seam Welding Overlapping of weld nuggets may vary from 10 to 50 %. When it is approaching around 50 % then it is termed as continuous weld. Overlap welds are used for air or water tightness. It is the method of welding which is completely mechanized and used for making petrol tanks for automobiles, seam welded tubes, drums and other components of domestic applications. Seam welding is relatively fast method of welding producing quality welds. However, equipment is costly and maintenance is expensive. Further, the process is limited to components of thickness less than 3 mm. The Seam Welding machines are precision and robust construction suitable for long trouble-free service. The application of these machines are in the manufacture of drums and barrels, fuel tank, silencer, muffler, shell welding (Longitudinal), tub cover welding

(circumferential), shock absorber welding, fuel tank welding and other special items. Resistance Butt Welding (UW) Resistance Butt Welding is a Resistance Welding (RW) process, in which ends of wires or rods are held under a pressure and heated by an electric current passing through the contact area and producing a weld. The process is similar to Flash Welding, however in

Butt Welding pressure and electric current are applied simultaneously in contrast to Flash Welding where electric current is followed by forging pressure application. Butt welding is used for welding small parts. The process is highly productive and clean. In contrast to Flash Welding, Butt Welding provides joining with no loss of the welded materials.

Thermite Welding Thermite welding (TW) (sometimes called thermit welding) is a process which joins metals by heating them with super heated liquid metal from a chemical reaction between a metal oxide and aluminum or other reducing agent, with or without the application of pressure. Filler metal is obtained from the liquid metal. The heat for welding is obtained from an exothermic reaction or chemical change between iron oxide and aluminum. This reaction is shown by the following formula: 8A1 + 3fe304 = 9Fe + 4A1203 + Heat The temperature resulting from this reaction is approximately 2482C. The super heated steel is contained in a crucible located immediately above the weld joint. The exothermic reaction is relatively slow and requires 20 to 30 seconds, regardless of the amount of chemicals involved. The parts to be welded are aligned with a gap between them. The super heated steel runs into a mold which is built around the parts to be welded. Since it is almost twice as hot as the melting temperature of the base metal, melting occurs at the edges of the joint and alloys with the molten steel from the crucible. Normal heat losses cause the mass of molten metal to solidify, coalescence occurs, and the weld is completed. If the parts to be welded are large, preheating within the mold cavity may be necessary to bring the pats to welding temperature and to dry out the mold. If the parts are small, preheating is often eliminated. The thermit welding process is applied only in the automatic mode. Once the reaction is started, it continues until completion. Themite welding utilizes gravity, which causes the molten metal to fill the cavity between the parts being welded. It is very similar to the foundry practice of pouring a casting. The

difference is the extremely high temperature of the molten metal. The making of a thermit weld is shown in figure 6-12. When the filler metal has cooled, all unwanted excess metal may be removed by oxygen cutting, machining, or grinding. The surface of the completed weld is usually sufficiently smooth and contoured so that it does not require additional metal finishing.

Thermite Welding Equipment (Tw) Thermite material is a mechanical mixture of metallic aluminum and processed iron oxide. Molten steel is produced by the thermite reaction in a magnesite-lined crucible. At the bottom of the crucible, a magnesite stone is burned, into which a magnesite stone thimble is fitted. This thimble provides a passage through which the molten steel is discharged into the mold. The hole through the thimble is plugged with a tapping pin, which is covered with a fire-resistant washer and refractory sand. The crucible is charged by placing the correct quantity of thoroughly mixed thermit material in it. In preparing the joint for thermite welding, the parts to be welded must be cleaned, alined, and held firmly in place. If necessary, metal is removed from the joint to permit a free flow of the thermite metal into the joint. A wax pattern is then made around the joint in the size and shape of the intended weld. A mold made of refractory sand is built around the wax pattern and joint to hold the molten metal after it is poured. The sand mold is then heated to melt out the wax and dry the mold. The mold should be properly vented to permit the escape of gases and to allow the proper distribution of the thermite metal at the joint. A thermite welding crucible and mold is shown in figure 5-41.

Thermite Welding Use (Tw) Thermite Welding has been successfully used for many years in the Railroad industry to weld rails together. Equipment similar to the above sketches is set up at the welding joint. After the process has been completed and the weld has cooled enough, the thermite fixture is removed. The slag is chipped off and the excess weld is ground off to conform with the shape of the rails Gas Metal Arc Welding Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is the process in which arc is struck between bare wire electrode and workpiece. The arc is shielded by a shielding gas and if this is inert gas such as argon or helium then it is termed as metal inert gas (MIG) and if shielding gas is active gas such as CO2 or mixture of inert and active gases then process is termed as metal active gas (MAG) welding. Figure 9.1 illustrates the process of GMA welding.

Direct current flat characteristic power source is the requirement of GMAW process. The electrode wire passing through the contact tube is to be connected to positive terminal of power source so that stable arc is achieved. If the electrode wire is connected to negative terminal then it shall result into unstable spattery arc leading to poor weld bead. Flat characteristic leads to self adjusting or self regulating arc leading to constant arc length due to relatively thinner electrode wires. GMA welding requires consumables such as filler wire electrode and shielding gas. Solid filler electrode wires are normally employed and are available in sizes 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.6 mm diameter. Similar to submerged arc welding electrode wires of mild steel and low alloyed steel, are coated with copper to avoid atmospheric corrosion, increase current carrying capacity and for smooth movement through contact tube. The electrode wire feeding system is shown in Figure 9.2.

Pressure adjusting screw is used to apply required pressure on the electrode wire during its feeding to avoid any slip. Depending on the size and material of the wire, different pressures are required for the smooth feeding of wire with minimum deformation of the wire. Further, wire feeding rolls have grooves of different sizes and are to be changed for a particular wire size. The range of welding current and voltage vary and is dependent on material to be welded, electrode size and mode of metal transfer i.e. mode of molten drop formed at the tip of electrode and its transfer to the weld pool. This process exhibits most of the metal transfer modes depending on welding parameters. The range of current and voltage for a particular size of electrode wire, shall change if material of electrode wire is changed. With lower currents normally lower voltages are employed while higher voltages are associated with higher currents during welding. Thin sheets and plates in all positions or root runs in medium plates are welded with low currents while medium and heavy plates in flat position are welded with high currents and high voltages. Welding of medium thickness plates in horizontal and vertical positions are welded with medium current and voltage levels. Table 9.1 gives the total range of currents and voltages for different sizes of structural steel i.e. mild steel electrodes of different sizes. Electrode Wire DiameterCurrent Range (A) Voltage Range (V) (mm) 0.8 50-180 14-24 1.0 70-250 16-26 1.2 120-320 17-30 1.6 150-380 18-34

Table 9.1: Welding Current and Voltage Ranges for Mild Steel Electrodes Both inert gases like argon and helium and active gases like CO2 and N2 are being used for shielding depending upon the metal to be welded. Mixtures of inert and active gases like CO2 and O2 are also being used in GMA welding process. For mild steel carbon dioxide is normally used which gives high quality, low current out of position welding i.e. also in welding positions other than flat position. Low alloyed and stainless steels require argon plus oxygen mixtures for better fluidity of molten metal and improved arc stability. The percentage of oxygen varies from 1-5% and remaining is argon in argon and oxygen mixtures. However, low alloy steels are also welded with 80% argon and 20% CO2 mixture. Nickel, monel, inconel, aluminum alloys, magnesium, titanium, aluminum bronze and silicon bronze are welded with pure argon. Nickel and nickel alloys may sometimes be welded with mixture of argon and hydrogen (upto 5%). Copper and aluminum are also welded with 75% helium and 25% argon mixture to encounter their thermal conductivity. Nitrogen may be used for welding of copper and some of its alloys, but nitrogen and argon mixtures are preferred over pure nitrogen for relatively improved arc stability. The process is extremely versatile over a wide range of thicknesses and all welding positions for both ferrous and nonferrous metals, provided suitable welding parameters and shielding gases are selected. High quality welds are produced without the problem of slag removal. The process can be easily mechanized / automated as continuous welding is possible. However, process is costly and less portable than manual metal arc welding. Further, arc shall be disturbed and poor quality of weld shall be produced if air draught exists in working area. GMA welding has high deposition rate and is indispensable for welding of ferrous and specially for nonferrous metals like aluminum and copper based alloys in shipbuilding, chemical plants, automobile and electrical industries. It is also used for building structures. TIG Welding Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) or Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding is the arc welding process in which arc is generated between non consumable tungsten electrode and workpiece. The tungsten electrode and the weld pool are shielded by an inert gas normally argon and helium. Figures 10.1 & 10.2 show the principle of tungsten inert gas welding process.

Fig 10.1: Principle of TIG Welding.

Fig 10.2: Schematic Diagram of TIG Welding System. The tungsten arc process is being employed widely for the precision joining of critical components which require controlled heat input. The small intense heat source provided by the tungsten arc is ideally suited to the controlled melting of the material. Since the electrode is not consumed during the process, as with the MIG or MMA welding processes, welding without filler material can be done without the need for continual compromise between the heat input from the arc and the melting of the filler metal. As the filler metal, when required, can be added directly to the weld pool from a separate wire feed system or manually, all aspects of the process can be precisely and independently controlled i.e. the degree of melting of the parent metal is determined by the welding current with respect to the welding speed, whilst the degree of weld bead reinforcement is determined by the rate at which the filler wire is added to the weld pool. In TIG torch the electrode is extended beyond the shielding gas nozzle. The arc is ignited by high voltage, high frequency (HF) pulses, or by touching the electrode to the workpiece and withdrawing to initiate the arc at a preset level of current. Selection of electrode composition and size is not completely independent and must be considered in relation to the operating mode and the current level. Electrodes for DC welding are pure tungsten or tungsten with 1 or 2% thoria, the thoria being added to improve electron emission which facilitates easy arc ignition. In AC welding, where the electrode must operate at a higher temperature, a pure tungsten or tungsten-zirconia electrode is preferred as the rate of tungsten loss is somewhat lesser than with thoriated electrodes and the zirconia aids retention of the balled' tip. Table 10.1 gives chemical composition of tungsten electrodes as per American Welding Society (AWS) classification. AWS Tungsten, min.Thoria, percent Zirconia, Total other Classification percent percent elements, max. percent EWP 99.5 0.5 EWTh-1 98.5 0.8 to 1.2 0.5 EWTh-2 97.5 1.7 to 2.2 0.5 EWZr 99.2 0.15 to 0.40 0.5 Table 10.1: Chemical Composition of TIG Electrodes. Tungsten electrodes are commonly available from 0.5 mm to 6.4 mm diameter and 150 200 mm length. The current carrying capacity of each size of electrode depends on whether it is connected to negative or positive terminal of DC power source. AC is used

only in case of welding of aluminum and magnesium and their alloys. Table 10.2 gives typical current ranges for TIG electrodes when electrode is connected to negative terminal (DCEN) or to positive terminal (DCEP). DCEN DCEP Electrode Pure and Pure and Thoriated Dia. (mm) Thoriated Tungsten Tungsten 0.5 5-20 1.0 15-80 1.6 70-150 10-20 2.4 150-250 15-30 3.2 250-400 25-40 4.0 400-500 40-55 4.8 500-750 55-80 6.4 750-1000 80-125 Table 10.2: Typical Current Ranges for TIG Electrodes The power source required to maintain the TIG arc has a drooping or constant current characteristic which provides an essentially constant current output when the arc length is varied over several millimeters. Hence, the natural variations in the arc length which occur in manual welding have little effect on welding current. The capacity to limit the current to the set value is equally crucial when the electrode is short circuited to the workpiece, otherwise excessively high current shall flow, damaging the electrode. Open circuit voltage of power source ranges from 60 to 80 V. Argon or helium may be used successfully for most applications, with the possible exception of the welding of extremely thin material for which argon is essential. Argon generally provides an arc which operates more smoothly and quietly, is handled more easily and is less penetrating than the arc obtained by the use of helium. For these reasons argon is usually preferred for most applications, except where the higher heat and penetration characteristic of helium is required for welding metals of high heat conductivity in larger thicknesses. Aluminum and copper are metals of high heat conductivity and are examples of the type of material for which helium is advantageous in welding relatively thick sections. Pure argon can be used for welding of structural steels, low alloyed steels, stainless steels, aluminum, copper, titanium and magnesium. Argon hydrogen mixture is used for welding of some grades of stainless steels and nickel alloys. Pure helium may be used for aluminum and copper. Helium argon mixtures may be used for low alloy steels, aluminum and copper. TIG welding can be used in all positions. It is normally used for root pass(es) during welding of thick pipes but is widely being used for welding of thin walled pipes and tubes. This process can be easily mechanised i.e. movement of torch and feeding of filler wire, so it can be used for precision welding in nuclear, aircraft, chemical, petroleum, automobile and space craft industries. Aircraft frames and its skin, rocket body and engine casing are few examples where TIG welding is very popular.

Submerged Arc Welding Similar to MIG welding, submerged arc welding involves formation of an arc between a continuously-fed bare wire electrode and the workpiece. The process uses a flux to generate protective gases and slag, and to add alloying elements to the weld pool. A shielding gas is not required. Prior to welding, a thin layer of flux powder is placed on the workpiece surface. The arc moves along the joint line and as it does so, excess flux is recycled via a hopper. Remaining fused slag layers can be easily removed after welding. As the arc is completely covered by the flux layer, heat loss is extremely low. This produces a thermal efficiency as high as 60% (compared with 25% for manual metal arc). There is no visible arc light, welding is spatter-free and there is no need for fume extraction. Operating characteristics SAW is usually operated as a fully-mechanised or automatic process, but it can be semiautomatic. Welding parameters: current, arc voltage and travel speed all affect bead shape, depth of penetration and chemical composition of the deposited weld metal. Because the operator cannot see the weld pool, greater reliance must be placed on parameter settings. Process variants According to material thickness, joint type and size of component, varying the following can increase deposition rate and improve bead shape. Wire SAW is normally operated with a single wire on either AC or DC current. Common variants are:

twin wire multiple wire (tandem or triple) single wire with hot or cold wire addition metal powder addition tubular wire All contribute to improved productivity through a marked increase in weld metal deposition rates and/or travel speeds. A narrow gap process variant is also established, which utilises a two or three bead per layer deposition technique. See What is narrow gap welding? Flux Fluxes used in SAW are granular fusible minerals containing oxides of manganese, silicon, titanium, aluminium, calcium, zirconium, magnesium and other compounds such as calcium fluoride. The flux is specially formulated to be compatible with a given electrode wire type so that the combination of flux and wire yields desired mechanical properties. All fluxes react with the weld pool to produce the weld metal chemical composition and mechanical properties. It is common practice to refer to fluxes as 'active' if they add manganese and silicon to the weld, the amount of manganese and silicon added is influenced by the arc voltage and the welding current level. The the main types of flux for SAW are: Bonded fluxes - produced by drying the ingredients, then bonding them with a low melting point compound such as a sodium silicate. Most bonded fluxes contain metallic deoxidisers which help to prevent weld porosity. These fluxes are effective over rust and mill scale. Fused fluxes - produced by mixing the ingredients, then melting them in an electric furnace to form a chemically homogeneous product, cooled and ground to the required particle size. Smooth stable arcs, with welding currents up to 2000A and consistent weld metal properties, are the main attraction of these fluxes. Applications SAW is ideally suited for longitudinal and circumferential butt and fillet welds. However, because of high fluidity of the weld pool, molten slag and loose flux layer, welding is generally carried out on butt joints in the flat position and fillet joints in both the flat and horizontal-vertical positions. For circumferential joints, the workpiece is rotated under a fixed welding head with welding taking place in the flat position. Depending on material thickness, either single-pass, two-pass or multipass weld procedures can be carried out. There is virtually no restriction on the material thickness, provided a suitable joint preparation is adopted. Most commonly welded materials are carbon-manganese steels, low alloy steels and stainless steels, although the process is capable of welding some nonferrous materials with judicious choice of electrode filler wire and flux combinations.

Brazing and Soldering:

Both brazing and soldering are the metal joining processes in which parent metal does not melt but only filler metal melts filling the joint with capillary action. If the filler metal is having melting temperature more than 450C but lower than the melting temperature of components then it is termed as process of brazing or hard soldering. However, if the melting temperature of filler metal is lower than 450C and also lower than the melting point of the material of components then it is know as soldering or soft soldering. During brazing or soldering flux is also used which performs the following functions: Dissolve oxides from the surfaces to be joined. Reduce surface tension of molten filler metal i.e. increasing its wetting action or spreadability. Protect the surface from oxidation during joining operation. The strength of brazed joint is higher than soldered joint but lower than welded joint. However, in between welding and brazing there is another process termed as braze welding'. Brazing: The most commonly used filler metal is copper base zinc alloy consisting of normally 5060% Cu, approximately 40% Zn, 1% Ni, 0.7 % Fe and traces of Si and Mn, which is brass and termed as 'spelter'. In some cases around 10% Ni may also be added to filler alloys. Copper base alloys may be available in the form of rod, strip and wire. Silver brazing filler metal may consists of 30-55% Ag, 15-35% Cu, 15-28% Zn, 18-24% Cd and sometimes 2-3% Ni or 5% Sn. Silver brazing alloys are available in form of wire, strip, rods and powders. Borax and boric acid are commonly used fluxes for brazing with copper base filler metals. Many other commercial fluxes may be available in the form of paste or liquid solution leading to ease of application and adherence to the surface in any position. Various commonly used method of brazing are followings: Torch Brazing Torch brazing utilizes the heat of oxy-acetylene flame with neutral or reducing flame. Filler metal may be either preplaced in form of washers, rings, formed strips, powders or may be fed manually in form of rod. Dip Brazing In dip brazing components with filler metal in proper form is preplaced at the joint and assembly is dipped in bath of molten salt which acts as heat source as well as flux for brazing. Preplaced preform melts and fills the joint. Another variant is to dip assembled parts in metallic bath and metal of bath fills the joint. Furnace Brazing Self fixturing assembly with preplaced filler metal is placed inside electrically heated furnace with temperature control for heating and cooling. These furnaces may also be using protective atmosphere with inert gases like argon and helium or vacuum for brazing of reactive metal components. Infra-red Brazing The heat for brazing is obtained from infra-red lamps. Heat rays can be concentrated at desired area or spot with concave reflectors. Such method of brazing requires automation and parts to be joined should be self fixturing. Filler metal is to be preplaced in the joint. The operation can be performed in air or in inert atmosphere or in vacuum. Induction Brazing

The heat is generated by induced current into the workpiece from a water cooled coil which surrounds the workpieces to be brazed. High frequencies employed vary from 5 to 400 kHz. Higher the frequency of current, shallow is the heating effect while lower frequencies of current lead to deeper heating and so it can be employed for thicker sections. Fluxes may or may not be used during brazing. Resistance Brazing In resistance brazing the heat is generated at the interfaces to be brazed by resistive heating. The components are connected to high current and low voltage power supply through two electrodes under pressure. Only those fluxes are used which are electrically conductive and filler metal is preplaced.

Fig 3.2: Typical Self Fixturing Brazing Assembly

Soldering: The soldering filler metal is called solder. The most commonly used solder is lead and tin alloy containing tin ranging from 5 to 70% and lead 95 to 30%. Higher the contents of tin, lower the melting point of alloy. Other filler metal are tin-antimony solder (95% tin and 5% antimony), tin-silver solder (tin 96% and silver 4%), lead-silver solder (97% lead, 1.5 tin and 1.5 silver), tin-zinc solder (91 to 30% tin and 9 to 70% zinc), cadmium-silver solder (95% cadmium and 5% silver). These are available in the form of bars, solid and flux cored wires, preforms, sheet, foil, ribbon and paste or cream. Fluxes used in soldering are ammonium chloride, zinc chloride, rosin and rosin dissolved in alcohol. Various soldering methods are soldering with soldering irons, dip soldering, torch soldering, oven soldering, resistance soldering, induction soldering, infra-red and ultrasonic soldering. Soldering iron being used for manual soldering, consists of insulated handle and end is fitted with copper tip which may be heated electrically or in coke or oil/gas fired furnace. Solder is brought to molten state by touching it to the tip of the soldering iron so that molten solder can spread to the joint surface. Ultrasonic soldering uses ultrasonics i.e. high frequency vibrations which break the oxides on the surface of workpieces and heat shall be generated due to rubbing between surfaces. This heat melts the solder and fills the joint by capillary action. Flux Residue Treatment:

When brazing or soldering is completed then the flux residues are to be removed because without removal the residues may lead to corrosion of assemblies. Brazing flux residues can be removed by rinsing with hot water followed by drying. If the residue is sticky then it can be removed by thermal shock i.e. heating and quenching. Sometimes steam jet may be applied followed by wire brushing. Soldering flux residues of rosin flux can be left on the surface of joint, however, activated rosin flux and other flux residues require proper treatment. If rosin residues removal is required then alcohol, acetone or carbon tetrachloride can be used. Organic flux residues are soluble in hot water so double rising in warm water shall remove it. Residue removal of zinc chloride base fluxes can be achieved by washing first in 2% hydrochloric acid mixed in hot water followed by simple hot water rinsing. Metal Spinning Metal spinning, also known as spin forming or spinning, is a metalworking process by which a disc or tube of metal is rotated at high speed and formed into an axially symmetric part. Spinning can be performed by hand or by a CNC lathe. Metal spinning ranges from an artisan's specialty to the most advantageous way to form round metal parts for commercial applications. Artisans use the process to produce architectural detail, specialty lighting, decorative household goods and urns. Commercial applications include rocket nose cones, cookware, gas cylinders, brass instrument bells, and public waste receptacles. Virtually any ductile metal may be formed, from aluminum or stainless steel, to high-strength, high-temperature alloys. The diameter and depth of formed parts are limited only by the size of the equipment available. Process The spinning process is fairly simple. A mandrel, also known as a form, is mounted in the drive section of a lathe. A pre-sized metal disk is then clamped against the mandrel by a pressure pad, which is attached to the tailstock. The mandrel and workpiece are then rotated together at high speeds. A localized force is then applied to the workpiece to cause it to flow over the mandrel. The force is usually applied via various levered tools. Simple workpieces are just removed from the mandrel, but more complex shapes may require a multi-piece mandrel. Extremely complex shapes can be spun over ice forms, which then melt away after spinning. Because the final diameter of the workpiece is always less than the starting diameter the workpiece must thicken, elongated radially, or buckle circumferentially. A more involved process, known as reducing or necking, allows a spun workpiece to include reentrant geometries. If surface finish and form are not critical, then the

workpiece is "spun on air"; no mandrel is used. If the finish or form are critical then an eccentrically mounted mandrel is used.

Hot spinning process involves spinning a piece of metal on a lathe and with high heat from a torch the metal is heated. Once heated, the metal is then shaped as the tool on the lathe presses against the heated surface forcing it to distort as it spins. Parts can then be shaped or necked down to a smaller diameter with little force exerted, providing a seamless shoulder. Tools The basic hand metal spinning tool is called a spoon, though many other tools (be they commercially produced, ad hoc, or improvised) can be used to effect varied results. Spinning tools can be made of hardened steel for using with aluminium or solid brass for spinning stainless steel or mild steel. Some metal spinning tools are allowed to spin on bearings during the forming process. This reduces friction and heating of the tool, extending tool life and improving surface finish. Rotating tools may also be coated with thin film of ceramic to prolong tool life. Rotating tools are commonly used during CNC metal spinning operations.

Commercially, rollers mounted on the end of levers are generally used to form the material down to the mandrel in both hand spinning and CNC metal spinning. Rollers vary in diameter and thickness, depending on the intended use. The wider the roller the smoother the surface of the spinning; the thinner rollers can be used to form smaller radii. Cutting of the metal is done by hand held cutters, often foot long hollow bars with tool steel shaped/sharpened files attached. In CNC applications, carbide or tool steel cut-off tools are used. The mandrel does not incur excessive forces, as found in other metalworking processes, so it can be made from wood, plastic, or ice. For hard materials or high volume use, the mandrel is usually made of metal. Advantages & disadvantages Several operations can be performed in one set-up. Work pieces may have re-entrant profiles and the profile in relation to the center line virtually unrestricted. Forming parameters and part geometry can be altered quickly, at less cost than other metal forming techniques. Tooling and production costs are also comparatively low. Spin forming, often done by hand, is easily automated and an effective production method for prototypes as well as high quantity production runs. Other methods of forming round metal parts include hydro-forming, stamping and forging or casting. Hydro-forming and stamping generally have a higher fixed cost, but a lower variable cost than metal spinning. Forging or castings have a higher fixed cost due to the large equipment needed, but generally a lower variable cost. As machinery for commercial applications has improved, parts are being spun with thicker materials in excess of 1" thick steel. Conventional spinning also wastes a considerably smaller amount of material than other methods. Objects can be built using one piece of material to produce parts without seams. Without seams, a part can withstand higher internal or external pressure exerted on it. For example: scuba tanks, CO2 cartridges, and oxyacetylene tanks. One disadvantage of metal spinning is that if a crack forms or the object is dented, it must be scrapped. Repairing the object is not cost-effective.

WELDING SYMBOLS
INTRODUCTION Welding symbols are used on blueprints and drawings to show where the weld is to be placed and may also show the size, type of weld, number of welds, details about the weld and even details about the joint. Welders that fabricate or work with drawing must be able to interpret the welding symbol to prepare the joint and apply a weld that has the required strength and soundness. THE REFERENCE LINE AND ARROW The reference line is one of the most important elements on the welding symbol. All the other elements that describe the weld are on or located around this line. The reference line has a leader and arrow that points to where the information applies. It may also have a tail that has information about the process, specification, or other notes that do not normally have an element that describes them. If the elements on the reference line describe the necessary details (as it does in most cases) the tail is not used. See the examples below:

In the above examples one of the reference lines has multiple arrows that are used to show the same weld in three locations that are relatively close to each other. There is also a reference line that has an arrow break. The break in the arrow is used to indicate the joint member that is to receive the edge preparation. KEY POINT: the arrow points to the bevel where the bevel needs to be prepared. ARROW SIDE One of the most important things about the reference line and the welding symbol is the top and bottom of the horizontal line. The actual symbol that shows the type of weld and the elements surrounding it that detail the weld can be placed on the top of the line or on the bottom of the line. KEY POINTS: symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean weld the side of the joint the arrow is touching or pointing to. Symbols on the top of the reference line mean apply the weld to the other side of the joint, or the side opposite to where the arrow is pointing.

This method is used because sometimes the welding symbol must be drawn on the blueprint on the other side of the joint. When symbols appear on both sides of the reference line it means weld both sides of the joint. If the reference line has a weld symbol on both sides of the reference line they may, or may not be the same weld on both sides of the joint. Remember the rule to apply the right weld to the right side. See the examples:

OTHER ELEMENTS ON REFERENCE LINE There are two other elements that may be seen on the reference line that provide information about the weld. One is a circle around the place where the leader line connects to the reference line and indicates the weld is ALL AROUND. This means the weld extends all the way around the joint the arrow is pointing at. KEY POINT: The all around element is only used when it is possible to weld all the way around a single surface. Otherwise more than on symbol is used. The other element seen on the reference line resembles a flag and is located where the leader line joins the reference line. This element is called a field weld and means the weld will be done in another location. For instance, this weld may be applied at the job site not in the shop. Sometimes clarification will be given in the welding symbol tail or as a specification on the print.

THE FILLET WELD The fillet weld symbol is one of the most widely used symbols and the shape placed on the reference line to indicate a fillet weld is a triangle that resembles the side profile of a fillet weld. The examples of the weld all around and field weld above show a fillet weld symbol so that the weld to be applied in both cases is a fillet weld.

The names of the parts of the fillet weld KEY POINT: Fillet sounds like fill it (pronounce the T) not fillay as in fillet a fish. The important elements added to a simple fillet weld symbol are as follows; 1. 2. 3. 4. THE SIZE OF THE WELD. THE LENGTH OF THE WELD. THE LENGTH AND PITCH OF INTERMITTENT WELDS. THE CONTOUR REQUIREMENTS.

1. THE SIZE OF THE WELD. The size of the fillet weld is determined by the legs of the triangle shape which represent the legs of the fillet. A welded piece may have a different weld size on each side or they may be the same size. Sometimes (not often) a weld of unequal legs may be required. For example: if one member of the joint is thinner than the other. If no size is shown on the fillet weld, a size for all fillets will be given on the drawing as a note or specification.

KEY POINT: Making the fillet welds the wrong size may lead to costly rework if you are not sure ask for clarification.

2. THE LENGTH OF THE FILLETWELD. The length of the weld when it is not a continuous weld is shown by a number on the right side of the fillet weld triangle. If it is not obvious the location is detailed on the drawing.

3. THE LENGTH AND PITCH OF INTERMITTENT WELDS An intermittent weld is one that is not continuous across the joint, but rather is a given length of weld separated by a given space between them. This method of welding may be

used to control heat distortion or where the joint strength requirements allow. Intermittent welding can save time and money if a long weld is not necessary. Used more frequently than the length alone, the length and pitch are two numbers located at the right of the fillet weld symbol. The length appears first as before followed by a hyphen then the pitch is shown. The pitch refers to a dimension from the center of one weld to the center of the next weld. KEY POINT: The pitch is not the space between welds but a measurement from center to center of the welds. To get the spacing for layout subtract the length of one weld from the pitch. The intermittent welds may be chain intermittent or staggered intermittent. Chain intermittent the welds on both sides of the joint are opposite each other and resemble a chain. Staggered intermittent the welds on the opposite side are usually started in the gap between the welds on the first side. The welds then appear staggered. KEY POINT: If the welds are staggered the fillet weld symbol will be staggered on the reference line.

4. THE CONTOUR REQUIREMENTS Some welding symbols may show a contour finish that details how the fillet weld shape must be finished after welding. The contour may be flat or convex and the element to describe this is placed above the slope on the fillet weld symbol. A letter to indicate the method of finish may be given above the finish element.

A letter U may be used to designate an unspecified finish, when the choice of finishing is given. SUMMARY When reading a fillet weld symbol always make sure you know what side of the joint the weld is applied to. Fillet weld symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean apply the weld to the side of the joint the arrow points to. Fillet weld symbols on the top of the reference line mean apply the weld to the opposite side of the joint. Fillet weld symbols on both sides of the reference line mean apply weld to both sides of the joint. This remains the case regardless of how the break in the arrow is drawn. The size of a fillet weld is determined by the length of the leg of the fillet weld and is shown on the symbol to the left. If two numbers appear in parenthesis the legs are unequal, check the drawing for clarification. When a length of weld is shown on a fillet weld symbol the dimension is placed on the right side. When two numbers appear separated by a hyphen, the length is indicated first then the pitch. The pitch is the distance from the center of one length of weld to the center of the next length of weld. When finishing directions are shown they appear over the slope of the fillet weld symbol.

GROOVE WELDING SYMBOLS Groove welding symbols are used to show how butt joints are prepared for welding and to detail how the weld is to be applied. When two pieces of metal, other than sheet metal or thin sections, are butted together for welding they usually have some form of a groove to allow the weld to penetrate into or through the joint. The groove is formed by preparing the edges to be welded with a bevel edge, chamfer edge, double bevel edge, J groove edge or double J groove edge.

When the butt joint has no edge preparation it is referred to as a square groove. The typical edge preparations are shown below:

The edge preparations may be assembled as either open root, with a backing bar or by utilizing the back weld or backing weld application. The open root assembly allows penetration through the joint, while the backing bar is used for easier welding. The backing bar may be removed or may be a part of the joint. The backing weld is applied before welding and acts as a backing bar, while the back weld is applied after welding to finish the back side of the joint. Before applying the back weld a grinder or other method may be used to prepare a V.

The edge preparations may be assembled in any configuration to form the groove for welding from either one side or both sides. The most common configurations and their basic symbols are shown below.

KEY POINT: If two imaginary lines are drawn parallel to the horizontal line in the above symbols they show the joint shape, this is true for most of the symbols. This can be helpful to remember since symbols on a blueprint do not show the actual joint shape or edge preparation.

KEY POINT: The Groove welding symbols have the same placement relevance on the reference line as the fillet weld. Symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean weld the side of the joint the arrow is touching or pointing to, while symbols on the top of the reference line mean weld the opposite side of where the arrow is touching or pointing to. If it is not clear always ask someone; reworking welds is costly and time consuming. GROOVE WELDING ELEMENTS GROOVE WELD SIZE The groove weld size is given in two dimensions and like the fillet weld it is placed to the left of the weld symbol. The first size given is THE DEPTH OF GROOVE and is the dimension used to prepare the edge preparation. The depth of groove is measured from the surface of the joint to the bottom of the preparation.

KEY PONT: The depth of groove does not include weld reinforcement or root penetration. The second size given is the ACTUAL WELD SIZE and is enclosed in parentheses to distinguish it from the groove size, or depth of groove. The actual weld size is again measured from the surface of the groove through the bottom of the groove but now includes the expected penetration of the weld. On a square groove only the weld size is given. The weld size does not include face reinforcement or root reinforcement.

KEY POINT: The penetration into the joint shown on the weld size is not measurable by the naked eye but is given to provide information about the expected outcome. ROOT OPENING AND GROOVE ANGLE Two other important elements for preparing and welding the groove are the root opening and the groove angle. The root opening, when used, dimensions the space between the joint to be welded and is placed inside the weld symbol. The groove angle is also placed inside the weld symbol and is given in degrees. KEY POINT: The groove angle for a V groove is given as the INCLUDED angle so that means the edge bevel or chamfer for each piece is 1/2 of the degrees given. For example; A 45 degree included angle means bevel each member at 22 1/2 degrees. J grooves angles may be detailed elsewhere on the drawing. The root opening and groove angle are separate elements and may or may not appear together depending on the joint requirements. On some drawings the root opening or groove angle will be covered in a note or specification on the drawing for all similar symbols, and does not appear on the symbol. The Welder must always read all information given on a drawing.

CONTOUR AND FINISHING The same contour symbols that apply to fillet welds may be used with groove welding and are placed above the weld symbol.

BACKING BARS BACK WELDS AND SPACERS As previously mentioned in this section some joint configurations may have a backing bar or spacer for easier welding or may employ the back or backing weld technique. The elements for these are placed on the bottom of the reference line opposite the weld symbol or in the case of the spacer on the reference line.

KEY POINT: If the backing bar is to be removed the symbol will contain an R for remove after welding. Since the back and backing weld symbol look the same you must look for details to see which weld applies. Spacers may be removed before the second side is welded or they may become part of the joint.

SUMMARY The groove weld symbols are used to provide information for preparing and welding the groove; however, they cannot always show every intended operation and often notes or specifications are used on the drawing. The welder should read the entire drawing before making a weld to avoid costly rework. Whenever you see something you are unfamiliar with check with engineering or supervision for clarification. It is critical to produce the right size fillet and groove weld for the application so check sizes with weld gages.