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"MONORAIL13" --- MONORAIL BEAM ANALYSIS

Program Description:
"MONORAIL13" is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis of either S-shape or W-shape underhung monorail beams analyzed as simple-spans with or without overhangs (cantilevers). Specifically, the x-axis and y-axis bending moments as well as any torsion effects are calculated. The actual and allowable stresses are determined, and the effect of lower flange bending is also addressed by two different approaches. This program is a workbook consisting of three (3) worksheets, described as follows:

Worksheet Name
Doc S-shaped Monorail Beam W-shaped Monorail Beam

Description
This documentation sheet Monorail beam analysis for S-shaped beams Monorail beam analysis for W-shaped beams

Program Assumptions and Limitations:


1. The following references were used in the development of this program: a. Fluor Enterprises, Inc. - Guideline 000.215.1257 - "Hoisting Facilities" (August 22, 2005) b. Dupont Engineering Design Standard: DB1X - "Design and Installation of Monorail Beams" (May 2000) c. American National Standards Institute (ANSI): MH27.1 - "Underhung Cranes and Monorail Syatems" d. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) 13th Edition Allowable Stress Design (ASD) Manual (2005) e. "Allowable Bending Stresses for Overhanging Monorails" - by N. Stephen Tanner AISC Engineering Journal (3rd Quarter, 1985) f. Crane Manufacturers Association of America, Inc. (CMAA) - Publication No. 74 "Specifications for Top Running & Under Running Single Girder Electric Traveling Cranes Utilizing Under Running Trolley Hoist" (2004) g. "Design of Monorail Systems" - by Thomas H. Orihuela Jr., PE (www.pdhengineer.com) h. British Steel Code B.S. 449, pages 42-44 (1959) i. USS Steel Design Manual - Chapter 7 "Torsion" - by R. L. Brockenbrough and B.G. Johnston (1981) j. AISC Steel Design Guide Series No. 9 - "Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel Members" by Paul A. Seaburg, PhD, PE and Charlie J. Carter, PE (1997) k. "Technical Note: Torsion Analysis of Steel Sections" - by William E. Moore II and Keith M. Mueller AISC Engineering Journal (4th Quarter, 2002) 2. The unbraced length for the overhang (cantilever) portion, 'Lbo', of an underhung monorail beam is often debated. The following are some recommendations from the references cited above: a. Fluor Guideline 000.215.1257: Lbo = Lo+L/2 b. Dupont Standard DB1X: Lbo = 3*Lo c. ANSI Standard MH27.1: Lbo = 2*Lo d. British Steel Code B.S. 449: Lbo = 2*Lo (for top flange of monorail beam restrained at support) British Steel Code B.S. 449: Lbo = 3*Lo (for top flange of monorail beam unrestrained at support) e. AISC Eng. Journal Article by Tanner: Lbo = Lo+L (used with a computed value of 'Cbo' from article) 3. This program also determines the calculated value of the bending coefficient, 'Cbo', for the overhang (cantilever) portion of the monorail beam from reference "e" in note #1 above. This is located off of the main calculation page. Note: if this computed value of 'Cbo' is used and input, then per this reference the total value of Lo+L should be used for the unbraced length, 'Lbo', for the overhang portion of the monorail beam. 4. This program ignores effects of axial compressive stress produced by any longitudinal (traction) force which is usually considered minimal for underhung, hand-operated monorail systems. 5. This program contains comment boxes which contain a wide variety of information including explanations of input or output items, equations used, data tables, etc. (Note: presence of a comment box is denoted by a red triangle in the upper right-hand corner of a cell. Merely move the mouse pointer to the desired cell to view

the contents of that particular "comment box".)

"MONORAIL13.xls" Program Created By: Joel Berg, P.E. Based on a Spreadsheet By: Alex Tomanovich, P.E. Version 1.2

MONORAIL BEAM ANALYSIS


For S-shaped Underhung Monorails Analyzed as Simple-Spans with / without Overhang Per AISC 13th Edition ASD Manual and CMAA Specification No. 74 (2004) Project Name: Client: Project No.: Prep. By: Date:

### ### ### Input: ### ta = RL(min)=-0.73 kips RR(max)=9.13 kips = Monorail Size: L=17 ft. Lo=3 ft. Select: S12x50 Cxo = x=8.313ft. Design Parameters: Cx1 = S=9 in. Beam Fy = 36 Czo = ksi Beam Simple-Span, L = 17.0000 ft. Cz1 = S12x50 Unbraced Length, Lb = 17.0000 ft. Section Ratios and P Bending Coef., Cb = 1.00 bf/(2*tf) = Pv=7.4 kips Overhang Length, Lo = 3.0000 ft. Nomenclature h/tw = Unbraced Length, Lbo = 11.5000 ft. Shape Factor X = Bending Coef., Cbo = 1.00 S12x50 Member Properties: Lifted Load, P = 6.000 kips A = 14.60 in.^2 Zx = 60.90 in.^3 Trolley Weight, Wt = 0.400 kips d = 12.000 in. Iy = 15.60 in.^4 Hoist Weight, Wh = 0.100 kips tw = 0.687 in. Sy = 5.69 in.^3 Vert. Impact Factor, Vi = 15 % bf = 5.480 in. ry = 1.030 in. Horz. Load Factor, HLF = 10 % tf = 0.659 in. Zy = 10.30 in.^3 Total No. Wheels, Nw = 4 k= 1.440 in. J = 2.770 in.^4 Wheel Spacing, S = 9.0000 in. Ix = 303.00 in.^4 Cw = 501.0 in.^6 Distance on Flange, a = 0.3750 in. Sx = 50.60 in.^3 wt / ft. = 50.0 plf For Lo > 0 (with over Support Reactions: (with overhang) RR(max) = Results: RR(max) = 9.13 RL(min) = = Pv*(L+(Lo-(S/12)/2))/L+w/1000/(2*L)*(L+Lo)^2 Bending Moments fo RL(min) = -0.73 = -Pv*(Lo-(S/12)/2)/L+w/1000/(2*L)*(L^2-Lo^2) Parameters and Coefficients: x= Pv = 7.400 kips Pv = P*(1+Vi/100)+Wt+Wh (vertical load) Mx = Pw = 1.850 kips/wheel Pw = Pv/Nw (load per trolley wheel) My = Ph = 0.600 kips Ph = HLF*P (horizontal load) Lateral Flange Bendi ta = 0.493 in. ta = tf-bf/24+a/6 (for S-shape) e= = 0.156 = 2*a/(bf-tw) at = Cxo = -1.096+1.095*+0.192*e^(-6.0*) Cxo = -0.850 Mt = Cx1 = 3.965-4.835*-3.965*e^(-2.675*) Cx1 = 0.600 Czo = -0.981-1.479*+1.120*e^(1.322*) Czo = 0.165 Design Chapter Cz1 = 1.810-1.150*+1.060*e^(-7.70*) Cz1 = 1.948 kc = Bending Moments for Simple-Span: Lp = x = 8.313 ft. x = 1/2*(L-(S/12)/2) (location of max. moments from left end of simple-span) = rts Mx = 31.88 ft-kips Mx = (Pv/2)/(2*L)*(L-(S/12)/2)^2+w/1000*x/2*(L-x) c= My = 2.44 My = (Ph/2)/(2*L)*(L-(S/12)/2)^2 R1 = ft-kips R2 = Lateral Flange Bending Moment from Torsion for Simple-Span: (per USS Steel Design Manual, 1981) Lr = e = 6.000 in. e = d/2 (assume horiz. load taken at bot. flange) R3 = at = 21.641 at = SQRT(E*Cw/(J*G)) , E=29000 ksi and G=11200 ksi fbx = Mt = 0.29 Mt = Ph*e*at/(2*(d-tf))*TANH(L*12/(2*at))/12 Is Lb<=Lp? ft-kips Fbx = X-axis Stresses for Simple-Span: Fbx = fbx = 7.56 fbx = Mx/Sx Fbx = ksi Lr = 24.91 ft. (Eqn. F2-6, max. value of Lb for inelastic LTB) Use: Fbx = Fbx = 19.25 ksi Eqn. F2-2 Controls fbx <= Fbx, O.K.
(continued)

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"MONORAIL13.xls" Program Created By: Joel Berg, P.E. Based on a Spreadsheet By: Alex Tomanovich, P.E. Version 1.2

Y-axis Stresses for Simple-Span: fby = 5.14 ksi fwns = 1.21 ksi fby(total) = 6.35 ksi Fby = 34.49 ksi

fby = My/Sy fwns = Mt*12/(Sy/2) (warping normal stress) fby(total) = fby+fwns Eqn. F6-1 Controls

Combined Stress Ratio for Simple-Span: S.R. = 0.577 S.R. = fbx/Fbx+fby(total)/Fby

fby = fwns = fby(total) = Fby = fby <= Fby, O.K. Fby = Fcr = S.R. <= 1.0, O.K.

Vertical Deflection for Simple-Span: S.R. = Pv = 6.500 kips Pv = P+Wh+Wt (without vertical impact) (max) = 0.1412 in. (max) = Pv/2*(L-S)/2/(24*E*I)*(3*L^2-4*((L-S/12)/2)^2)+5*w/12000*L^4/(384*E*I)= Pv (ratio) = L/1445 (ratio) = L*12/(max) (max) = (allow) = 0.4533 in. (allow) = L*12/450 Defl.(max) <= Defl.(allow), O.K. (allow) = Bending Moments for Overhang: Mx = 19.65 ft-kips Mx = (Pv/2)*(Lo+(Lo-S))+w/1000*Lo^2/2 Mx = My = 1.58 My = (Ph/2)*(Lo+(Lo-S)) My = ft-kips Lateral Flange Bending Moment from Torsion for Overhang: (per USS Steel Design Manual, 1981) e = e = 6.000 in. e = d/2 (assume horiz. load taken at bot. flange) at = at = 21.641 at = SQRT(E*Cw/(J*G)) , E=29000 ksi and G=11200 ksi Mt = Mt = 0.57 Mt = Ph*e*at/(d-tf)*TANH(Lo*12/at)/12 ft-kips Design Chapter X-axis Stresses for Overhang: kc = fbx = 4.66 fbx = Mx/Sx Lp = ksi Lr = 24.91 ft. (Eqn. F2-6, max. value of Lb for inelastic LTB) rts = Fbx = 22.15 ksi Eqn. F2-2 Controls fbx <= Fbx, O.K. R1 = Y-axis Stresses for Overhang: R2 = fby = 3.32 fby = My/Sy Lr = ksi fwns = 2.41 fwns = Mt*12/(Sy/2) (warping normal stress) R3 = ksi fby(total) = 5.74 fby(total) = fby+fwns fbx = ksi Fby = 34.49 ksi Eqn. F6-1 Controls fby <= Fby, O.K. Fbx = Combined Stress Ratio for Overhang: Fbx = S.R. = 0.377 S.R. = fbx/Fbx+fby(total)/Fby S.R. <= 1.0, O.K. Use: Fbx = Vertical Deflection for Overhang: (assuming full design load, Pv without impact, at end of overhang) Mrx = Pv = 6.500 kips Pv = P+Wh+Wt (without vertical impact) S.R. = (max) = 0.0715 in. (max) = Pv*Lo^2*(L+Lo)/(3*E*I)+w/12000*Lo*(4*Lo^2*L-L^3+3*Lo^3)/(24*E*I) (ratio) = L/503 (ratio) = Lo*12/(max) fby = (allow) = 0.0800 in. (allow) = Lo*12/450 Defl.(max) <= Defl.(allow), O.K. fby(total) = Bottom Flange Bending (simplified): Fby = be = 7.908 in. Min. of: be = 12*tf or S (effective flange bending length) Fby = tf2 = 0.859 in. tf2 = tf+(bf/2-tw/2)/2*(1/6) (flange thk. at web based on 1:6 slope of flange) = Fby am = 1.815 in. am = (bf/2-tw/2)-(k-tf2) (where: k-tf2 = radius of fillet) Fcr = Mf = 2.664 in.-kips Mf = Pw*(am-a) Use: Fby = Sf = 0.572 in.^3 Sf = be*tf^2/6 fb = 4.65 fb = Mf/Sf S.R. = ksi Fb = 32.40 ksi Fb = 0.9*Fy fb <= Fb, O.K. Pv =
(continued)

Lateral Flange Bendi

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"MONORAIL13.xls" Program Created By: Joel Berg, P.E. Based on a Spreadsheet By: Alex Tomanovich, P.E. Version 1.2

Bottom Flange Bending per CMAA Specification No. 74 (2004): Local Flange Bending Stress @ Point 0: xo = -6.46 ksi xo = Cxo*Pw/ta^2 zo = zo = Czo*Pw/ta^2 1.25 ksi Local Flange Bending Stress @ Point 1: x1 = x1 = Cx1*Pw/ta^2 4.56 ksi z1 = 14.82 ksi z1 = Cz1*Pw/ta^2 Local Flange Bending Stress @ Point 2: x2 = x2 = -xo 6.46 ksi z2 = -1.25 ksi z2 = -zo Resultant Biaxial Stress @ Point 0: fbxo = 7.56 ksi fbyo = 0.64 ksi z = 9.15 ksi x = -4.85 ksi xz = 0.00 ksi to = 12.31 ksi Resultant Biaxial Stress @ Point 1: fbx1 = 7.56 ksi fby1 = 4.44 ksi z = 23.11 ksi x = 3.42 ksi xz = 0.00 ksi t1 = 21.60 ksi Resultant Biaxial Stress @ Point 2: fbx2 = 6.74 ksi fby2 = 0.64 ksi z = 6.45 ksi x = 4.85 ksi xz = 0.00 ksi t2 = 5.81 ksi

(Note: torsion is neglected)

(ratio) = (allow) =

(Sign convention: + = tension, - = compression) be = tf2 = am = S-shape Mf = Trolley Sf = Wheel fb = Fb =

Pw

Pw

xo = zo = x1 = z1 =

Bottom Flange Bend Local Flange Bendin

fbxo = Mx*(d/2)/Ix = Mx/Sx fbyo = My*(tw/2)/Iy z = fbxo+fbyo+0.75*zo x = 0.75*xo xz = 0 (assumed negligible) to = SQRT(x^2+z^2-x*z+3*xz^2)

fbx1 = Mx*(d/2)/Ix = Mx/Sx fby1 = My*(bf/2-a)/Iy z = fbx1+fby1+0.75*z1 x = 0.75*x1 xz = 0 (assumed negligible) t1 = SQRT(x^2+z^2-x*z+3*xz^2)

x2 = z2 = <= Fb = 0.66*Fy = 23.76 ksi, O.K. fbxo = fbyo = z = x = xz = to = <= Fb = 0.66*Fy = 23.76 ksi, O.K. fby1 = z = x = xz = t1 = fbx2 = <= Fb = 0.66*Fy = 23.76 ksi, O.K. z = x = xz = t2 =

fbx2 = Mx*(d/2-tf)/Ix fby2 = My*(tw/2)/Iy z = fbx2+fby2+0.75*z2 x = 0.75*x2 xz = 0 (assumed negligible) t2 = SQRT(x^2+z^2-x*z+3*xz^2) Y

tw X Pw Z Pw

tf

Point 2 Point 0 tw/2

Point 1

bf/4 bf

ta

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Input:
RL(min)=-0.13 kips RR(max)=2.82 kips Lo=4.92 ft.

Monorail Size: Select: Design Parameters: Beam Fy = Beam Simple-Span, L = Unbraced Length, Lb = Bending Coef., Cb = Overhang Length, Lo = Unbraced Length, Lbo = Bending Coef., Cbo = Lifted Load, P = Trolley Weight, Wt = Hoist Weight, Wh = Vert. Impact Factor, Vi = Horz. Load Factor, HLF = Total No. Wheels, Nw = Wheel Spacing, S = Distance on Flange, a = W12X40 36 18.0000 18.0000 1.00 4.9200 22.9200 0.73 1.100 0.000 0.400 25 20 4 5.0000 2.8000
ksi ft. ft.

L=18 ft. x=8.896 ft S=5 in. W12X40 Pv=1.775 kips


ft. ft.

### ### ta = = Cxo = Cx1 = Czo = Cz1 = bf/(2*tf) = h/tw = Shape Factor X =
in.^3 in.^4 in.^3 in. in.^3 in.^4 in.^6 plf

Section Ratio Nomenclature

kips kips kips

% %
in. in.

A= d= tw = bf = tf = k= Ix = Sx =

W12X40 Member Properties: 11.70 in.^2 Zx = 57.00 11.900 in. Iy = 44.10 0.295 in. Sy = 11.00 8.010 in. ry = 1.940 0.515 in. Zy = 16.80 1.020 in. J = 0.906 307.00 in.^4 Cw = 1440.0 51.50 in.^3 wt / ft. = 40.0

For Lo > 0 (w Support Reactions: (with overhang) RR(max) = Results: RR(max) = 2.82 RL(min) = Pv*(L+(Lo-(S/12)/2))/L+w/1000/(2*L)*(L+Lo)^2 = RL(min) = -0.13 = -Pv*(Lo-(S/12)/2)/L+w/1000/(2*L)*(L^2-Lo^2) Bending Mom Parameters and Coefficients: x= Pv = 1.775 kips Pv = P*(1+Vi/100)+Wt+Wh (vertical load) Mx = Pw = 0.444 kips/wheel Pw = Pv/Nw (load per trolley wheel) My = Ph = 0.220 kips Ph = HLF*P (horizontal load) Lateral Flange ta = 0.515 in. ta = tf (for W-shape) e= = 0.726 = 2*a/(bf-tw) at = Cxo = -2.110+1.977*+0.0076*e^(6.53*) Cxo = 0.195 Mt = Cx1 = 10.108-7.408*-10.108*e^(-1.364*) Cx1 = 0.975 X-axis Stress Czo = 0.050-0.580*+0.148*e^(3.015*) Czo = 0.949 Design Chapter Cz1 = 2.230-1.490*+1.390*e^(-18.33*) Cz1 = 1.148 kc = Bending Moments for Simple-Span: Lp = x = 8.896 ft. x = 1/2*(L-(S/12)/2) (location of max. moments from left end of simple-span) rts = Mx = 9.42 Mx = (Pv/2)/(2*L)*(L-(S/12)/2)^2+w/1000*x/2*(L-x) c= ft-kips My = 0.97 My = (Ph/2)/(2*L)*(L-(S/12)/2)^2 R1 = ft-kips R2 = Lateral Flange Bending Moment from Torsion for Simple-Span: (per USS Steel Design Manual, 1981) Lr = e = 5.950 in. e = d/2 (assume horiz. load taken at bot. flange) R3 = at = 64.152 at = SQRT(E*Cw/(J*G)) , E=29000 ksi and G=11200 ksi fbx = Mt = 0.29 Mt = Ph*e*at/(2*(d-tf))*TANH(L*12/(2*at))/12 Is Lb<=Lp? ft-kips Fbx = X-axis Stresses for Simple-Span: Fbx = fbx = 2.20 fbx = Mx/Sx Fbx = ksi Lr = 27.07 ft. (Eqn. F2-6, max. value of Lb for inelastic LTB) Fbx = Fbx = 19.28 ksi Eqn. F2-2 Controls fbx <= Fbx, O.K.
(continued)

Y-axis Stresses for Simple-Span: fby = 1.06 ksi fwns = 0.63 ksi fby(total) = 1.68 ksi Fby = 32.92 ksi

fby = My/Sy fwns = Mt*12/(Sy/2) (warping normal stress) fby(total) = fby+fwns Eqn. F6-1 Controls

Mrx = S.R. = fby = fby <= Fby, O.K. fby(total) =

Y-axis Stress

Combined Stress Ratio for Simple-Span: S.R. = 0.165 S.R. = fbx/Fbx+fby(total)/Fby

Vertical Deflection for Simple-Span: Pv = 1.500 kips Pv = P+Wh+Wt (without vertical impact) (max) = 0.0460 in. (max) = Pv/2*(L-(S/12))/2/(24*E*I)*(3*L^2-4*((L-(S/12))/2)^2)+5*w/12000*L^4/(384*E*I) Combined Str (ratio) = L/4700 (ratio) = L*12/(max) S.R. = (allow) = 0.4800 in. (allow) = L*12/450 Defl.(max) <= Defl.(allow), O.K. Bending Moments for Overhang: Mx = 8.85 ft-kips My = 1.04 ft-kips Pv = (max) = (ratio) = (allow) = Mx = My = e= at = Mt =

Fby = S.R. <= 1.0, O.K. Fby = Fcr = Use: Fby =

Mx = (Pv/2)*(Lo+(Lo-(S/12)))+w/1000*Lo^2/2 My = (Ph/2)*(Lo+(Lo-S/12))

Bending Mom Lateral Flange Bending Moment from Torsion for Overhang: (per USS Steel Design Manual, 1981) e = 5.950 in. e = d/2 (assume horiz. load taken at bot. flange) at = 64.152 at = SQRT(E*Cw/(J*G)) , E=29000 ksi and G=11200 ksi Mt = 0.61 Mt = Ph*e*at/(d-tf)*TANH(Lo*12/at)/12 ft-kips X-axis Stresses for Overhang: fbx = 2.06 ksi Lr = 27.07 ft. Fbx = 12.48 ksi

Lateral Flange

Design Chapter fbx <= Fbx, O.K. Lp = Y-axis Stresses for Overhang: rts = fby = 1.13 fby = My/Sy c= ksi fwns = 1.34 fwns = Mt*12/(Sy/2) (warping normal stress) R1 = ksi fby(total) = 2.47 fby(total) = fby+fwns R2 = ksi Fby = 32.92 ksi Eqn. F6-1 Controls fby <= Fby, O.K. R3 = Combined Stress Ratio for Overhang: fbx = S.R. = 0.240 S.R. = fbx/Fbx+fby(total)/Fby S.R. <= 1.0, O.K. Fbx = Vertical Deflection for Overhang: (assuming full design load, Pv without impact, at end of overhang) Fbx = Pv = 1.500 kips Pv = P+Wh+Wt (without vertical impact) Fbx = (max) = 0.0479 in. (max) = Pv*Lo^2*(L+Lo)/(3*E*I)+w/12000*Lo*(4*Lo^2*L-L^3+3*Lo^3)/(24*E*I) Fbx = (ratio) = L/1232 (ratio) = Lo*12/(max) Fbx = (allow) = 0.1312 in. (allow) = Lo*12/450 Defl.(max) <= Defl.(allow), O.K.
(continued)

fbx = Mx/Sx (Eqn. F2-6, max. value of Lb for inelastic LTB) Eqn. F2-2 Controls

X-axis Stress

Bottom Flange Bending (simplified): be = 5.000 in. Min. of: be = 12*tf or S (effective flange bending length) am = 3.353 in. am = (bf/2-tw/2)-(k-tf) (where: k-tf = radius of fillet) Mf = 0.245 in.-kips Mf = Pw*(am-a) Sf = 0.221 in.^3 Sf = be*tf^2/6 fb = 1.11 fb = Mf/Sf ksi Fb = 32.40 ksi Fb = 0.90*Fy

S.R. = fby = fwns = fby(total) = Fby = fb <= Fb, O.K. Fby =

Y-axis Stress

Bottom Flange Bending per CMAA Specification No. 74 (2004): Local Flange Bending Stress @ Point 0: xo = xo = Cxo*Pw/ta^2 0.33 ksi zo = zo = Czo*Pw/ta^2 1.59 ksi Local Flange Bending Stress @ Point 1: x1 = x1 = Cx1*Pw/ta^2 1.63 ksi z1 = z1 = Cz1*Pw/ta^2 1.92 ksi Local Flange Bending Stress @ Point 2: x2 = -0.33 ksi x2 = -xo z2 = -1.59 ksi z2 = -zo Resultant Biaxial Stress @ Point 0: fbxo = 2.20 ksi fbyo = 0.04 ksi z = 3.43 ksi x = 0.24 ksi xz = 0.00 ksi to = 3.31 ksi Resultant Biaxial Stress @ Point 1: fbx1 = 2.20 ksi fby1 = 0.32 ksi z = 3.95 ksi x = 1.22 ksi xz = 0.00 ksi t1 = 3.51 ksi Resultant Biaxial Stress @ Point 2: fbx2 = 2.00 ksi fby2 = 0.04 ksi z = 0.85 ksi x = -0.24 ksi xz = 0.00 ksi t2 = 0.99 ksi

(Note: torsion is neglected)

Fcr = Use: Fby = (Sign convention: + = tension, - = compression) S.R. = Pv = (max) = (ratio) = (allow) =

Vertical Defle

Notes: Values be = tf2 = am = Mf = Sf = fb = Fb =

Bottom Flang

fbxo = Mx*(d/2)/Ix = Mx/Sx fbyo = My*(tw/2)/Iy z = fbxo+fbyo+0.75*zo x = 0.75*xo xz = 0 (assumed negligible) to = SQRT(x^2+z^2-x*z+3*xz^2)

Bottom Flang Local Flange <= Fb = 0.66*Fy = 23.76 ksi, O.K. zo = Local Flange x1 = z1 = Local Flange x2 = z2 = <= Fb = 0.66*Fy = 23.76 ksi, O.K. fbxo = fbyo = z = x = xz = to = <= Fb = 0.66*Fy = 23.76 ksi, O.K. fbyo = z = x = xz = t1 = fbx2 = fby2 = z = x = xz = t2 =
W18X55

fbx1 = Mx*(d/2)/Ix = Mx/Sx fby1 = My*(bf/2-a)/Iy z = fbx1+fby1+0.75*z1 x = 0.75*x1 xz = 0 (assumed negligible) t1 = SQRT(x^2+z^2-x*z+3*xz^2)

fbx2 = Mx*(d/2-tf)/Ix fby2 = My*(tw/2)/Iy z = fbx2+fby2+0.75*z2 x = 0.75*x2 xz = 0 (assumed negligible) t2 = SQRT(x^2+z^2-x*z+3*xz^2) Y

Resultant Bia

Resultant Bia tw Pw Z Point 2 X Pw

Point 0 Point 1 bf

tf

W18X50 W18X46 W18X40 W18X35 W16X100

Check for prying action: Bolt pattern is 2X2 placed on the gage of supporting beam. Monorail passes through whole width of supporting beam so that full width of supporting beam is available to carry prying force.

W16X89 W16X77 W16X67 W16X57 W16X50 W16X45

Thickness of flange of monorail beam required to eliminate prying force for given load & geometry of connection:Supporting beam, SB = W8X24 Width of flange of SB, bfs = 6.500 in Gage of SB, gs = 4.000 in Monorail beam properties, tw = bf = tf = gage, g = Specified min tensile strength, Fu = tributary length per pair of bolts, p = 0.295 8.010 0.515 5.500 58.000
in. in. in. in. ksi

W16X40 W16X36 W21x132 W21x122 W21x111 W21x101 W21x93 W21x73

W21x68 W21x62 W21x57 W21x55

min of gs bfs/2 0.787 2.603 2.209 2.82 4 0.71 in in in kips

= min of

4.000 3.250 mm)

3.250 in
W21x48 W21x44

Dia of bolt, db = b= b' = Maximum force , Rrmax = Number of bolts, Nb= Maximum force on one bolt, T= Min thickness of flange required =

( = 20 ( = (g - tw)/2 ) ( = b - db/2 )

W18x311 W18x283 W18x258 W18x234

kips ( = Rrmax / Nb) 0.235 in ( = 5.96 mm) < tf, OK

W18x211 W18x192

(6.66*T*b' / p*Fu ) =