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Cheska april Manufacturing

Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users the "consumers". Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems. In a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward themass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In free market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of governmentregulation. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in the North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, and Pfizer. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group, Siemens, andMichelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Samsung, and Bridgestone.

Definition The process of converting raw materials, components, Manufacturing commonly orparts into finished employs a man-

goods that meet a customer'sexpectations or specifications. machine setup with division of labor in a large scale production.

Manufacturing systems: The changing methods of manufacturing Craft or Guild system Putting-out system English system of manufacturing American system of manufacturing Soviet collectivism in manufacturing Mass production Just In Time manufacturing Lean manufacturing Flexible manufacturing Mass customization Agile manufacturing Rapid manufacturing Prefabrication Packaging and labeling Ownership Fabrication Publication

Economics of manufacturing According to some economists, manufacturing is a wealth-producing sector of an economy, whereas a service sector tends to be wealth-consuming.[1][2] Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and fornational defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. In the U.S, manufacturers are subject to regulations by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In Europe, pollution taxes to offset environmental costs are another form of regulation on manufacturing activity. Labor Unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing. Manufacturing requires huge amounts of fossil fuels. The construction of a single car in the United States requires, on average, at least 20 barrels of oil.[3] Manufacturing and investment Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as: the nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and

wider industrial-economic growth; competitiveness; and attractiveness to foreign direct investors.

In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development. They have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western

countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors.[4][5] On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand. [6] A total of 3.2 million one in six U.S. manufacturing jobs have disappeared between 2000 and 2007. [7] In the UK, EEF the manufacturers organisation has led calls for the UK economy to be rebalanced to rely less on financial services and has actively promoted the manufacturing agenda. Manufacturing processes List of manufacturing processes Manufacturing Process Management Manufacturing categories Chemical industry Pharmaceutical Construction Electronics Semiconductor Engineering Manufacturing engineering Production engineering Process Engineering Industrial Engineering Biotechnology Emerging technologies Nanotechnology Synthetic biology, Bioengineering Energy industry Food and Beverage Agribusiness Brewing industry Food processing Industrial design Interchangeable parts Metalworking Smith Machinist Machine tools Small Business Guide to Manufacturing Cutting tools (metalworking) Free machining Tool and die maker Global steel industry trends Steel production Metalcasting Plastics Telecommunications Textile manufacturing Clothing industry Sailmaker Tentmaking Pulp and paper industry Transportation Aerospace manufacturing Automotive industry Bus manufacturing Tire manufacturing Shipbuilding Theories Taylorism/Scientific management Fordism Control Management List of management topics Total Quality Management Quality control Six Sigma

Introduction Small businesses are often not associated with manufacturing, however in the US small manufacturers can be found in all fifty states. Organizations such as the American Small Manufacturers Coalition (ASMC) exist to promote small manufacturers and to lobby government to assist with legislation and federal programs. Small manufacturers can offer specialized and personalized products that larger manufacturers cannot make profitably. Niche manufacturing by small manufacturers allow them to operate in areas that have little or no competition from larger companies. Owning a small manufacturing company does not necessarily mean that you need to be experienced in all aspects of the process, for example sales, shipping, procurement and exporting. There are many businesses that offer professional services that can assist in accounting, marketing, purchasing, exporting, etc. The availability of business software and internet services allows the small business owner to use the same business processes that are used at larger companies. This allows the small manufacturer to concentrate on the production of quality items that are required by their customers.

When small businesses are involved in manufacturing, there are a number of manufacturing methods that are employed. These are flexible, continuous, intermittent and custom manufacturing. Flexible Manufacturing This type of manufacturing is extremely suitable for the small manufacturer. Flexible manufacturing uses equipment that is controlled by a number of Computer Numerical Control (CNC) computers. The production relies more on robotic cells than manufacturing personnel which allows the business owner to change the products manufactured to react to customer or market needs. The use of automation produces a product that is manufactured to precise specifications which in turn produces improves the quality of the product. The only disadvantage of this type of manufacturing is the high initial cost of the manufacturing equipment. Continuous Manufacturing When small businesses manufacturer a single product, then continuous manufacturing is a method that can be employed. The process is basically an assembly line that produces a single finished product rather than a number of products or products made specifically for a customer order. The assembly line can be made up of a number of work stations or work centers where individual operations are made on the product as it passes along the line. This manufacturing method is ideal for small businesses that do not manufacture items that are customizable. This allows every finished good that is produced to be sold to any customer without modification. Intermittent Manufacturing If a small business is going to manufacturer products that are of a similar type, they can adopt an intermittent manufacturing method. Businesses that manufacturer items that are similar in nature, but have variations, are suitable for intermittent manufacturing. For example a company that only manufacturers tires for bicycles will sell tires that are of different sizes to fit a variety of bicycle wheels. Businesses will manufacture batches of the same product depending on demand and then will manufacture a batch of the same or another product. This type of manufacturing is good for products, which are based on fluctuating demand. Custom Manufacturing Custom manufacturing is a method used by a large number of small businesses. This method allows business owners to fully customize their finished product to the requirements of the customer. Many items can only be manufactured in this method due to their complexity or the skills required in manufacture cannot be replicated by a machine. Small business owners that work alone often specialize in items that are made using custom manufacturing. Conclusion Manufacturing is not limited only to large businesses; thousands of small businesses manufacture items that are used by customers across the world. Small manufacturing businesses can be very successful when they offer items that are niche products where they have very few competitors. Small business owners should remember that they do not have to know every aspect of running a business and can use professional services such as accounting, marketing and technology companies to gain a competitive advantage. Manufacturing is a huge component of the modern economy. Everything from knitting to oil extraction to steel production falls under the description of manufacturing. The concept of manufacturing rests upon the idea of transforming raw materials, either organic or inorganic, into products that are usable by society. The American Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies manufacturing into hundreds of subfields and sub-subfields. This list will simplify these into six general sectors. Clothing and Textiles o Clothing and textiles are based around the processing of raw wool to make cloth, as well as knitting and sewing these to make garments. This industry includes tailors and all involved with fabric and sewing. It also includes all uses of wool and other raw products to make towels and sheets. Synthetics such as

polyester are included under chemical manufacturing. The material, not the product, is at the center of defining this sector. Petroleum, Chemicals and Plastics o This sector is involved in changing chemicals, coal and crude oil into usable products. Parts of this sector include the making of soaps, resins, paints and pesticides. This also includes the manufacturing of medicines. Rubber manufacturing is considered a part of plastic work. Of course, it also includes the use of crude oil to make certain plastics, as well as gasoline and other chemicals.

Electronics, Computers and Transport o These fields are closely related, though usually they are treated as different fields. Many products in this field use electric power, and all use a power source. This field includes all appliances and microprocessors, semi-conductors and chips. It also includes all audio-visual equipment. The transportation sector is self-defining, including all automobiles, trains and planes that do not fall under other sectors, such as metal work or chemical manufacturing. Food o Food, agriculture and livestock-raising is the simplest of all manufacturing industries. The inclusion of agriculture today into manufacturing shows how agriculture has changed over the years, imitating more a factory for food production than an organic-style farm of centuries ago. This sector includes all forms of food production, from the farm to the dinner table, including things like canning and purifying.

Metals o Along with oil and chemical manufacturing, metals also are part of what is often called "heavy industry," while the remainder of the sectors are occasionally called "light industry," or "consumer-oriented industry." Metals includes all iron, aluminum and steel manufacturing, as well as the skills of forging, engraving, coating and stamping.

Wood, Leather and Paper o These products are all rather simple to define and understand. Wood includes all forms of manufacturing floors or housing, as well as sawing and laminating. Leather includes all tanning and curing (while the creation of leather clothes falls under textiles). The paper process is typified by the cleansing of raw wood pulp into paper products of various kinds.

manufacturers Manufacturers are companies which make things. They can vary from single jewelersfabricating projects by hand to industrial manufacturers which build heavy equipment, and everything between. Many people interact with manufactured products on a daily basis, and worldwide, manufacturers employee millions of people from skilled engineers to assembly line workers. Much of the developed world has a very strong manufacturing sector, as do developing nations which are trying to push their way into the ranks of the industrial world. A manufacturer can use a variety of processes to create objects. On-demand manufacturing, for example, revolves around the creation of customized objects as they are ordered, while a conventional manufacturing line produces a set amount of a product. A variety of equipment is utilized, including molds, dies, packaging equipment, and assembly equipment which can include advanced robots which put objects together. Chemicals, food, electronics, industrial equipment, textiles, plastics, telecommunicationsproducts, vehicles, and construction equipment, among other things, are produced on manufacturing lines. Companies use a variety of philosophies and approaches to industrial manufacturing, developing a method which is tailored to their needs and the needs of their customers. Some businesspeople even specialize in the optimization of manufacturers, acting as consultants to companies which want to expand, improve efficiency, or address ongoing issues. Ads by Google Product Manufacturers on wiseGEEK:

Typically, a product liability lawsuit is based on an underlying legal theory, such as negligence, breach of warranty, or strict liability. Productmanufacturers can be found negligent if they fail to warn consumers about known dangers altogether. They carry raw materials through a number of steps, resulting in finished fabrics which can be sold on to fabric suppliers and consumer productmanufacturers. Generally, there are no formal educational requirements for production staff, although some employers may prefer candidates with a high school diploma or its equivalent.

Manufacturers Directory on wiseGEEK: For example, Honda, Ford and General Motors are all original equipment manufacturers. For vehicles, determining the original manufacturerfor the equipment is a relatively straightforward process, but other products may be much harder. A manufacturer that produces unique one-of-a-kind dresses or specialty gowns such as wedding dresses, on the other hand, may produce under 100 garments in a year. The volume of business done by a garment manufacturer will strongly influence the amount of work space needed and the number of employees required.

Metal Manufacturers on wiseGEEK: Materials that are extremely ductile can be stretched thin without cracking and losing their strength. This is a desirable quality, especially inmetals. Manufacturers want materials that will not break even when thin pieces are required. During this time, manufacturers loaded steel nails or similar items into large wooden barrels filled with water. By adding an electrode and some other form of metal, manufacturers were able to transfer the metal coating onto the steel nails. Ads by Google Chemical Manufacturers on wiseGEEK: Many modern materials, such as plastics, electronic components, and synthetic rubbers, must be chemically synthesized. Manufacturers hire researchers and chemical technicians to improve and administer these processes. In order to adhere to national safety guidelines and ethics regarding human exposure to chemicals, manufacturers can only allow certain levels of solvents to remain in their finished products. Ads by Google Industrial Manufacturers on wiseGEEK: They can vary from single jewelers fabricating projects by hand to industrial manufacturers which build heavy equipment, and everything between. Many people interact with manufactured products on a daily basis, and worldwide, manufacturers employee millions of people from skilled engineers to assembly line workers. There are several sources available to identify manufacturers, such as the Thomas register, a listing of all industrial manufacturers in US and Canada for virtually every material used in industrial or engineering applications.

Plastic Manufacturers on wiseGEEK: For example, a textile plant that produces bedding products may sell second quality comforters or bed sheets with minor defects for a fraction of the standard purchase price. In like manner, the plastics manufacturer may be able to sell the slightly defective plastic goods at a discount, assuming the defects do not interfere with the ability of consumers to actually use those goods for their intended purposes.

8 meters) in diameter was originally known as the Gymnastik or Pezzi ball; it was developed in 1963 by an Italian plastics manufacturer. The balls were first mainly used by pediatricians for children undergoing neurological rehabilitation.

The benefits of innovation can include: greater responsiveness to customer demands faster turnaround times reduced waste levels and downtime improved product design and quality greater potential for a wider product range streamlined relationships with suppliers and customers

in erp(enterprise resource planning) manufacturing Improved Visibility With manufacturing ERP systems, all departments across an entire business can access and view the same consistent and accurate data in real time. So, everyone from the engineering teams to the production floor to the purchasing and finance departments has complete visibility into designs and plans, production status, quality control, inventory, cost of goods sold, and more. This enables better, smoother coordination and execution of all related processes and procedures. IncreasedEfficiency Manufacturing ERP software allows firms to track all supply chain activities in great detail from start to finish a task that would be nearly impossible otherwise. So, procedures and processes that hinder productivity and slow down the design, creation, and delivery of goods can be instantly identified, and corrective action can be swiftly taken to ensure optimum efficiency. On-timeDelivery Improved control over components inventory, more accurate demand planning, streamlined production scheduling, and more effective coordination of distribution channels all key benefits of manufacturing ERP software systems enable companies to improve on-time delivery of products, a critical performance metric for todays manufacturers. EnhancedProductQuality Manufacturing ERP software systems make it easier for businesses to monitor product defects and problems, pinpoint exactly where in the design or production process the issue is occurring, and take the needed steps to ensure products of the utmost quality. This, in turn, will boost sales, customer satisfaction, and profits. Reduced Costs Manufacturing ERP systems reduce costs in many ways. Increased worker productivity minimizes overtime and related labor and payroll expenses. Enhanced precision in production floor processes reduces the scrap and rework that can drain financial resources. Better tracking of components and turnover of finished goods, combined with more accurate demand planning, eliminate costly excess inventory. And, improved visibility into all financial aspects of production can help identify potential areas for savings and reduce cost of goods sold. Improve Collaboration Many manufacturing ERP systems enable companies to share important production-related data with not only internal employees, but with external constituents such as vendors, suppliers, and distributors. This improves communication and enables better coordination of activities among these key business partners.

Possible Manufacturing Defects.

A blister is an enclosed cavity that protrudes from, and thus deforms, a rubber surface (see Figure 155). Blisters can form on a shaft seals lip due to inconsistencies during the manufacturing process or, in some cases, due to excessive heat during storage or transport. A blister at the contact point on the primary lip of a shaft seal designed to retain oil or grease can be critical. This is because the blister can limit the lips ability to maintain proper contact with the shaft. Without good followability between the lip and the shaft, a leak path can develop. A blister on an oil or grease seals secondary (dirt) lip, flex section, O.D., or endface can also decrease sealability, though not typically to a critical extent.

Cuts.

A crack is a sharp break or fissure in a rubber surface; acut is a slice-like opening. Though they can look identical (see Figure 156), they typically have different causes. A crack can be caused by excessive strain and/or exposure to detrimental conditions, such as ozone, weather, or ultraviolet (UV) light; a cut is generally caused by unwanted contact between the surface and a sharp object. A cut at the contact point on the primary lip of a shaft sealdesigned to retain oil or grease can be critical. This is because the cut compromises the integrity of the dam formed by the sealing lip, and leakage can easily result. A cut on an oil or grease seals secondary (dirt) lip, flex section, O.D., or endface can also cause serious problems. Because neither the interior nor the exterior of the case contacts the shaft, a cut in either of these areas tends to be of minor importance for an oil or grease seal. Damaged Mold.

Damage to a mold (typically nicks in the metal surface) allows extra rubber to collect during the molding process. As a result, mold damage typically manifests itself as irregular protrusions along the rubber surfaces of a seal(see Figure 157). In order to minimize this problem, the mold should be hardened. In addition, seal manufacturers must be careful in handling molds and should retool if molds become damaged. For trimmed lip shaft seals, the trimming process itself will prevent protrusions from being found on the oil side of theprimary sealing lip. However, it is possible to find protrusions on the non-trimmed surfaces of the seal. If large enough, protrusions that encroach on the contact point from the air side of the primary lip may create holes in the lip/shaft contact area, resulting in leakage.

Deformation.
Deformation is a change in the shape of a seal as a result of compression (see Figure 158). This compression might take the form of improper packaging or handling. Depending on the manufacturer and the needs of the customer, shaft seals can be packaged in a variety of ways, though bulk packing (with or without egg crate dividers) and roll packing (using paper or shrink wrap) are the most common methods. In some cases, seals are individually wrapped or boxed. Once shipped and unpackaged, seals should be handled with care so as not to damage the metal cases or

distort the rubber seal lips prior to installation. Seal lips are particularly susceptible to damage or distortion if suspended from nails, pegs, or other wall-mounted supports.
Defects in Manufacturing Email0ShareThisNew

A defect in manufacturing is one that the manufacturer did not intend. A manufacturing defect is the clearest instance in which strict liability applies. Under the Restatement (Third) of Torts: Products Liability, a product "contains a manufacturing defect when the product departs from its intended design even though all possible care was exercised in the preparation and marketing of the product." An example of a manufacturing defect would be a car's braking system that does not work properly and causes a plaintiff to have an accident. Even though the manufacturer of the car did not intend for the brakes to malfunction, and even though the manufacturer was not negligent in the design of the brakes, the strict liability doctrine in products liability law could render the manufacturer liable. A plaintiff may have difficulty proving that a product caused the plaintiff's injuries. For example, even if a car had some defect in the braking system, the driver's poor reaction to driving conditions may have been the actual cause of an accident. Additionally, in some circumstances, it may be difficult for a plaintiff to prove that a defect caused an accident due to the damage to the product. A car may be so heavily damaged in an accident, for instance, that it is impossible to prove what caused the accident to occur. In some instances, a plaintiff can rely on the "malfunction doctrine" to prove causation. Under this doctrine, if the circumstances of an accident indicate that a defect caused the accident, and the plaintiff can produce evidence that removes other possible causes, then the plaintiff can prove causation even if the product is damaged or destroyed. This doctrine is similar in application to res ipsa loquitur in the law of negligence. Dirty Mold.

A mold impression is an imperfection molded into the surface of a material (such as the rubber used to form ashaft seals lip, see Figure 159). Mold impressions are typically caused by residue buildup within the mold cavity. In order to minimize instances of mold impression, seal manufacturers must be careful to maintain mold cleanliness. For shaft seals used to retain grease or oil, mold impressions can be critical if they occur along the primary sealing lip. They can also be serious if they occur on a secondary lip or on the seal O.D. Mold impressions found in

other places do not typically impair the seals usability.


Flash. Flash is excess rubber remaining on the parting line of a rubber product following molding. In the case of a shaft seal, excessive rubber flash may interfere with the sealing surfaces. Excessive flash can fold across theprimary lip (as in Figure 160), a secondary lip, and/or the seal O.D. Flash can be a major concern for seals designed to retain grease or oil if it occurs along the primary sealing lip, on a secondary lip, at the flex section, on the seal O.D., or on the endface. Flash is not usually a major concern if it is confined to either the interior or exterior portions of the seal that do not contact the shaft. Improper Trim.

Improper trim occurs when a seal has not been finished properly after molding. More specifically, it occurs when not all of the material that should have been trimmedfrom a surface (such as a primary sealing lip,as in Figure 161) was actually removed. Improper trim can also occur if the primary sealing lip is trimmed in the wrong direction (i.e. from the oil side to the air side, rather than from the air side to the oil side as it should be). Trimming in the wrong direction can leave a ridge of rubber at the contact point that will impede proper lip function. Improper trimming of a primary lip or secondary lip in shaft seals designed to retain grease or oil can be a major problem, especially if the untrimmed material prevents the seal from making or maintaining proper contact with the shaft. Improper trimming of the seal O.D. can prevent the seal from seating properly in the housing bore, and this increases the likelihood that a leak path will develop between the O.D. and the bore. Knit Lines. A knit line is an imperfection of the seal material due to premature curing (scorching) of the rubber during molding (see Figure 162). It is for this reason that seal manufacturers must be extremely diligent in controlling material temperature fluctuations throughout the production process. Mold temperatures must be especially monitored so as not to inadvertently harm the material. In shaft seals designed to retain grease or oil, a knit line that occurs along the primary lip, the secondary lip, the flex section, the seal O.D., or the endface can be a major concern. Less problematic though

still potentially dangerous are knit lines seen in the interior or on the exterior of the seal.
Material Contamination. Material contamination occurs when unwanted, extraneous matter (such as dirt or other debris) is inadvertently included in the seal material. In a shaft seal, this can occur during molding of the rubber lip(s) (see Figure 163). For seals designed to retain grease or oil, material contamination can be a critical problem if it occurs on theprimary sealing lip. Presence of foreign matter (such as tiny bits of metal) can adversely impact the interface between lip and shaft, increasing friction or damaging the shaft itself such that a leak path develops. Material contamination along thesecondary lip, at the flex section, or on the seal O.D. can also be serious.

Foreign matter within the rubber of the endface, along the interior, or on the exterior is generally not a major issue.
Nicks. Nicks are unwanted voids within the sealing material created after molding (see Figure 164). Nicks are most often caused during installation, but a nick could be caused at any point during the handling of a molded seal. A nick on the primary sealing lip of a shaft seal designed to retain oil or grease is a critical problem. Because the profile of the lip is compromised, the lip does not make proper contact with the shaft. Nicks found in other areas such as on asecondary lip, at the flex section, on the seal O.D., or on the endfaceare also generally

problematic. Nicks in either the interior or on the exterior of the seal generally do not cause great concern. Careful handling and proper installation can minimize the chances of inadvertently nicking the seal.
Non-Fills.

Non-fills are unwanted voids within the sealing material (see Figure 165) created during molding (rather than after molding, as is the case with a nick). Non-fills are typically caused by improper material flow within the mold. Seal manufacturers must take great care in formulating compounds that will flow properly when the mold is correctly heated. A non-fill on the primary sealing lip of a shaft seal designed to retain oil or grease is a critical problem. Because the profile of the lip is compromised, the lip does not make proper contact with the shaft. Non-fills on a secondary lip, at the flex section, on the seal O.D., or on the endface are also generally problematic. Non-fills in

either the interior or on the exterior of the seal generally do not cause great concern.
Poor Bond. Poor bonding means there is inadequate adhesionbetween two layers of material. In an elastomeric shaft seal, there is a rubber-to-metal bond between the elastomeric member and the metallic case (see Figure 166). PTFE components can also be bonded to rubber or to the metal case. Though poor bonding is bad no matter where on the seal it might occur, it is most dangerous if it occurs at a shaft sealsflex section, the area in which the lip and the case are connected. Porosity. Porosity is a condition in which a material (such as the rubber used to form a shaft seal) is full of numerous tiny bubbles (see Figure 167). The presence of these bubbles is a manufacturing defect due to air entrapment that, if present, should be spotted and corrected by the molder. Porosity at the flex section can compromise the primary lipsability to flex properly in response to shaft eccentricities. Porosity on a secondary lip can limit the lips ability to exclude dust and dirt

properly.
Rough Trim. Rough trim occurs when the trimming of a shaft sealssealing surface leaves it with unwanted irregularities on both sides of the contact point (see Figure 168). This is a result of trimming in the wrong direction (i.e. from the oil side to the air side of the primary lip, rather than from the air side to the oil side as it should be). Extreme care must be taken during trimming to minimize instances of rough trim. Many shaft seal manufacturers now use automated trimming machines to help ensure accuracy and consistency.

Rough trim is a possibility on the seal lip(s), the outside diameter, and the leading edge. Depending on the application and the extent of the irregularities, rough trim can be a major obstacle to proper seal function.
Scoop Trim. Scoop trim occurs when a seal surface is concave as a result of trimming (see Figure 169). Extreme care must be taken during trimming to minimize instances of scoop trim, which is caused when the seal lip is not properly supported (such as with a backup fixture) during trimming. Many shaft seal manufacturers now use automated trimming machines to help ensure accuracy and consistency. The primary lip is the only place that lip trimming occurs, so this is the only lip that will

encounter a scoop trim. Depending on the application and the extent of the concavity, scoop trim may be a major obstacle to proper seal function.
Scratches.

Scratches are blemishes on the surface of a sealing material due to abrasion (see Figure 170). Though typically superficial, scratches can be serious if they are large enough or deep enough. Scratches most often occur as a result of careless handling and improper installation. A scratch along a shaft seals primary lip, secondary lip, or at its flex section can be a major issue. A

scratch on the primary lip can provide a leak path, whereas a scratch on a secondary lip can allow ingress of contamination. A scratch at the flex section could, if deep enough, substantially weaken the section and shorten seal life. Depending on the application and the severity of the scratching, scratches in other areas are typically not of major consequence.
Spiral Trim. The trimming operation will leave a spiral pattern on theoil side of the seals primary lip. Extreme care must be taken during the trimming operation to prevent the depth of the spiral groove from becoming excessive (as shown in Figure 171). Many shaft seal manufacturers now use automated trimming machines to help ensure accuracy and consistency. A deepspiral trim can be a major obstacle to proper seal function. See Table 49 for a diagram of these seal components. Surface Contamination. Surface contamination occurs when unwanted material (such as dust or dirt) is found on the surface of a seal (see Figure 172). Surface contamination can largely be eliminated through proper storage and handling of finished seals. Seals exposed to dirty environments (such as work benches) are most susceptible to contamination, especially if the seals have been pre-lubed. The lubrication can pick up and hold on to any grit, metal particles, or dirt the seal might contact. Foreign material on a shaft seals primary sealing lip is a big problem. This foreign material can damage both the lip and theshaft, with leakage likely. Foreign material on other surfacessuch as a secondary lip, at the flex section, on the O.D., or on the endfacecan also cause problems. Care must be taken in choosing a cleaning solution. Depending on the lip material, there are several commonly used solvents (such as high flash napthas or Stoddard solvent). Abrasive and chemical cleaners must not be used; they can irreparably damage the seal elements and/or the bonding. Tears. Tears are instances of separation or pulling away of part of a sealing structure (see Figure 173). Tears typically occur due to careless handling. A tear on a shaft seals primary sealing lip will very likely alter its contact with the shaft and is thus a critical problem. Less serious, though still problematic, is a tear on a secondary lip, at the flex section, on the seal O.D.,

or on the endface. Tears to the rubber coating the interior or exterior of the seal normally dont prevent use.
Unbonded Flash. Unbonded flash is loose rubber that has inadvertentlyadhered to the seal surface and may impair performance, or flash that does not properly bond to an intended mating material. As shown in Figure 174, the flap of rubber on the seal O.D. is flash that was not removed properly. It was not intended to bond to

any surface on the case or seal. Conversely, the unbonded flash on the inside of the seal could in fact be expected to bond to the inside of the metal case. In this instance, however, it did not bond properly.

Unbonded flash can be caused by inconsistencies in the rubber compound and/or the material (such as metal) to which it is supposed to bond. Unbonded flash can also result from inconsistencies during molding (such as temperature or pressure fluctuations).