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SOCIETY OF PETROLEUMENGINEERSOF AIME 6200 North Central Expressway DElles, Texas 75206 THIS PRESENTATION IS SUBJECT,~

PAPER

NumF&E

5589

CORRECTION

Pseudo-skin

Factors for Directionally-hilled


13y

Partial

ly-Penetrating Wells

Heber Cinco-Ley,

Member SPE-AIME, Instituto Mexiceno del Petroleoj H. J. Frank G. Miller, Members SPE-AIME, Stmford U. Inc.

Ramey, ~.

and

(@Copyright 1975 American Institute of Mining, Metsiiurgicai, and Petroleum Engineers,

This paper was prepared for the 50th Annual :?all Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Permission to copy Engineers of AINE, to ke held in Dallas, Texas, Sept. 28-Ott. 1, 1975. Illustrations nay not be copied. is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words. The abstract should contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by wham the paper is presented. Publication elsewhere after publication in the JOURhAL OF PETROLE7JM TECHNOLOGY or the SOCIETY OF PETROLEUMFNGINEERS JOURNAL is usually granted upon request to the Editor of the appropriate journal provided agreement to give proper.credit is made, Three copies of any discussion should be sent Discussion of this paper is invti?d. Such discussions may be presented at the t~ the Society ~f Petroleum Engineers office. above meeting and, with the paper, may be considered for publication in one of the two SPE magazines. .- . ... ABSTRACT wells. This situation creates an increase in well productivity with respect to a partially peniin analytical soluti& derived recentlyto etrating well which is perpendicular to the forstudy the unsteady-state flow of a slightly commation. Cinco, etal., studied the unsteadypressible fluid toward slanted wells was modistate flow of a slightly compressible fluid toward fiedtocolmpute the pseudo-skin effect created by slanted wells inan infinite slab reservoir, and partial penetration and slant ofa well. It was preaenteda solution which canbe appliedto found, as expected, that the pseudo-skin factor fully and partially-penetrating wells. It was due to the slant ofa well has a negative value shown that the unsteady flow toward a slanted and it appears to be affected by both the location line source includes three flow periods: (1) a of the producing interval in the formation and the radial flow period, (2) a transitional flow period, producing interval length. They also and. (3) a pseudo-radial flow period. presented results for a fully-penetrating slanted INTRODUCTION well of infinite conductivity, and concluded that the slant ofa well causes an increase in well Many authors have studied steady-state1-8 productivity which canbe handled as a negative and the unsteady-atate flow5~ 9-27 toward a parpseudo-skin effect thatis constant for large tially-penetrating well. They considered swell values of time. perpendicular to the producing formation and concluded that this type of well completion The purpose of this workis to evaluate the causes a decrease in well productivity. Howpseudo-skin effect for a partially-penetrating ever, as pointed out by Cinco, et al. , 28 many slanted well of infinite conductivity (uniform wells do not penetrate the producing formation pressure at the wellbore) in an infinite slab perpendicularly. Instead, there is an angle bereservoir, and to show how to correct the skin tween the wellbore axis and anormal to the forfactor calculated from well test analysis for the mation horizontal plane. These wells maybe deviation from the vertical. termed directionally-drilled; or slanted References and illustrations atend of paper.

2 &THEMATICAL

PSEU DO-SKIN I?AC TORS DIRECTIONALLY FORMULATION

FOR PARTIALLY PENETRATING -DRILLED W ELLS

SPE

5589

It can be shown from Eq. (1) that for small values of time the wellbore pressure is essenThe unsteady flow of a slightly compressible tially uniform along the completion interval, an( luid through an isotropic, homogeneouss porous is equal to the wellbore pressure of a fullynedium may be described by the diffus ivitv eclua- penetrating vertical well producing from a forion29. The initial and boundary conditions can mation which has a thickness ~. Howevert fox e determined for the flow toward a partiallylarge values of time, the wellbore pressure ~enetrating slanted well by considering the sys from Eq. (1) is not uniform along the completio] This figure shows a parem shown in Fig. 1. interval. This situation arises because a uniially-penetrating slanted well in an infinite slab form flux was assigned to the line source. eservoir of thickness h, porosity ~, and permeability k. The well completion has a length An approximate solution for the infinite ~ and its middle point is located at an elevation conductivity condition may be obtained by a ;W. The angle of slant of the well is ew. method used by several authors to study the steady2 and unsteady 7 flow toward partiallyThe well production is approximated by a penetrating wells, and the unsteady flow toward :ontinuous line source located at the wellbora the line vertical fractures. 31 In this method, Lxis by superposing an infinite number of col Isource is divided into many segments, and a inuous point sources 30 along this line. flux is assigned to each segment in such a way that the pressure is equal at the midpoint loca... The unsteady-state pressure distribution tion of each segment. In this work, the line source is divided intc :reated by a partially-penetrating continuous ~lanted line source in an infinite slab reservoir Ivi equal segments (Fig. 2). The condition of :an be expressed as 28: infinite conductivity at the wellbore is crested by equating the wellbore pressure computed at p~(r~, O,z D,tD, @w, zwD, hwD, hD) the mid-point of all segments. The sum of the flow into all segments must be equal to the tota~ hD flow rate of the well. 32 . = 1/2 Cos 0 4 hw~r The unsteady-state pressure distribution w created by M small line sources located along the wellbore axis of a partially-penetrating well in an infinite slab reservoir (Fig. 2) can be expressed in rectangular coordinates by the equation: f ~3? $ n=-m {!2:: 2 w pD(x~)$ y@ @ D 6w ) zwD# hwD, h~)

r
exp -

z2tan2 @w- 2r Dztanf)wc 47

0s Q+( z D+2n~-z~vD-z)2 )

4 ~l~~cos

9 w

1(
+exp ( -

(xD.xDi)2+ z2tan20w+2rDztan9wc os 13+ (zD+ 2n 47 % +zw 2!4 (1) where pressure drop, time, radial distances elevation and well completion location are expressed in dimensionless form. * * d,~;{ i=l ~ r) qi(t~% T) eT

y;

4 T 3/2

Co

; hwDicos8

Definitions of dimensionless given in the Nomenclature.

variables

are

Xl n=-m

-+hwDicos8w (Continued equation)

SPE ..

5589

HEBER.

CINCO-LEY,

H.

J. RAMEY, )2

JR. , AND

F.

G.

MILLER

z2tan2 f))- 2(~-~i) .

ztanOwl-(z ~+ 2n~-zwDi-z 47

where A = (2 ~ - zwD)tan6w B = ZD + 2nhD - ZWDi - Xui

c z2tan26w+(~-~i)ztanflw+ . 47 e (zD+2n~+zw ~~zt ]1 dz, dr 1

C = ZD+

2nhD+

zwDi

(2) ~here &Dit zwDi and ~Di are the length~ :levation of the middle point, and abscissa of the nid.dle point of the itth segment, respectively, [i is the flow rate per unit length of line source }f the ith element, and qw is the well flow rate. It can be shown that for large values of time pseudo-radial flow period) 32, the flux distribution along the line source is not a function of ime and the flux term may be placed outside the ntegral with respect to time. the pseudo- skin factor, By definition, ;slant+pen, caused by the angle of slant and the ]artial penetration of a well w) WD) is: WDJ D) pD(tD) \ . (3) ]wD is the infinite conductivity dime nsicmless vellbore pressure drop of a partially penetrating pD is the line source solution for jlanted well. i vertical, fully ~.penetrating well compuied at ;he wellbore. From is: the Appendix, Eq. (3) may be written

q represents uniform flux

the flow rate line source.

per

unit length

of the

The infinite conductivity condition may be applied by equating the pseudo-skin factor, Thus: s e+p~ of the segments. s (3+p(zwDl .,ew, zwD, hwD, hD)

e+p(zwDi+13 for i = I, M-l

w wD WD D) (5)

Another equation is obtained from the condition that the sum of the flow rates of the segments must be eq~al to the well flow rate. Thus: M qi = q i=l , Eqs. (5) and (6) represent a system of M equa tions with M unknowns. The unknowns are the segment relative fluxes, qiiq. The flux distribution can be found for dif ferent cases of partially-penetrating slanted wells by solving the system of equations defined 1 by Eqs. (5) and (6), and the pseudo-skin factor , may be calculated from &q. (4). e+p 1 (6)

e+p

= lim t ~.al

ipwD(tDJ

~,h- ;b,=;~~w::sew~: e+p(z D ,e W z Wb WD


n=-cn ~h -A sinew-Bcos In 2 wDi 1 -~hwDi-Asin(3w-Bcos [[

ew+[(~hwDi- AsinOw-BcosEJw\2+ 1+(-B sin0w+Acos9w) . (3W+ [(-$wDAsin6w-Bcos(jw)2+ 11-(-Bsin(3wl-Acosew) sinew+Acosew)

~hwD$Asinew-Cco -$wD.$Asinew-Cc

s(lw+ [(~wDi os(jw+[(-$wDi+A

1 +A sin~w-cc@)w)2+
2 1/2 I 2 1/2 ~ sin6w-Cos flw)2+l+(C sinew+Acosew) 2 1/2 ~ 1} 1 (4) 11}

2 1/2 ]

kD+2nhD+hD+ -1 T 1 zD+2nhD-

(z D+2nhD+hD)2+

h ~ +~(zD+2nhD-hD)2+

PSEUDO-SKIN

FACTORS

FOR

PARTIALLY PENETRATING }RILLE D WELLS

SI~E 5589

DISCUSSION

OF RESULTS

The flux distribution and pseudo- skin factor The line thal were calculated for several cases. simulates the well was divided into many segments in such a way that the length of each segment> hwDi# always was equal to or gr~ ter than one, It was found that accurate results were obtained by considering 11 terms of the infinite series in Eq. (4). This resulted because the pressure drops created at a point by two sources which were located at equal distances from the point were practically equal wh~n the dimensions of the sources were small compared with distances from the sources to the point. the

location at the line source for several cases. Figs. 4, 5 and 6 show the effect of the angle of slant, the completion interval .ocation, and the formation thickness, respectively. From a field well test analysis, a value for the total skin factor, s, is obtained. This skin factor includes the effect of all flow restriction near the well, the pseudo-skin factor due to penetration, Spen, and the pseudo-skin factor, due to slant of the well, s se, thus: , =

+Sp+s

(8)

Results were obtained for values of dimensionless formation thickness, hD, of 100 and 1000. Several cases of well. penetration ratio and well completion interval location were considered. Well penetration ratio was taken as 0.1, 0, 25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1. The completion interval was considered located at the top, middle, and at otk.e r locations within the formation. Calculations were made for angles of slant of O, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 degrees from the vertical, Results are presented in Tables 1 and 2. These tables T Lcluce the pseudo-skin factor, s 8+P, caused by both the penetration and the slant of the well, Values of se and sp are also represents the pseudo-skin factor given. P caused by the penetration of the well, and was taken as the pseudo-skin facto:r for 6W= OO. se is the pseudo-skin factor created by the slant of the well, and was obtained from Eq. (7): (7)
~J

To determine the well condition, it is necessary to correct the total skin factor, s, for the effects of partial penetration and the angle of s lante These radial flow this period results a~e valid for the pseudoperiod, (tD > tDl). The st rt of 32: is defined by the expressio

D 1

= max

*(lCONCLIJSIONS The Study: 1. following

+ hwDsin@w)2

observations

arise

from

this

e+p

= e

Values of S6+P for .ny value of hD may be ob. ined by graphing the results of hD = 100 and hD = 1000 in a graph of Se+p versus the logarithn of hD, and drawing a straight line between these ~D points, as shown in Fig. 3. This approach gives roughly reasonable results when the well completion length is not too small, because of the nature of the line source approximation. From tables 1 and 2, we can see that se has a negative value, and it appears to be affected b~ both the completion interval location, and the well completion length. ~e+p may have a posiHowever, sp always has tive or negative value. a positive value, because partial penetration creates an effect similar to well damage. Figs. 4, 5 and 6 show graphs of q+/q versus 2,

The slant of a partially-penetrating well causes a negative pseudo-skin effect component which depends upon the completion interval location and the penetration ravio of the well. The total pseudo-skin factor, S9+P, may have a positive or negative value. Thus a partially-penetrating slanted well may seen stimulated or damaged compared to a verti cal, fully-penetrating well. Determination of well condition from well test analysis should consider the total pseudo-skin factor, Se+p, for a directional ly-drilled well which penetrates only a per. tion of the formation.

3.

SPE

5589

HEBER ATURE formation

CINCO-LEY,

H. .

J. RAMEY,

JR. , AND = =

F.

CL MILLER of a point, ft x ~=x/r

OMENCI.. = = = = = =

volume

factor, psi -1

res

bbl/STB

I
I

x XD Y=

abscissa

dimensionless ordinate

x distance, ft

compressibility, formation

of a point,

thickness,

ft hD = h/rw interval, interval, ft

Y~

= = =

dimensionless elevation

y distance, ft

y D=ylrw

D w w D

dimensionless length

thickness,

of the producing producing

of a point, vertical

dimensionlesss h~D = hwir w w


=

dimensionless zlr D= W

distance,

z ratio, dimensionless md

WD

dimensionlesss elevation of the middle point of the producing interval, zwD = zwlrw cp fractional vertical) coordinates

w D

CGSe

penetration

=
I

formation pressure,

permeability, psi pressure

= =

IP =
b =

viscosity, porosity, angle

dimensionless kh(pi-p) = 1410~ ~Bv dimensionless drop

drop

ew
6

= =

of slar.t (from angle

horizontal

in polar

Subscripts ) WD = producing pressure D STB/D/ft i P = = = = = dirnensionless ith segment of a well

flow rate per unit length, of interval open well flow rate, STB/D

penetration slant

b=
= =

e
radial distance, ft w dimensionless rlr w well bore radial distance, rD =

of a well interval, well radius

producing

D . w ;

REFERENCES ft dimensionless due to slant and dimensionless caused by slant, 2. 1.


Und Berechnung er Kozeny, J. : llTheorie Brunnen, Wasserkraft m Wasserwirtschraft (1933) Vol. ~, 101. (in German).

= = =

radius, factor,

pseudo-skin pseudo partial pseudo

; e+p

skin factor penetration, skin factor

e
P t

dimensionless = pseudo skin factor caused penetration, dimensionless producing time, hours by partial

Muskat, M. : The Flow of Iiornogeneous Fluids Through Porous Media, J. W. Edwards, Inc. , Ann Arbo:TMich. (1946) 263. Polubarinova-Kochina, Filtration of Liquids ~~nces of Applied Vol. Z_, 207. P. Ya. : in Porous Mechanics Theory Media, ( 1951) oi

3.

= =

4, D dimensionless producing O. 000264 kt = d p cr.2 time

FIow to a Hantush, M. S. : llNon.Stc:ady Well PartiaUy Penetrating in an Infinite Leaky Aquif e r, Proc. , Iraqui Scientific Societies (1957)0

PSEUDO-SKIN
nTRF~.

FACTORS
TTnNAT.T,V

FOR

PARTIALLY

-nRTT,T,Wn

PENETRATING WT?T,LS

SPE

5589

5.

Hant.usF., M. S. : tially Penetrating HY4 (1961) Vol.

Drawdown Around a ParWell, Proc. , ASCE, ~, 83. of wells, Academic VOL 1, 307.

15.

6,

Hantush, M. S. : lIH y draulics Advances in Hydrosciences, Press Inc., New York (1964)

Javandel, I. and Witherspoon, P. A. : Use of Thermal Model to Investigate the Theory of Transient Flow to a PartiallyPenetrating W en, ~. Water Resource Research (1967) Vol. 3, 591, Javandel,
llAnalysis

16.

I.

and Witherspoon, of Transient Fluid

P. A. : F1OW irl

7.

Odeh, A. of Wells Sot. Pet.

Flow Capacity S. : I!SteadY-State With Limited Entry to Flow,. Eng. J. (March 1968) 43-51, 17.

Multilayered Systems, Water Resources Center Contribution No. 124, U. of California, Berkeley (1968). Pressure Seth, M. S. : llUnstead.y-State Distribution in a Finite Re se rvc)ir With a Partial Weilbore Opening, J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. (Oct. -Dec. 1968) Vol. .7-, 153. Kazemi, H. Anisotropy and Seth, M. S. : Effect of and Stratif~cation on Pressure Tedh.

8,

Minskii, E. M. and Markov, P. P. : Experimental Investigation of the Flow Re ;istance in Imperfect Wells, Problems in the Hydrodynamics and Thermodynamics of Reservoirs, Gosloptekkizdat, ~ningrad (1956) (in Rus~ian) Trudy VNII, No. 8, 35-65. PeneNisle, R. G. : IIThe -Effect Of Partial tration on Pressure Buildup in Oil Wells, Trans. , ALME (1958) Vol. 213, 85.

18.

9.

! 19.

Transient Analysis of Wells with Restricted Flow Entry, J. Pet. (May 1969) 639-646.

10. Brons, F. , and Marting, V. E. : The Effect of Restricted Fluid Entry on Well Productivity, Paper SPE 1322-G presented at the SPE-AIME 34th Annual Fall Meeting, 11. Dallas, Oct. 4-7, 1959. 20. 13rons, F. , and Marting, V, E. : The Effect of Restricted Fluid Entry on Well Productivity, J. ret. Tech. (Feb. 1961) 172-174. 21. 12. Dupuy, M. : MocJeles Mathematiques a Penetration Partielle et a Permeabilities Variees Realisees pour le Bureau Reser. voir de la CFPA, Revue d llInstitut Franca~s du Petrole (Oct. 1961) VOL XVI, ~ 10, 1071 (in French). K. N. , and Gulamov, K. A. : On 23.

Burns, W. A. , Jr. : Discussion on Effect of Anisotropy and Stratification on Pres sure Transient Analysis of Wells with Restricted Flow Entry, J. Pet. Tech. (May 1969) 646-647. Clegg, M. W. the Behavior Wells, Sot. 189-203. Burns, W. A. , Jr. : New for Determining Vertical J. Pet. Tech. (June Single Well Tes Permeability, and Mills, of Partially Pet. Eng. M. : A Studv of Penetrating J. (June 1969)

1969) 743-752. for Determining the

22

Prats,

M. : llA Method

Net Vertical Permeability Near a Well From In-situ Measurements, J. Pet. Tech. (May 1970) 637-643. Gringarten, A. C. : IJnsteady-State Pressure Distributions C~eated by a Well Witk a Single Horizontal Fracture, Partial Penetration or Restricted Entry, PhD Dissertation, Stanford U. (1971). of Well Loss~ Weeks, J. B. : llEffect$ Development and Partial Penetration on Drawdown on Discharge Wells, Enginee] Thesis, Stanford U. (1972). Gringarten, A. C. ~ and Ramey$ H. J. # Jr~ Unsteady-State Pressure Distributions Created by a Well With a Single Horizontz

13.

Dzalilov,

the Non-Stationary Filtration of Liquids and Gases to Imperfect Wells in Nonhomogeneous P&ous Media, Dok. Akad. Nauk Azerb, USSR (1961) Vol. 16, 5 (in Russian). 14. Pizzi, G. , Cixci, G. M. , and Chierici, Cas de Remontees de G. 1.. : Quelques Pression clans des Couches Heterogenes a Penetration Partielle. Stude par Analy seur Electrique, Revue de lInstitut Francois du Petrole (Dec. 1965) Vol. XX, X12, 1811 (in French).

24.

25.

7JL

2gQ7

.nUunn

UJ.LVUU-J-IU

.L ,

LA.

*,*.

.- . ,
w

w-.

. .

. ..-

-.

-.---

---

Fracture, Partial Penetration or Restricted Entry,Soc.Pet.Eng.J. (Aug. 1974)413-426. i. Bilhartz, H.L. ,Jr. :Effects of Wellbore Damage and Storage on Behavior of Partially Penetrating Wells, PhD Dissertation, Stanford U. (June 1973). 7. Gringarten, A. C. andl?amey, H. J., Jr.: Infinite Conductivity llAn Approximate Solution for a Partially Penetrating LineSource Well, Sot. Pet. Eng. J. (April 1~75) 140, 148. 8. Cinco, H., Miller, F. G. and Ramey, H. J. ttwell Test Analysis for Slanted Jr. : Paper SPE 5131 pr~sented at the Wells. SPE AIME 49th Annual FallMeeting, Houston, Tex., Oct. 6-9, 1974.

Ah 2De 1 ~hD {

(zD+2nhD47

~hD-z)2

XJ n=-co

(zD+2nhD-t +e * 4r

~hD-z!2

1
[1
as: hD f(u) q

~zd~

(A-1)

The integral with respect to time can be evaluated in Eqs. (2) and (A-1) by using the formula: f(u) ~- ~ d~ 3/2
T

D J
o

:9,

Matthews, C. S. and Russell, D. G.: Pressure Buih-up and Flow Tests in Wells, Sot. Pet. Eng. Monograph Series, Vol. 1, SPE, Dailas (1967) 4. A. C. and Ramey, H. J. , Jr. : of Source and Greens Functions of Unsteady SoC. Pet. Flow Eng. Problems J. (Oct.

2& = fl/2

(u)

rfc

(A-2)

Thus,

.Eq. (2) may be written

JO. Gringarten, llThe Use

qi T

in the Solution in Reservoirs, 1973) 285-296. 31.

pwD(zD

D$ w) WD$ WD$ D)

= 2hwcos6w I i=l

r ~ ~hwDicos8w e rfc / 2J n_-m I f2(z D, z,i, -;hwDicosfl \/ w

t fl(z D,z, i,n, 4tD D,z, i,n,6w, hD) ew, h~

Gringarten, A. C. , Ramey, H. J. , Jr. and Pressure Raghavan, R. : llun~te~uy-stite Distributions Created by a Well With a Single Infinite Conductivity Vertical Frac SOC. pet. Eng. J. (~.ug. 1974) 347ture, 360.

fl(z

> n, @w, hD) e rf c /

32.

Cinco, H. : Unsteady-State Pressure Distributions Created by a Slanted Well, or a Well With an Inclined Fracture. PhD Dissertatio.1, Stanford U. (April 1974).

+2 APPENDIX The pseudo-skin factor is defined by Eq. (3) u-id includes the infinite conductivity wellbore ?ressure of a partially-penetrating slanted well md the wellbore pressure of a fully-penetrating rertical well. The wellbore pressure for a rertical pressed well (Line as32: source solution) may be exwhere: fl(z D,z, i,n, ew, hD)

I (A-3)

=1++~Ose
[

sinew

(z

D-zwD)anw-xDi

D PD(tD) = *2 J
o

1 -G ~E

. ~oSew(zD+

ZnhD-zv,

Di)

1 )1
2

-t

-sinOw(z [

D-t2nh D-zw Di)

cOsew

(Z D-zwD)tan(3w-xDi

8 nd $ZD$ z,i, =1+ $ [ w D+2nh

PSEUDO-SKIN FACTORS FOR PAR TIALLY PENETRATING DIRECTIONALLY-DRILLED WELLS

SPE

5589

n, Ow, hD)

+ sinew

(zD-zwD)tan8w-xD 2 )

)
From formula: Eqs. (A-3) and (A-4), and the

cos6w(z

+Z

W~

1
)1 -1

1- sin8w(z [
+ cosew

D+2nhD+zwDi)

(zD-zwD)tan~,W-xDi (

Similarly,

Eq.

(A-1)

becomes: Eq. (2) may be expressed as Eq. (4).

,(tD)=;~mJ+J

+JrfcF

J-

TABLE 1 - PSEU20-SKII!

FACTORS FOR PARTIALLY-P ETWTRATI?!C SLAMED WSLLS (hD=loo)

h @w, deg hD zwD/hD Dh

Cosew D

FJ+p
20.810 20.385 18.948 16.510 12.662 6.735

9W, deg

hD

zwDlhD

yh
.

CO*9W D

13+p
6.611 6.361 5.587 4.245 2.295 -0.451

o 15 30 45 60 75 0 15 30 45

100

.95

. 1

20.810 20.810 20.810 20.810 20.810 20.810 15.809 15.809 15.809 15.809 15.809 15.809 15.257 15.257 15.257 15.257 15.257 15.257 15.213 15.213 15.213 15.213 15.213 15.213 8.641

0 -0.425 -1.861 -4.299 -8.147 -14.074 0 -0.36 -1, 623 -3.682 -6.864 -11.594 0 0.359 -1.621 -3.674 -6.842 -11.5:7 0 -0.359 -1.620 -3.673 -6.841 -11.514 0 -0.282 -1.154 -2.673 -4.924 -8.177 0 -0.251 -1.032 -2.388 -4.372 -7.206 0 -0.249 -1.024 -2.447 -4.32 -7.076

-o
Is

100

.5

25

6.611 6.611 6.611 6.611 6.611 6.611 3.067 3.067 3.067 3.067 3.067 3.067 2.430 2.430 2.430 2.430 2.430 2.430 2.369 2.369 2.369 2.369 2.369 2.369 0.924 0.924 0.924 0.924 0.924 0.924 0.694 0.694 0.694 0.694 0.694 0.694 0 0 0 0 0 0 .

0 -0.249 -1.023 -2.365 -4.315 -7.062 0 -0.189 -0.759 -1.729 -3.150 -5.187 0 -O. 1:6 -0.700 -1.592 -2.897 --1.772 0 -0.175 -0.697 -1.584 -2.879 -4.738 0 -0.145 -0.587 -1.336 -2.432 -4.024 0 139 -0.560 -1.275 -2.326 -3.864 0 -0.128 -0.517 -1.178 -2.149 -3.577

30 45 60 75 0 15 30 45 60 75 0 15 30 45 60 75 0 15 30 45 60 75 0 15 30 45 60 75 0 15 30 45 60 75 0 15 30 45 60 75 100 .5 100 .5 .75 100 .625 .75 100 .5 100 .6 .5 100 .75 . 5

100

.8

. 1

15.809 15.449 14.185 12.127 8.944 4.214

3.067 2.878 2.308 1.338 -0.082 -2.119 2.430 2.254 1.730 0.838 -0.466 -2.341

60 75 0
15 30 45 60 75 0 15 30 45 60 75 0 15 30 45 60 75 0 15 30 45 60 75 0 15 30 45 60 75

100

.6

.1

15.257 14.898 13.636 11.583 8.415 3.739

100

.5

.1

15.213 14.854 13.592 11.540 8.372 3.699

2.369 2.149 1.672 0.785 -0.509 -2.368 0.924 0.778 0.337 -0.411 -1.507 -3.099 0.694 0.554 0.134 -0.581 -1.632 -3.170 0 -0.128 -0.517 -1.178 -2.149 -3.577

100

.875

. 25

8.641 8.359 7.487 5.968 3.717 0.464

8.641
8.641 8.641 8.641 8.641 ?. 002 7.002 7.002 7.002 7.002 ?. 002 6.658 6.658 6, 658 6.658 6.658 6.658

100

. Yr

. 25

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