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Calculating Cooling Loads

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Calculating Cooling Loads

Calculating chiller and cooling tower refrigeration in tons
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Cooling towers tons pairs the water-cooled chiller tons and the water-cooled condenser tons.

Chiller Refrigeration Tons

A water-chiller refrigeration ton is defined as: 1 refrigeration ton = 1 TONScond = 12,000 Btu/h = 3,025.9 k Calories/h = 12,661 kJ/h A ton is the amount of heat removed by an air conditioning system that would melt 1 ton (2000 lbs.) of ice in 24 hours: 288,000 BTU/24 hr = 12,000 BTU/hr

Converting Btu to Tons of Refrigeration

Btu per hour 6000 12000 18000 24000 30000 36000 42000 48000

Tons of Refrigeration 1/2 1 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 4 1/2 5

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Cooling Tower Tons

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1 cooling tower ton = 1 TONSevap = 1 TONScond x 1.25 = 15,000 Btu/h = 3,782 k Calories/h = 15,826 kJ/h The equivalent ton on the cooling tower side actually rejects about 15,000 Btu/h due to the heat-equivalent of the energy needed to drive the chiller's compressor. This equivalent ton is defined as the heat rejection in cooling 3 U.S. gallons/minute (1,500 pound/hour) of water 10F, which amounts to 15,000 Btu/hour, or a chiller coefficient-of-performance (COP) of 4.0 - a COP equivalent to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 13.65.

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Heat Load and Water Flow

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A water systems heat load in Btu/h can be simplified to: h = cp q dt


= (1 Btu/lbm oF) (8.33 lb m/gal) q (60 min/h) dt = 500 q dt (1)

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m km in ft yards miles nautical miles

where h = heat load (Btu/h) c p = 1 (Btu/lb m oF) for water = 8.33 (lb m/gal) for water q = water volume flow rate (gal/min) dt = temperature difference (oF)

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Example - Water Chiller Cooling

Water flows with 1 gal/min and 10oF temperature difference. The ton of cooling load can be calculated as:

Cooling load = 500 (1 gal/min) (10 oF) / 12,000 = 0.42 ton


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Calculating Cooling Loads

in3 ft

Converting between heat and energy units Converting kW/tonn to COP or EER
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Related Topics
Air Conditioning - Air Conditioning systems - heating, cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for thermal comfort
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Air Conditioner Efficiency - Air conditioner efficiency express the ratio between heat removed to watt of power used - EER and SEER Chilled-Water System - Chilled-water systems formulas - evaporator and condenser flow rates Converting kW/ton to COP or EER - How to convert between kW/ton, COP and EER Cooling Tower Efficiency - The maximum cooling tower efficiency is limited by the wet-bulb temperature of the cooling air Heat Pumps Performance and Efficiency Ratings - Rating performance and efficiency of heat pumps Refrigeration Formulas - Equations like compression work, coefficient of performance ... Ventilation Refrigeration for Compressors - Ventilation requirements for refrigeration machinery Water Evaporator and Condenser Equations - Air condition load, evaporator and condenser water flow rate


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