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Experiment (1)

Measurement of (native potential) for Some metals Measurement of potential between a pipeline and a copper sulfate reference electrode (CSE) is the most frequent test performed in the corrosion industry

Components 1-refrence electrode 2-soil (electrolyte) 3- Different pieces of metals (fe,zn,al,cu) Procedures ( Prepare samples of metals (zinc, iron and aluminum immerse the metal sample with copper/copper sulfate-2 electrode in the electrolyte measure the potential differeance using high impedance-3 as shown take attention for plority connection for metal and the-4 electrode Results _

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Experiment (2)

Demonstration of effect of corrosion ____ stimulants

as we was done in the frist experiment measuring the-1 native potentials but this time suding the effect of changing (Differentional concentration (by adding vinegar and salts (Aeration (by different oxygen concentration (Temperature(by adding hot water in soil Components 1-refrence electrode 2-soil (electrolyte) 3- Different pieces of metals (fe,zn,al,cu) observation We notice incerase in the potential negativity as shown in results

Experiment (3) Demonstration of passivity phenomenon


PASSIVATION { loss of chemical reactivity} It prevents further corrosion by the formation of Oxides at the metal surface, e.g. : chromium oxide on stainless steel. Aluminium oxide on Aluminium and alloys. Titanium oxide or hydride on titanium.

Components
1-piece of iron and another from aluminum 2-two box ,one have water and the other have soil conc.sulphuric acid

Procedures
1-put the piece of iron with piece of copper In conc.sulphuric acid for a week 2-put the piece of aluminum with piece of iron in water for a week

Observation There will be layer on both (AL,Fe) prevent corrsion with high percent

Experiment (4)

Shading phenomenon

It is phenomenon which occur when pipeline in front pipeline protected by galvanic protection So the not all protective current will reach the desired pipeline And corrosion will occur It occur in small pipelines due to small resistance solution will be putting to groundbed on the right and left as shown Components 1- piece of iron , piece of aluminum and another of copper ,all have same size 2- soil with conc solution to accelerate corrosion 3- two boxes Procedures 1- put in both boxes the soil 2- put piece of iron with copper in one of boxes in the same elevation to occur corrosion for a week

3- put piece of iron with copper and piece of aluminum in the same elevation between them in the other box for a week Observation That corrosion of iron in box which have aluminum in on side, But in the box corrosion in the two side for piece of iron

Experiment (5) Polarization diagram


Polarization Electrode reactions are assumed to induce deviations from equilibrium due to the passage of an electrical current through an electrochemical cell causing a change in the electrode potential. This electrochemical phenomenon is referred to as polarization. As current flow continues over time, polarization occurs at both the anode and cathode. Polarization lowers the potential difference between the anode and cathode areas and, by Ohm's Law, the current, I, drops and the corrosion rate decreases until an equilibrium is reached between Polarization and depolarizing effects.

Components 1- Piece of iron and piece of copper 2- Two reference of cu/cuso4 3-soil with conic solution to accelerate the reaction 4-varible resistance, ammeter, voltmeter Procedures 1-prepare two metals (iron and copper) 2-connect the two metals with variable resistance 3- Connect the voltmeter between them 4- Connect reference electrode with each metal 5-take readings of voltage with current as corrosion occur 6- Draw curve as was shown

Experiment (6) Galvanic protection system (Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection)


It is to make use of the potential difference of different materials. When two dissimilar metals are placed in an electrolyte and joined by a conductor, an electric current tends to flow from one metal to another via the electrolyte. Such a current flow will increase the corrosion of the less noble metal and reduce that of more noble one.

Components 1Voltmeter The meter must have a nominal input resistance of 10 megohms to reduce measurement errors. 2Reference Electrode The reference electrode must be clean, stable and repeatable. Most reference cells used for cathodic protection testing of sacrificial anode systems are Copper/Copper Sulfate. 3two pieces of iron ,one piece of zinc and one of copper 4-soil with high concentration Procedure put piece of iron and piece of zinc (to protect iron piece) 2piece of iron and piece of copper (to unprotect iron piece) 3put the three piece in same soil for a week
1-

Observation That the piece with copper corroded but the other not due to Potential shift as shown

Experiment (7) Cathodic Protection Method Impressed Current cathodic Protection


Impressed Current: Direct current supplied by a cathodic protection system utilizing an external power source With this method, the structure is placed in an electric

circuit with a direct-power supply and an anode groundbed.Current is forced to flow from the electrolyte to the structure The system usually consists of AC converter, Groundbed ,Reference cell and connection cables.

Components 1 Voltmeter The meter must have a nominal input resistance of 10 megohms to reduce measurement errors. 2-Reference Electrode The reference electrode must be clean, stable and repeatable. Most reference cells used for cathodic protection testing are Copper/Copper Sulfate. 3three pieces of iron , and one of copper 4-soil with high concentration Procedure put piece of iron and piece of iron (this with impressed current protection) 5piece of iron and piece of copper (to unprotect iron piece) 6put the three piece in same soil for a week
4-

Observation That the piece with copper corroded but the other not

Experiment (8) Demonstration of stray current/interference


The stray current is direct currents flowing in the earth from a source other than that associated With the affected pipeline. To cause corrosion on a pipeline, the stray current must flow onto

A Pipeline in one area flow along the pipeline to another area and leaves the pipeline. Causing Corrosion at area the current leaves. Sources of stray current include: 1. Impressed current cathodic protection system. 2. DC transit system. 3. DC mining and welding. 4. High voltage DC transmission lines Stray Current from CP Installations. Impressed current CP system can cause stray current interference on adjacent pipelines Depending on the location of ground bed, the location of the pipeline. Potential of the foreign pipeline will change along with the power on and off of the protected Pipeline

Procedures 1-prepare two pipe (one with protection and other without protection) 2-the pipe which is protected will protected by impressed current 3-put the two pipe Intersecting from one as shown

4-corrsion will at the end of foreign pipline (red area)

Experiment (9) Anode and cathode ratio If the anode is relatively small, corrosion will be severe. If the anodic area is relatively large compared with the cathode, corrosion will be relatively mild.

Components 123piece of iron and piece of copper wire from iron and wire of copper two boxes contains soil

Procedures prepare two boxes were contain the same soil-1 ((electrolyte make a wire of copper is round over a plate of iron and-2 immersed it in the Electrolyte in the first box male a wire of iron round over a plate of copper and-3 immersed it in same electrolyte in the another box Observation We notice after 6 days that iron corroded but copper not

Experiment (10) Crevice Corrosion


Concentration cells form due to differences in metal (or dissolved gases) ion concentration in the electrolyte between two regions of (same) metal piece(s). Metal in contact with more concentrated electrolyte becomes cathode, metal in contact with more dilute solution becomes anode and corrodes. Electrons flow from the low-oxygen area on the metal which acts as the anode to the high-oxygen area on the metal which acts as the cathode.

Components 1threaded screw with nut 2high concentration soil Procedures

Put the threaded screw with nut in it in soil for a week Observation There will be corrosion between screw and nut