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EMERGING TRENDS IN ICT 1.

Cloud Computing: refers to the use and access of multiple server-based computational resources via a digital network (WAN, Internet connection using the World Wide Web, etc.). Cloud users may access the server resources using a computer, net book, pad computer, smart phone, or other device. In cloud computing, applications are provided and managed by the cloud server and data is also stored remotely in the cloud configuration. Users do not download and install applications on their own device or computer; all processing and storage is maintained by the cloud server. The on-line services may be offered from a cloud provider or by a private organization. 2. Distributed Processing: refer to a variety of computer systems that use more than one computer (or processor) to run an application. This includes parallel processing in which a single computer uses more than one CPU to execute programs. More often, however, distributed processing refers to local-area networks (LANs) designed so that a single program can run simultaneously at various sites. Most distributed processing systems contain sophisticated software that detects idle CPUs on the network and parcels out programs to utilize them. Another form of distributed processing involves distributed databases. This is databases in which the data is stored across two or more computer systems. The database system keeps track of where the data is so that the distributed nature of the database is not apparent to users. 3. Semantic Web: is a "web of data" that enables machines to understand the semantics, or meaning, of information on the World Wide Web. It extends the network of hyperlinked humanreadable web pages by inserting machine-readable metadata about pages and how they are related to each other, enabling automated agents to access the Web more intelligently and perform tasks on behalf of users. The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web and director of the World Wide Web Consortium ("W3C"), which oversees the development of proposed Semantic Web standards. He defines the Semantic Web as "a web of data that can be processed directly and indirectly by machines." 4. Social applications: are socail networks which is a collection of people bound together through a specific set of social relations. 5. Web Application: is an application that is accessed over a network such as the Internet or an intranet. The term may also mean a computer software application that is hosted in a browsercontrolled environment (e.g. a Java applet) or coded in a browser-supported language (such as JavaScript, combined with a browser-rendered markup language like HTML) and reliant on a common web browser to render the application executable. Web applications are popular due to the ubiquity of web browsers, and the convenience of using a web browser as a client, sometimes called a thin client. The ability to update and maintain web applications without distributing and installing software on potentially thousands of client computers is a key reason for their popularity, as is the inherent support for cross-platform compatibility. Common web applications include webmail, online retail sales, online auctions, wikis and many other functions. EMERGING TRENDS IN ETHICS Quality As ICT is rapidly becoming an integral part of the social environment and as our jobs are being transformed rapidly into tapping on keyboards and looking at screens, traditional literacy is no longer sufficientwhat could be called, Iteracy, becomes imperative. Learning to work a PC and surfing the Internet is becoming crucial for functioning in

the workplace, for effective citizenship, for entertainment, and for personal growth. With the rapid change in technology, training cannot be a one-shot affair; we have to be updated continuously to stay abreast of developments. Planning and designing educational systems so that they familiarize students with a technology that is being modified and evolving continuously is not just an intellectual challenge, it is also an economic one. Equity Although in many Western countries, the majority of households have PCs linked to the Internet, considerable differences remain along regional and class lines. Several studies document that boys are more active than girls in using the new technical tools. And though schools also are increasingly well equipped and connected, standards vary within countries with educational level and type. The same applies to teacher training and skills. metadata Reuse: Despite some limited progress in the automation of extracting metadata from data (for example, text categorization and information extraction) the acquisition of the majority of the required metadata is very expensive. It is therefore critical that metadata can be shared and reused not only within organizations, but also across supply-chains. Generality: Metadata in its generality can be very complex and literally be about anything. Any metadata language must be fairly universal. Machine interpretability: Since automation is one of the goals, the metadata language must be fully machine readable (strictly formal).