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Feed-in Tariff Experiences in Thailand

Asia-Pacific Dialogue on Clean Energy Governance and Regulation (20-21 June); ASEAN Energy Regulators' Network Meeting (22 June) 20 Jun 2011 - 22 Jun 2011.

Pallapa Ruangrong ,Ph.D. Thailand Energy Regulatory Commissioner June 20, 2011 pallapa@erc.or.th / pruangrong@gmail.com

Content

About Thailand 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Electricity Demand Power Development Plan Install Capacity and Energy Generation Renewable Energy Promotion Renewable Energy Target Fuel Adjustment and Renewable Energy Adder Power Development Fund & Renewable Energy Promotion Future Renewable Energy Promotion

About Thailand

Population

67 Million 18 Million

Customers

Residential 16 Million 33,217 Gwh Commercial /Industrial 1.6 Million 114,069 Gwh Free of Charge 2,033 Gwh 149,319 Gwh

Transmission Network Transmission

19,190 Kilometer 99%


3

Rural Electrification

Electricity Demand (Net Peak)


MW 25,000
24,000 23,000 22,000
+5.39% +9.32%

Year 2007-2010
2010 : 24,009.90 MW (May10th , 2 pm)

+8.40%

+15.28%

+11.48% +11.51% +2.25% +6.00% +0.12% +2.99%

2010

+10.65% +3.59%

21,000 +12.72%
+2.86% -1.18% -1.13% -0.16% -2.49%

+0.82% +2.05% +4.22% +16.91%

2009

20,000 19,000 18,000 17,000

2007
2009 : 22,044.90 MW (April 24, 2 pm) 2008 : 22,018.00 MW (April 21, 2.30 pm) 2007 : 22,009.20 MW (April 24, 2.30 pm)
-7.96%

2008 -11.90%

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec
4

% = % Growth (MoM)

Share of Power Generation by Fuel Type in 2010

Large Hydro, 3.3% Diesel, 0.03% Fuel Oil, 0.3% Imported Coal, 7.2% Lignite, 11.0%

Imported, 4.4% Renewable Energy, 1.7%

Most of them are Biomass


Gwh

Natural Gas Lignite Imported Coal Fuel Oil

117,941 17,988 11,776 558 42 5,347 7,254 2,763

Natural Gas, 72.1%

Diesel Large Hydro Imported Renewable Energy

Installed Capacity: 30,920 MW Energy Generation: 163,668 GWh


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Power Development Plan (PDP Total Energy Generation 2010) in 2020-2030 Share of Power Generation by Fuel Type By Fuel Type

Yr 2020
Malaysia, 0.27%

Yr 2030
Imported power (Hydro)
Imported power (Hydro)
Renewable Energy, 5.70% Nuclear, 10.98% Imported power (Hydro), 20.34%

Malaysia, 0.4% Renewable Energy, 6.2% Imported Coal, 11.9% Lignite, 7.3% Diesel, 0.01% Fuel oil, 0.0% Natural Gas & LNG, 53.8% Nuclear, 3.2% Imported power (Hydro), 17.2%

Natural Gas & LNG Fuel oil Diesel Lignite Imported Coal Renewable Energy Malaysia Nuclear

Natural Gas & LNG Fuel oil Diesel

Imported Coal, 21.09% Natural Gas & LNG, 39.16% Lignite, 2.45% Diesel, 0.01% Fuel oil, 0.00%

Lignite Imported Coal


Lao PDR 6.5% Renewable Energy

Malaysia Nuclear

Installed Capacity: 44,842 MW Energy Generation: 236,956 GWh RE: 14,000 Gwh

Installed Capacity: 65,547 MW Energy Generation: 347,948 GWh RE: 20,000 Gwh
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Renewable Energy Promotion Plan 2008 2022 (15 Yrs): (Ministry of Energy)

Target (minimum requirements)


2008 - 2011 Types Biomass Biogas Waste Hydro (Mini/Micro) Wind Solar Total 2,800 60 78 166 115 55 3,273 3,220 90 130 282 375 95 4,191 3,700 120 160 324 800 500 5,604
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2012 - 2016

2017 - 2022

The current structure of electricity tariff


EGAT Gen
Power Plant Power Development Plan

EGAT Trans
Transmission line Transmission Development Plan

MEA PEA
Distribution & Retail Distribution Development Plan * Service fee not included

1
Base Tariff
(2.2462 Baht/kwh) (7.46 UScent/kwh)
1 USD: 30 baht

2
Fuel Adjustment Charge (Ft)
(0.9581 Baht/kwh) (3.18 UScent/kwh)
1 2

VAT 7%

TOTAL*
(3.4286 Baht/kwh) (11.39 UScent/kwh)
4

(0.2243 Baht/kwh) (0.745 UScent/kwh) Power purchasing Cost IPPs SPPs VSPP Int
3

PTT
Gas Pipeline Gas Pipeline Development Plan

Fuel Cost

Adder

Power Development Fund

(27%)

(72%)

(1%)

The Adder* for RE generator classified by types of RE


Types of Renewable Energy 1. Biomass Former* Adder (Baht/kWh) Baht/ Current** Adder (Baht/kWh) Baht/ 0.50 Additional for Diesel Substitution (Baht/kWh) Baht/ 1.00 Additional for RE generators in the most 3 southern provinces Baht/ (Baht/kWh) 1.00 Period (Year) Year)

- Installed Cap. >1 MW sources) 2. Biogas (all sources)

- Installed Cap. <= 1 MW

0.30 0.30 0.30

0.30

0.30 0.50 0.30

1.00 1.00

1.00

7 7

non3. Waste (MSW and non-toxic industrial waste) - Fertilizer/Landfill 4. Wind - Thermal Process

- Installed Cap. >1 MW

- Installed Cap. <= 1 MW

1.00

1.00

1.00

2.50 2.50

3.50 4.50

2.50

1.00 1.50

1.00

1.00 1.50

1.00

- Installed Cap. <= 50 kW - Installed Cap. > 50 kW 5. Hydro (Mini/Micro Hydro)

3.50

3.50 0.40 8.00

3.50 0.80

1.50

1.50

10

10 7

- Installed Cap. <50 kW 6. Solar

- Installed Cap. 50 kW - <200 kW

0.80

1.50 6.50

1.00 1.00 1.50

1.00 1.00 1.50

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*The Cabinets resolution on Mar 24, 2009 **The Cabinets resolution on July 20, 2009: Apply to the projects that havent been accepted by the Power Utilities.

Ministry of Energy is in the process of setting new Feed-in Tariff

The current status NEPCs resolution on June 28, 2010


Suspend applications for solar generation Approved 6.5 Baht/kWh for the solar projects that have not been accepted by the power Utilities by June 28, 2010 Resolved to develop Feed in-Tariff instead of the Adder as the incentive program Appointed a committee to collaborate, to monitor the adder program and to review the FiT incentive program for every types of RE
FiT under study by Ministry of Energy
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Renewable Energy Power Purchase Regulations


Contract Firm
SPP

25 Yrs
5 Yrs (Automatic
renewal)

sell to

Non-Firm

EGAT
10 MW < 90

Contract
VSPP

sell to

Non-Firm

5 Yrs (Automatic renewal)

MEA/PEA
MW < 10

Monitored by ERC
Proposal Investors
Condition under Power purchase regulation

EGAT/MEA/PEA

Selection

SPP/VSPP

To ensure fairness for all stakeholders


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Target of RE generation & Effect on Tariff (i)


Type Adder
(Baht/kWh)

Capacity supplied to the Grid (MW)

Year 2008-2011 Target (MW) Effect on Tariff


(Baht/kWh)

Year 2012-2016 Target (MW) Effect on Tariff


(Baht/kWh)

Year 2017-2022 Target (MW) Effect on Tariff


(Baht/kWh)

Biomass <= 1 MW >1 MW Biogas Waste Landfill Thermal Process Hydro


50-200 kW < 50 kW

563.64 0.50 0.30 0.30 19.48 3.45 2.50 3.50

2,800 1,400 1,400 60 78 39 39

0.0482 0.0301 0.0181 0.0008 0.0101 0.0042 0.0059

3,220 1,610 1,610 90 130 65 65

0.0411 0.0257 0.0154 0.0009 0.0125 0.0052 0.0073

3,700 1,850 1,850 120 160 80 80

0.0359 0.0224 0.0135 0.0009 0.0117 0.0049 0.0068

0.06
0.80 1.50

166
83 83

0.0041
0.0014 0.0027

282
141 141

0.0052
0.0018 0.0034

324
162 162

0.0045
0.0016 0.0029

Wind <= 50 kW > 50 kW Solar 4.50 3.50 6.5

0.08

115
23 92

0.0034
0.0008 0.0026 0.0032

375
75 300 95

0.0112
0.0020 0.0063 0.0042

800
160 640 500

0.0239
0.0033 0.0102 0.0166

1.78

55

Total

3,273

0.0696

4,191

0.0721

5,604 5,604 > 7,400 MW

0.0830 0.0830
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Total proposal

The status of RE in Thailand (on-grid: May 2011)


Status* Types
COD PPA signed (waiting to COD) Proposal accepted (Waiting to PPA) Under considera tion

COD Target (20082011)

Total

Biomass Biogas Waste


Hydro (Mini/Micro)

327 51 27 0.86 0.38 16 422

1,573 78 84 6.34 63.5 1,979 3,784

323 35 17 342 196

256 48 352 652 1,058 2,366

2,479 212 480 7.2 1,058 3,249 7,485

2,800 60 78 166 115 55 3,273

Wind Solar Total

913

* RE projects applied for the Adder

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SPP & VSPP: BIOMASS


COD
Type of Biomass Rice husk Bagasse Palm waste Corncob Etc. Total Number of projects 12 30 1 1 12 56 Contracted Installed selling capacity capacity (MW) (MW) 71.3250 533.3000 12.0000 0.1600 123.8560 740.6410 59.4000 168.8000 8.5000 0.1350 70.0360 306.8710

As of Mar 2011
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SPP Firm Contract : Price comparison


(in Baht) CP0 RE SPP: 2001
bt/kW

RE SPP: 1997

RE SPP: 2007

Cogen SPP: 2010

400
CP0 [0.80 (FXt /38) + 0.20]

374
CP0 [0.70 (FXt /27) + 0.30]

624.34
CP0 [0.50 (FXt /37) + 0.50]

420
CP0 [0.50 (FXt /34) + 0.50]

CP

CPt
Bt/kW

EP0
bt/kWh

1.49
[1/106] x [Pt P0] x Heat Rate

0.71
[1/39,400 x [Pt P0] x Heat Rate]

0.88
[26.5877/106] x [(PtCOAL x FXt) P0COAL] x Heat Rate FOB coal price in each month FOB coal price (ABARE & BJ:JPU) in Dec 2006 as the based fuel price= 1,930.475

1.85
[1/106] x [Pt P0] x Heat Rate Natural gas price in each month Natural gas price in Feb 2010 as the based fuel price = = 232.6116

EP

ESt
Bt/kWh

Pt EPt = EP0 + ESt P0

Natural gas price in each month


Natural gas price in Jan 2001 as the based fuel price = 151.4518

Bunker oil price in each month


Fuel oil price in Aug 1995 as the based fuel price = 2.9242

HR

8,600 none none none

8,600 none none none

9,600 0.36 bt/kWh 0.39 bt/kWh applicable

7,950 0.36 bt/kWh none none

FS
REP

Adder Total

The Energy Conservation Fund applicable over 5 yrs

2.84
Less than ~ 2 baht

4.83

3.01

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Purchasing Price from SPP/VSPP


SPP
Cogeneration Firm Contract
CP + EP + FS

VSPP
Renewable energy Firm Contract (Conventional)
CP + EP + FS + REP + Adder EP

Cogen

Renewable energy

Non Firm Contract

Non Firm Contract


EP

Non Firm Contract (Non-conventional/ Cogeneration)


Ws + Ft + Adder

Ws + Ft +Adder

CP=Capacity Payment EP=Energy Payment ; EP = WS (whole sale price) +Ft (Fuel Adjustment charge) FS=Fuel Saving; Max. 0.36 Baht/kWh up to %Primary Energy Saving (PES) REP=Renewable Energy Promotion; 0.39 Baht/kWh

FS=0.36 X %PES/10 16

T R U S T
Energy Regulatory Commission
19th Fl. Chamchuri Sq. Bldg. 319 Phayathai Rd., Pathumwan Bangkok, Thailand 10330

www.erc.or.th
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