Sei sulla pagina 1di 4

Filipino Presidents - Biography and Accomplishments

The Tagalog words for 'president' are pangulo and presidente.

Emilio Aguinaldo (1869 - 1964) The president of the first Philippine republic (1899). He started as a member of the Magdalo Chapter of the Katipunan in Cavite, then was elected president of the revolutionary government at the Tejeros Convention on March 22,1897, and, later, Biak-na-Bato Republic. He proclaimed Philippine independence at Kawit on June 12, 1898. His capture foreshadowed the end of largescale armed resistance to American rule. H

Manuel L. Quezon (1878-1944) The first Filipino president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under American rule. He was president of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. For advocating Filipino-language amendments to the 1935 Constitution, he is known as the "Father of the National Language."

Jose P. Laurel (1891 - 1939) President of the Second Republic from 1943 to 1945. He had been secretary of the interior (1923), senator (1925 - 1931), delegate to the Constitutional Convention (1934), and chief justice during the commonwealth. When World War II broke out, he was instructed by Quezon to stay in Manila and deal with the Japanese to soften the blow of enemy occupation. As president, he defended Filipino interests and resisted Japanese efforts to draft Filipinos into the Japanese military service. Upon return of the American forces, Laurel was imprisoned in Japan when Douglas Macarthur occupied that country He was returned to the Philippines to face charges of treason, but these were dropped when President Roxas issued an amnesty proclamation. In the Third Republic, he was elected senator and negotiated the Laurel-Langley Agreement. Sergio Osmea, Sr. (1878 - 1961) The first Filipino national leader under the American regime as speaker of the Philippine assembly and the second president of the Philippines (1944-1946). Manuel Roxas (1892 - 1948) The last president of the Philippine Commonwealth and the first president of the republic (1946 1948). Elpidio Quirino (18901956) President of the Philippines from 1948 to 1953. As vice president during Manuel Roxass term, he was also secretary of foreign affairs. He became president when Roxas died in 1948. He was elected president in his own right in 1949. Ramon Magsaysay (1907 - 1957)

President of the Philippines from 1953 to 1957. He had been President Quirinos secretary of defense who was instrumental is suppressing the HUK rebellion. As president, he persuaded Congress to pass the Agricultural Tenancy Act (1954). It was during his term that the Retail Trade Nationalization Act was passed. He secured revisions in the Bell Trade Act and was the first president to revise the US Military Bases agreement to bring it more in line with Philippine interests. Carlos P. Garcia (1896 - 1971) President of the Philippines from 1957 to 1961. Remembered for his Filipino First Policy. He was among the founders of the Association for Southeast Asia (1963), the precursor of the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Diosdado Macapagal (1910 - 1997) President of the Republic of the Philippines from 1961 to 1965. He asked Congress to pass the Agricultural Land Reform Code, which abolished share tenancy and installed a leasehold system in its place; it finally passed on August 8, 1963. This was a significant step toward resolving the agrarian problem. It was during his presidency that Independence Day was moved from July 4 to June 12, the date when General Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine independence in Cavite. Ferdinand Marcos (1917 - 1989) President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. Declared martial law on September 21, 1972. After the People Power revolution in February 1986, he was ousted from power and lived in exile in Honolulu, Hawaii.

Corazon Cojuangco Aquino (1933 - ) President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. With Salvador Laurel as running mate, she led the opposition that overthrew the authoritarian government of Marcos, who went into exile after the successful Peoples Power revolution of 1986. She first established a revolutionary government under the Freedom Constitution, later replaced by the Constitution of 1987, which served as the basis for reestablishing democracy Fidel V. Ramos (1928 - ) President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1997. As head of the Constabulary under President Marcos, he was instrumental in helping to design and implement martial law. Together with General Ponce Enrile and the RAM, he defected from the government in 1986 and joined the Peoples Power revolution that ousted Marcos from power. His presidency is remembered for better integrating the national economy in the global scheme. Joseph Estrada (1937 - ) President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001. During his term in office, he was arrested and stood trial at a congressional impeachment hearing on charges of accepting bribes and corruption. While this trial was aborted when the senators voted 11 to 10 not to open incriminating evidence against him, he was ousted from power anyway as a peaceful Peoples Power II revolution arose and called for his resignation

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (1947 - ) The current president of the Philippines. She served as vice president under President Estrada and became president when he was forced to step down for malfeasance, through the Peoples Power II revolution. PGMA has confronted some of the same obstacles as did her father, President Diosdado Macapagal, when he tried to clean up corruption in government. Her government continues enjoy political legitimacy in the face of opposition.

Manuel RoxasIn 1948, Roxas declared amnesty for those arrested for collaborating with the Japanese during World War II, except for those who had committed violent crimes. Elpidio Quirino His six years as president were marked by notable postwar reconstruction, general economic gains, and increased economic aid from the United States. Basic social problems, however, particularly in the rural areas, remained unsolved, and his administration was tainted by widespread graft and corruption. Ramon Magsaysay As president, he was a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War. He led the foundation of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization also known as the Manila Pact of 1954, that aimed to defend South East Asia, South Asia and the Southwestern Pacific from communism. He was also known for his integrity and strength of character. During his term, he made Malacang Palace literally a "house of the people", opening its gates to the public. Carlos Garcia During his administration, he acted on the BohlenSerrano Agreement which shortened the lease of the US Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years. He also exercised the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors. He was also responsible for changes in retail trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in the country. Diosdado Macapagal During his presidency, the Philippines enjoyed prosperity and was the second most developed country in the Asian region, next only to Japan and ahead of the future tiger economies of Asia such as Singapore, Taiwan, and Korea. Allowed the Philippine peso to float on the free currency exchange market. abolition of tenancy and accompanying land reform program in the Agricultural Land Reform Code of 1963 which underscored his endeavor to fight mass poverty. Ferdinand Marcos During his first term he had made progress in agriculture, industry, and education. Yet his administration was troubled by increasing student demonstrations and violent urban-guerrilla

activities. Initially, he had a good record as president and the Filipinos expected him to be one of the best. However, conditions changed in later years and his popularity with the people started diminishing. Proclaimed Martial Law. Corazon Aquino Despite the euphoria following the overthrow of the Marcos government, Aquino faced the massive challenge of restoring the nation. She established a revolutionary government under the terms of a provisional "Freedom Constitution", legally establishing the structure of the government pending the adoption of a permanent, democratically-drafted constitution. Fidel Ramos The first few years of his administration (1992-1995) were characterized by economic boom, technological development, political stability and efficient delivery of basic needs to the people. During his administration, Ramos began implementing economic reforms intended to open up the once-closed national economy, encourage private enterprise, invite more foreign and domestic investment, and reduce corruption. Joseph Estrada Idolized by the poor, he campaigned on a combination of policies that are both market-friendly and designed to reduce widespread poverty in a population of 70 million. Gloria Arroyo Arroyo, a practicing economist, has made the economy the focus of her presidency. Early in her presidency, Arroyo implemented a controversial policy of holiday economics, adjusting holidays to form longer weekends with the purpose of boosting domestic tourism and allowing Filipinos more time with their families President Benigno S. Aquino III confers the Order of Sikatuna with a rank of Datu (Gold Distinction) to outgoing Japan Ambassador to the Philippines His Excellency Makoto Katsura during the farewell call at the Yellow Room, Premier Guest House, Malacanang, Monday, April 18, 2011. The President expressed gratitude to Ambassador Katsura for his significant contributions in strengthening bilateral relations between the two nations during his tour of duty, which was capped by the ratification of the Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement (JPEPA) in December 2008. The Order of Sikatuna is the national order of diplomatic merit of the Republic of the Philippines. It is conferred upon individuals who have rendered exceptional and meritorious services to the Republic of the Philippines, as well as upon diplomats, officials and nationals of foreign states who have rendered conspicuous services in fostering, developing and strengthening relations between their country and the Philippines. Witnessing the ceremony are DFA Secretary Albert del Rosario and Madame Yusuko Katsura.