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TROUGH the Greek language in its claaaical period has been, ever since ancient times, a field of almost constant research and study, 80 that the grammars and treatises written on the subject, if merely catalogued, would fill up many bulky volumes, an 'historical' grammar, tracing in a connected manner the life of the Greek language from claaaical antiquity to the present time, has not been written nor even seriously attempted as yet I. The reasons are not far to seek. First, the origin and prehistoric stages of Greek are matters of vague specu. lation. Next, the ao-ca1led 'poat.c1usical' or Alexandrian and Roman periods have been at all times overshadowed by their smpaasing 'classical' predecessor. Then the poat-Christian or Byzantine and mediaeval ages, far from meeting with any sympathetic interest on the part of classical students, have on the contrary at all times been branded with unmerited reproach and acorn. Finally, modern Greek has not even succeeded in assuming a clear and definite. idea in the mind of classical scholars, or is often made the object of ridicule and discredit. It is true that considerable interest has of late been awakened in 'poet.clasaicaI,' Byzantine, and even modern Greek, and that a number of valuable articles and treatises have appeared
I PKretachmer'a recent volume Einleitung in die GlI80hichte der GrieehiachenSprache (G6ttingen, 1896) is not what the title proteasea to be. It is virtually an attempt to fix the original seat of the Aryan (lndoGermanic) race in Europe and particularly in Germany (p. 60), and then an etbnologicallltudy of the various non-hellenic r&eeII (BGpfJopot) which in prehistoric timea ocaapied the countriea north of Greece and Asia )linor. Aa a matter of fact, there is not a single paragraph in the book about the Greek language in ita historical period.

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on special points; but the history of Greek remains still unwritten, and cannot be written without a previous thorough knowledge of popular Byzantine or, which amounts to nearly the same, of Neohellenic speech. It is obvious that the task of such a work devolves upon native Greek scholars (witness the labours of EASophocles, JlMa.vfJOfl>p~, and GHatzidakis), such native Greek philologists as are equipped with classical education, trained in critical research, and, what is indispensable also, emancipated from national prejudices. I have ventured to undertake such an essay, and having devoted to it more than five whole years, now lay before my readers the fruits of my arduous and unremitting labours. The plan and method of the work are simple. I have collected and critically sifted all information available, and eliminated, as far as possible, all theoretical speculations relating to the Indo-European and mythical stages of the language. On a similar principle I deemed it unsafe to enlarge on the Greek dialects, seeing that not only their actual number and mutual connexion are still matters of speculation, but that in many cases they have not even left adequate relics to illustrate their individual character. As a matter of fact, by the side of Attic they appear to have had but a temporary and local existence, and exerted no consequential iniluence on the subsequent history of the Greek language. These eliminations narrowed the sphere of my investigations principally to the Attic dialect. Not however to the Attic dialect of the fifth and fourth centuries B.O., as the term 'Attic' is generally understood to imply, but to that Greek which has been evolved out of the Attic dialect; and since the entire Greek language from its 'classical' period down to the present time forms an unbroken continuation of classical Attic, the scope of my research still remains wide, covering as it does the whole range from classical antiquity to the present time, and thus includes modem Greek. But referring here to modem Greek or Neohellenic, I must distinctly explain that by this term I understand the popular speech which survives in the mouth of the Greek nation, not the literary or artificial style, which, as far as it deviates from popular speech, has been partly transmitted through the literature, partly revived or created by Neohellenic scribes and journalists, and as such, though indispensable for vi

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practical purposes, possesses only a relative historical value I. I have considered or rather laid under large contribution popular Neohellenic speech, first because it constitutes a lineal and unbroken continuation of c1assical Greek, preserving all the fundamental features of ancient grammar, in its wide sense, and thus throwing much light upon many problems and innumerable details of c1assical Greek; next because, unlike prehistoric or Indo-Germanic Greek, with its conjectural data, modern Greek with its actual data forms a sure basis for scientific or critical research; finally, because this often misjudged language proves to be the oldest living tongue, and thus deserves far more consideration than any Romanic or Teutonic tongue, however old, can claim in matters of comparative philology. My original plan was to adhere as much as possible to the methods and theories generally received in our leading grammam, adopting even the Erasmian pronunciation (to which, when an undergraduate in German universities, I had become a sincere convert), and merely to subjoin to each rule its postclassical and subsequent phases or vicissitudes. But I had not advanced far in my research when I began to light upon phenomena which would not fit in well with the received theories. And as these anomalies steadily increased in number, myoid beliefs, especially that in the Erasmian pronunciation, grew weaker in proportion. For I now began to see clearly that many a theory, old as well as modern, enjoyed almost canonical deference not because of its intrinsic merits, but rather because of the absence of a better theory. It is in this way, and not by a preconceived plan, that the range and system of the present work gradually grew in my hands ; and with my present experience, I am not sure whether it might not have been better still if I had gone even further in the direction of emancipation. For though I cannot claim to have everywhere established my own views to abeolute certainty, I do not feel much surer of many a doctrine now generally accepted as an old established fact. For after all the grammar of the Greek language has not been written. The ancients
1 The proportion and mutual relation of the two forma of diction is synoptically illustrated in my Modem Greek DiotiolW'1 (London, 11195, John .unay), p. ziii f.


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began to write grammatical treatises on 'classical Greek,' that is on the artistic form of Greek which had perhaps at no time reflected faithfully the living language of the people. Those treatises on the one hand were conceived in a more or less philosophical (Stoic) spirit, and on the other considered only the artistic form of the language as portrayed in classical poetry and prose; or, to be more correct, they emphasized only such peculiarities and traits as were present in the standard poets and prose-writers of days gone by, but absent from the ordinary or common' Greek, in utter disregard of the actual speech of their time. These brief compendia then soon rose to canonical eminence, and 80 began to be copied generation after generation down to modern times, when the Greeks, with the capture of Constantinople, lost their national unity. Some learned fugitives among them then came over to western Europe and introduced the rudimentary Greek grammar inherited from their ancestors and laid the seeds of the 'Westem' schooL The first act of this school, still in its infancy, was to do away with the traditional pronunciation-which reflects perhaps the least changed part of the language-and then to declare Greek a dead tongue. In this way, being cut off from all direct connexion with &Q.cient Greek, from all aasistance and advantage offered by the surviving tongue, and finding utterly insufficient the traditional compendia handed over to them, they began to construct a Greek grammar on a novel basis, by laying under contribution the mute ancient texts and adapting their system to the principles and the spirit of their own tongues, that is to the principles of alien languages; just as we are now constructing a grammar of old Egyptian on the basis of the hieroglyphics and after the spirit of modern languages. My deviation from the current system, however, must not imply that I have built my work upon the speculative principles adopted by recent philologists. For while these neogrammarians can duly claim the credit of having overthrown the time-honoured but fundamentally erroneous theory that language is built up on a philosophical system, and that every grammatical phenomenon reflects an operation of the mind, they seem to me to be committing an equally serious mistake in another direction: for philosophy they have virtually substituted Indo-Germanic speculation, and in their zeal to


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prove or uphold the unity of the Indo-European imaginary , Ursprache' or 'Grundsprache,' they are apt to emphasize the little that is generieally common to the whole grouP. and overlook the inDumerable apecific differences and details which after all constitute the real individuality of each distinct language; so that YOUDgel' or ordinary students are often tempted to reduce, by fQft8Cl methods, every deviating detail back to some Indo-European principle. I have considered Greek in its distinct individuality, and striven to the beat of my ability to search the causes of each phenomenon or anomaly rather within its own domain and history than embark in alien and often indemoDStrable specuIatioDL Aa already indicated, my work is based essentially upon classical Attic, and 80 conside1'8 in a concise manner all eI!88J1tial points or rules contained in our school grammars. After the Introduction and the chapter on the Pronunciation which, I trust, wm prove acceptable to many an earnest and unprejudiced student, I take up every grammatical phenomenon and follow its gradual evolution down to the preseDt time. As a matter of course, where it has withstood the in1luences of all put times without notable change, my f;jask has been comparatively easy, since I had either to attest its unbroken continuity through all ages by proofs taken from the intennediate periods, or merely to state the fact-when there could be no reasonable doubt-that the phenomenon under consideration still obtains in modern Greek, meaning of course the popular language of today, in particular 80uthem speech as defined in the Introduction (030 f.). In all other cases where the thread of continuity did not reach the present period, my task has been more dilicult and often very arduous; for I had to search through each succeeding period either for its recovery or for its substitute. It often happened also(as e. g. in the case of the future, the infinitive, eta. ) that its substitute was again lost sight of, and had to be retraced until I reached the ultimate tenninUL It further occurred that I lighted upon such novel phenomena as appeared to be foreign to both the antecedent and subsequent ages. In such cases I had to ascertain whether it was a real novelty or a relic of ancieDt speech studiously excluded from the literarycompoaition. It will be seen then that my main object has been not to pl'OV'e, or to attempt to prove, that ancient Greek is living in ix

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modem Greek, but to show how much of the former is still surviving in the latter, and how much has become extinct, endeavouring at the same time to indicate the period, cause, process, and other attendant circumstances of such a loss. or change. As a matter of course, I do not presume to have said the last word on all or most of these points, seeing that, even in the case of modem Greek, I cannot be reasonably expected to master, in all its details, the entire vocabulary and grammar of every single Neohellenic dialect, and I shall not be surprised it' future investigation should prove that many a phenomenon, designated by me as extinct or peculiar to a particular dialect, still survives in one or more localities of Greece or Turkey. All I can say is that I have carefully studied every detail, and that my constant aim has been to carry on my investigations in a spirit of absolute fairness and candour, without bias towards this or that form or stage of the language. I have therefore made no preferential distinction among classical,, Greco-Roman, Byzantine, and Neohellenic forms of the language, but throughout considered it in its unbroken continuity, where every single stage or form is entitled to the same regard and appreciation, whether it marks, in the literature, a stage of growth or decay. If I have enlarged more fully on the later periods, it is because these stages, being lees explored, presented many points which were partly dark, partly new, partly debatable, and had to be established. Speaking of modem Greek in particular, it will be remembered that besides its intrinsic value for the history of Greek, it possesses the merit of having been the very language spoken by nearly all the commentators and copiers through whom classical literature has reached us. These' Byzantine' senDee (excerptors, commentators, copiers, ete. ), it is well known, often deemed themselves competent to slightly revise or correct the MS before them, and so studiously or unconsciously imparted to the texts copied or commented upon the spelling and diction or even the grammar of their own time, so that an editor or critic now cannot well atford to dispense with Byzantine or modem Greek. Let it be clearly understood then that it' the nature of my subject has brought into evidence many simi larities between ancient and modern Greek, it has been very far from my intention to plead the cause of the latter. Had x

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I wished to do so, I should not have excluded from the sphere of my research the written style, but should, on the contrary, have selected this very form as the standard. The striking similarity then betwsen ancient and this form of modem Greek would have served my purpose and, moreover, greatly facili tated my task. But, as already emphasized, I have not subor dinated my work to any preconceived plan. I accepted the facts and reeuJ.ts as they came, with complete equanimity, with equal gratification and pleasure, whether they tended to confirm or destroy existing prejudices. In founding my work upon classical Attic, and discussing that phase of the language at a certain length, I may be charged with having embodied in the book much matter which is familiar to Greek scholars. ~ however, cannot constitute a serious objection, since the book is intended not for the limited-very limited-number of specialists, but for the wider class of c1aasical students, including clergymen, who would gJadIy have their memory refreshed by a summary repetition of haIf.forgotten details. This method was, moreover, the only practicable one in a work professing to give a synoptical and connected history of the language, for it thus brings out in a clearer relief the traita and relations of its various stages and vicissitudes. Besides it will be found that in numerous cases c1aaaica1 Greek receives new light from its post-claasical and even modem phases. To enumerate here all the new features of the work, or seek to justify them as well as some novel terms (80 g. phonopathy, metaphony, trisyllabotony, tonoclisis, synencIisis, antectaais, revection, secondary subjunctive for optative, ete.) introduced for the sake of precision or convenience, would lead to an unduly long excursus and serve no practical purpose. All these new pointa have been more conveniently explained in their proper pJaoes, and their nature and number can be easily traoed through the copious indexes which have been prepared with great pains, and will, it is hoped, be found very serviceable for all purposes. The only point which requires some explanation here is the adoption of a few abbreviations indicated by the capital letters .A B G H M N PT (see p. xiv and 03). The need for precision and convenience led me to divide the long life of the Greek language into periods larger in number and therefore xi

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narrower in extent than is generally the case in works on Greek history and literature. For I have rather preferred to assign a precise date to a grammatical phenomenon with the risk of ooouionally erring in some detail, than to follow the usual broad periods and thus shelter myself behind such vague generalities as 'classical,' 'post-classica1,' 'Byzantine,' or the like, terms which surely do not convey a quite definite idea. Whenever no precise date was obtainable from the general literature, from the inscriptions or papyri, in assigning to this or that period the first appearance, the spread, or the retreat of a phenomenon, I was guided by a combination of observations. Thus the occurrence of a neologism in one or more writers and its subsequent spread, its deprecation by the Atticists or by the gramma~ its presence in compounds or nicknames, constituted a fairly sure criterion of its having already been current in the living language of the time. Again its growing infrequency in literature, its absence from the unscholarly compositions, its misapplication by the scribes of the time, its frequent replacement by some synonymous neologism, its zealous vindication by the purists, appeared to me unmi&takable signs of its decline or even disappearance from the &poken language. Another point to which I desire to call attention is that I believe I have consulted, in almost every portion and detail, the latest authorities, and duly indicated their share of contribution to a theory adopted or discussed. But in a work covering such a wide space, and containing an immense number of details and references; a work which moreover embraces the living language of to-day, it may well happen that in some of my views I have been anticipated by others not expressly mentioned. In such a case, I believe myself entitled to leniency, especially if the omission lies within the period of modem Greek, because, this being my nativ!il language, it would be unreasonable and even pedantic to expect me to quote previous authorities-provided there were any-on minor points which can be readily and independently explained by any Greek endowed with some training and intuition. To conclude, I am far from presuming to have adequately dealt with my subject. There may be cases of inconsistency, errors of judgement, and errors of fact. However, consideriDg xii

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the nature of the subject, the heaviness of the task, and the multitude of details involved therein, 88 well 88 the scantiness of the material at hand, I venture to believe that, with all its shortcomings, the present work gives a fair picture of the history of the Greek language, and will possess 88 such a considerable amount of interest. At any rate, it represents the fruits of a long and arduous labour, a labour I have undertaken and performed throughout with earnest and unabated zeal in the interest of science and truth. As the MS has been prepared, almost entirely, in the Reading Room of the British Museum, I gladly avail myself of the occasion to return my acknowledgements to its officials of every grade, for their friendly and ever willing assistance in all matters of inquiry. I further own my gratitude to several other personal friends, for their occasional help by way of suggestion or rectification, especially to Mr. William Wills, of the Inner Temple, for reading part of the proofs. Above all I desire to tender my grateful thanks to Miss O. O. Sandwith, a former pupil of mine in Crete, and now a proficient Greek scholar, who in times of great pressure very kindly volunteered to copy more than half the MS, and gave me the benefit of many a valuable suggestion. I finally acknowledge my great obligation to Mr. Horace Hart, the Controller of the Oxford University Press, whose ungrudging willingness to have the entire MS set in type enabled me, during the print, to improve the book in every respect. A. N. JANNARlS.

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xxii xxiii . uxiii

Attic period (500-300 B.o.) Hellenistic Period (300-150 B.O.). Greco-Roman Period (ISO B.0.-3OO oLD.) Transitional Period (300-600 A.D.) Neohellenic Period (600-1900 A.D.)

3 5 6





A.. Script (Alphabet). . Short History of the Greek Letters ~C:ca1 Table of the Letters cation of Letters. C B. Pronunciation I. Pronunciation of the Sonants The DiphthoT in larticular A.. PronunciatIon 0 the Sonants I, B. The Diphthongs av and w IL Pronunciation of the Consonant. A.. Aapiratae and Mediae B. Liquida and Spirants Reading Marb (fI'pocT.,3iOl) Breathings. Accents or AccentualMarb Accentual Terms Accent and Ictua Quantity

ib. ib. ib.

.', V,


24 27 31 36 42 47

61 62 63 65 67 70




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11. PHONOPATHY I. General Phonopathy Cl. Syllabication b. Tonoclisis (Proclisis and Enclisis) Co Grammatical Principles n. Special Phonopathy Cl. Introductory Remarks b. Amplification of Words c. Retrenchment of Words do Metathesis A. Sonantic Phonopathy (Voca1ism) Relative Power of Sonants Synizesis (Contraction, Antectasis) Metaphony B. Consonantal Phonopathy (Consonantism) A. Initial and Medial Consonantism G. Mutes
b. Aapiratae c. Liquids and Nasals. tl. Spnant 11 ,. Primitive Semivowels i and F B. TilI'Ininal Consonantism Cl. Constituent Final Consonants b. Euphonic <Movable) Consonants .111, (11:)

Pd. 71

ib. ib.





81 83 ib. 84
90 91

ib. ib.


93 94 97

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PART SECOND. MORPHOLOGY L AcomBNcB A. The Noun (General Remarks) Inflection of the Article. Decleneion (General Remarks) Principal Rules of Accent First Declension (A-Declension) Historical Remarks (P-N Sing. and PI.) Inflection of N Feminines First Decleneion Inflection of N :Masculines First Declension. Contracted First Declension . Specimen of )!opular N First Decleneion contracted Second DecleDBlon (0- Decleneion) Substantives. . . Specimen of PO'pular N Second Decleneion A~ectives of First and Second Declension. . N mflection of Adjectives of First and Second Declension. . Contracted Second Declension Second Attic DecJensilln Thini Declension Historical Remarks .Consonantal stems Sonap.tic Stems.

ib. ib. 104 ib.


iti. 106 108 109 ib.


ib. ib. 114 lIS 116 ib. 118 ib.

119 121 123


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Accentuation of the Third Declenaion I. Consonantal Stems. Cl. Labial and Guttural Stems. P08:'~ N Infl~tion. of ~b~ an~ Gu~t~ b. Dental Stems c. Liquid Stems Remarks. Popular N Inflection of Liquid Stems Syncopated Liquid Stems II. Sonantic Stems Cl. Substantives in -U' (G. wr) and -lIS', -v (G. -UO~) b. Substantives in -I~, -lIS', 'V, -I (G.....~) Co Adjectives in -ti~J -ti, ...ia do Substantives in -fti~ .. Substantives in -oW and -aW f. Femininea in ... and -*,r (G. -GOr) g. Maaculines in ....r (G. _ ) . m. Elided Claaa 1. Substantives. 2. Adjectives in -'1r (G....or) 30 Proper Names in -~ Anomalous Declension. Caae-like Adverbs. Adjectives (General Remarks) .Ac!.jectives of 1'1m:e Endings Adlectives of Two Endings Adjectives of One Ending Metaplastic Ad..iectives Comparison of Adjectives I. Comparison DY l.r'por, t..r_ IL Com~n by -t.", LlflTor III. Penphraatic Comparison Adverbs of Manner. Pronouns. Personal Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns Reciprocal Pronoun P088e&8ive Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns Other Indefinite Pronouns Relative Pronouns Numerals. I. Ciphers. II. Cardinal Numbers. Synopaia of Cardinal Numbers III. Ordinal Numbers. IV. Numeral Adverbs V. Other Numerals B. The Verb (Conjugation) Remarks. ClauifIcation of Verbs

123 124
ib. ib. ib.

126 12 7 128
ib. ib. ib.

129 130 131



133 134 135 136 1;38 139 141 1:43


144 148 149 I~ 156 158




159 162 166 168



173 174 175 176 178 180


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I. Common or 0- Conjugation I. Sonantic Verba A. Barytone Conjugation. . Accent in the Conjugation I. Prefixea 11. Infb:es Ill. Person Endings B Contracted Conjugation Verba in -a." Verba in -I". Verba in -60. Peculiaritiea of Contracted Verbs Contracted Conjugation in P-N 11. Consonantal Verba. A. Mute Verba . B. Liquid Verba 11. Verba in -MI P-N History of Verba in-p& A. Verba in -{.. )ItVI" B. Reduplicated Verbs in-p& Other solitary Verbs in -p& Irregular Verba I. Anomaly in the Conj1l!{&tion 11. Anomaly in the Meamng


ib. ib. 1 84 ib.

ib. ib.


214 215 216 221 226 232 234 235 237 248, 250 2.5 2
. tb.




282 287
ib. ib.

A. Derivation I. Substantives a. From Verba b. From Substantives c. From Adjectives 11. Adjectives. a. Common Adjectives b. Ethnic Adjectives Ill. Verba . a. From NOUDa. b. From Verbs (also Adverba) IV. Adverba a. From Adjectives b. From Substantivea and Verbs B. Composition. I. Compoaition Proper A. First Conatituent. Peculiarities of the First Constituent B. Second Constituent. H. Copulative Composition

288 290 295

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3!X'b I 301 3?2b I


30 3
ib. ib.

30 5




31 3


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(Introductory) 1. Demon8trative Use IL Ordinary UBe m. E~)~~~a1 Use IV. Pee . Use. Tm: CASES (Introductory) Nominative and Vocative Accusative. Double Accusative Genitive . I. Genitive Proper . n. Ablatival Genitive Dative. I. Datiye Proper n. Dative of Association, In. Instrumental Datiye IV. Locative Dative.

3 18 ib.

322 323
32 5

328 331 3~ 337 341 342

32 7

345 347


Personal Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns P08868IIive PronoUDB Determinative PronouDB Demonstrative Pronouns Relative Pronouns Assimilation or Attraction of the Relative Interroptive Pronouns Jndefimte Pronouns

ib. ib.

350 3.!iI lb. 352 354



356 359 361


Active Voice Passive Voice Kiddle Voice Reciprocal Verba. . Short History of the Future and Aoriat )fiddle TBB PARTIOLES (Introductort Bemarb) A. Prepositions

'a.ra, dtrO !P4!i, a.a

.1, (Is) J. .



365 ib. 367

373 376 379


..apci ftpl.


382 384
386 388 392


..,or wo.


. WE,

., (with AccUllllrtive of Person)

397 399





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B. Conjunctions I. Coordinating Conjunctions A. Copulative B. Disjunctive C. Adversative II. Subordinating Conjunctions CaUBal Particles. Emphatic Pa.rticlea A.saeverative Particles Interrogative Particles. Declarative Particles Consecutive Particles Final Particles Conditiona.l Particles Temporal Particles C. Particles of Negation I. Morphology of the Negations n. Use of the Negations IlL Idiomatic Use of the Negations TIIB1'o8.l:8 Present Imperfect Aorist Perfect. Pluperfect Future. Effective Future Durative Future Future Perfect





408 ib. 409 . 411


412 414 416 419


42 5
ib. 427




438 440 441 442


)[00D8 IN IXDBPDDDT CLAl18B8 (Simple Sentenoea) A. Indicative B. Primary Subjunctive (Present and Future) C. Secondary Subjunctive (Optl!.tive) Imperative )[OOD8 IN DBPBNDDT CLA118_ (Compound Sentences) Declarative Clauses Call1lllo1 Clauses. Consecutive Clauses Final Clauses Conditional Sentences (General Remarks) Peculiarities of Conditional Sentences Conceaive Clauses Temporal Clauses Peculiarities of ..p;' Relative Clauses I. Definite Relative Clauses n. IndeBnite Relative ClaU1811 lDdirect Discourse Interroptive Clause

450 451


453 iD. 454 455 458 461

~b5 1



Anawermg a Question

ib. ib. 471 472


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(Introductory) Subject and Predicate of the Infinitive L Substantival or Articular Infinitive n. Verbal or Anarthroua Infinitive (Historical Survey)


Attributive Participle Predicative Participle Circumstantial Participle Temporal Participle Caoa&l Participle. Conditional Participle Conceaaive Participle Final Partici~1e :Modal ParticIple. Historical Survey of the Participle APPENDICES : QvANTITY IB GBBBX TJ:BJlIBAL COBBOBA.BTI8J1 A.BD ITS IBPLUUOB OB TBB P-N IBPLBOTIOB IV. TmI FtrrURK IBDIOA.TIVE BIBOB.A TnlBs V. TBB MOODS CKIBPLY smOK .A Tnlu VI. TmI IBPIBITIVE OHlBJ'LY BIBCB .A TIJlas

481 482 484 489 420



498 SOO 501 50:3



504 S07 519 541 5S 2 560 568 581 698







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IN order to avoid repetitions and save room, the subjoined abbreviations in italic capitals have been resorted to (cp. 03). They point to the various periods during which a grammatical phenomenon was current. For obvious reasons, the periods thus indicated are to be taken only roundly and approximately. It is further to be bome in mind that the opening and closing parts of each period show only a sporadic occurrence of the phenomenon in question.

L-CUSBla..tL ANTIQUITY.-LITElU.RY STYLE. Clusical Attio period (1100-300 B.o.) IL-POSTCUSSICAL ANTIQUITY.-CHIEFLY LITEBARY STYLE. HBe1leniatio period (800-160 Lo.) Q Greoo-lWman " (Lo. 160-800 A..) T Transitional" (800-600 A..)
m-NEOHELLENIC TDlEB.-POPUL..tR SPEECH. B Byzantine (or NI, i.e. 1at Neohellenio) period (600-1000 A.D.) M Mediaeval (or 112, i.e. 2nd Neohellenio) period (1000-14110 A.I).) N 8rd Neohellenio or Modern period (UII0-1800 .1..11.) [~4th Neohellenio or :Restorative period (1800-p1'8L time).]

A denotes: c1aaical Attio period or diction.

Q "



"Byzantine " Qreoo-Boman" " Hellenistic " "Mediaeval " " Neohellenio" " Po8t-olauical" " TraludtiOD&l

" " " " " (ohie1ly since 1000 A..) "




l &till fully IUl'ViviDg in present popular speech. atilllUl'Viving, but only partially or in a modiflcation. o extinc~ in Modern Greek (preeent popular apeeoh).
t .I..D. :t about.

It. U't, ml!.'-, IVtI, etc., me&llll ut, and, srd, 4th, e~, centurr. . . In phonetio tranBOriptionB ~he vowela 11 i 0 " are to be pronounOBd as in I.u-, and i as GermanJ (Bullish. in rea, vou). Referen08l in &quare braoketa [ ] point to the footnotee.-8ee aIao p. 581.

* ooDjeotural form.


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ABO (XIV~t), see WWagner in p. xxx. .A1:ad. WISB.-.Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wieta. .Akademie der Wissenschaften, M~ A .... Jour. PAiL-American Journal of Philology, Baltimore. Amer. Phil. .A88.-American Philological Association, Hartford. Arc1t. GlotL-Archivio Glottologico Italiano, Roma, 1873, ate. GI.Ascoli, Iscrizioni inedite 0 mal note, Greche, Latine, Ebraiche, ate. Torino a Roma, 1880. MH"" Athens, 1889, ete. 'MHNAlON, Athens, 1872, ete. FD..4.llM, On Greek versification in inscriptions, in Archaeological Institute of America, vol iv, 1888.

AlkImberg, Grieehische 8chulgrammatik, Berlin, 1890. C~ De titu1is Attieae christianis, Paris, 1878. AHBell, A Popular Manual of vocal physiology and visible speech, London, 1889. FGBenstler, De noIninibus in &r- W pro &01 aor (Diss.), Leipzig, 1870 (=GCurtius, Studien ill. 149-204). HBer:9, De participii temporum U8U (Diss.), Bonn, 1884. ABefyaigfrt-VHenry, Manuel pour 6tudier le Sansorit V6dique,
1890. GBerManJ" WillseDSChaftliche Syntax derGrieehiachenSprache, Berlin, 1829. Paralipomena Syntaxis Graeea&, HaIle, 1862.

Paris, 1887-8. ABueemberger, Ueber die Sprache der Preussischen Letten, GGttingen, 1886. Lettieche Dialektstudien, GOttingen, 1885. FBtri:lein, Entwickelungsgeschichte des substantivierten Infini tiva in MSchan2's Beitragen, vii, 1882. FBlcuB, Palaeographie~ ete. (in DInner's Handbueh), MOnchen,
189 2 - - Pronunciation of ancient Greek, London, 1890' - - Grammatik des Neutastamentlichen Grieehisch, Gottin gen, 1896

Digitized by



FBlass, Griech. Gram!, see K1lhner-Blass. ABoe1mer, De Arriani dicendi genere (Diss.), ErIangen, 1885. EBoisacq, Lea Dialecte& Doriens, Paris, 1891. Bova, see APellegrini SBrief, Die Conjunctionen bei Polybius (Progr.), m Theile, Wien, 1891-3. EBnlcke, Die physiologischen Grundlagen der neuhochdeutschen Verskunst, Wien, 1871. KBrugmams, Elements of comparative grammar, London, 1888. Griechische Grammatik', MQnchen, 1890. Zum heutigen Stand der Sprachwissenschaft, Darmstadt, 1885. FBnmot, PNcis de grammaire historique lran9fLise, Paris, 1886. JACBuihon, Recherehes Historiques, Paris, 1845. . Bull. Oorr. HelL-Bulletin de Correspondance Hell~nique, Ath~nes, 1871, ete. EWittBurton, Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in New Testament Greek, Chicago, 1893. AButtmaM, A Grammar of the New Testament Greek, Andover, 1873. By Zeit.-Byzantinische Zeitschrift, MQnahen, 1892, ete. POauer, Dell-Delectus inscriptionum, etc., Leipzig, 1883. - - Hom.-Grundfragen der Homerkritik, Leipzig, 1895B01umdler', A Practical Introduction to Greek Accentuation, and ad. Oxford, 1881. WOhrist, Die verbalen AbhAngigkeitscomposita desGriechischen in Akad. Wiss., MQnchen, 1890. Geschiahte der Griechischen Literatur I (in Dlt1ller's Handbuch), [891. Grundzt1ge der Griechischen Lautlehre, Leipzig, 1859. Metrik der Griechen und Homer', Leipzig, 1879. Olass. Bet1.--cIassical Review, London, 1887, etc. BOollit.e, Bammlung der Griechisahen DialeJrl.lnschriften, Gottingen, 1883, etc. W~, Ueher Aussprache, Vocalismus und Betonung der Lateinischen 8prache', 1868-70. WECrum, Ooptic Manuscripts, London, 1893. OOrusius, Die Delphischen Hymnen, Gottingen, 1894. GOumu8, Griechische SahuIgrammatik, Leipzig, 1888. - - The Greek Verb, London, 1880. - - Principles of Greek Etymology, London, 1886. Curl. SW-Studien zur Griechischen und Lateinischen Grammatik, Leipzig, 1868-78 80uBa, I diplomi Greci ad Arabici di Sicilia, two vols., Palermo, 1869-82 HDDariiBhire, Re1iquiae phllologicae, Oambrldge, 1895.


Digitized by



RDtwesIe, Inscriptions juridiques Grecques, Paris, 1891, etc.

EASDtHOtS, Pronunciation of Greek, London, 1889.
Greek Aspirates, London, 189 BDelbnid; Einleitung in daa Sprachatudium, 188 Vergleichende Syntax der Indogermanischen Sprachen, Straaaburg, 1893. NDosBioB, Beitrlge zur Neugr. Wortbildungalehre, Znrich, 18 79. ADmeg~, Historische Syntax d~r Lateiniachen Sprache, Leipzig, 18'18-81.

ThEcl:iftger, Die Orthographie Lateiniacher Worter in Griechi achen Inachriften (Disa.), Mtlnchen, 1892. AJEllis, The English, Dionyaian, and Hellenic pronunciation of Greek, London, 1876. EEttgel, Die Aussprache des Griechiachen, Jena, 188'1. 'E+HIl Apx.-'Etfn1I"~ 'Apxru.oNry"q, Athens. REtdM, De Aristotelis dicendi ratione (Diss.), G6ttingen,

Quaestiones Grammaticae ad Polybium porti. nentes (Progr.), Crefeld, 1889. Ubster, An Essay on the nature of accent and quantity in Latin and Greek, ete. 3M eel. with Dr. G[ally]'s dissertations, London, 1820. KFoy, Lautsyatem der Grieoh. Vulgaraprache, Leipzig, 18'19. CFnmke, Griechiache Formenleh1'e (bearbeitet von A. v. Dam berg, uta AuJlage), Berlin, 1890' Element. epigraphicea Graecae, Berlin, 18.0. JFtIer8I, Gloeaarium Gr~Hebraeum, Strasaburg, 1890.



V~ Griechiache P~graphie, Leipzig, 18'19. FAfhtJaerl, Hfstoire et th~rie de la mQSique antique, Gand, 1875-81 PGtla, Jlanual of Comparative Philology, London, 1895. HGZedUc1a, Metrik der Griechen und Bomer, in IMoller's Hand bueh, ii, 2nd ad. pp. 679-870' GQoGe, Hermeneumata Paeudo-Dositheana (in Corpus Gloss. Latin. voL ill.), Leipzig. 1892. LGoeUelw, De Polybii elocutione, Warzburg, 188'1. Quaestiones in Appiani et Polybii dicendi genera, Wtlrzburg, 1890, WGoocJeoifI, Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of tbe Greek Verb, London, 1889. A Greek Grammar, London, 189 CG6ltlirtg, Allgemeine Lehre vom Accent der Griechischen Sprache, Jena, 1835-



Digitized by



SGGnen, Handbook to the Grammar of the Greek Testament, London, 1892. TSGreen, A Treatise on the Grammar of the N. T. Greek, London, 1862. Glhiiber, Grundriss del' Romanischen Philologie, Darmstadt, 1886, ete. HGutscher, Die Attischen Grabinschriften, Leoben, 1889-4}o.

JHo.4l8g, A Greek Grammar (ad. by FAllen), New York, 1881}. W Haricl, Bcitrige zur Homerischen Pro80die und Metrik,
Berlin, 1873. Homerische 8tudien, in Wiener Studien, vols. 76. 78. JAHartwAg, Lehre von den Partikeln der Griechischen Spnohe, Erlangen, 1832-3. EHatch, Essays on Biblical Greek, Oxford, 1881}. GHatsidakis, Einleitung in die Neugriecbische Grammatik, Leipzig, 1892. MHecht, Orthograpbisch-dialektische Forsehungen auf Grund Attiecher Insehriften, n Theile, Leipzig, 1885-6 HHeller, Die Absichtssatze bei Lucian (Progr.), Berlin, 1880. V Henry, A Short Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, London, 1890. - - A Short Comparative Grammar of English and German, London, 1893. - - see alao ABergaigne. IGHennatm, De emendanda ratione Graeoae Grammaticae pars prima, Lipsiae, ISoI. Hermes, Berlin, 1866, etc. JHilberg, Das Princip der Silbenwlgung, Wien, 1882. HHirt, Der Indogermanische Akzent, Strasaburg, 1895. OAHoJfmann, Quaestiones Homericae, Klausthal, 1842-8. OHoffmama, Die GriechisehenDialekte, ete., G6ttingen, 1891, etc. FHol#weiasig, Grieehisehe Sehulgrammatik, Leipzig, 1893. FHultsch, Die ErzIlhlenden Zeitformen bei Polybius, ete. (in SIch. Geaellsoh. Wiss.), 1891-3.

OJaeo'by, Spraehe des Dionysius von Haliearnass, Aarau, 1814. MBJames, Apocrypha Aneedota (voL ii. no. 3), Cambridge, ROJebb, Homer: an Introduction to the niad and the Odyssey,
Glasgow, 1892. J&IIr. Helt Stud.-Journal of Hellenic Studies, London, 1880, etc. J&IIr. Phil.-Tbe Journal of Philology, Oambridge, 1868, ete.

FKaelker, Quaestiones de eloeutione Polybiana (Diss.) [=Lpz.

Stud. ill. 211}-302], Leipzig, 1878.

GKat'bel, Epigrammata Graeca, etc., Berlin, 1878 ; see also IGS in p. xxviii.

Digitized by



HAKetMIedg, Sources of N. T. Greek, Edinburgh, 1895. EKing, Introduction to Comparative Grammar, Oxford, 1890' JEKi"" Principles of Sound and ln1lection in the Greek language, Oxford, 1888. AKtrcA1toff. Studien zur Geechichte des Griechischen Alphabets, 4- Ad, Go.teraloh, 1887. FOKirchltoff. Betonung des Heroischen Heumeters, Altona,
KKo'NToc, r~al1l'flll4"'~'f, Athens, 1882. AKopAiic, "ATfIIl'I'fI, Paris, 1828-35~KOYMANoYAHC, l_~

>.Jt(OW dD-qaavplanw




.A..turoiio Athens, 1883.

GKraIt, De Appiani eloeutione (Dias.), Baden-Baden, 1886. FKrebs, Die Prlpositionen bei Polybius (Progr.), Begensburg,
1881. Die pr&poaitioD8&l'tigen Adverbia bei Polybius (Progr.), Regensburg, 1892. Zur Reetion der Casus in der spAteren historischen Gracitlt (Progr.), Begensburg, 1885. P~, Die Griechlschen Vaseninschriften GQtersloh, 1894. - - Eiflleitung in die Geaehichte der Grieehischen Sprache, Gottingen, 1896. KK",fJIbt.&cher, Geschichte der Byzantinischen Litteratur, Mnnchen, 1891 ; also 2- AWl. 1897. FKnmabholr, De praepositionum usu Appianeo (Dias.), Jena, 1885. RKiiINacIu, Die Trishtubh.Jagatt-Familie, etc., Gottingen, 1886. Rbythmus und Indische Metrik, Gottingen, 1887. Utihtl6r, Ausfflhrliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprachet , Hannover, 186g-72. Kil1ttter-BZass, A1l8fohrliche Grammatik der Grieehischen Sprache, ler Band (n Theile), dritte Auftage, Hannover, 1890-2. FKursc1tat, Grammatik der Lithauischen Sprache, Halle, 1876. KZ.-Zeitschrift for vergleichende Sprachforschung, etc. Berlin, 1852, ete. SLampros, Collection de Romans Greca, Paris, 1880. ALong, Homer and the Epic, London, 1893 .ARLaflge, De Substantivis Femininis Graeeis (Dias.), Leipzig, 188 5. SLa BocM, Beitrilge zur Griechischen Grammatik, Leipzig, 1893. WLar/eld, Griechische Epigraphik (in Illnller's Handbuch), 189 2 E.Legrond, Biblioth~que Grecque vulgaire, Paris, 1881, ete. Collection dea monuments, etc., Paris, 1869, etc. 'Wlf.lMItlBGr, The Latin Language, Oxford, 1894. Lp.. SW-Leipziger Studien, Leipzig, 18'18, ete.


Digitized by



CLis1cotJius, Ueber die Aussprache des Griechischen, Leipzig,

18 2 5. RA.LpitA8, Grammatische Untersuchungen nber die Biblische Grlcitlt, Leipzig, 1863. Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, Leipzig, 1891. CALobecJ; Pathologiae Graecae sermonis elementa, Berlin, 1853 A.LudttJich, Aristarchs Homerische Textkritik, Leipzig, 188.-5.

JNMadtJig, Syntax of the Greek language, London, 1880. TMalitza, De dictione Polyaenea (Diss.), Berlin, 185 MMathiae, A copious Greek Grammar, London, 1832. ~IMAYP~pY~HC, ~oJ.p.uw la-roplo.'/l 'Iii'Il 'Ell'1"~ 'Y~' lJ, l.p:UfW'O, 18 71 FMaa: MalZer, The Science of Language, London, 1891. AMei"9ast, Ueber das Wesen des Griechischen Accents, etc., Klagenfurt, 188o. AMesnil, Grammatica quam Lucianus secutus est, Stolp, 186 7. GM. .', Griechische Grammatik, Leipzig, 1886; also 3te Ad, 1897. Albanesische Grammatik, Leipzig, 1888. LMeger, Vergleichende Grammatik der Griech. und Lat. Sprachen, Berlin, 1861-5. Griechische Aoriste, Berlin, 1879. - - AA.. un Griechischen, Berlin, 1880. WMeyer-Lilb1re, Gram. d. Romanischen Sprachen, 1890- FMistelli, Ueber Griechische Betonung, Paderbom, 1885-7. Milth.-Mittheilungen des Arch. Instituts, Berlin, 1876, etc. TMommsen, Beitrl1ge zur Lehre der Griechischen Prlpoaitionen, Frankfurt, 1886-95. DBMonro', A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect, Oxford, 1891. GMOI"08i, L Studi sui dialetti Grechi della terra d' Otranto, Lecce, 1870. IL Dialetto Romaico di Bova di Calabria in Arch. Glott. iv. 3-116. RMt1cke, Zum Arrians-und Epiktet&Sprachgebrauch (Progr.). DfeId, 1887. FMullach, Grammatik der Griech. Vulgarsprache, Berlin, 1856. HMt'iller, Du VerhAltniss des Neugriechischen zu den Romanischen Sprachen, Leipzig, 1888. HrMtUler, De Teletis elocutione (Diss.), Freiburg i. B., 189 1 HCMtlller, Historische Grammatik der He1lenischen Sprache, Brill, 189 1 JEPMtlller, Handbuch der K1assischen Alterthumswissenschaften (IL Ad), Nordlingen, 1891.

lIMtZller, see Jla.x Mtlller.

Digitized by




Newe JaAr.-Neue Jahrbtlcher der Philologie, Leipzig.

H~, Die Hymnen des Rigveda, 1888. HOsthoff, Zur Geschichte des Perfects, etc., Strassburg, 1884.

'Epa.tTI"/(c,,, &.'II'08c{b_, Athens, 1889. HPaul, Principles of the History of Language, London, 1888. APellegrirri, n dialetto Greco-ca1abro di BoY&, Torino, 1880. GJP~ An Essay on the Pronunciation of Greek, London, 18H 'AiCTOlp, Athens, 1861-3. P1tilologus, Zeitschrift for Claasisches Alterthum, Gottingen, 1869, ete. BmL Btwd.-Phonetische Studien, Marburg, 1887, ete. nAATOlN, Athens, 1878, ete. SPorliMs, Grammatica linguae Graecae vulgaris, Paris, 1889. Tb.Pt-eger, Inscriptiones Graecae metricae, Leipzig, 1891. WPrelI.toitI, Etymologisches Worterbuch der Griech. Sprache, Gottingen, 189 2 JPBidIGri, Eaaais de grammaire historique n60-grecque, Paris,

8nAlIAA"'I''1''PCUC&rov~, B~


~ ~ 'Ell,,~ 'lrfXXl>op4fJ

1886-9. SReiMch, Trai~ d'Epigraphie Grecque, Paris, 1885. BmIe de PAilologie, Paris, 1877, ete. Bet1ue des Etudes Grecques, Paris, 1888, ete. BiM. MtI8.-Rheinisches Museum for Philologie, Bonn. Rllein1Iardt, De Infinitivi cum articulo conjuncti usu Thucydideo (progr.), Oldenburg, 1894. JRitter, De titulis Graecis Christianis, Berlin, 1880. ESRoberls, Introduction to Greek Epigraphy, Cambridge, 1887. 1lRoehl, see IGA on p. xxviii. LRoss, Inscriptiones Graecae ineditae. Naup1iae, 1834-45. VRost, Griechische Grammatik (7te Au1I.), Gottingen, 1856. ABiJ.ger, Die Prapositionen bei Pausanias, Bamberg, r 889. - - Studien zu Malalas [Prepositions only], Bad Kissingen, 1895. AA~KMAptOC, T4 KlnI'puII<4, Athens, 1890-1. AIISayce, The Principles of Comparative Philology, London, 188S1lSc1uua6, Beitrlge zur historischen Syntax,Wtlrzburg, 1882, etc. J8che.ftlein, De Praepositionum usu Procopiano (Progr.) Regensburg, 1893. lI8cAitadler, De attractionis pronominum relate usu Aristotelico (Diss.), Breslau, 1892. SCScAirliU, Anleitung zur Kenntniss der Neutest&m.entlichen Grundspl"aChe, Erfurt, 1863. Grundznge der Neutestamentlichen Grlcitat, Giessan, 1861.

Digitized by



WSckmid., Der Atticismus, Stuttgart, m Theile, 1887-93. HSckmidt, De Duali Graecorum, Bresslau 1893. KEASckmitU, zur Geschichte der Grammatik, Halle, 1859. Ph8chmitU, Syntax des Histor. Herodian (Progr.), Gtltersloh, 18 9 1 PhSckmidt, Die Rection der Casus (Progr.), Gatersloh, 1893. PWSckmiedeZ, see GBWiner. FrSckoe~ De accentu linguae Latinae, etc. (in Acta Soc. Phll. Lips. voL vi.), Leipzig, 1875-6. HEM&huckardt, Ueber die Lautgesetze, gegen dieJunggramm&tiker, Berlin, 1885. Der VocaIismus des V uIgIlrlateins, Leipzig, 1866-8. ASchfJtJ!, Historia Alphabeti Attici, Berlin, 1875. LSchwabe, De Deminutivis Graecis et Latinis, Giessen, 1859. FHABcrit1ener, A plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, fourth edition, by EHiUer, London, 189 ESeelmtmtt, Die Aussprache des Latein, Heilbronn, 1885. ESeUlel, De usu praepositionUID Plotiniano quaestiones (Dies.), Nissae, 1886. HSeiliflg, Ursprung und Messung des Homerischen Verses (Progr.), Manster, 1887. ThDSegmou,., Introduction to the language and verse of Homer, Boston, 1889. ESivers f , Grundztlge der Phonetik, AWlage, Leipzig, 1893. WWSkeat, A Primer of English Etymology, Oxford, 1892. ANlKIAC, IIc,x ~ Kp,.".~ &aAi1CTOV, Athens, 1891. Soc. }hoL Lit-Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis, Middletown-Boston, U.S.A., 1882, ete. B&koloosky, Die Musik des Griechischen Alterthums und des Orients, r887. I(J)KpATHc, Athens, 1874, ete. N8~iaflO8, Grammaire du Grae vuIgaire (before 1550), 2nd ad. ELegrand, Paris, ISH.


EA8op1aocles [real name E~~ A,"""*~], Gloss. A Glossary of later and Byzantine Greek (in Memoirs of Amer. Acad. voL vii.), Boston,

1860. Lete. A Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine periods, New York, 1887. Grrmt. A Romaic Grammar, Hartford (U.B.A.), 18.2. Grrmt.1 A Romaic or modern Greek Grammar, new edition, Boston, 1857. FSpohr, Die Priposition8D bei M. Aur. Antonin (Disa.), Oasael, 189

Digitized by



HBteintkaZ', Geechichte der Spracbwissensehaft bei den

Griechen und Romern, 2 te Auflage, Berlin, 189-1. JSIiih, De Polybli dicendi genere (Diss.), Erlangen, 1880. - - Quaestiones in Appiani et Polybli dicendi genus, Wl1rzburg, 1890. FrBtoll, Lateinische Grammatik t (Lautlehre und Formenlehre, in Dl11ller's Handbuch), M11nchen, 1890' - - Historische Grammatik der Lat. Sprache (Einleitung, Lautlehre, Stammbildungslehre),Leipzig, 1894. JStonn, Englisehe Philologie, lleilbronn, 1892. GStraehler, De caesuris versus Homerici cap. I, Breslau, 1889. WStudemtmd, Anecdota varia, Berlin, 1886. FStun, De dialecto Macedonica et Alexandrina, Leipzig, 1808. FSusemikl, Griechische Literaturgeschichte in der Alexandrinerzeit, Leipzig, 1892. H8toeet, History of English Sounds, Oxford, 1888. - - A Primer of Phonetics, Oxford, 1890.

FTec1mIer, Phonetik, Leipzig, 1880, ete. EMT1Iompson, Greek and Latin Palaeography, London, 1894. A.T1tumb, U ntersuchungen l1her d. Spire Asper, Strassburg, 1889. - - Handbuch der Neugriechischen Spracbe, Strassburg, 1895 [Accidence only]. HUSetIe1', Acta S. Marinae et S. Ohristophori, BOnD, 1886. Der heilige Theodosius, Leipzig, 1890. Altgriechischer Versbau, Bonn, 1877. Ueher den Homerischen Vera, BOnD, 1886. Legenden der heiligen Pelagia, Bonn, 1879. WVeitch, Verbs irregular and defective, Oxford, 1887. PV'tereCk, Sermo Graecus, Gottingen, 1888. WVtetor, Phonetische Studien, Marburg, 1887, ete. JV'tItau, Etude sur le Grae du Nouveau Testament, Paris, 1893. GVogrlu, Grammatik des Homer. Dialekts, Paderbom, 1889. JWackernagel, Altindische Grammatik, L Lautlehre, Gottingen,
1896 BWagner, Quaestiones de epigrammatis Graecia grammaticae, Leipzig, 1883. WWagner, see p. xxx. WWattenbach, Anleitung zur Griechischen Pa1aeographie, Leipzig, 1895. Alb Weber,lndische BeitrAge zur Geschichte der Aussprache des Griechischen, in Monatsherichte Akad. der Wis& zu Berlin, 1871, pp. 613-632. OWeise, Die Griechischen WGrter im Latein, Leipzig, 1882. OWesselg, see p. xxx. BW~ Al1gemeine Metrik, Berlin, 1892.

Digitized by



Die Musik des Griech. Alterthums, Leipzig, 1883. Theorie der Musischen Ktlnste der Hellenen (m Theile), Leipzig, 1885-93. JBWheeler, Der Griechische NominaIaooent, Strassburg, 1885. WD W7&ittJey, A Sanskrit Grammar (2nd ad.), Leipzig, 1889. Wien. Stud.-Wiener Studien, Wien, 1879, etc. UWilamowits(-Moellendorf), Homerische Untersuchungen, 1884. GBWimr, A Treatise on the Grammar of New Testament Greek, Edinburgh, 1882. GBWiner-Schmiede~ Grammatik des Neutest&mentlichen Sprachidioms, ~ttingen, 1. T.hell, 1894. JWinteler, NaturIaute und Sprache, Aarau, 1892. JWitr.lens, Betonungssystem der Griechischen Sprache, Teschen, 1889.


OZacket', Die Aussprache des Griechischen, Leipzig, 1888. EZamke, Die Entstehung der Griechischen Literatursprachen,
Leipzig, 1890.

Zeitsc'hrijt fUr vergleichende Sprachforschung, see KZ.


Digitized by



. . In this list inscriptions, papyri, and only such P-N texts are f!:n as might prove unfamiliar to general students. On the other d, such texts (inscriptions, papyri, etc.) as are sca.ttered in various modem works and periodicals are given in the list of ModIm . WcriB consulted (p. xv. if.) All missing P-B authors are those given in EABophocles' Greek Luicon of the Roman and Byzantine periods (New York, 1887)

.ABo, Das ABO der Liebe (XIV-XVtat), WWagner,

18'19 .Abgari ~ (T-B), in RALipsius' Acta Apost. apoor. 1891, P279-28 3 .Abra1w.n, 8vcrla.m'A~pa4p.(1535t), ELegrand, BibL i. 226-268 .Acta Attdreae (T), MBonnet, 1895. Nem (T-B), HAchelis, 1893. -Pauli (V-VI~t), in RALipsius' Acta Apost. apoor. -Paul. et TII:laB (T-B), in RALipsius' Acta Apoat. apoor. 1891, p. 235-2'1 2 --Petri et Pczuli (V-VI~t), in RALipsius' Acta Apost. apoor. p. 1'18-222. - - Pilati (T-B), in CTischendorf's Evang. apoor. p. 210-332. T1aaddaei (T-B), in RALipsius' Acta Apost. apoor. 1891, P2'13-8 --Thomae (It), MBonnet, 1883. - - Xantlaippae et Polyxenae {m-IVtat),in MRJames's Apocr. aneed. 1893, p. 58-85. Aelian {210t}, BHercher, 186.-6. Agat1&ias (560t), BGNiebuhr, 1828. AlcheMists, Greek (parts I-IV [=p. 2-319] T-Bj part V [po 321 fr.] B-M), MBertholet " ChBuelle, 188'1-8. AfJItJIOfri08 (39ot), Leipzig, LKulencamp, 1822. A~ra Pilati (T-B), in C'l'ischendorf's Evang. apoor. p. 'US..9 AtIfIa CotMena, see Cornnena. AfIIalficista in Bekkeri Aneedota, p. '17-1 16. Apoc. .Mar., 'A7rOKdAvt{I,'I: Tij'I: 'A'Y~ ~onSKOV 'n,M. "iIW KON1ucQlV (T-B), in MBJames' Aneedota, p. 115-126. Apoc. 8edrach (T-B), ib. p. 130-137. A~, 'An.cOll'O'l: m M~ (1534t), in ELegrand'a BibL ii. p9.- H2 Apollodoros of Athens (1.0 B.e.), JBekker, 1854.

Digitized by



ApoZloni08 Dyscolos (150t), JBekker, 1813. A~hthegmata Patrum (500t), JMigne, 45. Appiataos (140t), LMendelssohn, 1879-81 U'APABANTINOY, lvlloy?, 8-qp.w8Wv tf.rrp.rI.TWV 1'7jt 'Hntpov, iv 'A9r/vlur. 1880. Aristicles Aeli08 (16ot), GDindorf. 1829. Artemidoros (180t), RHercher, Leipzig, 1864. Asin. lvva.t&pwv TOV T'P-7}p.Cvov yaMpov (XVI~), in WWagner's Carmina, p. 112-123. Asin.~.,ra8&pov .\6KOV Kill ~ 8"'1Y7JCT,c;~paIa,in WWagner's Carmina, 12 4- 14. Athenaeos (200t), GKaibel, Leipzig, 1887-9. Babri08 (m'tt), MGitlbauer, Wien, 1882. Barnabas' epistle (7O-130t), in JBLightfoot's Apost. Fathers, p.243-265. Bekk. An.-mekkeri Anecdota Graeca, iii voll. Berlin, 1814-2 r. Belis., -P,p.&&. 'ftp). Br.\w-aplov (xvt), in WWagner's Carmina, P34 8-37 8 Belth., a,~c; ltalpnw BE.\6&v8pov TOii 'PflJp.alov, in ELegrand's BibI. i. p. 125-168. Bull. Cow. Hell.-Bulletin de Correspondance HelMnique, Ath~nes, 1877, ete. B0i8s. AfIeCd.-Aneodota Graeca ed. JFBoissonade, 5 vola. Paris, 1829-33 Callim., TO. KaN Kalllp.axov Kal XJI1HTOPp07Jv(XI-xnt), SLampros, 1880. OalZiniCOB Vita s'Hypatii (45ot), Leipzig (Teubner), 1~95. [Callisth.], Pseudo-Callisthenes, in the V ten SupplBd. der Jahrbtlcher ft1r Class. Philologie, Leipzig, 1871. Cananos, loannes (1430t), mekker, Bonnae, 1838. Cedrenos, Georgi08 (1060t), mekker, Bonnae, 1838-9. OGL, Corpus Glossariorum Latinorwn, ill, ed. GGoetz, Leipzig, 1892 Ohoeroboscos, Georgios (=550t), AHllgard, Leipzig, 1894. Ohromcon paschale (630t), LDindorf, Bonnae, 1832. OAron. Mor., XpoIflKOV TOV M~fIJ<; (XInt), in JACBuchon's Recherches Historiques, Paris, 1845. Ohtysostom08, Ioannes (390t), JMigne, 47-64. OIA, Corpus inscriptionum Atticarum, Berolini, 1873, ete. OIG, Corpus inscriptionum Graecarum, Berolini, 1828-77. 0imIam0s, loannes (1160), AMeineke, Bonnae, 1836. Clement of Alexandria (195t), GDindorf, 1869. - - of Rome, I. Epistle (95t), in JBLightfoot's Apost. Fathers, p. 5-4. Olementina (mft), PLagarde, Leipzig, 1865. HColla, Sammlung dar Griechischen Dialectinschriften, GOttingen, 1883, ate. xxxiv

Digitized by




Omattena, Anna (1130), vol. i JSchoppen, BODD&e, 1839; ii.

AReifTerscheid, BODn&e, 1878. (1520), Venice, 1713 [and frequently since; editions issued in Greece are worthless]. JAOramer, Aneedot& Graeca, Oxonii, 1835-7.

Didac1ae (9o-uot), in JBLightfoot's Apost. Fathers, p. u 7-22S. Dig., ~,~ AIC(JlTO.<; (XII-XIn~), ELegrand, BibL vi. 1892. Dig.I" " in SLampros' Collection, 111-237.
Diplomi Greehi, see SCusa and GSpata. GDiUeflberger, Sylloge Inseriptionum Graeearum, Lipsiae, 1883, etc. DIIeas (XV~), JBekker, BODD&e, [834.
'E~HIl~<; .AfXcuoMycmJ,

Et. M., Etymologicum magnum (B), ThGaisford, Oxford, 1868. Athens, 1883, etc. ~tos (So-I30t), HSehenkI, Leipzig, 1894. Eppanios, Bishop of Cypros (37ot), FOehler, Leipzig, 18S9-6I. -vitae (V-VI~), Migne, 41. . Ewlngelium Thomae (T-B), in CTisehendorf's Evangelia Apocrypha (2nd ed. 1876), p. ,,0-63. EU89bi08 of Caesaria (315t), LDindorf, Leipzig, 1867-71. Etdhymii vita (:900t), C. de Boor, Berlin, 1888.

(Soot), NNiclas, Leipzig, 1781; alsoHBeekh, [89S. (XV~), in ELegrand's Bibl. i. p. 169-225. 9ANClT&lCOV nj<; "P080v in WWagner's Carmina Graeea, P3 2 -5 2 Gwgios Monachos, see GMoraac1ao8. GIB, Greek inscriptions in the Br. Museum, London, 1874-93. Gloss. Laod., Glossaire Greeo-Latin (MS IX~), par JMiller in Notices et Extraits, xxix. (1880), p. 25-230. JlGlNCdB (lIsot), in ELegrand's BibL i. p. 18-37. (JntJI Lmwre P~s (3[ot), in CWessely's Grieeh. Zauberpapyri, ADd. Wisa., Wien, 1888, P.44-u6. Grtgori08 Naeianzen08 (37ot), JMigne, 3S. tmgOri08 of Ngssa (375t), JMigne, H. Gr. ~ Br. Mus.-Catalogue of Greek Papyri in the British Museum, ed. by FGKenyon, London, 1893. Gr. UrTr.. Berlin-Aegyptisehe Urkunden aus den k6niglichen Museen zu Berlin-Grieehisehe Urkunden (parts [-XI), Berlin, 1892-3. EGtotyillAs BVHead, Historia numorwn, Oxford, 1887. B_, Herodian08 the grammarian (J60t), ad. ALentz, Leipzig, 186 7-70 H_ Hm, Hel'Odianos the Historian (u5t). Heliodoros (39ot), in GAHirschig's Erotici Scriptores, 1856. Berraas (14ot), in JBLightfoot's Apost. Fathers, p. 297-402.

Digitized by



"Epp.oV&4ICoV<; Ti<; 'I.\ui8o<; (13233S), ELegrand, 1890. 1GA, Inscript. Gr. antiquissimae, 00. HBoehl, Berolini, 1882. 1GB, Inscriptiones Graecae Megaridis Oropiae Boeotiae, 00. GDittenberger, Berlin, 1892. 1GB, Inscriptiones Graecae Sieiliae et Itallae, etc., 00. GKaibel, Bero1ini, 1890.



JacObi protevangelium (1'), in CTisehendorf's Evang. apoer.

p. I-SO.

Jan". Kreta's VolksliOOer in der Ursprache mit G10ssar von

ANJeannaraki (=Jannaris). Leipzig, 1876. Ignatios, Epistle of (IV~t), in JBLightfoot's Apost. Fathers, p. IOS-134. 1njort., A~ 'IIY1f'1YOprff'u<Ot 'll'fpl 8vaTvxta<; "Ill rimJXta<; (Xll:xnI~), in SLampros' Collection, p. 289-32 I. 1t-enaeos (180t), JMigne, 7.

GKaibel, Epigrammata Graeea, Berolini, 1878. (See also IGS.) FGKenyon, Classical Texts from Papyri in the British Museum, London, 1891.

C.Leemaras, Papyri Graeci. ii, Leyden, 1885. ELegrand, Biblioth~ue Greeque vuIgaire, Paris, vi vola. Paris,
1881-1892 Collection des Monuments, ete., Paris, 1869, ete. Leo Diaconos (980t), CBHase, Bonnae, 1828. Leo Sapiens (890t), JMigne, 107 .Leontios of Neapolis (6sot), Vita Ioannis, HGezIer, 1893; Vita Symeonis, Migne, voL 93 .Lesbonax (II-mft), LKulencamp, Leipzig, 1822. Louvre Papyri, in Notices et Extraits, vol xviii. Paris, 1865. JLydos (S2St), JBekker, Bonnae, 1837.
Macari08 (:l:39ot), JMigne, 34. JPMahaJfy, The Flinders Petrie Papyri, Dublin, 1891-2. JMalalas ( 550t), LDindorf, Bonnae, 1831. RMeister, Die Grieehisehen Dialekte, etc., Gottingen, 1882, ate. KJlei8terMns', Grammatik der Att. Inschriften, Berlin, 1888. Meander Hist. (590t), LDindorf, in Hist. Gr. min. ii. 1-131. Michaelis Archangeli miraculum (:l:soot), MBonnet, 1890. Mitth., Mittheilungen des.ArchaeoL Instituts, Berlin, 1876, ate. Mow (:l:200t), GAKoeh, Leipzig, 1830. GMonaeh08 (8sot), JMigne, 110. JMoscho8 {:I:610t}, JMigne, voL 87 ill. M_ Gr., Musiei Soriptores Graeei, ed. CJanus, Lipsiae, 1895. Nanatio Josephi (P-B), in O'l'ischendorf's Evang. apocr. po 459-no.

Digitized by



.NClt"f'atio ZOBimi (V- VI~t), inMRJamee' Apoor. aneed. P.96-108. Nilos (420t), JMigne, '19. NOMOCanon (109ct) ad. CoteleriU& Notices et Extraits des manuserits, etc., Paris, 186S, ate. NT, New Testament, OTischendorf.Gebhardt, Leipzig, 1891. Olppiodoros (4sot), Bonnae, 1829. PallGdios (420t), Historia Lausiaea, JMigne, 6S. APassoIo, Popularia earmina Graeciae reeentioris, Leipzig, 1860. PTaotios (890t), JMigne, '101-104 ; Le:ricon, SANaher, 1864-5 .P1m.ustzes (14'1'1t), IBekker, Bonnae, 1838 .P1&rynieh08 (18ct), GRutherford, London, 1881. PlJsiologos (XIV-XV~t), ChGidelELegrand, 18'13. Picat., 'I.wov llUCCITWpov 7rOlTJJ14 (XVI~), in WWagner's Carmina, p. 224- 2 4 1 Pilati acta (T-B), in CTisehendorf's Evang. apoor. P.210-332. - - ~ra (T-B), ib. p. H5-49. paradosis (T-B), ih. p. 449-55.: ~s (180t), WoelfBin, 1860. Polgcarp's Epistle (IS5t), in JBLightfoot's Apost. Fathers, p. 168-1'13 Poric., a,W~ llfllpuM.Oyov (XII-XIIl\l.'), in WWagner's Carmina, p. 199-202 Porphyrogennetos, Constantinos (950t), mekker, Bonnae, 1829-40 Prodaoros (soot), ThZahn, Erlangen, 1880. Procopios (S40t), GDindorf, Bonnae, 1833-8. Prodromos, Theodoros (XII~), in ELegrand's BibL i. 38-10'1. ProteImlgelium Jacobi (m'2t), in CTisehendorf's Evang. apoor. p. I-SO. JlPsellos (IOSOt), JMigne, 122. Pul., llov~ (XIV~t), in WWagner's Carmina, p. 1'19-198.


a,W'~ ~~ TWV

ftTpawO&"v (""V (1365), in WWagner's Carmine, p. 141-1'18.

Boboam, at&rl

So>.o~ (XII~), in ELegrand'. BibL i. 11-16. lIRoeAl, see IGA. LRoss, Inscriptionee Graeeae ineditae, Naupliae, 1834-4S.

&diL, ""~ la.xAlq rpat/* (XVI~), in WWagner's Carmina, p. 62-106Sol Ps., .~ lo.\o"wJITW (S0-6o Do c.), OGebhardt, Leipzig, 189S &puaginta, CTisehendorf, '1th ed., Leipzig, 188'1. J81cyZiUee (1080), mekker, Bonnae, 1838-9. ~(XII~), in ELegrand'sBibL Lp. 1-10. /J.poK., A>..ct{ov Kol'V7JVOV 1r'OlTJJ14 7rIIflCI&VETucOV (XIII-XIV~), in WWagner's Carmina, p. 1-2'1.

Digitized by



Spa...' ditto in I1u..Tlo" ~ 'IO'TO~ "al "E6vo.\oy~ "ETcuprlar, v. 17, p. 105-121. G~a, Diplomi Grecbi, inediti, etc., Torino, 1870. JStaphidas (MS of '384t), in ELegrand's Bibl. ii. 1-27. WStudemtmtl, Anecdota varia, Graeca et Latina, Berlin, 1886. GSgnkeDos (805t), GDindorf, Bonnae, 1829. 8gnesios (430+), JMigne, 66.

Test. XII., Testamenta duodecim Patriarcharum, J1rfigne, 2. Thdn., Theodotion (IIz:t), J1rfigne, 15. Theodoretos (457t), JMigne, 80. Theodoros Lector (525t), JMigne, 86, I. 77reodosios of Scythopolis (553t), JMigne, 86, I. Theuphanes (800t), O. De Boor, Leipzig, 1883-5. Tk~hanes continuatus (950t), JBekker, Bonnae, 18S8. Theuphylootos (I loot), O. de Boor, Leipzig, 1887. Thomas Magister (ISIO), FRitsehel, Halls, 1832. FTrinchera, Syllabus Graec. membranorum, etc., Neapoli, 1865. Teetees, loannes (U50),ThKiessling, Leipzig, 1826.
Villois. AfIeCd.-Aneedota Graeca, ed. mGVilloison, 2 vols., Venetiis, 1781. Vita Eptt>hanii (V-VI~), JMigne, 41. - - Euthymii (~oo), O. de Boor, Berlin, 1888. 8A, vita S. Andreae Sali in Acta sanctorum, mense Mai t. vi corollarium I"-Ill".

WWagner, Das ABO der Liebe


(IV~t), Leipzig, 1879. Mediaeval Greek Texts, London (in Phil. Soc.). 1810. Carmina Graeca medii aevi, Leipzig, 1814. - - Trois pOOmes Grecs du moyen Age, Berlin, 1881. dWessely, Die Pariser Papyri des Fundes ElFayun in Akad. Wiss., Wien, 1889 (voL 31, 2). Grieehische Zauberpapyri (3IO+), ib. voL 36, 2 (1888), p. 1-208. - - Neue Pariser Papyri (310t), ib. voL 42 (I89S). - - Einige Urkunden des Berliner kgL Aegypt. Museums, Berlin, 1890' Prolegomena ad pap. Graec., etc., Vienna, 188S.

Zonaras, loannes (1118), LDindorf, Leipzig, 1868-76Zos.im08 (425t), JBekker, BoJlD&i, 1837.

Digitized by



OL h all ooontries and at all times it has been observed that natural, local, social, and other manifold influences lead invariably to varieties of racial type, character, and language. This phenomenon manifested itself also in ancient Greece: her populations exhibited many well-defined di1ferenees in every 1'e8p8Ct. The Greeks themselves were struck by this fact, and sought to aooount for it by attributing their dissimilarities of race, character, and speech to a dissimilarity of origin. Aceordingly they invented a mythological genealogy calculated to satisfy the popular mind. Three legendary heroes, they assumed, Aeol08 and Doros, sons, and Ion, grandson, of Hellen, weN the progenitors of all Greeks. Aeol08 gave birth to a distinct nee of Greeks, named after him Aeolians, Do1'08 to another ealled Dorians. and Ion to that of the Ionians. Each race was naturally made to speak a distinct dialect: the Aeolians Aeolie, the Dorians Dorie, and the Ionians Ionic. Some time after, the Ionic branched o~ so they believed, and gave rise to a new dialect called Attic. .

os. These beliefs, once aettled in the popular mind, passed

into history, and assumed the sanctity of a religious canon through all antiquity. They were accepted as a matter of unquestionable authenticity, and every particular phenomenon was adapted to this national legend. It is only since the beginning of the preeent century that philological and historical eritieism has called these traditions in question, and eventually compelled elaasjM1 students to give up the old theory so notoriously refuted by modern ecience. Indeed, when we found our re&eal'chea on the critical emmination of direct evidences (chiefly inscriptions) and other allied field., we are forced to the conI B

Digitized by




elusion that the Greek language once formed not four (Aeolic, Dorie, Ionic and Attic), but numerous dialects varying more or leas considerably from one another. In point of fact, in prehistoric times and several centuries thereafter, each Greek region and community had a dialect of its own. At the same time these various dialects, when compared to one another. exhibit some common features which enable philologists to group them under two leading heads, the NonIonic and the Ionic. The chief criterion for this grouping is afforded by the observation that the NonIonic head, on the whole, shows , long' a where the Ionic exhibits H (though cp. 29; also App. ii. 6 " 14). Thus the assumed prototype Indo-European word, *sistami 'I place,' sounded rcrro.p.& among the NonIonic dialects, and UrrqJU in the Ionic group. 08. The two Ilroups of dialects referred to, &8 well &8 their varieties or subdivisions, may be roughly illustrated by the following classification.

A. NONIolUO or a-dialectB.
I. Done: (I) Laconia; (2) Heraclia and Taraa; (3) Keaaenia; (4) Argolia and Aegina; (s) Corinth and Corcyra; (6) Megaria and Byzantium; (7) Crete; (8) Melos; (9) Rhodes; (10) Achaia; (IJ) Doric isles of the archipelago (Anaphe, A stypalaea., TenOB, Cos, Calymna, etc.). II. Achaeic Dialects : A. Northern Greece: (I) Epiros; (2) Loeris (I); (3) Phokis (I) ; (4) Aetolia P) ; (s) Acarnania [I) ; (6) Phthiotis. B. (.Aeolic) (I) Northem TbeBB&ly (I); (2) Elia [1); (3) Arcadia [lJ and Cy pros(1); (4) Pamphylia; (s) LesboB (Aeolio); (6) Boeotia.

B. IONIC or H-dialects. I. Ionio: ( I) Decapolis; (:I) Cyclades; (3) Euboea.



300 B.o.).
2. P08~L"88IC"L PBB,10D :

(Cl) Hellenistic or Alexandrian Period (300-150 B.o.). (b) Greoo-Roman Period (150 B.0.-300 .LD.). (c) Transitional Period (300600.LD.).

11) Popalar cUaleot.a of which we

- - - - - - ------------------~ no zep%W8Dtative literature, uoept


3. NBOBBLLE1fIO PBRlOD (6001900 A.D.). (a) Byzantine or First Neohel lenic period (600-1000 A.D.). (b) :Mediaev81 or Second Neohellenic period (1000-1450 .LD.). (c) :Modern or Third Neohellenic period (1450-1800 .LD.). (d) Preeent or Fourth Neohel lenic period( 1800-1900A.. ).

Digitized by



- - - ---



ATTIO PERIOD (500-300 B.O.).

04. Whatever may have been originally the actual number of Greek dialects, it lies in the nature of language that local, political, social, and cultural factors should favour this or that dialect, and give it ascendency over the rest, so as to eventually supersede them. In the case of Greek, it was at the outset-so far back at least as history can tracethe Ionic group which rose to pre-eminence and became the received language of early composition (Homer, cyclic poetry, Hesiod-then HerodotoB, Hippoerates, ete.). On the other hand, the Dorian conquest (' Return of the Heraclids' IOOOB.O.) could not fail to lead, in progress of time, to the rise of a powerful rival in the spread of the Doric dialects. However, with the close of the VI~ B.o., the dialect of Athens, the ao-called Attic-one of the Ionic group-prevailed over all other sister-dialeets, and eventually absorbed them [I). It was the Attic, because Athens, particularly after the Persian wars, rose to absolute dominion over all the other Greek communities, and finally became the metropolis of all Greek races. Once having gained the hegemony, she leads in every line: science, art, literature, trade, manufacture, fashion, wealth, and all other political, military, social, and educational institutions are started and developed in Athens, and from Athens spread in all directions through the ancient world. The entire nation, in and out of Greece proper, streams, for purpoaea of business, knowledge, pleasure, ete., to the national metropolis. Younger people, also, eager for education, repair to Athens, as the universal or Panhellenic seminary of culture Hence Periclea himself could well say of her: mwlpxCTfU. & &c\. pkyEf)os ~ ~ llC 7r~ yij~,.a ~ (Th. 2, 38.) 06. It is during this period of supremacy of Athens (500-300) that the Athenian or Attic dialect attained ita highest stage of development. It is amply reflected in the contemporary works of Aesehylos, Sophoelea, Euripides, Aristophanee; the historians Thucydidea and Xenophon; the philosophers Plato and Aristotle; the orators Demosthenes, Aeschinea, Isoera~ Lysiaa, etc., then in numerous inscriptions of the time. The language of this period is also styled the classical or Attic Greek ptIf' ~ But, Speaking of Attic Greek, we must not infer that all Athenians and Atticized Greeks wrote and spoke the claasieal Attic portrayed in the aforesaid literature, for this
Pl Thia is evident17 the meaning ot[Xenophon) when he Ia78 in 'AIfpI. UoAIT , 3t 8 01 "ill "EU'IIIff lilt ,..&AA". ml "Ill aaalT'(l ml tlXltp4T1 XJ1&rraa, Alt'jttoioc ~ "."".,.I"1} It oln""", riiw 'EMtP- KIll fJapBGpow. The 4nt to re-


..... Aeolic (hence later Greeks attributed to this dialect the theD.extinot cligamma f), nut Ionic, and last Dorie. NODe of th_ dialeote hu left any u - iD p r _ t Greek except Dorio which IIti1l liD,era ill. Taaconic, then in a few 1Olita17 worc18 elaewhere, as 1) IIlAATO (Crete) for anoient 1rIiAcwor.



Digitized by




Attic is essentially what it still remains in modem Greek composition: a merely historical abstraction, that is an artistic language which nobody spoke but still everybody understood (05~ fr.- 020 [21 4: 20). Nor must we imply that, because the above writers have been styled classics by posterity, they were both the creators and finishers of Greek literature. They rather were the continuators and perfecters of a work relegated to them as a national inheritance. Their own productions, therefore, are both in matter and form emulous though free imitations of ancestral models[t]-I08t to us-and as such re1lect the genius, subject, practice, language, and technical tftatment of preceding ages (29 fr. App. ii. 9 fr.) under the unavoidable influence of their own time. Accordingly what is generally styled the classical or Attic period marks not the start of a new era; it rather forms the crowning age of a glorious history, an age subsequently raised to ideal by ita excellence oftr all posterity. The literary XDasterpiecea of this period then do not repreeent the language as actually spoken at the time; they simply reflect the traditional or received style &ltistically tempered and adapted to the exigencies of the age (11. For in ordinary intercourse both the educated clasaea and uneducated multitudes could not rise above the simple colloquial or popular speech, in many C&888 degenerating into a vemacular or even rustic idiom. The co-exiatence at all times of an artistic or literary style, and a colloquial or popular speech. (to pass over the rustic idiom) with an intermediate conventional language, is a fact indisputably established by the foree of logic, by historical investigation, and by modem analogies, 88 well as by daily experience.
06b In Greek, more than in most other old languages, there 1f88 a difference between the artless or popular language and the literary, especially the poetical language (written and artificial dialects); .. difference whicll, in view of our insufficient knowledge of the artless popular speech, we C&D onq conjecture but not clearly define. For even the oldest Greek extant, the Homerio poetry, waa an artificial dialect which exhibits forma of various times and widely different idioms commixed, and so can by no means have been the l~ of ordinary intercourse. This la.nguage then has inftuenced, in .. more or less degree, the entire poetry of subsequent times. The mi%ture of the flialects having become, through the Homeric standard, .. ao-to-y constituent element of the poetical diction, appea.ra to he been carried to greatest lengths in lyric poetry. Among the older prose writers, HerodotoB and the oldest Attica show the
PI Hence the frequent sharp disorimiJlation iD Attio rrammar between poetioal '(alao epio ') and PI'Oll8' Greek.-ThU also u:p1aiDa why Healod and Pindar, though Boeotians, have not writ_ iD their nativ" dialect. Again, .Al~-. Bappho, and the ~ though emplo7ing on the whole the noeived language of their 001IDtI7, frequently borrow Homeric f~ and the olaorio paN of the Attic pla7B are OODveDtional17 iD Daric.

Digitized by


__ -::ss




elelftlt dift'erence from the collOCJuialla.D.nalle, th01lgh that difFerence e&IlDot [11 have been vety conBlderable:- 'l'Owarde the cloee of the vt ac. a Panhellenic literary lanr&.g8, founded on the Attic dialect, into existence, which graduallllost touch with the popular language.'-KBBUGKAlfK, Or. Gram. p.:u; 80 too p. 76 footnote.

08. But apart from these facts and considerations, it is within daily observation that no writer whatever uses the same diction both in writing and speaking. On the contrary, every penman makes it a special point to clothe his thoughts in a more or less elegant expression, and we all acknowledge that a literary composition is likely to meet with more favour on the part of its readers ifit rises above daily common talk (020). Accordingly the classical writings of the Gl'98ka, which excel in elegance of style and diction, are of necessity artistic and artificial productions di1ferent from the common and popular, .. well aB from the plebeian or l'WItic speech. 07. Facts, then, analogy, and modern experience, force us to the recognition, at all periods of Greek history, of a literary style, and a colloquial speech in the Attic or national language of Greece. It now remains to say a word OD the literary productions extant of these two forms of language. In the case of the literary style the material at hand is very rich and surpassing; in fact, the whole Greek literature, the glory of ancient Greece, is composed almost exclusively in the li~ diction. With regard to the colloquial or popular speech, it 18 hardly represented in the written monuments extant (cp. 030). This is a regrettable vacuum, but its occurrence is not surprising. For all colloquial compositions of the time, being of temporary and private character (private correspondence, notes, etc.), were co~tted to skins, leaves, waxboards or tablets (cerae, 1MI1a.. &Ana), and papyri, which, being single copies, have all perished in the humid soil of Greece. But even if the material were of lasting substance, we must remember that every scribe, the moment he tries to commit his .thoughts to writing, instinctively shapes them in a. more or less artiatic form and thus unconsciously rises to the conventional or literary style (05019). In these circumstances the colloquial or popular language, especially that of the classical period, has left, and could leave, DO representative specimens to distant posterity. B.a.). Greek becoming t.m I~ LMfguage. 08. With the close of the ac. a. new era opens in the history of the Greek language. With the final subjection ot Greece to the Macedonian rule her glorious days closed for ever. At the same time, the rapid and vast conquests of Alexander the Great in Asia and Egypt threw the East open to the Gl'98k populations. :Multitudes of them soon made their

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way into the various territories of Asia, Egypt, North Africa, Southern Europe, Spain, France, the Euxine, in short, along the C088ts of the Mediterranean and Black seas, \n many cases penetrating into the far interior. The Greek language then, already Atticized, gradually conquered the whole ancient world, and became the medium of international communication. At the same time, the rapid expansion of the Hellenic race over alien regions naturally led to novel conditions: new Greek communities sprang up in Asia Minor (Smyma, Rhodes, Antioch, Pergamon) and Alexandria, which soon competed with the metropolis for supremacy. The balance of culture and learning eventually I!Ihifted to the East, Alexandria becoming the principal centre of classical education and learning (hence this period is often termed the .Alemndritm period).
09. The conditions created by such political and social changea are naturally rellected in the contemporary literature and language: the Greek populations which had settled abroad among alien races (such as Syrians, Persians, Egyptians, Ethiopians) as soldiers, colonists, tradesmen, and the like, formed only a minority among the natives. They had to accommodate themselves to altered conditions: novel (oriental) life, new avocations, new climate, foreign culture. Such changes in life, coupled with the absence of a national centre and a uniform or systematic education, called into existence a sort of colonial or Levantine Greek which soon began to t~ll on the language of the already declining metropolis in Greece proper, inasmuch as the colonial and foreign spirit asserted itself against the ancestral 01" classical culture. In this way a Panhellenic Greek sprang up which, while always preserving all its main features of Attic grammar and vocabulary, adopted many colonial and foreign elements and moreover began to proceed in a more analytical spirit and on a simplified gl'&DlJXlar. This modified or cosmopolitan Greek is generally designated as the non-Attic or Common Greek (Ko&"q or "EU'll'&~ &.4M~), that is, the generally received Greek (Panhellenic). It is this Panhellenic or new .Attic that marks an already advanced stage in the direction of Modem Gnek.

GBEoo-RoKAN PBmOD (B.e. 150-300 A.D.). 010. From this time onward the Greek language departs farther from classical Attic under more and more varying conditions. In the fi1'8t place, while the cultural and aocial competition between the new Greek commonwealths in the East and the ancient metropolis (Athens) of all Greeks was still in prooeea, a foreign unwelcome master interposed: the Romans came upon the stage and put an end to the political independence of all Greek communities, both abroad and at home. However, 6

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we must not imply here that Greek made room for Latin; for the Romans, instead of Romanizing their Greek subjects, were Hellenized by them-a fact deplored by the Romans themselves.
Hor. Bp. 2, 1,156: GraedG CGPIa/mwn 1Iictorem "11iI t1I art. IfIIvlit.lGtio..-Orid Fast. 3. 101 Iq.: IIOlIdvm Ir/Jllidmat llic:tu17ictoril1ua ort.s Gra:ia. -Lh'. 34. .. : iIIm ia ar-iGm .A~ tn.IJuamIiitllus 0tII1I1'bU8 libidill_ illet:dIrV npetaa, et regiIu etiatll altrec:tamus fIIUIIJ8 j eo"us IIorreo lie illtu tIIIJIIU ,.,. _ ceperitU qlllltII _ illa& Oic. Arch. 23 quod GnwctJ.IItur ill otnllil1ua fire ngicJIIi6u, I.Gtm/J suw jlIIibu.!, cdpis - . ClDIItiMIINr.~d cl1FOA.wc,. 'PCllpai'H .,. .,...,paTG .",."."a.r- 'EUtrr.- cba.A'lriErr'fr, said Oato the elder (P1ut. Oato JIaj. 23. 3) [Il.

OlL On the other hand, it is equally true that the Roman administration, notwithstanding its surrendering to Greek culture and education, did not fail to influence the Greek language: a large number of words referring to Roman associations and novelties, especially official (administrative, military, and judicial) terms, social grades, titles and dates were adopted in a more or less Hellenized form. At the same time the Roman rule, essentially military as it was, reduced intellectual life and culture to a lower ebb, and thus on the one hand brought into disuse and oblivion a considerable portion of the Greek vocabulary, and on the other left freer play and scope to the colloquial or popular speech. Now as the language developed under such conditions and influences ClOmpared unfavourably with the Attic of the glorious olden times of Athenian hegemony, many scholars now, and after them the great majority of their BUeeessors, acting in a tacit conspiracy, endeavoured to check the further progress of this 'Common' (i. e. unclassieal Attic) Greek and revive the ancient pure Attic, a circumstance which gave them the nickname of Atticists, i.e. 'purists.' Not originality, but imitation and form: K'L'TCU; 00 '''L'TCU i-was now the motto of all seribes!ll, and their general conspiracy systematically excluded from the literary compositions all the new elements daily cropping up, and thus prevented them from reaching posterity Ill. The effort and example of these purists, too, though criticized at first, gradually became a sort of moral dictatorship, and so has been tacitly if not zealously obeyed by all subsequent scribes down to the present time.
[lJ Cp. al80 8eDec. ConaoI. ad lIelv. 6, B i JUV8D. 6, 184 i IS, 110 i QuintiL i I, 12 i Ari8tid. i 294, 10 i Aote 21, 37 i Joa. B. J. S, $, a i Bpict. Frg. Q. PI Thus A.ri8UdeB (Bhet. a, 6) prid. himaelf OD being able to state that he .... ued Dot a word which 18 not aanctioDed b7 claMiOal writen: pl IpI"JlfCl- TOt/mOll Ar 4rOl"., p/rr. 4rdpan p/rr. /JipaT' ~ &Mot. d .., nU ~. _ BcSAI-. -See also J'BJa. Pron. 10 t (SJ The ad1Ial st.ate of pabUo edv..tioD at this period ~ be puced b7 II1lCh cIoGameDtaq !!p6Oim_ M: (Gr. UrJr. Berlin 13' [Juq ... 289 ..], -23) a]w~ .""""'. ,... XCII,.. I'.BaTo. -lpcITM' .,ptWlnG fIG .awr...,,,.,. . . . , aF_ (for .u,,1.&0I ~,.,.,-., d"e) x"',.. NtI'TGw cIt,fllltl. h' a6F'" ~a pi) flu-. ,.,,..,,,,. Inr~p cWriiI'), where the ftmDal and 1ltaDd.iDc ~ of the IIIpature b7 procuat.ioD would have 1ed 1111 to expect a mora eoneot~ __ amoDC the unedaoated_

s--. 0IaIuI. 42;



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011. But despite this purist conspiracy of all post-eluaical acribee, which is amply illustrated in the Attieistio productions of the time, the unlearned inscriptions and papyri, especially those of a private character, show an eaaentially different com plexion, which reflect&, though dimly, the popular or colloquial language, and at the same time signalizes, 88 stated above (09), a distinctly advanced stage of modem Greek.
018. Generally speaking, in the literary productions or this period we can distinguish four different strata of the language : (I) The Atticist8, who adhere rigidly to classical Attic, copying both its vocabulary and grammar (Dionysi08 of HaliO&l'D8S8oa, Dion ChryBOBtomoa, Lucian, Aristides, Paueanias, Aelian, Himerios, Themistios, Libanios, Phrynich08, Moeris, etc.). (2) The COtIUHOfI or COtItIetltioflal school consisting of writers who in their compositions follow the received or Panhellenio lan guage, that is Attie with many concessions to the spirit of the times (Polybi08 rbut cp. 1771, b), Diodoros, Plutareh, etc., also Joeeph08 and PIu'lon). (3) The LevaretUte grou~ represented by Asiatic Greeks and those Hellenized foreigners who in their compositions adopted the Greek language (many contemporary inscriptions and papyri, then the New Testament, less the 8eptuagint which is Rabbinio Greek). This Levantine group is sometimes wrongly termed the HellettistU:.-From these three aehools which represent the tDf'itIetI language, we must distin guish 88 (of): The colloquial or popular speecA, which is dieeemible in the analytical spirit and modernized diction of the Common and Levantine Schools, ad particularly in many of the contemporary iDsoriptions, and papJri. The last-named IOUrce, espeeially that of the papyri, is now being daily multiplied by discoveries in Egypt, where the dryn688 of the climate and the solidity of the temples and tomb. afforded to )[88 and otil.. documenta an everlasting shelter.




OItristiatIis'atiota of the Gnek lMJflfUl98: Gnek body, Christian soul, Modem AttiR.

014. In this transition stage of the Greek languase, another agency, mightier than any previous one, manifested itaelf and JeD10delled ita character: the conversion of the Greek race to Christianity. It W88 Chriatianity, indeed, which had the most revolutionary effects OD the Greek history and culture. Christianity originated in Asia lfinor, which was ruled by Rome but spoke Greek. . It came not from abroad as a foreign invader and eonqu8lOr, but sprang up in the midst 8

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of the maaaee as a friend and saviour. Once set in the hearts 01 the people, it became part of their race, part of their nature, Uld turned them not to subjects but to zealoua agents. The ebasiea1. or Hellenic spirit now makes room for new ideas and doctrines, new education and life. In their religious ardour '8Dd enthusiasm, the Greek multitudes abjure their ancestral beliefs, their history and literature, and therewith that part of their vocabulary which was associated with unchristian principles. The Greek temples are zealously transformed into Christian churches or deserted as haunted spots; the traditional customs and beliefs are abandoned and disowned; the reading of pagan authors, that is, of Greek literature altogether, is religiously shunned 111 j Hellenic colleges are abolished as pagan institutions; in short, the old Hellenism is Christianized in a modern spirit, and thus undergoes a proeesa of transubstantiation.

0115. The work of Christianity in the transformation of the Greek language received an additional impulse from another momentous factor: with the division of the Roman Empire into Eastern and Western, the seat of Greek culture and learning removed from Alexandria and Athens to ancient Byzantium, now rebuilt by Constantine the Great, and named New Rome (later Constantinople). Constantine himself having adopted the Christian faith (first Christian Emperor) raised it to a State Church and made New Rome a metropolis of the Eastern Empire, which was now composed chiefly of ChristianiZed Greeks (cp. 085). The new capital was situated in the midst of mauy heterogeneous races and alien influences; the administration and court ceremonial were entirely novel; the spirit of the times was mainly religious and martial All these influences affected daily life and imprinted on the language a peculiar and, .. it were, composite stamp which is conventionally termed the By64fltme style. 016. To sum up, partly the Roman sway,-whether it proceeded directly from Rome proper as in the first centuries (1-45 &0.-330 A..D.), or from New Rome, her Hellenized successor and rival in the East (o85)-but chiefly the rapid transition from Greek culture to the ascetic fervour of Christianism, had the most consequential and permanent effoc-ts on the Greek language. Thousands of words and terms associated with science, literature, history, mythology (now ealled idolatry), philosophy, and all such vocabulary as was associated with Godforsaken paganism, paased into oblivion 11). Even the name of ' HelleD,' the
(1j OlemeJltiBa.., la I,.lI ricra,. 'BU9- ....u Ial"two. ~ '"I" 6ril1J'. dPal poplC.. CollA Apo.t. I, 6 ri -,6.p IJOl .u A.lft, ,,. Tfi "6",, ToU &feW .... ",. . . . . .,a ''''6""", 6''''IJfJ' ;

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traditional and hereditary designation for a Greek, being now associated with heathen reminiscences, was repudiated, and the appellation 'Romaios' rPQl~), that is, citizen of the Christian metropolis, New Rome, or 'Rome par exceUmce,' was universally adopted instead. In this way the formerly copious stock and vocabulary of the Greek language was now consideraLly reduced and modified in a Christian and modem spirit.
b. The Church saving Literary Greek from E%tinctiofl.
01'1. Here, however, misunderstanding must be guarded against. It is true that Christianity while ousting paganism obliterated Hellenic culture and with it remodelled the Greek language. But on the other hand a reaction followed: once Christianized, the Greek language found a mighty support and shelter in tht' Christian Church. Not that the latter was in actual sympathy with the Hellenic language as such, but for other practical reasons. Apart from the very momentous fact that the Old Testament had been translated from the Hebrew into the conventional or Atticizing Greek (013), the then international or cosmopolitan language, the very founder of Christianity (presumably) and His Apostles (certainly) had preached and written in Greek; the New Testament, the foundation and fountain-head of the Christian faith, had been promulgated in Greek; the earlyecclesiastical writers ftDd Church Fathers had devoutly imitated the Biblical diction; in short, the Christian Church had been founded upon the conventional and universal Greek of the time. In these conditions it was a foregone conclusionnay, it was almost pre-ordained-that all subsequent religious compositions should be guided by the sacred language of the Church, whose diction and grammar, having once received a canonical sanction, continued as a fixed standard, appropriate to the lofty and earnest subject, to influence in every way Christian posterity. 018. It might be reasonably objected here, that secular writers of the Christian era, whose number is considerable, though ChristiRns themselves, were not, by any means, compelled by religious eonsiderations to frame their compositions after Biblical or patristic Greek. This is true, but, as already explained (010 ft'.), for pagan or secular compositions, the old classical Attic diction, sanctioned as it had been through all previous ages, still stood as the only model and standard for all composition. Thus it came to pass that all literary compositions produced since the Christianization of the Greek race, if religious in their character, were adapted to ecclesiastical Greek; if secular in their tenour, were moulded on the classical language. As a Inatter of course, either form goes back to the same original, Attic (019). 10

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NBOBBLLBNIO PuIOD (600-1900 A.D.). tL Bg.rantme Period (600-1000 A.D.).

018. With its Christianization, the Greek language had entered on the path of distinct modernization. We have already seen that, since the Roman dominion, ancient culture had made room for Christian worship, and education for ascetic renunciation. This state of things naturally led to general ignorance and darkness, a circumstance which greatly loosened the mutual touch previously existing between the literary style and the colloquial or popular speech, and thus left an unhampered courae to the latter. It might have even led to a complete disconnection and separation between the two forma, had not the literary language already permeated the popular idiom. For it will be remembered that, just as clasaical Attic had served as a model for all ptre-Christian antiquity, so eccle siastical Attic succeeded and continued as a fixed and sacred standard for all post-Christian As a matter of fact, ecclesiastical Attic was now the diction of every reading book; ecclesiastical Attic was the language of the ritual daily read and heard in the Greek Church; ecclesiastical Attic was the diction of all schoolbooks, the entire course of education being religious in its spirit and bearing. Likewise the oJliciallanguage of the Emperor and his court, that of the vast administration, of the law courts and the numberless clergy, was essentially ecclesiastical or modernized Attic. Even the language of the uneducated masses was crammed and infused with an immense amount of phraseology recognizable as ecclesiastit'&i expressions, oJlicial terms and standing phrases. In short, all compositions as well as polite language were moulded after the same pattern: the ecclesiastical or modernized Attic. It is true that, in his daily life and intercourse, every Greek was at liberty to speak the colloquial language or even his own dialect; but as soon 88 he proceeded to -cGmmit his thoughts to paper, he was compelled to follow some grammar (07). Now there was but one grammar: the Attic. It was Attic grammar that every penman, whether highly or poorly educated, had learned. Attic grammar then naturally suggeest;ed the traditional orthography and vocabulary associated with it (z5e). It must be also bome in mind that educatiQn was limited almost to the clergy-the great majority of penmen since Christian times-who read chiefly, jf not exclusively, the Bible and so knew it by heart. These monks and priests, then, whether they treated religious subjects or secular matters, gave them a scriptural colour. They made it a pio~duty to copy or imitate the sacred language of the Church. fFrom whatever quarter then we may start we always gravit&w towards the same central fountain-the Attic grammar and stock (018). Thus 11

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there was 'at all stages of the Greek Janguage, since classical antiquity, a general conspiracy of agencies in favour of the Attic dialect, which caused nearly the whole Greek literature, whether pre-Christian or post.Christian, to be clad in a more or less artificial Attic attire varying only with the degree of the individual education of each scribe. 020. Under these conditions it is not surprising if the colloquial speech is hardly represented in literature in its genuine form. It never obtained recognition or favour among the educated &et of writers (05 fr., 25 fr.). On the contrary there has been at all times a general prejudice against it, and the writem and scribes of the time made it a special point of honour and pride to make the least possible concessions to the popular vocabulary and grammar. It is true that the spirit of the popular language breathes through all post.Christian compositions, still in every case it is very carefully disguised under the veil of classicalism. It is only now and then that we light upon a purely popular expression which has forced its way into the text owing to its untr&nslat&ble nature, but even then it is branded as 'common,' that is, exceptionable or vulgar, and the author intimates to us his reluctance and aversion to such 'vulgarisms.' A curious specimen of such Greek, exhibiting the literary style mixed with colloquialisms, may be adduced here as an illustration. It is a satire against the Byzantine Emperor Maurice, in the year 600 "D. (Tbeoph. 283, 19-23.) E~P'I.. .,..qv &..p.a>J8a. c11n1A., (.al T~~) Kal ~ TO KCU"oV clM~v nWrr1 (1)~[lJ. Kal brolflO' 7I'fU8la. ~ 1'4 tvAoKOOKKov&, .al oll&l~ ~ NWjau&, &M' ~ l."rp.oxnv. -A"('i p.ov &1'" t/xJp.~ .al 8wo.-rJ, &s arm; .a1'4 Kp4VUw P.V .~ Kll"w ~ TOv poW TOv pA-ya.v fl'poqo:yO.-yw c~ ririv. OIL This specimen of mixed Greek, which represent. two languages blended into one common stock, or rather one language embodying, like a composite picture, the features of two languages Ill, is very characteristic. Taken in connexion III The readiDc oCthe tut isTG."." ....;,a.,.fl', both againat themetre and the


OODBtruotlOD oCthe word. The form I .......... (_"",a&i) III required both by the cIatin ~ U1cl the..... Op. Ariat. Ho A. !, ..... Plut. i1, !1I D. AJaJaem. S50 ISo III 8imf1ar ohan.cteriltica are ~ble in a.lmoA all literrq produotioDa datiDc Binoe the VIl!,t or our 81'&. Whether they are bued upon the cIaaic&l dicti.0II&I7 Uld 1ftDIJIW', Upoll the popular 1Ip88Ch, they do Iloi mirlrGir the IIoCtaal ...... of the laDpap. In the Com.r caM, which em"- wellall literature doWll to the ~ and the createI' JI6l't produoed Binoe, the langaace, looked at from the 8tandpoillt or jp'IUIlIII&I' Uld vooabuJatoy, is _~ Attio, while in ita spirit &Dd obanotu it reflecta the popula1' oolloquiel 1l)8IIOh; virtuaJq it JIla7 be liter&lq p&1'&Pluued into modem Cheek. On the other hUld, all oompollitiona which proC_ to be CouIlded 011. the popular laDpap are infued with a literrq waabulary &Dd phrudoar 10 00DIidembJe that thq are ~ but eqIOIlIIIlte or the aotual..-oJa. III



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with the Alchemiatic texts and some more serious or pretentious writings of the time, like those of a Oallinicos (450 A. D.), the two Vitae Epiphanii, lIalaJu (560 A.D.), Leontios of Neapolia in Cyproe(620), JoanneeMosehos (620), the Ohronieonpaschale (630), Theophanee (810), Constantinos Porphyrogennetos (950), Theophanes continuatus (960), and others, leave no doubt that the popular language at this time had very closely approached that of the present day. This was also to be expected not only from the general character of the preceding or transitional literature, but even from. that of the New Testament and such of i18 sequels M the DidachG and the Testamenta XII Patriareharum.

oa. It has been argued that the political history of the Greek race during the Middle AJes had sweepiDg effects on the Greek Ianauage, and that the Slav mvasions since the VII~ pve the finishing stroke to ancient Greek. Tbispart of Greek history, it is alleged, record. the sad fact that SlaV8 [ll, Franks, Veneti&Ds, aDd Turks succeeded one another in the formerly cl&ssical soil of Greece, and have swept away all features of Greek culture a.nd language left behiDd by the Roman sway. Each foreign race, it is aaaumed, naturally imparted the stamp of its regime to the language of its Greek bondsmen, so that the final product of this successive or periodical havoc was the submerging and extinction of the original language. In other words, all the above heterogeneous elements were blended together and produced a bizarre idiom, the 'Romaic' or modem Greek. Thi. line of reaaoning, however, so fair in its semblance, does not stand the test of critiCal reeearch. It is founded upon a superficial comparison of modem Greek glossary with ancient Greek lexicon, that 18 UpOD a parallel of the vocab~ of preaent popular speech with the arl.jkial diction of claBllica.l literature (oS f. 032), and not, aa it should be, upon a comparison of present Greek grammar with ancient Greek gnammar, the true test iD the critical or scientific study of language. Now such a. comparison will easily show that 'present (POpular) Greek presenea almost faithfully the phonology, In all its e8BentiaJs the morphology or accidence, aDd to a considerable extent the synta.x of ancient Greek (031): three umistakable criteria. of ita being a lineal descendant and direct representative of ancient Greek. Were it a new, that is a. diBtinct or separate language, formed, as erroneously believed. during the above stormy times, it would iDevita.bly represent the result or conglomerate of all their heterogeneous iDfluencea; it would be an essentially Franco-Slo.vonic idiom, aa English is ADgloSaxon, and thus preserve onIl such Greek (chiefly lexical) elements u English does preserve Celtic relics. But the reSults before U8 tell a very different atolY. They plainly show that, in its character &lid ,.., ~ ..,. be DfII17 OOD.tended that, with the exception oC the popular BODgI

iliad the epie . . , . Brotoarit.oII oC the Cretan poe* Comaroe, no literary production worth.v of DDW, wheUaer ancient or mcdern, JIdacU the eolloq1dallupllp oC the time iD ita pure and rennine 1brm. fI1 In peaing by the inftllioDS previoUl to this time, oC the GothII (396-1), BullI&riana (sfo), and Slaw C.~lb), I neither ipore IIOr di8pute th.a m.torioaI. facta, tint the ~ce of the above I'8C8II in Gnek territory wu too transient; iD point at fact, thae incidents mark mere predatory iDcumODB which oould DO$ lea~ Jutinc or percepaDle tracaa on the Greelr.laDcuap. Thla lB a1ao proved by the iIIct, thattherelB DOt a .mcleSlav word in modern Gl'Mk, 1I'hioll C&D be traced lIMIt to the ~oe ofSl&w in G _ (lI~o, o,c &; [2}).


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structure, present Greek is still $'enuine Greek, and, in all ita essentials, can be traced back to ancIent times. The phenomenon too. though very remarkable, finds ita explanation in the natural law that the language of the more civilized race remains supreme, whether that race be the conqueror or the conquered (\1. Now the culture of all foreign rulers of Greece-Romans, Goths, Slavs, Franks, Venetiana, Turks-was certainly inferior to that of their contemporaneous Greeks, especially in reference to language. For, to begin with the Romans, they were a nation of great racial strength and military genius, but of avowedly inferior culture, as compared with their Greek subjects. Accordingly they received more from, than they imparted to, the Greek lanlf\l8oge, since it wu already far richer and more cultivated than theirs (010.025). They imposed on it only such a vocabulary as was peculiar to their superiority, or new to the Greeks; that is to Bar, a vocabulary expressive, as we have seen, of Roman associations and novelties, especially official and administrative terms or titles (OlI. 023). 023. The Roman dominion was succeeded by the Byzantine Empire, which was an esaentially Greek regime. For even the emperors themselves, though originally Roman, 800n adopted not only the Christian faith in ita original Greek form, but al80 the Greek language and nationality (015); nay, they identified themselves so much with the Greek race and cause, that they even disclaimed all connexion with old Rome, and carried on against her a constant reli~ous war. Now what were the characteristic features of this Byzantine period apart from ita devotional spirit (019)? Religious strifes and military struggles. The religious hatred which ensued between the Roman or Latin and Greek Churches (and remains alive to the present time) has kept the Greek and Latin races. through all times, apart from each other. or rather, in constant antagonism, 80 that neither (old) Rome nor her Romanic descendants (Franks and Venetians) succeeded in converting Greece to their faith. or in inftuencing her language in any perceptible degree. Aa to the Latinisms-military, judicial, and administrative terms originally adopted from the RomaDll-ao far as they had not been Grecized, they were naturally displaced by a corresponding Byzantine-that is, Greek-vocabulary, Greek being the language. not only of the people and the administration, but of the emperors themselves, who frequently even aspired to eminence in Greek literature (015. 028).

b. Mediaeval Period (1000-1450 A.D.). OH. With the opening of the next or Mediaeval period, we are
faced all at once by all those chansea which had been effected since Christian times by a long and grac:lual but hitherto latent procesa : here we witnesa the complete moderuization of the language. A whole series of compositions, especially metrical, are written in undisguised 'modem Greek.' This ia the more significant as the earliest of these specimens (Spaneaa, Theodoros Prodromos, Michael GlykAa, etc.) were composed by 'learned' scribes or champions of ancient Greek, and at a time noted as the period of zealoua reaction in the apirit of clasaicalism (028). The language of these productions
(11 A strildDg illustration of this law ill aft'orded by Boman history. From the I.~ . Co to the IV! o\.D. Home WIIII the ~ ofGaul and Spain on the one hand and of Greece on the other, yet with very dift'erent reeul.t8. For whDe ehe 1I1l00eeded in completeJ.y BomaniIIiDg the Gaula and Spanjarda, in G _ ehe . . HeIleniad by her aubjeotl (010).


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TUBIUSH RULE AND ITS EFPBCTS ON GREEK. [014-0B'7. then marks not the beginniDg, BB commonly believed, but the completion of the proceaa which claaaical antiquity had been leading to 'modern Greek.' 026. The Greek termB of administration, titles, and military grades, introduced by the Byzantine regime, had a peculiar history. In the capital (Constantinople), and those eastern provinceB which escaped all foreign dominion during the Middle Ana, they remained in full force and continuous use BB ltite as the XIV~,when the Turks came upon the stage. In Greece proper, however, the Byzantine terms were expatriated. and replaced by a new vocabulary of the feudal ~me of the Franks, chiefly bearing on chivalry and pllantry. Still, these erlraneous and alien novelties. which had nothmg to do with common life and thought, never struck root in the character of the Greek ~ple. so that, through pop-ular unconcern and time, thelsoon passed mto oblivion. Similar con81derations appll. to the ancceedmg dominion of the Venetians, whose Romanish instItutions, like those of their predecessors, never became popular in Greek provinces. They also anbstituted their own (Italian) terminology-military, administrative, nautical, commercial-for those of the Franks; but dissimilarity of race, and reliRious antagonism between Rome and Constantinople, or between the lloman and Greek Churches, kellt the two races apart, or rather in antagonism, and prevented a free mtercoune and inftuence of real consequence (023). A striking illustration of the failure which attended the efforts of Venice-the most civilized and mighty of all foreign rulers in Greece-to assimilate her Greek subjects, may be found in the I.'reaent state of Crete. That island remained under the Venetian dODllnion, and formed a dependency of admirable organization -it waa called the Kingdom of Crete (Regno di Candia)-for an unbroken aeries of more tlian 450 years (1210-1669) P), yet with all that, hardly any native Cretan Romanist is to be found on the island, and the Cretan vocabulary of to-day does not preserve fifty words which can be traced directly back to the Venetian domination (I).


mut.enmore thanOUC8, forit has pe-.d from the Venman. directlytotheTurka, bar PlWUlt n1eaI, who cannot claim. oivi1batiOJ1I1l~ to that of their prede-

e. Modem Period (1450-1800 A.D.). 096. The subjugation of the Greeks to the Turkish rule had a peculiar effect on the Greek language. The Turks had no affinity with either their predeceBBors (the Byzantines at Constantinople or the Venetiana in Greece) nor with their Greek anbjects, but were totally alien in race, religion, and culture. Their policy also waa directed, not to BBsimilate their bonadmen (for which they neither cared nor had capacity), but mainly to keep down their Christian objects, and enort from them the greatest poBBible material benefit. The Greek Church waa even respected, for fear lest her numerous and powerful flock might be pushed into the arms of the Western Chnstia.n powe1'll, the formidable foes of the Turk. Hence the Sultana not ouly spared, but also recognized, the Patriarch of Constantinople &8 the 'spiritual head' of all Christians in his dominions, so that the Greek Church exercised a sort of national a.uthority and power. 027. The appearance and establishment ofTurkiah rule in Europemuch BB it may have proved obnoxious to civilization and the Christian (I) ID G _ proper the Venetian domiDiou laIted onq half as long. ~J TJU. is the morelltrikiDg ....hell we remember that Crete has not llince ohanced

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IoIl1 other foreign regime miRht have proved, IIOCe, notwithstanding ita

cause-looked at from a Greek point of view} appears leaa fatal tha.u

barbarous character, it has proved leaa injurioua to the cauae of the Greek Church and language. For, having an aversion to all European civilization and religion, the Sultana fenced their empire against all acceaa from Europe, and thua barred out all Western influence on their subjects. Thia policy, though obatructing the progreaa of the Greeks in proportion to the Western Europeana, had a beneficial etrect on their IaDguage, inasmuch as it guarded it against Western (Romanic) influence. Again, the open contrast and hostility between the Chris. tian faith of the GreekS and the Mohammedan ~on, kept aloof the Christiana who looked for comfort and IIalvation m their Church. Be it further remembered that the Greeks of the time, degenerate though they were, still preserved a degree of culture and education superior to that of their Mohammedan masters. In point of fact, they haahardlyanything to learn from them, .ve aome novel administrative terma and a amall vocabulary referring to oriental dreaaea, meals, and other Asiatic noveltiea. The grammar and main stock of the Greek language was not materially affected, since the Greeks, having been left to themaelvea, continued to ~uraue their ancestral vocationa as agriculturiata, tradesmen, artlsana, shepherda, priests, or monks, and employed the very same imf.lementa and means as they had inherited from time immemoria. At the same time it was inevitable that this stationary condition, which barred out the influx of foreign elements into the Greek language, led to another aerious evil: a groaa ignorance enaued, and the remaina of education, acience, and knowledge, which had been preserved from the previoUl times, now came to an end. All the terms then representative of such cultural notiona were forgotten, so tha.t the fJOCII1ndary IUStained a further depletion and change. On the whole, however, in grammar and .spirit, the language remained purely Greek; and in lexicon, eaaentially Greek, for the reasona given above (023). 028. Under these conditiona, the Greek of to-day, as spoken by the people (not the abstracl-acholarly andjo1l1'Dalistic-Greek, which ia ancient Attic modernized), is a direct aurvival and development of claasical Attic, impoveriahed and aimplified in a modern spirit, and under the unavoidable influence of various agencies, mostly internal and peculiar to Greek hiatory. These may be briefly IUmmed up here. Claasical Attic, having once attained ita fullest development, furnished post-classical antiquity and posterity with a 8I1rpaaaing and inexhaustible literature, extending into almost every line of thought and action. This advantage secUred for it an absolute 8I1premacy and authority in the ancient world: it made it first .. standard or national, then an international-though always an ab8InIct-~ (0,). When the period of Greek away had gone, inatead of VaD'shiDg With the glory of ita native soil. it met with exceptionally favourable chances: no superior or even equal culture followed in Greet lands to supersede and extingWsh it; all races which occupied its claaaical territory, however strong and mi9:ity in military genius, proved inferior in culture. Hence the Greek has Bucceufully reaiated all foreign predominance. Looked at so om the internal point of view, it withstood, more aucceaafully tha.u any other language, the mighty stream towards rapid change and moderniaatiolL This 8ingular phenomenon ill due to varioUl factors peculiar not only to the nature of the Greek language (cp. 320 tr. 81. App. i. 9), but alao to the Greek hiatory.


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To begin with, the Atticiats (B.O. 200-100 A..D.) were the first to raise the BtaDdard of claaBicism. and their efforts did not fail to further the cauae of the lauguage, by influencin~ allsubaequent writers. Second in order, but foremost in importance, IS the mighty support which it received from the Greek Church. Whatever may have been the motives which actuated her, it is indisputable that her shield proved a veritable palladium for the language. Another impulse which also furthered considerably the caUB8 of the language is to be found in the revival of cl&BBicism at the imperial court ofthe then metropolis (Constantinople), duriDg the reign of the Comneni (105O-I2OO) and Palaeologoi (1260-1450). The literary taste and ambition oftheae emperors, and their zealous and commanding efforts to enforce, through the administration, ancient Greek upon common life, did not fail to refresh and enliven the language. The fourth and last agency need not be emphasized: I refer to the regeneration of Greece, which has naturally led to the revival of the language. In ~int of fact, the national zeal displayed by the present Greeks dunng the last seventy years, though not always in the right direction. has already made up for well-nigh all lencal10BBes sustained by the ancient vocabulary duriDg the last twenty centuries [1]. OlSb. It results from the foregoing sketch that the hist~ry of ancient Greek literature is not the history of the ancient Greek language, and likewise, the history of modem Greek literature is by no means the history of the modem Greek languT' Ancient Greek literature-an artistic product of psychologicar actIon and mental reflexion-be(fins for DB With Homer and closes conventionally with the end of paganlBm, its subseqnent continuation being a merely artificial and scholastic reprodnction of ancient models. In the B&DJe way the ancient Greek laDguage begins with the origin of the Greek race and closes virtually with the present day, or, so far as it differs from present speech, with the end of paganism. This inter-relation of literature and language is more pronounced in the case of modem Greek. For the history of fIIOdwn Gruk litenlturIl- i. e. of those compositions which reflect ~pular speech - opens as late as the twelfth century A.. D., whilst the hlBtor,y of the modwn Greek langua~ is virtually as old as the history of ancIent Greek. or, considered in Its distinctly modem form, goes at least as far back as the origin of Christianity. 019. In its present stage, that is not in ita abstract or literary form, but as adtuJll1l spoken by tile uneducated m688e8 during the last hundred years, modem Greek consists of a great number of dialects and idioms which are distinguished from one another principally by lexical varieties. At the B&DJe time their phonology is not quite identical throughout, but varies more or less according as a locality lies further lOuth or north. A line drawn along the 38th degree of northern latitude would (according to GHatzidakis 342) divide all dialects into two general groups: the norl1aern, which would comprise Continental Greece, Euboea, Epiroa, Thess&ly, Macedonia, Thra.ce, Pontos, and the northern Sporades (Asia Minor); and the BOtdhwn, which would consist of the Peloponnese (Achaia excepted), Megara. AegiIla, the Cyclades (except TenOl, partly also Andros), Crete, Chios, Cyproa,
(1] It ID&7 be oomputed that more than 40,000 new words have been coined within the Jut 100 years either to supplement the rMUced atock, or to replace the foreign element. ~ a matter of COUJ'IIe, a very great number of these new fbrmatioDa were never naturalized, but after a abort life paaed into ob1ivi~



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Rhode .. up to the southern Sporades (Alia Minor), then Southern Italy, especially Otranto and Bova (Byzantine settlements of the VIIIt-X'f), which laat, having been cut off from all other Greek dialects since the XIt, in lome respects preserve the pre-media.evaJ. morphology and vocabulary of modern Greek.
080. The fundamental difference between the two groups lies in the higher or lower stress of accent, inasmuch as the more north we proceed, the stronger the stress becomes, at the expenle of unaccented syllables, and conve1'8ely the more south we return the le88 the difference becomes between accented and unaccented syllables. Accordingly in sou'hern speech all syllables, whether stressed or unstressed, are well defined and almost isochronous (half long), whereas in the northern dialects the effect of the strong expiratory or dynamic accent has been to leasen the stability of tlie unaccented parts of the word, whether following (post-tonic) or preceding (pretonic), that is to reduce unaccented vowela to a minimum, often even to nil. The chief vowel sounds affected by this northern phonetic principle are i, fI, e, 0, in that southern flnaccented e and 0 are reduced to abort i and fI rellpectively, and southern i and" frequently swallowed altogether (1). The natural consequence of this phonetic tendency is that, while southern speech, like ancient Greek, is averse to consonantal accumulations (123), and in case of need even develops interconsonantal vowel sounds, dropping also any final consonants except tT and .. j-the northern dialects generally, but especially those of Macedonia (e.~. Velvendos) Ihowadecided fondne8B for consonantal sounds, whether lDitial, medial, or final, and drop weak vowels (146 ff.). Thus southern lprJp.or deserted' in northern IIpeech changes to lp'pour or lp'pour, /tnvX~';'" 'work' to /t')..vOl or /t'). .iou, "!CVA; dog' to a,,')., or tT,,'Xi, .,pd water' to ",pd, tra&/tito rr' at, "OVIlOv,.., ' gnat' to ,,'lIOiill", 8upAk wrath' to (J'p.dr, X,ttQ3& meadow' to X'f3tjIl', "o'p.oiip.o' sleep' to ,,'p.oiip.', '"I"';'." , lift; , to tT'"..I/OV, trovX.., , sell' to tr'A", ,,~, 'head' to ,,'q,dA.', trOTall' 'river' to trovrd,1, 1Cdvff. 'Y011 do' to 1t&"'Tl, I~ 'I' to ly", '~ir 'we' to l~ir, ~ me' to ,.u, p.q 'don't' to ,u, {!JovlJtlr 'dumb' to (/3'IJ&r) 'fjOr, tTTovrrrri 'flax' to (tTT'tri) tT'"t,-In other words, the reduction to a minimum or disappearance of unaccented ", and the change of unaccent.ed e 0 to i fI, have altogether transformed the language, the ancient rich sonantiam (124) having made room for a new and odd sonantiam, and the ancient poor CODBOnantiam (123 f, 169) for a strange succession of consonants, whereas the declension and conjugation, so richly developed in ancient times, now appears stran,frely reduced and almost irrecognizable. Thus northern (MacedonIan) speech changes southern 1S).1Iyor to OV XcSyovr, TOU ).~ to T' M')", Tour Myol/r to T'r ).oSy'r, cS ulcfJnlr 'thief' to ob /C).ItIw'r,-8E').., '...nI' to (JE').OV, trovXoii,..~. we sell' & brol/Ao;',..o to ",'Xoiil", ,",3iiT~ you jump' & Itr"aiiTf to 1I'/tiiT', IA./YfT~ to 'A/Y'T', pin to 'yVP'(1", 8a. "ouArjtTfTf you will lIell' to IJQ tr''T', IJQ trov)..qtTOVII 'they will sell' to 6a. ,,').~tT'-T'" .tA).' T' ,upa &8ov,.,.CIJ'.j Y.aill1J T' tU roV It/.',. 'r...w ltoT/l/IA'ov tU .tAX'r "I'ni.'tT'r ,,' ,,'noiier'.., for southern


III .Aa a ~ of OOIU'IIe, th_ phonetio peouliaritiM of northern IIp8Nb. are modern and have nothing in common with the reputed ancient' quantity,' otherwise the p~ would have aft'eoted the entire Greek phonology and led to the disappearance of all the formerly 'abort' vowe1& In all likelihood, ~ ph.. nomenon is tnoeable to (oreicn iDfluenoe, the more 80 . . Alba.DiaD pholl~ IhowalltrikiJlg analopea (op. G.Ileyer in GGrilber'I Gnmdrill, i. 8la ).


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,... AlIJI' (n}.) ~ ~ '" .IA)..r ~,nSwcnnr rc' i,,/_


,')'I'I'Gim nu 1"


-/""Ipa 'Ir rc\ mn't-

thern and southern grouptl, especially towards their extreme boundaries

(e. g. Velvendos in Macedonia-Crete), exhibit a very marked dil"erence of sonantiam 1124). It is further evident that the ~eogr:a.phica.I position of the several localities, their isolation or their viclDity to foreign races, their political and internal history, have, to a greater or lea extent, conduced to shape the idioms at present spoken in the Y8.l'ious Greek communities. That these various dialects have Dot the lBIUDe historical value needs no special comment. Thus while northern apeech haa been influenced by alien (Albanian, etc.) phonology, the dialects of Pontae and South Italy bear unmistakable traitll of Turkish and Italo-Venetia.n influence. Now as phonology in every language is intimately connected with morphology, it inevitably follows that the grammar of the above specified (northern, Pontic and Italia.n) dialects haa been, within Neohellenic times, considerably afFected by extraneous influences. At the lBIUDe time, a careful examination of the southern group will show that, for various reasons, these dialects have withstood foreign influence with far greater success than the northern, and so preserved the ancient phonology, substantially al80 mO!"phology ud syntax (022), with such (chiefly morphological and syntactical) changes and -rici.itudea only aa would be inevitable hom the nature of the case and the culture or spirit of the time. It is for these reasons that students of the poat-claaaieal and subsequent history of Greek, in looking for information in the present stage of modem Greek, should direct their attention not so much to thf' northern aa to the . .o.- group of Neohellenic dialects.

08L We see then that, hom a phonological point ohiew, the nor-

[082. As an appendix to this introduction, it may be well to remind young students of a fundamental error often committed by investigators of modem Greek. These Neo-greciBta are apt to rashly draw an unqualified parallel between cla8Bkal Greek, in its artistic u well aa artificial form, taught through the Attic grammar (05-06), &Dd prumt 1H'PtWw speech, especialll northern. And the evil is Bffgrafited by the practice of rel'resentmg present popular speech ID itt. p'lunedic spelling, while retaining etymoUigical or laiBtoricol ortIaogropJ.g for ancient Greek (25). The natural consequence of this compaorilOll is the creation of luch a wide chum between classical and modem Greek aa to render the former almost irrecognizable in the latter. This method, however, ia utterly misplaced and misleading. A phonetic parallelism between the ancient Greek of the texts and the popular speech of to-day would be jU8tifif'd only under the three following &BBUmptions: that the pronunciation of clll8Bical Greek (V-IV~ B.C.) had been incontrovertibly the Eraamian i that the anoient Bellens wrote and spoke the same langnage, that is they used the II&1Ile vocabulary and grammar whether they wrote or spoke i and abovp all that they followed the principle of phonetic spelling. Now as theae premises can never be establiahed, to contend that classical tWr (allegedly 1"h.os-) has degenerated to Bidr, tl'caAo.os (rl/l~oiO,) to ..alj6rt~ (dlaait.,) to ~io, ora,,,..,,. 'Y~"".iu and T"o-yA",,'o tGJ>.vtrp, l1li1 cb to -i h, orroior (howoios) to &rr~iOf or "'int, p.1o to ,..,ici, ciA)..., to GAiiw, ete. is not only to disregard ancient phonology- that is the cJaaracteriatic phenomenon of II1naloephe (synizesis. contraction,craaiB, elision, etc.), so common even In classical COtItJIfI8iUoru,-but to ignore the very physiology and actual structure of language. No doubt 19 0 la

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modem popular Greek is tM form to be considered in an historical and CritiCal study of the Greek languar' but to appll historical orthography to the ancient period an phonetic spelling to the modern, introducing even novel and alien symbols into ordinary texts, is to forget the elementary fact that such a parallelism would distort any la~age, whether we should compare two different ages of it or the wntten and spoken fonne of the same period, Take as instances the following specimens of modem French, German, and English, as given phonetically by HSweet (Primer of Phonetics, pp. 92. 100, and 81 f.i.

parle vu fraIJlIIB? alJ pe. 31U,l se 3yst ase pur mm flBlBr kOIJpraalJdrh. iI loo pari kuramalJ. iI ekri 1 fralJlIIB kom sa proprh 1aa.J.Jg. kml mmr lilt il ? iI III trwwz moor e dmi. save vu si t1it moor 01) de3110 lane? vule vuz lIota&!Jdr el) el)atalJ?
ParJes.V01I8 frazu;ais P Un pall. J'en I&ia j1l8te . . . . pour me faire oomprendre. n le parle 0011l'&lDJD.8llt. n 6crit le fran9&ia comme 8& propre l&Dgue, Que1le heure e&t-U P n 8IIt trois heuree et demi.. Savez.yOU si huit heuree ont d6j~ aonn6 P VoaJu.vou attendre un iDBta.nt P

"Zustu, 'foler 'moontnJain! -uum ;letatn -auf :mlloine, :deen :i9 :zoo 'mange 'mitemaxt -an :diizm 'pult her'a!JfJ9:vu:t ! 'dann :yybar 'bYY\lam -unt pa'piir, :tryyp'zeeIjer 'froynt! er'JilDat :duu :miir. 'U, 'kmnt -i9 :dox -auf ;bergesheen -in :dlloinam 'liibn 'li9ta 'geen. -um 'bergeshaela omit 'gaiatem Jveebm. -auf ;viizn -in :dainem 'demer 'veebn, -fon 'alem ;visnakvalm ent'lau.dn -in 'dainem tHou ga'zunt -mig 'baadn.


BUID let&tenm&l aut maine Pain, den fob m&Dohe Kitternacht an diesem Pult here.ngewaoht I dann I1ber BI100ern und Papler. trIlbeel'aer Freund I 8I'IIohi8Dllt dn!Dir. Ach! kilnnt' iOO dooh aut Berpahilh'n in deinem lieben Lioote phD, um Bergeahilh1e mit Geiatern IIohweben. aut Wiflll8n in deinem DAmmer webeu, von &llem WiaeeDaqu&1m ent1aden, in deinem Than geeund mioh baden I

o IIII.hat du, voller KondeDIIChein I


:pijrl 'juwa -ta :~iJ.Jk -~i 'aa~ -wez -Cl :ku.ind -av 'fuet 'keik', -wi'li -'lie '8ij -0 'raund -it'; -bet -wij 'nou -nau -at -ita 'riali ;raund', :laik -a 'bal'--not " :raund', -bat -a :IitI 'fuetnd', :laik -an 'orin3'.
People used to thin1r. the earth WII8 a kind of flat oake, with the _ &ll round it; but we know now that it is reall7 round, like a b&ll-not quite round, but a little Wtened, like an orange.

-an iJ.JgliJman -wez 'W'IIDS -tnevlig -in 'tJu.ina' -huw 'kudnt :spijk :tJIIoi'Dijz'. 'WVJ1 'dei' -hij -wez 'dainilJ -at :1I1IDl 'ijtilJ:haus', -an -'lie 'weita 'brot -im -a 'mijt 'pu.i'. -ez -ij -waz 'Veri 'h'8J)gn', -hij 'et -it ''Bp', -an '~at -it 'Veri 'gud', -bat -ij 'kudnt :meik 'aut' :whot -it owes 'meid -DV'. -sou :when -a :weite :keim -ta :kliar a'wei', -hij 'pointid -et -1& 'emti 'pu.i:dif, -an 'kwlllkt -laik -a dak'. -l6a -weitar -et 'W8oIl8 :Jut -iz 'hed', -an 'baakt -laik -a 'dog'. -an 'sou -~i :ilJgliJman 'Djuw -ijd -bijn 'dainil) -on dogzflef. 088. It is therefore absolutely unscholarly, or arbitrary and misleu.ding, to contrast modem Greek, especially northern) in ita phonetic 8peJling, with ancient Greek (especially artistic) in its historical orthography before we gained a full insight into the actual phonology and gra.mmatical structure of classical and aubsequent &Dcient' Greek. To contribute somethina: in that direction is one of the primary objecta of the present work,J


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1. ALTHOUGH there is every probability that, 88 far back aa the earlier part of the XVI'" or XV, B.O., the then inhabitants of Greece were acquainted with an aboriW,nal syatem, however crude, of pictographic or even alphabetic wnting (AJEvans in Jour. Hell. StucLxiv. 270-372), archaeology and classical scholarship are erenerally agreed that the Greek alphaliet handed down to us waa received from the Phoenicians, most probably before the XII~ B.C. This is borne out not only by tradition (5), but also by the significant fact that all regards form, name, and order, the two alphabets show a striking correspondence. a. (I) 4='aleph' (ox), A 6Acpa; (2) 4 'beth' (house), SI tJij7-a; (3) ) 'gimel' (camel), 7 yOl'fUJ; (4) 4 'daleth' (door), A 3'Af'a; (5) =I 'he' (window), =I El (? cp. 9"; later; t&>.d,,); (6) ~ vau ' (nail), Lt al-yap1M'; (7) 1: 'zayin ' (?), [(8) J:f 'cheth' (fence), 8 fra ?] ; (9) (D 'teth' (serpent?), E9 8ijTa; (10) -:t 'yod' (hand), ~ lQrra; (11) Y 'kaph' (palm), ~ 4mra; (12) J.,. 'lamed' (ox-goad), V >'dIJc'a; (13) "'1 'mem' (water), 1\1 "ii (P&); (14) ~ 'nun' (fish), .., "v; [(15) 'aamekh' (prop?), Eii]; (16) 0' ayin' (eye), 0 ~(?cp. 9c ; later &, still later 6 ",pd.); (17)? 'pe' (month), '1 lI'ei (lI'i); [(18) /"" '' (?/, f4' IFlU'll'i]; (19) <P 'goph' (ape ?), <P dtrtra (Q Latin); (20) ~ 'reah' (head), 11*; (21) W 'shin' (tooth), ~ fliylM'; (22) 'tau' (CroM),


T "av.

8. These Phoenician symbols are traceable in the oldest Greek inecriptions recovered up to the present time, which go aa far back aa the middle of the VII~ B. o. There is, however, one important difference between the Phoenician and the Greek systems. While the former has no signa for vowels, and a peat variety of aapirate and sibilant consonant., the latter, even in its earliest specimens found, shows an already fll11y developed vowel-system, and contents itself with one sibilant and one aapirate representative respectively. Thus the Greeks probably evolved out of the Phoenician consonants akph, lie, yod. tlyifl, the vowels a e , 0, and moreover invented v (5), aa a twenty-thin! letter. On the other band, the Phoenician symbols~, cp, p, f:f, fell into desuetude aa letters (I I I and remained only aa numeral ciphers. namely mu ~ or 'I, or otherwise tligammtJ F (i. e. double gamma, now shaped 9)=6; ltoppa cP or 9 (now shaped C;)=90; and tuk I'" or ..,. M (now sb-.ped i or ~ and since M miacalled flUII'i from :N fT/",


Digitized by




",i, i.e. like a tr) = 900; so too t:f which lingered the longest in the form of H (as a rough breathing?) was retained in A as cipher for 100 ICp. II. 616). Again for the lOunds X 6 q, the Greeks at first resorted to the digra}:?hs KB TB n8 (Them, Mel08), then gradually devised their monohteral succeBSors X $ respectively (6. 12). 4. Together with the letters, the Greeks adopted from the Phoenicians also the retrograde mode of writing from right to left. Accordingly the ea.rlieat Greek characters look to the left. Bomewhat later the direction is fjOVtTTporp"a;." (plough-wise), that is to say the lines proceed alternately from right to left, and from left to right. But before the close of the VIl~ B. c. the practice of writing all the lines from left to right had been initiated. The Greek characters therefore appear, in this archaic period, looking now to the left and now to the right, according to the direction of writing b. The absence of all engraved menuments and inscriptional reeords in Greece from the XIII~ to VIII~ B. 0. dCJe8 not neceasarily imply that the Greeks were unfamiliar with the art of writing. Thi8 absence i8 the natural concomitant of the then Inbal and erratic condition of the Greeks, 1\ condition quickened Arst by tbe Doric invasion. tben by tbe colonial dispersion which kept the Greek races in continuou8 stir. In view of this 8tate of things, which rendered uncertain the nearest future of every community (1), the Greeks of this period, like their trade-pursuing predeCMBOr8, the Phoenicians, had neither opportunity nor de8ire to record on stone their publio or private afCairs. Neverthel-, the practice of tile art of writing among tho Greeks throngh the above tribal period ia 1lIIiciently borne out by the following data. (I) The presence of the Homeric poems, and the high age attributed to them by all antiquity. (:I) The very frequent occurrence in them of IIIeIric8l j/OIUiofI between two colUleCUtive worda-with frequent interpunctu&tion-which pre8uppoeea tbe use of the . , and cannot be well explained on the phonetic principle. (3) The direet mention in the Diad of writing (Z 168 f.): 'np." If ~ CHMATA ArrpA I rpA't'AC N niNAKI lTTYKTlfJ. (Cp. ib. 176. 178. H 175.187.1890 l (.. ) The exi8tence of school8 in variou8 Greek towDBhlpe during, if not prior to. the VIIV,' B. 0. (Aelian V. H. 7. 15), and the impoeaibillty of school illMtruction without tDriUm texts. (5) The presence, even in the esrliest Greek inscriptions, of the nonPhoenician characters u X "'. which are Greek inventions, falling within the tribal period, at any rate previoua to tbe XIII~ BoO. (6) The teatimon,. of Herodotos to tbe effect tlaat he saw at Thebee a Greek iDBCription dating from remote antiquit,.-Hdt. 5, 59 TUVfCl !JAllrl",. .r., All ...fa At\io" TIW AASadJrou (about the XIII~ B.c., aooording to the legendary chronology; at any rate conaiderably earlier than the Trojan war). (7) The express mention, in an EliaD inacription of the VII~ BoO. (ESBoberta 365), of an IIfICiIftltr VII"i#m law (IGA no, Ill) TCl l\JLra.a -eT] Ta rp~ TAPXAioN .r ....

Digitized by




(8) Tho pl'M8lltl8 iD the VWl' .. 0. (in Orete, Thera, Meloe, A.ttica, ete.) of public aDd private iD8eriptionl, nay eTOn lopg oodee (GortYD law of I 2 col~ with about 12000 letten), and othw publio ordinances, all of whieh PftlllllPpoee a readi.ns public.

a. The earliest Greek m.criptiona mow that, in it. primitive stage, the Greek alphabet .... iDoomplete and defioient, very often a1BO iDCOD81'1l00t!. This circumstanoe plainly indicates that the Phoenioian alphabet foUDd it. way iDtO the various Greek communities Dot aJ.l at cmce. but by degrees, at variOUl intervala, and by various private channela [11. ThiS is moreover oonfirmed by the fact that several eymbola crept iDto the variOUl 10caJ.itiell iD diffelellt forms loud with different phonetic values [I), and explaiDs the phenomenon that tbe system of earlier iDBcriptioDII exhibits a variety of 10caJ. or epichoric alphabets (10). In their archaic stage these epichoric alphabet. have one common feature among them, that they all show the PhoeDician letten from a to r, and <moreover vasa Greek addition (3). But iD the caee of + X 'IP. they exhibit several peculia.rities, in that, BO far as they do not ignore these ~bols altogether (as does )(eloa, Them, Crete), they uee them in .. different order and phonetic value. ~. '" )( ", or JC 41 a contlWon which apparently arose from the then current mode of reading either from the left or from the right (4). It is this inverae order aIld phonetic difference that led archaeologists to divide the Greek alphabets (apart from those of )(elO8, Thera, Crete) into two broad groups: an Ia8tern (Ioni&oJl), which comprises Asia Minor, the islands of the Aegean Sea. the Boaphoroa, Macedonia, the Ionian islands. then Corinth, Megara, ~OI ; and a II1UterIt, which comprises Iniddle Greece (except Attica), Euboea, Thessaly, the PelopoDn8BOB, and Italy (includiDff Rome, which received her al'phabet from the Chalcidian colonies In Italy; whereas .Attica OCCUpies an intermediate p1&ce.-The eastern group UleS X as X' 'It as and the Phoenician aamekh ~ BII ~; the western employs X IUI ,'It as X, and either ifPlores ", or expresses its BOund by a new symbol Again, the AttiC alphabet, like the eastern group, U88B + and X as ~ and x, but shows no ~ nor t, these BOunds being expressed by the digraphs XS and +S (6. 12). 8. The Attic alphabet, which is represented chiefly by Athens, shoWl, in ita archaic stage, this deficiency as compared with the eastern or Ionian group, tbt it lack. the symbols 'I and _, their place being supplied by K (which stood both for e and .,) and 0 (which stood both for 0 and CI) reSpectively, and the conBOnanta E and their place beiDg supplied-aince the time when KH and PH had been replaced by the simple X and + (3)-bythe digrapha XS (KS) and+S(nS) respectively (5).





[11 AccordiDg to ancient tradition recorded by Herodotas <so sS f 110 too Piut. ii. ns a) and :Dioclora. (3, 66 f. quoting Dionysios of Kiletoe i then 5, 74. I), it . . . imported &lit to Boeoti.a (WLarfeld 501.11Q1P11t11 Delphi) through the Tyrian c.dDu. (hence in Hdt. 5, 58 KaII,..,,"1 or +011,,,,,,,"1 -,pti,./I4ra, cp. IIlso CIG 3044 k ... 1 ..".& BC. -,pti,./I4ra. .TOIl. Apion. I. 2. Olam. A. Hr. I. 306. Ba1dt. An. 71b. 783> 10. Heqoh. . v. +O&MOC' -,ptil'#flJtT&). and thence it aprea.d all over Greece. Victorin. vi. (HXell), 23. 14 i Ig6, 13. Audaz 325, I. Plin)' N. H. 7. 56 (57), 191 Cp. aJeo Tac. Ann. 9, I4--See aJeo Dekk. An. 781 it III ThUB'" generally- .., but in )[e1oa=tJi C in Deloa and EJia=B. but in Rhodes, )lepra, Phooie, etc. - -" and in Crete =.; f'o generally - -" but in Paroe -A; B or it genera1J.y = /l, but in Corinth and Corc~ - for.,; IJ or 8 gen~ _ A, bGt in lWI- at; 110" in Tvent - A, but in Rhod. - A. i XPJlerall7 '" x, but in Cpene, eto. -E; 10 in Euboea and Boeot.ia ... E.



Digitized by




It was only in the latter part of the fifth century B.O. that these symbols found their way into the ordinary composition, and only in the yeu 403 B.O., during the a.rchonship of Euc1eides [l), that they were officially admitted into the received or Attic alphabet (27 W.). Consequently all literary productions written prior to the middle of the V~ B. o. must have been composed in the old Attic alphabet, that is without 'I, ... (also without E, +); they must have shown-and so inscriptions actually do show-E wherever we are now wont to read either f or 'I, in moat cases also El ; and 0 wherever we are now wont to read either or ..., in most casea alBo OIl (12). 7. As a. matter of fact, previous to and during the adoption of the above (scholastic) orthography at Athens:E stood for r, 'I, " i and 0 for 0, "', ou ; 80 that:BOAE stood for fJo).ft, fJov'Aft. fJov'Af& (cp. PI. Crat. 4200). EYTYXE~ ".wIIJCi~, fWvxrir (n, 01), 'Wvxft~, (,wllxlir),

-ON .. ..

1f'A80I'fJ',I>.8..I'fJ" trpOxov ('"~.)' trpdx". ("''''.), JrPoiixw (trpolxo., trpOfixo.), trpovx". (trpoiX"'.). 8. Aaauming then that an Attic scribe had to write down the following sentence: ,"oWo IA'IXfIII,s,IA'tfOf IlnIs A" I.PElI 'It/JGAAOIII 4AAovs ""'"' ~IAOV Pl, he would haTe probably written in the 'seriptur& continua' (35'. 79) and spelt: (11) Previous to and during the vnI~ B.O.:

tJ. 0 A 0 N EA80MEN npOXON

'AOycM,-o., 'A~ "acl).o., aoii>.o., ad'A",., aofJ'A..., aov'Aou..



W\\0 L-A ~~ W8>1 <1 A \\ A W0 '}8 W0 \\ ~ ~ 0 \\ A8>1~ M 0+0+-] ~1<8AL-0t"r8W~r80~6.~~0]

(b) During the VI~ B.o. :

(c) During the V~ B.o. : _TOTOMEXANOMENO~OnO~ANAPX~EIAA(A)OY~ EKBAAONCIt~ECltOItJ.EMO. (d) During the ~ B.O. :




9. Since the time of the Eucleidian spelling reform (6) the Greek alphabet (b or '9 d.>..~7fTOi from ~ p;".a.) has shown twenty-four letters. Their form, as printed in books, is conventional and dates from the middle ages (cp. 8).
(I) For the history of this orthographio change 888 App. iL 12 [.). III The I18ntenoe is not altogether o1asBioaJ (though op Pl. Phaedr. 239 B), but ma.Y conveniently aerve to give a rough idea of the striking ohangea which took place during the pre-Euoleidian and arohaio atagee in the _ of the m08t abaraoteriltio 11Dlbola.


Digitized by



[9. -i






f1 IB' I- -!.I. -sE:- :..; - .!I 8


{~ ~.~ 'it





t 1 ~


~n Ji~ "3 l.!l --.


~.!I1 028,



..4 B





<t4 A

"r r



gb,l th ('6)



; (",aAo,,)



(Y F) I
H 0



Cl. z
8 I K




f3aV, 31-yappa


i tb (t) i




lG>ra (1)

i, I



m n

m n





"" \1





~ 0













..., (II'&)


I>kp P W SI. c


Cl p

P 1081


,,;,-yp4 ("J,,)




Y 81 <Del) <I>
9>1 M











f/J.' (q,i)
X.i (xi)








",.i (",i)


:, (pJ-ya)


Digitized by



gb. All twenty-four letters (which are conceived as indeclinable neuters) still survive in N with the sounds assigned to them in the last but one column. (For some dialectal discrepancies see 24 c.)
9". The ancient _ of 0 11., !Pe .1 cl I ~ reapaotively (11. The t _ I ",.Aa" (ZoeimOll 4, 13) and IJ ",.Aa" JD_ limpl4t (La. DlOIlolileral) I and 11, in contndiatinotiOll to the biliteral homophoDe8 a&-, f., Cl. The lattu _ orijrinated durintt Q in the need of facilitating orthocraph;y when dictating to pupils and KS copiers. For Bimilar reaIIOI1I 3 was oalled 3 La. 8IIIIIll 0, as dlItinguiahed from ~ ,w,o., La. large Ill. On the same principle N often deldgnatel as 1,...," (l,..pot'), and" as ,...,dAo. (For a di1ferent view Bee KEASohmidt 48-75-) On the names .1 and d for I and 3 _ App. ii. IQ. 9". Also the ancient nam.. of the lattera !Pe still preserved in N, but thoea andiDg in -4 !Pe now often conoeived as fazninin.. (cp. 26 338), .. : TO..,Gp", <348. 369), TO (so !) TO ,w, rU, Eii or Efl, 6,...,0, TO 1I'El, {IIiI, TO (34& 569), TO Ti (not TUY i. .. ,.aj :119), TO ""'1.0", TO +cl, XII ",.. TO 1I ,..-,4,Ao,.... .... but TO .... H4A1IfIG ('3') TO"" H JJijt'a, TO"" H 3/A1'1"11 (131). Tcl .... H C;;Ta, TO .... H k 1fTra, l&iTa, .G1I'1I'CI, AGJJaa (247 ).-Note further that the initials;y1lable alone (probab1;y SUU8lted b;y TU ,w, rU, E" etc.) is alao popular as an indeclinable neuter, .. : TO JJij, li, 3/, I, C;;, Bij, ICci, Ai, ,,&.





a. ,.a

10. The four columna figuring as ancient in the Pl'eceding page, give the average form of characters as found in the inscriptioll8 and MSS. However, many of these characters exhibit a variety of forma accord ing to the locality and time. (S" [2].) 11. In the above list of letters two symbols have been ill8erted and marked as 'lost': raM (~aj,) or from its shape F digamma (a'yn1Y'4t i. e. double gamma, which might ,0BBibly represent a relic of a prePhoenician indigenoulI lIystem 0 writing; cp. I), then Iroppa (9). Both disappeared in the earlier ~ of the language (3), but left some traceB in a few dialects. Besldes F and Q, another symbol i (god or jod) ia fl8lltjmea for the phonetic development of the i-sound in primitive Greek, but as it has left behind no direct traces, its former existence is aimply deduced from cognate fields and kindred languages (cp. 29 f. 123. 209 ft'.}.-None of these lost signa lived to play a part in the classical' and subsequent history of the language, and ifthe, are considered in modem is because they dord a theoretical explanation to a number of grammatical phenomena. 12. Previous to the V~ B.C. most of the Greek communities had no complete alphabet, but used to represent aeveral sounds by one and the same symbol (6). Thus in the early Attic alphabet, the sound of 'I El was represented by simple E; that of 0 .. 011 by 0 ; cfJ primordially by DH, later by to; X primordially by KH, later by X; Eby KZ (XJ); '" by DJ (toJ); 8 a.lao apparently by TH. Accordingly in archaic Attic the symbol H performed two distinct functioll8: on the one hand, it stood for the aspiration h, and on the other, represented the second constituent of cfJ " 8, then symbolized by the digraphs OH KH TH ret'pectively (3. 6). This ellpedient was to some extent resorted to in several locaJitiea even after the general reception of the complete (Ionic) alphabet in 403 B. c. (6. 23). 13. Final sigma has since M assumed the 'conventional' form so, as: fRUTp.Ot.
(I) ID Plato'. time Itill I 6 Ill: (Crat. 395 D ) . ITt'ClX.t- clria m ,.,,6,.,.,..; 1.1-,0".", dAA' oinr ft ITt'OCx.&a 1I'At}" ,.f"ft,."" ,.oii Md ,.oil y ..u TOii 0 _ nV f. But alae 1 as OIA iv. 4~' before 340 11.0. (Op. at/'" [2].)

.wra ,.a


Digitized by




14. In a compound word, the modem form of final is sometimes used, at the instance of HStepbanus lthen FWolf). at the end oh constituent, &8 3vsrvxJjs, 'lrpostlHpoa.

16. Capital letters are now ~, used: (I) after a full stop; (2) at the beginning of a quotation; (3) as initials in proper names (and their adjectives). (8.) CLASSIFIOATION 01' LETTEBB. 18. Of the twenty.four Greek letters seven (". 'I ' 0 v .) are tJOtfJds (cI*rafcrru) &Dd the remaining seventeen ~ (n"",J'4).
18~. From ita remotest traceable period down to the closing decades 01 the V! B.C., the Attie alphabet shows only five vowel aymbols: 11 f , ". which evidently represent (Ior the earlier antiquity at least) the five normal BOunds 11 i .... oor~ndln8 to the Latin and N vowel-llJ1II;em. This paucity of vowel BOunds [ J finds ita pbysiolosical explanation in the t.4 that, unlike most modem languages, especially English and German, Greek w .. a polysyllabic and infieotional language, and thus couid confer upon ita lengthy words a distinct individuality and perspicuity without ..-rtio8 to the phODetio dillerentiation, that is to the developmeot of the rioh and Tariepted qualitative and quantitative phonology observable in the monosyllabic and uniofiectionallangusgee. 18". Aa a polysyllabic and _ntiall:r infiectionallanguage, N preserves tile five ?Owel BOunds "of earl:r Greek (16". 124; cp. 35" &; 144).

a, ,

Vowm& 17. The seven vowels are traditionally classified and called respectively: ., 0 IIhorl (ppo.X1a.) ; 'I. III long (pmcptJ.) ; a, " v fXlriable (also doIWtfol, COfMIIOfI, 8l)(pOVfl, even frrptJ., 4p4lfJoAa, Jl.CTUfJo>.ucrt., Sext. adv. gram. 621, 19; ef. also Schol. Dion. Thr. in Bell. An. 800f.). (88.) 171'. The symbola" and .., in numerous cues a.1Bo" originated at acltool

as mere compensatory marks, to represent positional or 'thetie' and 0. As time went on, however, their ayatematical application caoaed them to be considered aB regularly long vowel. (28 f.). Hence the term 'long' is to be taken not phonetically but tldanicall" (metricallyand grammatically), in that '1, ",0, &, v, BoB well &8 the diphthongs (20), represent a length due to the effect either of antectasia or of the ictus (29). ~n, any vowel not long in thia aenae ia conventionally called 'ahort '"I. See 86 ff. and App. H. 9-15.
18. In certain oombinations, the vowel. c and " act as consonants (32', 30 SI.111~). This phonetic b:r-function, however, never caused them
[I) Henoe Seztaa' juat reproach w the pmmariaDe (adv. gram. 6.$, 14): ~0I1t1 " " 01 "rpo/Ap4-r,,,ol "al -ra c&.cUAovlo. aln-oir 01'1 tlIWOpiiltl' Aflcwnr bnl., ~..., nNTt: aWNOON ONTOON npdc TllN ~CIN (cp 29"" [.]).AI w modem laDgaapa, his Primer (p. 20 ) B8weet enumerates W,...., elamentary v01Nl.aunda, eighteen of whJoh ~ preMut m Englleh alone. ~ Compare Priacian I, 3t 7, 10: vocales apud Ll&tinoa omnes suut anoipitea vel liquiclae, hoc est quae facile modo produoi modo corripi PCllltlllt: sicut ew.m apud antiquisaimos erant Oraeoorum ante mventiouem 'I et. 01, quibua mveuti&, . . . 0, q_ ante eraut, remanaerunt perpetuo brev... '


Digitized by



to be reckoned among the consonants also, the theorists being guided by the prevalent (vocalic) character of the symbols in question (I9b ). In the lIaDle way the Roman grammarians, copying their Greek masters, invariably classed I and Y among the vowels, notwithstanding the fact that these letters very frequently acted as consonants} and " (19b. SI). [As is well known, the consonantal forms} and" date only since M.]
DIPHTHONGS (3D)' 19. Two vowel-sounds fused into one make a diphthong (a{4>(J~). In Greek such diphthongs arise only when one of the vowels (1 0 or their po&t-Eucleidian associates ." and Cd (all of which are styled prepositifJ6 vowels, c/>CIIvr,(VTfl npOTAKTIKA) is fo1Jnwed by, or v (called postposititJe VOtDels, 4>. ynoTAKTIKA); further the combination of the two postpositives VL. (App. ii. 2, d.) And according as the postpositive vowel is or is not sounded, the diphthongs are called proper (,wptlU) or spurious (K(1TO.XP'IO'TLKm, 20C) and written as follows : a. Proper diphthongs: IlL (Cl( 19a) L OL




b. Spurious diphthongs: q. 11 't' VL (for v). 1.9&. In early Greek the diphthong lit was written Uf, and the change of Of to aL seems to have been IIlUfgested by the ana.lo~ of n, 0', VI, where L is established as the only postpositive vowel (20 b That the case is so appears :-(IJ) from the present pronunciation 0 IU as t, which, considering the peculiar principles of Greek phonology (32 if.), could not have resulted from A+I; (b) from Latin tu, the exact and regular equivalent of lit; (C) from the express testimony of ancient authorities, as Terent. Scaurus, 16, 10 (HKeil, vii): 'lJ"tiqui quoque Ormeorvm hanc s111abam (ai) per tu (i.e. af) scripsisse traduntur'; (d) from the frequent occurrence of Of for lit in earl, Corinthian, Boeotian, and even Attic inscriptiollll, as: 'AE' 6pa (Attica) PKretBChmer 126. AE6.II, 'A6uAE'a, DfpAE660 (Corinth), ib. 33 f. 'AEux",,"afl~, AapLaAF:OI11, AVcTdPCAE, 'AfjAE6&"p"r, 'A'I"L/IOcAfIAE, Do>.u"i3AE, etc. GlIeyer 113. FBlass Pron. S6 f. ESltoberts 222 f. OHoffmann ii. 368111_It folloW! on the one hand that in the spurious diphthong, the , subscript is hysterogeneous and apurious, and on the other that the casual occurrence in earlier Latin of lJi for does not actually represent the old spelling, as commonly held, but rather points to an attempt to imitate the Greek fashion of replacing af by lit. liar. Victor. 14. 1 (HKeil, vi): 'tu syllabam quidam more Graecorum per ai Bcribunt.' (For another imitation see 53.)


19b Proper~ or historioally speatiDg, the term 'diphthODg' originated in the eombination 3i</lfG"'('yOf IIIIAMIJi" od thus mes.nt a vow~l-pair forming one qllable. The q\lelltion, therefars, as to what the ancient GreeD meant by a diphthong, considered from a phonetio point of view (that is whether it consisted of two suCC8llllive but distinot vowel -"'" or of two sucoeaive t!OtDelI blended into one simple sound), is ineeparable from the definition of a 'syllable' by the ancients, as well as from the actual pronunciation of such diphthongs in antiquity. While referring the latter point to the notion of pronunciation
[11 It is the inSuence of ~ Of that _ to account for the few lullta1'7 _ of o. for CH: XocplAor~. iv. :113 j KpoIcror, Maipaxor, w,a..or. 6a,-. If'Toc,4LmI7OC DoAuapci-roc, GKeyer' t 116.-To &SIume here, on the Btrsngth of Latin 08, that CH also ..... originally spelt Of, would be unsafe conaidering that Latin 8y8tematically e postpositive for Greek L postpositive. (Cp. 53-)



Digitized by


UO j[), _find that the anaimts give a diphthong a mODOphthonpl Ylllue, thM is a limple I01Uld. [..&.rm.] Poet. 20 avUalI~ 1177" """'"' ImJpor (read Aflflpor, i. eo ,..,.,sa"por(ll), It """,",,, Ixo,,'rOf. Dion. Thr. in Bekk. An. ii. 632 av~ laTI II1IplOlr IIdUWar avJ4lwov (v. 1. av~) &'Tor 4 ~OlI', ol"" KAP, Borc' IIGTGXJIIIfITI_ a~ .al " It Ivclr ~fl'Tor, _ At H. Sohol. Dion. Thr. ib. 819 avU~ 'aTI adll""'r nJAlflJwow .... ~ 4 """,,"TOlI' Ira TWOI' aJ , .. .....vl*' AAIACTAT(a)C &.,.."1",,. That tIUa _ actuaI1y the received view among anaimt profeBaional grammariaD8, appMrll also bom its literal adaptation to Latin: .PrIaoian L 44 (HXeiJ) ayllaba



"eTa .,...,;,..m

. . aamprehenu literarum CODII8q118D8 BUb uno IICC8Dtu et uno apiritu prolata; abuive tameD etiam aiDgularum vooalium BODOS ayllabu DOmiDam1lll. pouumU8 tamen et llic de1lnire ayllabam: ayllaba IIiIt vox literalis quae sub uno accentu et 1UlO apirita indistaDter proiertur.' Though _ have no earlier tecJmica1deftnition of the ayll&ble than that of Aristotle giveD above, the term avAAD./l1, occurs from AeIIch7loe downwarda. A8IICh. Sept. 468 rpAMMAT(a)N ... lyMABAic. .PI. Ont. 390 )I TcI rpAMMATA nl Tar cyAAABAC, 80 ib .f24 B. Theaet. 203 A. al "l .. cyMABAi Av,o.. ,,,_, TIl a~ CTOIxeiA lAooya. ib. 6. So Dem. 24, '/00 AMChir.. iD CteIIipb. J.4O. A oloee ezamiDation of the above Jl88IIIIIlII and a stud7 of the G-B grammarians will show that the expression avlla/llt generally appli"d to the external oreoncrete symbol8 (2.$"). Aocordil1gJ;v the term diphtlumg (M""".,.,,,, lie. av~) also applied from the outEet rather to the e)'8 than to the ear (Il, and th_ ~ IlUlADt a biliteral vowel-eound, ' the coD8ODlUltaI byfunction of I aud having been left out of account (18. 32t.. 7811). The V8r)' same phenomenon is atiU !DON strikingJ;v witn-.i in Latin, where, though V8r)' frequentJ;v acting ea - t a , theletten I and V are never cl8IIII8d among the coDllOnante (18). 10. The ,-adscript or mhllcript of the apnrioas diphthongs originated, in ID&D7 at a proeodio mute mark, in that the vacancy left b;v a b t BOund was, for rhythmical p~ indicated by lOhoolmutera and rh;vthmici an with a stroke analflllOUS to our sign of the apostrophe. This stroke then came to be annexed in the form of a mute I to the preceding vowel Hence the mute. was written, .. far .. it _ written, in the same line with the relit of the1ettera [henee it is termed. adsoript)--a.nd it is not until manuIIOripte of the ~ ~.D. that we meet with written a little higher or a little lower (.. G.), not until those of the xnt' with , mhlcriptum' (FBlus, Pron. sa. Cp. Xtllmer-Blus 1. tb, a-a).

I.., ..

iOb All diphthongs, whether proper or spurioUB, are theoretieally long (I 7b }-except finala& and ot, which, so far as they do not close the secondary subjunctive [optative], count short. (705 ; cp. 52 5b.)


8gure u (AE)AJ m tu and

SOC. The diphthongs, 11 9' which in the ill8Oriptiona and earlier MSS (aE)GI '" /ill, are called epurioua (lfaTG)(P'IIITI19\ beeal188 their, has no phonetio value of its own nor does it affect the BOund of the preceding G " ... but is absolutely mute. This ia borne outto pa88 over the precepts of the ancient grammarians (U Dion. Thr. in Bell.. An. 639, (3)-by many facta the principal of which are: (/I) In A metre the spUriOU8 diphthongs" 11 9' are, unlike the diphthongs proper, neTer diaIIOlved into their constituent elements ai '" M, but &re invariably treated u simple vowels. (b) In the Attio (also Thessalian, Aeolic, and Ionic) inscriptions the, ia, ever since the VI~., very often either omitted tKiihner-Blaas i. 1!l3 f.), or wrongly added, as: T8 for TQH HRGhlS03 twice ;

(1) For the term ptW/Jflflpor _ Kar. Viotor. de rh;vthmo a (vi. 42, 171 HXeil) and BWlliltphal Theori" i. "09 This palaeographic miReading of tIfIfI"OJ OUIIlI'Il three times in the above e;hapter of Pseudo-Aristotle where he de1lnea the rir3ttTpor and iplpoI', and has naturaUytaxed the ingenuity of the editors. PI 8chol. in Dion. Thr. ii. 80.3 onot A4-,ornu , ....3It lido ~



a~ lfaAoWrGl /laTa p.ova.d..

25 (TGaisford) IIE""onOl A.i-yoI'Taa a.a ~ ~ -,cl, A.i-ro,.... i.TGUIa TIl

..~ (as".)


TA rpAMMATA. Cheer. munor aVrGw 'xE... lido ~fPT_



MII'Ta, . . ~ .a" PIt


Digitized by




at,.. for ."., ... t'A ftpd-"

'FA ftdAfl.Tapla for -Iq, nl,tlA for..p, fr. for .... tni6H for .fp, etc. (KlrIeisterhans" 53. u; eo.....a. 302-349; FBlaea Pron. 45 ft; OHol'mann i. 186 f. ii. 439 ft l:~ 'f";. KoA,,",'e ... ","I/IIfI' ;'_la9', .,..,.,.al,., ~lt. (KlrIeiaterhalUl 530 13; cp. GMeyer. 35); M 7'~ W-. Ifnp;ow CIA iv. 630 b (34 11.0.); Gr. Urk. Berlin 260 (t90) 4ftfXOH.I.3clHr0H,'aTOII, X';P IIG'rGltfX"'fHal"""" (c) Strabo testifies that many systematically dropped the I of these spurious diphthongs, because it has no aen88 whatever: 140 41 ftollol XDlpU nii I ..,p/I4ooua, Tdr IoTurGs . . (add MroTGltT,.nr).!MOUf1, ~ Te) "Of~,q., alTla.. ON 'Xo... l()d. For the genesia and phonetic Talue of the ,-subecript. 888 30& 29ft 10-. Alaociated with the practice of discarding the , ad80ript (now subscript) is apparently the widespread phenomenon in the in80riptions, of freely dropping any intersonantic MrOTGltT,.e).. I (29). a oaae which naturally occura most frequently in the endings oCIIOJ. flO.. -otor (-'1'or, _or). Here, 888ms tc act as a compensatory mark or as a mere divisor between heterosyllabic vowels (l9. App. n. 9-15.) Cp. 'A",.ala & "'Ga, IAala & IAGa. al.i &; 4.1.-4(/)'T6r, O pa(.).tSr. 'AAIl(.).Iir, BDlpe(.)", 11".(,)<1. woArrl(l)a, x.pI(I)a. ~lf(')a, ftAI(i)_, TIA.(.)o '_m;II.(,)or. aTo(,)4, trO(,).r... _(i)e.". u.o(i)II..,lIG'rfll..,u(i)a, onv(,)d, lI{,).s.. A&i(,)o..,a&l(. )or,IJDI(,)&I (-tlMrDl), clI'3pi(i)or, OOlJlh(I)Il., )(110(')'" &(.}a or &(')a, All'f(i)Il', AlI'.(.).mu ..,pap.JIIlTi(i)OP, 807a'\&)0I', etc. (KlrIeisterhans l 24ft 31 f. 44f. ~ t ) ; _ further, in the 'scriptura continua' (25") many_ofcrasis, as: (_[,)...,.., o~ ally ...,...19") ..,.., (n[')fPOC or _ffpoc) .l1pol, (_[,111T111 or _f'TIII)""" (_[,)... or -[.lw) ... llitth. Di. 249,6, etc., expreaiolUl which, owiD8 to their frequency. became Btanding formulae. Compare further (po(.)ea.....) ~.fI (Ar. Vesp. 34), (IJO[,]ftIT') (Aeaoh. Eum. 9 13), (1Iowa(,)u) /Iowa.. (Ar. Lye. 45), etc. SlO'. Conversely. the licence with whioh intervocalio I was dealt with could not but lead tc the misconception that it might be inserted between any two




non ,diphthongal vowels 88 a mere ornamental adacript (29 fr.). 88: ~al[,]a, 1[,)llllToii, JjaIJ,Ai[,)a, Z~[,j... ~1Ii[']'1TIlI, ~AI[,]o"., "(I]". Ae[I]GWTl. lot, oII'oX6[,)", 80['J'1/1,o,.'-, O[,)ijfo. L\6(1)'1 (JO(eiaterhana' 3$ fr. 4S f.)


m. Eaeh of the two vowels, and v. when it is not postpositive and thus does not fonn with a preceding vowel a diphthong, is marked with two dots placed over it (i, ii). This is eaJled tlicletwil
(op. J58), 88: AXt1I.a., lliiAor. SUb. In this book a simple vowel or a diphthong will be Rene-rally called by the common name BIHIClnl (cp. Diom. 422, S. HKeil), for brevity'. sake.

The seventeen consonants (r 6) are commonly classified according to the following, table:


GufI&uraJ (velar, palatal)




Smooth (tenQ8I) Middle (mediae) Aspirate (upiratae)






Nasal. Sibilant or Spirant Liquid.





Digitized by




518. The three consonanta C f commonly but wrongly eaJled doable,' are compoulld: , being generaJly taken as equiv&lent to.,., (Gp. 2Ob 69), f to fT, to trlT. (Cp. 5 12. 23b.)


ab. The ancient o1...Ul.cation of the eoD8ODant. ill 8eD. uv. gram. 621 f. TOw tIV~ Td ,.~" 4,.t.p.u..a

thUII 81IJDmed up by

."..." 1'.

[p.6u1 nldnp T~ z e 1\ M Nip c III X '1', jf. " TIP." XGJPlr TOii e _ III _ X. .,.a AI..o,..... am. ~ U lIlT. nl IIVUtt./lM .... IIIUTd _tiP ~ ,..,.. jfx- ra.dn]TIlr, cWft a~ ,.6"oP pen} "."....,at,ptN. mlGff.p BrA. It. 1f TZ jf, .., I~IOI, - To) e III x. _ PI" ...m , . . , . (1V~ trdA .. .,.a ~" ~.. /IIItIfcl M"fOIHI' .,.a ~ 1/ItM. _ IIlri& ~" e III x, !/Ma & It. "T. ,.61'0" al fall' To) P a.Xftllll, ,gTfpoP, au.m,TIl _ I/tlAfnvrll. A~"fOIHI' al TII'Il TOw a..Aa, IIIlB4ffl, Ta z I '1'. tlWf-,ltp fatll Ta "~P z k ToIi C _, A., Ta a~ I ,. TOO It. _ c, To) a~ 'I' ,. TOO n _ c. (Cp. aJao 55.) So too Prisoian n. 11, 13 (HXeil) sciendum tamen quod
fl.OTtAla. ~Ilt

ToW .".,.,..TowW, or rather 2ftM.m).,.a ~~. ...i HMilll(O)N. ,.~" l1li'. a,' 4 tI.,,,. 4 "..,.,,.iw jf TaN trapmrA~IOI' ;JxOl' _n} ~ l~tll"

'IIT. _T' Il~ToW (i. e.


hie quoque error a qulbuadam .. antiqnill Gmeeorum grammaticis" invasit Latin.., qui .,. et (J et X _iweal88 putabant, nulla alia e&UIIa Did quod IlpiritUII iD &is abuDdet, indueti.' So too !It 12. ViotoriD. vi 6, 15- Diom. i. 4Z2.2. (Op. 25 [I] b. s6, 8 &; [I].)

24. The pronuncia.tion of ancient Greek in the manner of the pretleDt Greeks had been traditionally accepted at all times, before and through the middle ages, as a matt-er of unquestionable fact. The tint objections to it were raised towanis the beginning of the XVIUI, the principal arguments brought against it being three: (IJI ita Ilt~ ing mcongruity with the Latin -the then academic and international language-in such words as IIiA.'IITUa (pronounced ekklifta), ~8&_ (it1tilroBJ, DA4Hifjrrros (IJlpMlIitoB),as compared with their Latinized forms eet:II.ri4, 1t1ricI, alpMWtt.m; (b) that 1t BOunded many Bonants alike ('I, '. v, n,o., CII == i; f, a& = e; 0, '" '= 01; and (c) that such an o~ho graphic variety presented practical difficulties. A bitter controversy enaued and BOon divided Greek scholars into two hostile camps, the one led by DeBlderius Erasmus and the other by JReuchlin, and called E.-iGu and lUtM:1&li,.iIJflB respectively [11; they are also frequently
(I) The Erumian pronuneiatlon wae not propounded but tentativelyeagpsted by Enem1l8 in a diakJgue between a bear and a lion, entitled De BM:ta LatiIIIi OnNCiqwe _ _ ~ publiahed ftrat at Bule (aJao Paria) in 1528, and the origin of the doctrine receives a euriOUll illnatration in the aooount gi_ by a - t l Jan Vc.e (or 'V08IIi1l8' 1577-164\1), a Dutch prof_ and promoter of BrlMmianiam In hie AriMat'CA... litle er. aralllmMiell (AmIIterdam, 16l.~), thie earnest aeholar explaine how Erum1l8 came to write hie now f'amoUII dialogue (qvo modo BrI.utnu tcripeerU diGIopm er. f'IICto pronutat. UoM) by the following narrative : , I believe that it ill known to few in what circumstances EraemUllwae indnced to write on the correct pronunciation. Therefore I have deemed it beat to 8U~ join the account which I ~ written, eome time ap, on a pieoe of paper by the hand of HenrioUII Coraeopetra.euB, a moet learned man and well known to eaholan. It reads a8 follows 0-" I have heard K. ButprUII Beeohi1lll, who WIll! prof_ of Greek in the Bnaleidan (Bualidiano) Coil. at Lonvaln, and my ~ptor of revered memory, relate, that he WIll! in the Lilieneian School for about two years at the time a8 ErumDl, who oooupied an npper room,


while he had a lower one; that Henry GlareanUII [Henrio1l8 Loritua, a Swiae aehoIar, born at GlarDI (J4l!8-ls6a), whenco hie lUZ'DalDe GJarean1l8], havine


Digitized by




designated &8 Etaci8t8 and Itacisfs (or IotadBlB), according as they pronounce .,-the ca.rdina.l point of dispute- like e or (iota). It must not be implied, however, that the new or Erasmian school substituted a different pronunciation for each single letter: in the great majority of cases it adhered to the traditional or' modern Greek' (&8 it haa been ca.lled since) pronunciation, viz. in the of a, ~, ., a, ou (=u); ".~' p, ", E, fr, p, U, 7", ",; substa.ntia.llyalso in the case of 4>. J(, (. The dispute at present turns mainly on the aapiration ('), which is unknown to N; on the 'quantity,' of which N makes no account but pronounces all sona.nts absolutely isochronous and half long (except in position, 137, App. ii. 1 & [2]\; and on the pronunciation ofthe diphthongs ai, '1, 01, VI, av, w, of the vowels ", "" v, and of the consonants #, 'Y, If, cp, x, e, inasmuch aaal is sounded (2) by Erasmiana a + i, by modern Greeks e in emit ' ,"" " e+ " " i or English i (" n 0 +i " ,. i " " i



" a +""

il + i




or at I (SI) et""" et) or et ~ "i " , , ' or English I , , 1 1 (or u ) " ", " " I


arrived at Louvain &om Paria, W88 invited by Erasmua to dine at the Collet!e ; and on being asked what news he brought with him, he said-which WlI8 a story he had made up on the journey, inMmuoh as he knew Eraemua to be inordinately fond of novelties and wondrouely oreduJ.oua-.that some native Greeb had arrived in Par:i8, men of marve1Ioua learning, who made uae of a pron~ tion of the Greek tongue entirely cWferent from that generally ~ved in th_ parts; for instance, they called S, inlIleed of Yita, Beta, and ." inetead of Ita, Eta; ai, instead of (1/, ai; 01, instead of i, oi; ud 80 on; that on hearing this Eraemua wrote BOOn afterwards the DiIJlogtM on the right pronunciation of the Latin and Greek tongues, in urder to appear M_V CM m-tor of CM m/JU4r (ut videretur huiua rei ipee inventor), and offered it to the printer, Peter of Moat, for printing; but, 88 the printer declined, either ~ he was engapd in other work, or at any rate beoauae he said he was not able to produce it as IOOD as WlI8 desired, Eraamua sent the treatise to Froben at Basle, by whom it was immediately printed and published. Eraamua, however, having found out the trick (practised upon him), never afterwards used that method of pronouncing, nor did he direct those of his friends, with whom he was more familiar, to follow it. In proof of this ll. Butgerua used to show a eoheme (.;'brlllulGlR) of pronunciation written by the hand of Eraamua himaelf_ copy of which is still in my [Vose'a] poaaeaaion-for the use of Damian de Goes, a Spaniard, whioh in no way differed from that whioh learned and unlearned uae everywhere for that language." (Signed) Henricua Coracopetraeua Cucoenaia [Henrik Bavenaberg van Kuik] Neomagi [Nijmegenl 1s69, the eve of St. Simon and St. Jude [27th of This incident then ezplaina on the one hand why Eraamua did not treat the subject in a direct and earnest manner, but put the diacuaeion into the mouth of anim.a1a, and on the other aocounta for the fact that he continued to abide by the traclitionai (or modern Greek) pronunciation of Greek to the end of his life. The whole subject bearing on the genesis and history of the Eraamian doctrine is ably and lucidly set forth by JGennadioa in the N . . .tmU& CMtvfy (voL uxviii f.), to whom I am indebted for the above extract. PI Aa a matter of course, regard is had here to that Era.amian pronunciation only which Eraamiana believe to be the ancient and correct one (as advocated, for instance, by Prof8880ra EVArnold and BSConway in their pamphlet bearing the rather misleading title: TM f"I!Iton!cJ' [meaning the' genuine Eraamien '] Pnmunci4tioft of Ondt: IJfId Latift, Cambridge, 11I9s), not to that which they actually practise, since this is English in Engliah-apeaking oountri-. German in Germany, French in .France, and so forth. This incouiaten' AnrJo.German pronunciation therefore is eDtirel,y disregarded here.


Digitized by




fl is BOunded by Eraamia.nR b 7" "g

of tJ

" " "

by modern Greeb ,,(b) " .. glt W or English glt C,) .. tl " .. tJ or tit in 't1ten' " p ... It .. J . .. C -t- I t " " kit or cia (x) " I ~ A" " tit in 'lAin'

24,' .Add, for thll sake of complete~ that IOme Eraamians give' the complex BOund of . , while Greeks pronounoe it invariably as a simple Toioed. in zeal (~). Oonvenely, while Eraamiana sound., It X invariably as pttural fI k cA, Greeks pronounoe them 10 before consonants and 11 0" only, but before the palatal Towels. i they palatalize them to j l le. (54b. 60. 91). Me. All a _ttar of 00IU'II8, a few N dialeatII, in particular those which lie in, or border OD, alien - . Ihow BOme phOJltmO dUcrepanoies. Tha, to leave uide the peculiar phonology of northerD 8p88Ch (C9 If.), Taaconic ezpl'8ll88ll , by ,. (instead of tT, as in ancient LacoDic, 56"), while South Italian hu replaced ., IS' ~ t by Italian 9 d sI dIIf. (031. 1741>. 1841>. 187"). In a mlDilar way, the Pontic idioms have adopted the eonants 4 IJ Q from the Turkish.

215. The criteria and other data which at the present time each echool adduces in support of its doctrine are: linguistic and dialectal JI8o!&llels ; etymologies; the procell8 of contraction aDd crasis; information derived from the works of ancient writers, in particular the old grammarians; plays on words (puns); imitations of the cries of anima.hi; transcriptions from and into Latin; and above all the orthopphica1 confuslon occurring in the spelling of the inscriptions and old papyri. It is obvious, however, that the great m~ority of these tests, notably the linguistic and dialectal parallels, etyma1~8II, cues of contraction and crasis (J S6 W.), imitations of animal cnes, and most of the transcriptions into and from Latin, are unaafe and often misleading, especially in the case of the Honants. Nor is the information derived from ancient writers and theorists more valuable, aeeiDg that in most of their remarks-which are incidentaltheee a.uthorities do not so much consider the actual pronunciation as they do the concrete script (2S C ), as fixed by historical spelling (2S 8 ). In the case of the grammarians, moreover, it must be bome in mind that they post-Ch~tian scribeB (excerptors, commentators, copiers) and CIUlJlot Bpeak wit.h authority of the pronunciation of 'clasaica1' Greek. As a matter of fact, their }lrecepts and theories on this point are just as 'Worthless as is their mformation about Homer's authorship and penonality w. Be it further remembered that, as they are not actual

Digitized by




gra.mmaria.ns but mostly commentators of claB8icGl texts, they hardly consider orthoepy (2S0). and that moreover they specuJate too much and represent phonology not even as it was in their own time, but as it ought to be or could be in their judgement and taste.
16 b Gf'amrJllJr', as now generally understood-the art concerned with the principles and rules of language iD lpeaking and writing-was viewed differently among the ancients. For, .. already intimated (05 If. 020. 25), the lpoken or oolloquiallanguage was, even in .A, hardly considered by writers, and utterly ignored by theorists or I phUologera.' With the ancient. then the study of language was the phUOIOphical etymology of words. When in the course of time the Stoics took up the IUbject of philOlOphical or higher grammar and finally the term made ita appearance, it was conceived .. the art dealing with the rp"'MATA, or litteraIurG (as the earlier Romans rendered it), that il with the tm'iltm compositions of I clallllical' antiquity. Hence the technical definition given by the 'oldest grammarian,' Dionysioa Thrax (I~C.), il rpap,.",,~" pUa ftir trapd "O"lt'GI; _ ~iitr,,, ch 1 ,.a nA~ Af'YOp.J.."" that is I grammar is the knowledge of the ulUallUbjeot-matter and diction found in the (cluaical) poet. and proaaistl' (cp. Serl. adv. gram. 611 If.), and is literally repeated by the Romans, ~ quill G tIDbis littIrrattIrG diciCur, sci;mUIJ " , _ _ flUIJ' G poGU Ailltorici& ~ dil:tcftM' ID: JIII'W lIIIJioN (Varro in Jrlar


.",,, .,....

,.oii .."f'6,.t'Of oyl".t'Gl '""~

_Errfl IS ~xor. 'tl](GT'O" ~ ~ .,.a r [po 166] ftpl ,.cM &36"",, oydp IfpO-r'la,r ""oc-ro,.l"ov ,.m; m,.,.or _ 0/,,, 'trtA4I&..".,.,o",.., (....1JaI1vr6..,...t ftir X.,AIow ,.a. ~XOl'. Ta.. M Bf'AXEWN oYMTpON ,u" cYHXON, ~"II~ lIv,",x~r.,.a 0" IIJ".,."., oydp .,.a m"If"';~ 1a.,./pov, ~ ~ .Am" Aall(J4".. ftpl n)r 4",..,par p&J.Aor. b. Pollowing this atraDp principle that the euphcqr of a IOUDd is ID. pr0portion to its volume, Dionyllioa further enumeratee (lb. p. 166) AMNP c and z ! 'I'

&ra ,.t) "".~,.,., ..oUt) AI-trrac, /Ir6,.'pCIl1~ 31111 pla9l, aut. II~ 31111 """t). ,..wra ,u" ..,ap n)r law;;'" 1ItWapc" Ix" ,,0"1", 'I'd ~ llaa'a _ n)r T'OU ""'~JACI,.or 'an IyyW ,.OU ,..A,,&nrra ftMIC '''fCPCI. (Op. alao 69 (I].) Co Still more abeurd is DioDsBioa' contention that the eameatn_ and dignity of Thucydides' and Plato'1 diction ooIl8iIt ID. the rhytbmica.l noce.ion and alternation in them of metrioal feet. c. 18, p. 25. I; p. -36. d. Di~' tute .. to the relative euphouy of the vowel_dB is evidently aharad by lIermopnes the rhetorician. In biB lIt&. a' p. 291 (LSpenpl), the latter argues that DO word is IOn01'011l UDleII it 8l1I the mouth: AIE,r ~ a.,.n, riG'a ~" ...Aa,..ia ni 1I,D'YIfOUI1G ,.a _M n)r .po4Jopd7 ,", 010" Inp ...,,.,,a.tfolHll "'Jlfr, ,.oiif'o clI'4-ync.afac .oc.g, ",~" ,.." AIE- dnW. ,.ocaWac ~ #flU &Mac pl" ,.",er, II~ 4l ,.~ a _ ,.. l1li .A.""", (read .A"Cm&) XJ1&IJAfI'at, &r .ov _ IS [Phaedr. 244 D] n)r olOIr,",q" t!-,",q" +'1a,,, 6ropGmu ,.,I'dr 4_.~ ,.a l1li. _ pl ,.oii a A/'YO'''' h ,., T'OCoiif'OI'. IS oydp 8t6lfPC"or 4X16,...6" ,._ 'II'ffrDltJ1f' a..~ollaatr .,.",.,.Elllcd,.a n)r ~",,.~ a 'I'd.A.ilma X/'OI" pl_. p/AAJ11t'G ~ 'I'd ""'Xfliz t'GIma, ,.a l1li _,.a a, lleaip.. ,.. _ lleo-ym,.a" A6-yor .1 Ifa~a Mr ,..Aamalar .r" auMa/3t1r ftir AIE'-, olOl' 0 MEN lit MErloC H['EMWN ~N oYPAN4) ZEic mHNoN lpMA. ~.w.,.., n a.JII'~ A/fflr 4l W ,.m; 0 ITt'CNXtlou m'I'1l "orar .rr ,., ~ lfat'4Ano-, 0101' 'OpoNTHC, _ 4l nir pupae;,.. _ 1Ie~6rt1Mr .A_4C0III141, _ III 'I'd ,.tAfIIftfCI I. 71Itlnu 'XOIHIat, ~. .1 1ItI8' ~ ~11t'G "'''"''' .octi' n)r AlE'" .AtGPUal1llJl. I1IH1t'/AAfI oydp piMOI' _ "I/1'I""'at 1Ie~ R . ., . .,.a nil,.,.. (Op..J> (,,),)

.. I9mi-vowela (25b) of which z ! 'I' are double, and then d901_ (p. 168): "ov a.) ,.otlnw Ifptl,.,.OI pl" 'l'd1le..Aii ,.;;", 4..AIiw, ' ..fla.) MEizONA ,,.Ipow _ ,.iiAAOI' 1Ioni' nir ,..A.I",r .,.,.., ~ 'I'd d..Ai Ilea ,.a .Is IJpaxvrl""." ClbnUr ,.6l'0III ~1TItu ~l(o".-A.nd reprding the mutllll he naturall7 ooll8iders the Upiratee far the beat (p. 176): IfpG,.,"a~"oII.



'11t'I ,.;;",






11T'O,"",'"' _


'E"""". 1IA4,._


.A., ,.



,.a "",,,'To,

I _.i',


Digitized by





-- -- -



VietoriD. i. I, 6 - BKeil 'ri. 04). The various part. of mob a grammar ware, according to the said Dion. Thrax: (I) dvq..-" IIITpcS., nnl .,."""..; (a) 'im17&r _nl7'M mlllipx_ _",..., 7',m-; (S) ,,/AalI7. - n nllrropcGw flp6X.'pot dd3ocru; (04) ''I'V~ ftlpel7&r; Cs) clNAooylllr '1IA0'ptI,,0; (6) Itpil7.r flOUIp.!7'OW. And these requisites of a 'grammarian' are thus defined bybi8 ecboliut: (p4por) lcopB.".,. . (i.e. correcting one'. own copy>, bcrp..nlt6v,It".."".&dv, 1t(1l7'_; and by tbe RomanI: fj'I"IItl&tII/.IUcxN 0/IId4 -.caRl iA J'I(If1ibu8 ~, ldotIe eftIIfTGtioN ~ ., itlllicio (Diomed. ii. 4a6 HKeil).-Theae principles were more or 1_ adbered to by all ancient and Byzantine 'grammari&nll' down to very recent times. (Cp. oa" Preface p. vii t)
16-. Another very important point, wbich eannot be too strongly impreaaed upon the Btudent, iB thi& While nowadaya a written composition is iDtended Bnt for tbe mind, nut for the ear, and laet for the eye of the reader, in tbeir writing. the ancient Greek. bad reprd maiDly to the ....--t pert of the language, that i. to tbe miDd and to tbe ere, heediDg but iDcidentaUy the acoustic side of the diction. Hence they wrote all words in a continuoUl liDe-a mode of writiDg called now 1CripNr'G _ " - a n d thi. unbroken liDe theT often treated, especially in vene, a. a text unit, ecmetimes even subjecting it to the phonetic principles applicable to a single word. Accordingly when we peruee ancient texta for information .. to the phonetic value of a letter, syllable, word, accent, and the like, we must aacertBin whether the informant refere(I) To ita grtlllHlll.ltilll ftmc:Cion; (:11) to ita external form, that iB to the . , . .. it appears to the ere (19b ), the commonest cue; (s) to ita 1OUtIIl. Compere Sext. adv. gram. 631 nl" TplXcDc A..,o,..uov 'I"Oii trroIXftov.7'oU 7" "'fI'G+O,u- XfIIICIIt7ipor nl MOll. Ital '"if 7'0W0u BuN,....". nl,7" 7'oU 6v6pIJ'rOr, rpoa,l- m 4 ,,",111l p/Wtna fI'pl n;r 1Iw4,...." (grammatical function) . " -rdp nl 1tllpU.r trroIx'" 'ftp' d7'O" (i. e. ,,0& -'flGpp4,,_i or 2-"r) "'~III. Cp. Arist. de part. animo :11. 16, 660 a :11. a. I, 66. b 104: woAAIl .-pM n)v .,wfl7." ftn, rpAMMh(l)N 01 flp61J'6WC ftn, 616rruo fIV~. -See fIu1.her 19b. 041. 20Sb. 851 f. i. 6 [I] " 1!It'. 'In fact in this eDtire theory (ofvowels and their cl . cation), writing rather than BOund has evidently been the guide.' FBlau Pron. 19f.


26d In face of these facta, the only safe criteria for the determination of the pronunciation of ancient Greek are the contem~rary inscription. and papyri. But even here we must draw a line of distinction between public and private documentl. inaamuch BB official and literary productions preserve the etymoklgical and ltiBtorietJl spelling. whereas private recorda (inscriptions on stone or on vases; sepUlchral, votive, and honorary memori8Ja; corresJ?ondence; notes, etc., on papyri), being the work of unscholarly artisans, are of especial value to us as throwing a sidelight on the actual atate of the la.Dguage.
51&-. In order to realize the full aigniflcance of the ~ or hiBtorical orthography, be it remembered that, in ancient times: (I) grammar was the foundation of all education and the indi.penaable companion of every aeribe. 8ext adv. Gram. 607. 041 dd ...,.,6n,rllr 17x'lc)" n1 'It tnan6-- 'YpapIIGT'., 1117" 7" atm, 010" ~ 7" fI~' n)v ftn, &Mow p&8rp.v. (2) Every public place teemed with inscription. which eerved as orthopphic standard and guide; and (S) not only all current school-texts (rcl 7tpGm"'lI) bad to be copied accurately and in the received uniform 8p8lling, but, wbat ia moat important, in the maJority of caaea, a reader was also a more or 1_ profeaaional copier, inaamuch be had to copy his own reading matter. In point of fact, the ancienta were more familiar with tbe received or hiBtorical orthography than iB the caae with us nowada,.., and QuiDtilian could well aay (Inat. Oral. 1,7, I I "30); ~ fUII!III' ~iAi IIInIU. (Jp. 7'7 [I].



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L PRONUNCIATION OF THE SONANTS. S8. The absence of." and Ill, and the multiple value of E and o previous to the adoption of scholastic spelling (6 f. 12), clearly indicate our starting-point and the proper method of investigation to be adopted: as long as the vowel symbols ." and "" together with their combinations 11 and 'to 'tfIJ and l1l1I, did not exist, they cannot claim a sound of their own (29b). Even after their adoption it came to pass, in consequence of the tenacious adherence of the Athenians to their ancestral (historical) spelling, that the old orthography continued to be used, for a considerable time-sporadically downto the III' B.e., and in the case of and ." down to Byzantine times,-side by side with the new system (cp. 41), so that, during 450-300 B.e., we are confronted by a constant confusion of these symbols as well as their combinations with their predecessors. This confusion may be illustrated by the following specimens:
I. E and El are very frequently interchanged from the part ot the rvt' B.C. Thus standa-


to the latter

nUI3M, 'XITllA'fa"'o, 's,.. op. alao 4); (over thirty tun.., PXretaohmer34); aA~Io., ib.; katAarlGA91;..aIo ib. S04 (on Attio - . PXretachmer 109 f.).; ncf6".or tor DflHwecOf (OSolrmann ii. 13.).-J'or ~ropD_ El (~9 ft'.): 'Ecr-r, 'o...pwit, .."....,.aJlCf CIA ii. 872 (341-340 B.o.); ilia".., a.1II, ..... ..pllI/Jo, /SouA., JUA.aal..., dm,,"," (lUleiaterbans' 5 t. I; 16),-not to mention the frequent _ where is tollowed ",. another vowel, as: S.ior (tor law) on a .A red-1lgured vue (PKretaohmer 136), ,<,)., a.,,,,(,)a, .,.IA.(I)or, ete. ate. (see 20"). b. El tor E, rarely: dx'poAlow OIA. ii. 2836; dX" for IXec, ib. 3OD4o . . . fAIN' tor XI,.,- OD a A red-B.gared vue, PKretschmer 136. Op. 20" f. 2. E and H interchange times without number from the V1J' B.o. down to the IXI;!' ~D. (~). 11. In the Attio iZIIICriptioDl the two symbols are written interchangeably, but f, M the ancestral repreaentative (~9 1), occurs far more frequently for ., than convenely. )'or the period anterior to the I~ B.O. _ KlIeiaterhana' 26[11 (alao GlIeya~ 88 f. and FBI8811131 f.)-and add among other inatan08ll of fqr .,: TecplllaCOI Xf*1TOr OIA. ii. 4112 ~ B.O.); CIA iii. 281: I.pion I .... Sarrfpor 1_ 'AlcMir 2ontlpu. OIA. ill. add. 1114& E~u. OIA. in. 11440 ii. IS ElpllGior. 2936 TfP,-,ITWf. 2063 BIll. Apalov. 2856 M'..,lIol. lIf... rrpG'NJtI Df",,~. Gr. Urt. Berlin 261", 26 f. r..a Beuollitt. I/AA;' for -~11J b. H for E from the beginning ~ B.c.): +cAoE"v'l UKllhler in lIitth. So P. 363- 'H/IO'fIlAtJ ib. KAlo""",,, ib. 36+ IIl00000A~r OIA. ii. 2731. 'MAl..." wHor (",on), 'H..,B6Ato, PKretaohmer \)11. JIHAl.,.., id. 107. ARII(J,or CIA. U. 3134 (IIlll B.o.), A.,tMHJI{c...,r ib. 1081, 48, ill. (31-54 ~D.), Louvq Pap. 41 (160 B.o.); _(for Iaw)ib. S3,9t 39f.-IIi.OXOf (tor IJI-)Gr. Urt. Berlin 9-,7.

lrAia.,r, rinu, MO'A'Ilt, (FBI8118 30 note 3;


E for (orilrinal) El:

6>." ... (beside 'oAflCIW),




(1) Compare id. p. IS, 6, b '., Jr.ann biB ~SO n. Ohr. noch mit f verweohBelt warden' adducing many inaoriptional vouchers from 117-2119 '&.D. [but for -.AllTlr read -.AllTlOr].-FBI. . 36 'Th_ II01U1da (., and .) a180 are, It is true, frequently oont011lldad by the papyri, and on the latter .. wall .. OD lnacriptiODl no 1_ than., is used tor the arisinjt from GI' with ret'uenoe to Louvre Pap. No. I where 1_ flllpoaUr (tor ~), twioe; IJ 0""""; u ..Ntl; no. 40 d~; 41, IS Bull. Con. Hell. U. 341 IIIWcrltrlOJl and 'Epri/Sou (Del08).-Add: df",,"" OIA. Iv. 630 b <34 B.o.), 18; driI.... Gr. Pap. Br. MUll. p. II9t 4 (161 B.o.); ,-rpM CIG 4J6s. JcroflUlit 4788. 'ftRptW ~39t &to. eto. .





Digitized by




Digitized by


27-28.] INTERCHANGE OF VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. 27. The above direct evidence (all from inscriptions and papyri) could be easily multiplied, but the specimens given may suffice for our purpose. The whole phenomenon may be conveniently illustrated by the following synoptical diagram in which the arrows indicate the direction of interchange, the black lines the frequency of this confusion, and the dotted lines its infrequency. lE : : lEt, and o.~ .. ov, and ot.~'t'.

l/i.!. illr
'I ...... 'D


From this diagram then, which gives a synoptical survey of the frequency and direction of the ' misspelling' occurring in the inscriptions of the VIt....:....IV~ B.o., we see that the , misuse' of lE for 'I and lEt, and the 'misuse' of 0 for 01 and ov, are by far commoner than conversely. But what is more striking is that while lE very frequently stands for 'I and lEt, the latter two symbols are rarely interchanged; and in the same way, though 0 is often misused for 01 and ov, the latter two symbols are hardly interchanged (26, b, c). In face of these facts, it would be very unsafe or uncritical to draw conclusions as to the pronunciation, in the Vt-IVt B.O., of the above 80nants from their frequent or casual interchange in the inscriptions, before we have first investigated and detected the cause and process which have been at work in producing this irregular phenomenon.
18. It is commonly held, especially among Erasmians, that the oftlcial adoption of '1 and AI in 403 B.Co W88 due to the crying need of expl'888ing by these speciflo symbols primarily MIll aotmd8 whioh had in the course of previous times developed out of E and 0 respeotively, and then a difference of quanIitv [see the following note]. This theory, however, though sanctioned by long and general belief, cannot stand the scrutiny of either historical inveetlgation or close reasoning, 88 Appendix II will show, and the following considerations corroborate. G. In adopting '1 and AI 88 vowel-symbols, the Athenians must have had in mind either a JIAotMtic (i. e. qualitative or quantitative), or a tMorelical (metrical and grammatical) principle; that is to 8&y the adoption of '1 and AI can have been intended to graphically symbolize either pre-existing specifio hitherto imperfeotly or not at all represented, or ...wict&I and gratJlmtJtical phenomena developed in the comae of time. Now the former 888UDlption is precluded by many and weighty considerations. In the flrat p~ had there been developed. prior to the Eucleidian spelling, any new BOunda for whioh the original five BOnant.. fI, f. C. 0, (0)011. were inadequate, there ia no plausible reason why Athens, the foremost leader in thought and action, who then teemed with writers, philosophers, painters, sculptors, musicians, architects, etc., who moreover, in view of her mixed (chiefly Ionio and Dorio) dialect (04), could not be reproached with great excluaiviam, shOUld have been 80 slow and tardy in contriving or borrowing new and apeoific symbols for th_ BOunds, the more 80 88 she had already contrived BO many mwicGl notes. If '1 and AI had been adopted as rep.-ntativ88 of apeoiflc new -filii, is it pOBBible that such an event should have been pa.ed over in silence by all ancienhuthorities? (App. ii. u[a].) It is also unaccountable how, if



Digitized by



immediate popularity_ did t and ", from the very outaet-and did not zemain sharply diatinct, precluding all oonfuaion with other 8Onante(cp. 27. 41). To argue theNfoN with FBlue (ProD. 25) that '" and CII weN adopted to u;pn. the open [Le. '] and open 0 NBpeOtively,'-80unda which

OIlCl adopted to Npre.nt apeoi1le and realaouncU,,, and CII did not meet with

'~, "Ep.xtMb, Df".A_cSr, d~ nIx, -,paPP4TC'i, fr.." A"u", eta., taken as rep~tatlYe8 of their eta., .PPE'ar apelt: during 400-300 B.o. nther with m than with El; during p-200 B.O. rather with El than with HI; and during B.O. 200-100 A..D. rather with HI than with El (26, 5). ID partiaaJar ... 1Ind that, _ in the 'publio' .A inlcriptiollll, the dative of the lat and pd deelenaiona and the subjunctive Ihow the tbUowing interrelation in the 1188 of m and Blnepeotive1y : lit declenIion. srd tleoIenaion. nbjunctive. 'If... 1J"'" ""~ ... During
B.C. 370-1JOO 188 .. .&;0-200 I~ " 1;00-100 OD. 54

avowedly diappeared very _n afterwarda, that is eYen hefON Aristotle's time and WON the aymbole for them had met with general receptionbut that 'none the 1_ thMe aymbole weN now reteined for di1feNnt ( .. quantitative .') pu~ (11,' is to my mind rather feeble and improb. able theory. For if phonetic distinction had become by this time, and not hefON 403 B.o., a COfIdUiD 9UCI _ which neceBBitated the Ntention of" and CII AB marks for a long foBOund and a long o-BOund respectively, theN can he no NABOn why no NCOune Was had to the natural expedient augpet.ed by the then eurriYing poetical (Homeric) method of doubling the vowels, but on the oontrary, double vowele should have been by ~ time eyatematically abandoned. le it probable that ignorant ecribee and ston_utters should haft never been miBled by their ear and 80 sub. stituted H for 'long' 'I, and 00 for 'long' III Y Or is it poBBible to conoeive a ltmg II-aound (011) without the presenCl of a parallel Mori .sound Y Be it farther oheerYed that if " and III denoted or ClIme to denote the quantitative length of and 0 in IJIM:A, it is rather strange that they should not immediately meet with general acoeptanoe as NpNI18ntatiY8B of long. and 0, but should do 80 only at a period (350-200 B.o.) which clearly marks the beginning of the dieappearanoe of quantity. B_ the very name " MirA (though later) is irreconcilable with' quantity: which would have oertainly augested "awcpON. Add ftnally the very IIigniflcant fact that the spurious diphthongs '" and.,. (lI and ,,), in which " and III Yirtually did the work of quantity, aN almost indiBcriminately replaoed by.& and 0& NBpectively (26, 5" 8). to ID th.e diphthonp where the &is mUff and thu n-.srlly thro_ upon a ., Of the entire work of quantitative distinotion, t:be Attio as weU as lonio _d Doric iDBCriptioll8 and papyri mow throughout antiquity an almost indiloriminate interchanp of ft with '1', and 0& with.,. (in the ease of 'I t:bere was DO oecui.on for oonfuion). ThUl the word! .Ack,1ftIIIOl, MITov"ft., AI:!~,




44 MIll



18 6



(See JUleoht i1.; cp. Klleiaterhanll2B-31 " FB~ Pron. 44-50-)


D. Now let DB turn to the ~ (metrioal and grammatical) prineipJe. It will he shown eleewheN (123) that the character of archaic Gnelt welJ. JuatiJleI DB in uauming a richer coDBOnantiBm for the primitive
(1) FBl_ Pron. 25: I The diltinotion between B and Eo n and 0 was originally one of quality, and the only qualitative diatinotion which can have been intended fa that which the lta.liane make prominent both in pronunciation _d in grwnmetiClI writing in the _ of th_ two YOW8le, and only th_, namal7 the diatinction between open and c1~ and 0. The quantitative d.iatinotion _ to p88I aocidentalq and -darib',' etc.-And 31 : 'diatination of quantity cannot be reprded in thil _ [of f and hysteropn_ fa] or elsewhere in ancient timea as the caUIB of cWl'erenoe in writing.' Theae are of _ _ _ _ ~ bMed on subjective opinion, not on facti. Op. ~ ~


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. . . of the laDguap than appears in .A, aDd that the 1088 of OOIUlOnanta had led to a oorreaponding chaDge in the language. When ther. fore (in the VII~-VI't B.c.) a lIpirit of national education awoke aDd the aDceetral literature-then all in _was adopted as the buia of the educationaJ. system, schoolmasters found that the ourrent tuta had been dected by the loss of the aforeeaid OOIUlODI.Ilta aDd thUB ezhibited certain metrical aDomalies, which had to be removed in the intel'88t of their pupils. Accordingly tesehen aDd oommentators bepn to mark the dected syllablel with oonventional SignL In Aohaeic or Aeolic (03) oountries the conventional marks resorted to were either a doubling of the succeeding OOn80naDt (11''''', llAo#I"..., 1t,.",,0I, In,""." tp8iPflOl, X'PPOW, (i""os), or an epenthetic I, the latter being intended as a visible but mute guidtlsuggested by the I adsoript (30" It). In this way, original G 0, when occurring before a loet. lOund, came to be written AI '1 01, aDd thUB led to th_ ,,~ or ~ diphthongs whioh naturally retained for a time the phonetic qualtty of their simple parenta G I 0, as: ftas lJp}(!Jlor for Tan apxon, .aar for A.s-r for *A~ "lAs.r for "lA.olfr, .,.ae"1 for *'I-T"a, lar for (flr), .,.a.r for -reS", (.,.0"), lxoan for IX""IJIJ, pIIl"G for *".,.,-rja, ~ipoa"l for "'fIOI'T"l (19i. 303. UI1r.) .Actusted by similar oonsiderations, the IoniaDa also adopted certain marks, viz. the .Aohaeic fl, then 011 for Achaeic oa, while 11 was retained unaltered, as: fwHI ..dr, (.wor, .f..._ .,.oiIr .d,aour, ",waG, 'X_I, but..aall, "lAII., ~l. In the _ e way Doric dialects adopted" (identified with El) for. (41&l for *I",.." for '''':Oflr), aDd 01 (n) for Achaeic 01 or Ionic .... (-.. .. p/ittsa). .At !ut .AtheniaD achoolmaaters also BaW the ezpediency of such conwntional aymbols and 10 adopted the Ionic fl aDd 011 for oompenaated or theti.c aDd 0. In this way, every poatpositive I, especially when prevocalictherefore every intersoDl.lltlc I _ e to be oonfounded with I adacript intended to gnphically Bymbolize IOme lost sound (oonIODI.Ilt), aDd thUB effect or indicate metrical position in the form of 'natunl 'length. The eoneequence of such a confueion was that the said, began to be freely dropped or freely ineerted (30" t:). For fuller partieulan aee .App. U. !)-15. ua. The relative inlluence of theory (prosody) and physiology on the orthographic system developed, eTen in the dialects, ever since historical times, is Btrikingly illustrated by the Tarious methods adopted in .Achaeic (especially in its BoeotiaD form), the mCllt oonservative of all dialects. Here we find: (1) originally poBitional or 'thetic' 11 developed first into ar (.,..w..r, Tair 1Ii_.), then either yielded to .Attic 11 (T4AaS, .,.u 3Urar), or was phonetically transcribed to, ( -.: It.P for Xflp, "9/1a for trailla); (3) originally thetic f developed IIrst into d(-rElfl,.., I'fl), then either yielded to (Ionie-) .Attic" (Tt",,.., 1nI'I'~p, JAIl), or was phonetically transcribed to " (rip, ~"..) or by I (- fa: 7,.." """"'); (3) originally thetie developed IIrst into 01 (.,.olr "4,,Aoas, pIIlaG, ~poa"I), later replaced by 01 (rii, adl'Ol, u'''''''')' then either yielded to (Ionic-) .Attic 011 (-tl: .,.oiIr "4,,Aovr, ,.."un, ~potHII), or was phonetically traDlICIibed by the simple u-symbol u (aaAv, rir lAAur, rii ad,.." ,.vera, ~1pv"1) ; _ mode of spelling which found its way also into the received or panhellenic orthography (36).-All these modee aDd ataaes of spelling are amply represented in the respective insoriptiona. lI. The procea jail; deHDeeted Ihowa then thM the above nnltant. diphthoDp are not origiDal but .~ (1JIIIrlove), and ., cannot, in their as

*,'" *_"




IJtafIe, claim a lO1Uld di1Fel'llDt from that of their simple pred_m However.

in procea et time the,y came to be B7BtBmatica1l.Y applied, it. wu inevitable that pupile and pneral readera Ihould have padualJ.y oonfoanded them in ewr.v napect., and that fIom nadiDg the oonfa8ion ., into oommon life. (0,. 211J'. App. ii. u.)

19". Regarding the adoption of the symbol" as a separate TOWel, the promoters of the spelling reform were evidently animated by the wish to remove an ambiguities and anomalies in matters of law (GGrote Gr. HiH. 'Vi. 534 It), and more particularly to eimplify the reading at eehool and elsewhere of the Dational literature. then chiefly metrical, and to


Digitized by



UUa end merely l&DatioDed the ooDTeDtioDa! I17stem alreacly initiated &Dd cleTeloped at 1IOh001. AooordiDgly that partioular was tnDscribed by, which, thoup Dot diphthongized to hyaterogenooua" (29). appeared in wree as 'long' (uaua!lyunder the ictus,II9); or. to put it another way. that was transliterated by" which in the other principal dialeote already figured aa'l, and furthermore that which in Doric (and Achaeic) oorreapGnded to a, but in Ionic already appeared aa 'I. except after P where the Doric (and Aehaeic) 4 had established iteelt in Attic and 80 was retained, e. g. :
PaDhellenio: "'Iw.6s. .A..u., -rAPIR. .~ ~r. p(w. ~~'" 3on, ''orOllTCI, _~ITOIolHpG, ~ 'XPMOJ. --. 1J'/JAJIptU, 'a/ltwfHII. ate. Attio and Ionic: ..AV (Dori.o ..A.G,,>, " (ph), 1Jd&rp1 (1Jda.,,), pAX'I (p/JXG~. 4A-iYIJ (I.AUlliTCI), """'17/ (prId,..), a."... (a_a), wAm (..A4,a). ",aor (...or , 4nrt (~), ~ 1TT,.nrt6r (...,.ss), .,.., (N-), 16'1' (16-. fI'P~ (oTCIr), ete. ButDorio and Attio: p,. (Ionic x4Ip,,), "."t., ~"..""t'lf).a~i4 (J'I), "filii (fWP'IE)' .,.n,p (.".".,,), (.,.",xw-), ..puaOJ ( ..p~aaOJ), ".ap4aOp.tJI ( ...~ao,...), "aTpGI' (,i.".,.pOII), ,...), AGI", (-',,), AIta" (At'l")' ete. I9c The rapid spnad from the outset of the qmbol 'I-not .. H (-1) but .. an additional B7JDbol or n_Ietter (with a new name, 72}-W.. apparently due to ftorioaa 1U1like its aa.ocJate fI, it prevented phonetic confuion with original and real diphthongal d i it wu thought to graphicall7 B7JDbolise its progenitor, H beingtabn for a oombinationofEl (or ER P) i and it had aleo become widespread, apart bom Ionic, in Doric and Achaeic, including the adjacent Boeotian (op. xi for XOp, "AJ,or for '.fiPor, .,.",u for ~""" for ~,...". Atrw for AXfI for ,lXff; fc~ for fcA.t_. KAHI1I4"'1f for KA.""4...,,., "llpUAHrM for -,,1.""'01, As for la'J"tfAllJ' for 'a.,."A.", 4tnrpos for fnapor,.t.c.). This frequent ooncurrence of 'I and .. then ineTitabJ,y led to a CIOIlfuion, and obacured the speoial use for whioh eithtr new iIy11lbol had been intended, the Athenian public at large imagining that 'I had been iDtroduced .. a monoliteral and OOllvenient ~ equivalent to its biliteral pndece.or and a.ooiate .. (11. Now .. fA by that time had aeaumecl the - a of. CM), it happened that 'I began to be popularq read like I, while &mOIlg theorists and tra:ned nadem it must have retained, for a considerable time, the IICIUIld 01 its pred_ E (op. 29- 48). In other words, H was teohnicall,y inteDdecl for 'long' I, but pop'lllarq mistaken for fl, whioh fa by thia t i _ ,.... pl'Ollounced .. i. 18"C. Aa espeoted. the innovation could Dot fan to C8uae oont'wdon betweeD the old and new system. At the same time the novel symbols were reprded, for a long time (41), aa a sort of aliens and mere graphio alternatives for the ancestral e and 0 respectively PI. This circumstance alao aooounta for the striking phenomenon that, whereas the primordial aDd traditional E and 0 are used times without number for 'I and OJ re..,.avely, the latter, having t'riginated as concrete marks of compensated and 0, and so being IUbeerTient chie1ly to speclaliate, are on the whole rarely misused for the former (27). It is only since Q times that Hand n _ve been oompletely identi8ed with E and 0 respectively, and thus very often take their place (26, 2 & 7).



... t,...,



ahr.,,.l-'' '), .,,.w (.,,,,w), ,.,... (c""'"

ea_ :



I') Compare PL Orat. 418 0 01 p~ .. d.PXGl6.,.4TOI Ip'''''' (Ip- 1) n}1' 11"'"", Mw, 01 ~ (fllTT'por) oll~ 1Ip.4,.". Cp. 41. III B _ iu an Attic inlcription of the J:Vtl [before MO} a.o., found on the AcropoIia (CIA". 4Sal, S )-whioh ha. nothing to do with ltenograplay-w la c.lled theftjIA or' the voweJa, .,.,) ~ .4p.rror"';;'" ~4~'J"OJI' T-an expreaion whJoh obviouq aoludes'l and ., from the list of proper lettan. Even in an IGDJe abeeedari1un of the V~ 11.0. (lISBobert. Po 19), the symbol8 'I and OJ aN






Digitized by



194. To sum up, in Greek sonantism, as exhibited in cIa.saicaJ. Attic, the so-called long vowels and in the greatest maJority of cases the diphthongs f& and av, represent not original, physiological or specific sounds; they are hypterogeneous and accidental symbols portraying prosodic phenomena developed within historical antiquity, but previous to the IVt B.O. The succe88ive stages of this evolution can be distinctly tra.cel1 in the case of " and ov by their spelling in the contemporary inscriptionl and, under direct Greek influence, in the early Latin orthography also. Here we can distinguish four broad phases of spelling: the primitive, the scholastic, and the phonetic, out of which arose the fourth or received (post-Euclidian) orthography current in our texts. See App. ii 9-15. Primiti.. Sc1wlastic. Plwttetk. BlctiWld. I. E El or H El or I El

'J(OI Ir {/Pr)
xpla dnos


'X~III, dr, qr




I'Wrov tnlcia. tnlcia plus pious plt&& ludex lotW.ex ludex lee. The foregoin~ historical facts show plainly enough that, at the time of their adoptIon, the vowel symbols " and QI had no phonetic value of their own, but served as mere technicaJ. (metrical or grammatical) varieties of and 0 respectively. It is evident then that the JP'adual development of the Ionic orthography initiated prior to the "I~ B.O. and finally adopted or legalized 6y Athens in 403 B.O., originated not in the need of spD:bolizing pre-existing sounds, but in the need of symbolizinff metncaJ. phenomena. In other words, the new or scholastic spelling was not the result of previoul phonetic growth, but the very t:atult of the aubaequent (post-Eucleidian) phonetic aystem. It is therefore misleading to start from the B8Bumption, for primordial Greek, of sounds which were not symbolized, and to treat them as concrete teata by the side of the old symboll for phonetic research is aurely a false method. I'm

d,ivos vricos M, slive (.1, ~r") OYorO {jour, {jilr onClllo

ftpllT~, -fJ"r x~ia, XPo1a

'X'III, 'X'" Jr, lr

ft"c".fJa, -{j&r 1("ca, xpla divus vieus li, live OY {jour

'X"" dr
ftp'".f3"r. divus vicus si, live OY {jour

The Diphthong, in ~ (19 if.).

80. The diphthongs cu, 0&, V&, a.v, V ('IV occurs only as augment and QIV mainly in Ionic) are 80unded by Erasmiana diphthongally and by traditionists monophthongally in the sense explained above (24). Now judging from the striking frequency of vowel sequences in Homeric (also post-Homeric) compositioDs ( I 24), and the rareness if not absence of contraction and crasis in them, we are warranted in &8811Dling a diphthongal pronunciation of these vowel pairs in 80 far &8 they are , original,' that is in 80 far &8 they had come into real existence



Digitized by


&8 early


as in Homeric times. But when we descend to classical Attic, we find a very ditferent phenomenon: the process of COfItmction (as represented in 156-165b (appears fully and systematically developed, and the so-called hiatus, either within a word or between two consecutive words, is generally avoided. Now 88 non-contraction (d.avvcupcul4) of the diphthongs and contraction (including crasis) 8I'e two opposite processes, we are bound to assume that the diphthongs in ..4. had long become monophthongs. This is also proved by the fact that no diphthong ever shows a partial elision (14Ib), and the papyri-unlike the inscriptions, which were engraved not phonetically but at first (in ..4.) O'TO&~v, later (in P) mechanically (9 I )-never dissect a diphthong to its com ponent parts at the end of a line. Further very conclusive evidence is afforded by the inscriptions of the Delphian hymns to Apollo (composed after 146 B.o.), where the diphthongs, when they happen to stand under a 10fl{J note, are not dissolved into their element&, but repeated in their entirety just like simple vowels (OCrusius 92-94), whereas the natural way of prolonging the sound of a diphthong would be to draw out its dominant element: ~aov(twice), l"'pOfIoupc~ .TIiA, Maam., "iOlflov, fJ-poiOllTW, ch~, ApoOou. So again in Bull. Cor. HelL xviii. 3491f.: 3 KAcIaTVv; '1 (Jl~; 1'1 (p. 352) c18ciacw[I); 23 ~alongside with 3 17~; '1 ,),Avdaf; 10 al6Ibtp; 13 6ap.rlxu; 15 -yCICL\f ~], Tp'TCIOCIOV~; 19 _p./Jp/nuv, 2 I TW'l~;' 22 ~; 26 lI.ap.{Jp6ra.I.; 2'1 AaanM.
8C)b. Regarding the oocarrence in the lAid hymns (OCraaiua 94) of lov63pov for f~lI, and 'fGOI'Ipow for Nilpow, such an artifioial analyais was a matter 01 abtJolute necessity, since the alternative rendering by means of repeti. tion: -vriNlpow and TGIIII.s,-. would produce ~potI and ft_pow, or at least .1/IpoII and ~, and thus render irreoognizable the original sound.

d."" -., ;

8L As to the spurious diphthongs f, 111 ." Vl-originally written (AE)AI, El, 01, VI, later AI, HI, 01, VI -in so far 88 I here is original, or a genuine phonetic symbol, they evidently came into existence at a period when, 88 in the case of the proper diphthongs, either vowel was still sounded separately, the process being that the first prevailed over the second and ultimately swallowed it.
8lL The phonetic pJ'OCll88 whioh brought about the monophthongization of the diphthonp (IM> tu, ou, fl, CH,II., 90 1/, ", is oommonly explained by the theory that before reaching =sreaent (or N) monophthongal sound, tb.e vowel pain muat have through certain intermediate stagea of phonetic gradatioD, that is through a gradual phonetic Pl'OC888, the ultimate I'88Ult of which was that in some _ . 88 in G& '" IIN, the preTIle _tUatIOD ,..-r_.fu., ~,.., eta. _ m M . czescendo utter,..1I1ch u IIPIut the falling (d_ _do) nature of ~t. Moreover, if AftIIIIpd _der m1l8ioal JlOIiation, the above wwds woa14 l'1Ul thu; ","'-TH
(I) ADe8

"" ...,w .. ,... ate.


Digitized by




positive 'long' vowel p1'8TaUed over ita poetpositive 'short' aaaociate and produoed the spurious diphthongs, "" tFBlass Pron. 43 ft:), while in other Cl&II88, as in (11.)"', OIl, t., 01, Ill, it was the poRp08itive vowel which, though short, overpowered ita prepositive associate, and produced, u i i i respectively [ll. This theory however, though simple and prepo!E8lling, is a fanciful explanation. Moreover 88veral weighty objectiou ari88 agaiut it: (r) The same cause acting under the same conditione could surely not have brought about different results, as shown by the case of '" &; , lnow ... , &; 0), &; " (now - i &; 0) &; 11 (now-i). (a) The transition of III from +. through 4 to '; of 011 from 0'" u to u ; of El from. +. to i ; of 01 from 0 +. through tl [I) to i-to paaa over the poat.Eucleidian combinations '1' or 11 and "" or ,,-naturally preSUppo888 a long period during which the first vowel BOund must have struggled with the 88COnd for the preponderance (bUp4Tflll) ['I, a period of slurred pronunciation which ought to have shown a confusion of the two contending vowel-BOunds: 11 and " 0 and v, and" 0 and .. etc., whereas such a characteristic interchange does not actually occur ['1.


(3) The originally composite BOund aBBUDled must have stood somewhere between the first and second constituent of the diphthongs in question, and then from BOme 'unknown' causes the compound or diphthongal sound in certain cases advanced towards the second constituent, and ultimately was absorbed by it, while in other cases the proceBB was res-1ve, and 80 has resulted in the exclusive prevalence of the fi.rat; constituent, as shown by the spurious diphthongs Ill, '1', "" (Il, 11, ,,), where the , has become mute and therefore subscript. Such a progreBBive-regreBBive or oscillating proceaa moreover militates against the very constitution of a 'diphthong' where the first vowel always predominates over the 88CODd vowel, which latter thus aBBUDl88 a l8Dlivocalic or rather consonantal function (18. 19b 32') 78. ESievers 3114; KBrugmann Gr. Gram.t 33.
Sib. The monophtbongization of the diphthongs in Greek lies in more _ than one, which will be better understood when we have ~ taken into conaideration the peculiar principles operating in Greek. We have before us three di1Imm.t c1_ of diphthongs :
[I) Speaking of , 11 " ("" _>. J'BJa. in hi8 Pron. 4\ 'la,. down' as their original valne.u ,. IH III IJu, and argnes that 'th_ eemi-diphthongB &le one UI.d all 'inoonvenisnt' to pronounce, ~_ the component parts do Dot coaleaae to a proper nnity, and hence the tendency of the langnage either to fa8a them

_ _ cloaely together by ahortening the first element [this is ~ hyp0thetical), or to aimpWY them by rejecting the 88OODd.' Nevertheleea, Prot m.. contrives to ahow (ib. 48) that this ' inconvenience' wall withltood 88 late as the I close of the m~' B.C when the Remi-diphthon~ Il "" ~me mODopbthoDg8 by 'rejecting' the ,adacript. But granting for a moment that th_ vowel pain bad really ever bad the value laid down by Prot: BlaaI, if that value wall or bad become inconvenient in A-Ptimea, how could it have been 'convenisnt' from the outset down to A antiqnity, and 10 have had an actual existence P PI J'BIa. holds (Pron. 32 f.) that the hyat8ro!reDeous 011 wall in 378 B.e. ltill 0, bDt that in 3631.0. it bad changaci to u by 'rapid advanoea,' thna implyinc ~ one and the same penon at Athens in the IV~ ..0. witne.ed, within twenty-4ft ~ craduallUOOellaicm., from one anoiher, of all intermediate IOQD.da I,ying between 0 and U, after which the . . - of phonetic obanp &topped for ever. Again, an Athenian who happened to leave Attica in 3,.s, on his return home in 363. found it difticnlt to understand his fellow-oitiselll. To II1lCh a ItartIinc theory it wonld haft been wozth while to adduce a parallel from the hinory of

P) The treq_t omlaIiOll of interYooalio , in inataII.oea lib U, 11,-, ..3"01, trOt;' etc., is irrelevant. See Id'.



Digitized by



L Diphthonp la which the prepoeitiYe vowel has overpowered aDd ._rbed its poetpoaitiYe _iaM., as la" " " (in early ..... written AE [later AI] El 01, 19" &: 31) ; 2. Diphthongs in whioh the poatpoaitive , has orverpowered and abeorbed ita prepositive auooiate, as in ." 01, VI (now all = ~ ; 3. Diphthongs in whioh either ot the two component vowela has nearly p~ed its own _nd with a decided preponderance of the prepoaitiYe .. or f aDd a coneequent labialization of the postpoaitiYe V, as in flV fV (now GfJeflOrfl/.t. 24& 51 tt).

ago. Each of these three cl&8888 has its apeeial eauses, aDd must be oonsidered separately. To do this adequately we must constantly bear in mind the following four fundamental prinoiples :I. Beside Sanskrit, Greek is the moat; inftectional of all languages whether dead or living; hence it exhibits aD infinite number of au8ixes aDd prefixes (127 ; op 16b) [1). 2. Greek is based on the peculiar principle of triayllablo aeeentuation (~) with a decidedly regreaaive tendenoy (3,d. 84b ). 3. The eminently infteotional character of Greek involves a constant flW&y to and fro of the accent within the last three syllables, in particular from the antepennlt (which veryoften coinoides with the root or stem) to the penult, and conversely. 4. Of the five original vowel sounde (16 b), fl is the relatively strongest, Den comes 0, then U, then .. and finally i as the last in order and weakest of all (146 1).

8.... A careful study of the above four prinoiples will show that it ia the operation of one or more of them, In ~rticular the influence of tbe accent -and by accent we mean stress (77 .85. App. i.)-that has brought about the monophthongization of the vowel paira aI, fl, "', VI ('11, on). It was the accent, aoting as a dynamie agent from MriOUS point. (seats), that led the procesa, the start having evidently bean made from the root or stem of the words. For it will be remembered that in a given word the root or atem ia the primitive element, while the sulBxes and prefixes are hyaMrogeneous aeeretioDL!, so tbat the root or stem must bave originally been the seat of accent, and probably of a considerably stronger accent too (App. 1. 17 & [I]). When in proceaa of time primary (mostly RIftixalj and binary tmoatlyprefixal) accretions began to smplify the words to polysyllables-a case so common in Greek-these bysterogeneouI accretions naturally fell under the Iwayof the accent and so led to the development of the system of triayllabio accentuation (trisyllabotony), peculiar to Greek. Now as long al the total number of syllables was kept within three, the aecent generally retained its - t , but as soon as that number _ exceeded, or extraneous (grammatical, analogiesl, etc.) influences came into play, the rhythmical balance of tbe word was disturbed by drawing the accent out of it. original seat over to the penultima or even to the ultima (op...... 1..1.,0,.,,,, Af"t6,.f9a, AryoplpOIJf-/l'lIJ""a, I"A[""ar, On the other hand, when one or more sullb:al syllables went dropped, the accent generally receded to its original seat (-r,,..,,,,,,6/Af"or, .,api,tlo,.fY, -rl,.""o", -rlJUl-.a..:fIOIfI, fj8&o,,). Again in case of prebal acoretions the accent, in coneequence of its recessive tendency, often shifted ita pmtiOD even further back than ita original seat in the root-syllable when the prefix either carried emphasil or had eoaleaeed with the stem to an iDdiatiDp18bable whole (""O/IM, d-Ao-,w, .u- ...., "poW.,..).




(I) The Greek verb' alone shOWl no _ than soli sndinp (finite alODe 249 8piut 245 in SaDakrit), whlle Latin ahibita 145. and Gothic 38 (GCurtiua Gr. Va3e:),

Digitized by




On this principle we have, taking into account simple words only and indicating the seat of the aooent by a capital letter :'Afpt 'AfptW but Uptn a.,o"." clBpCII hence at,. (I!t)
AD1I'f AJI&1I'OII "Aflll'Q"

lBaor TB&xor aocAor 6p.ocos "Yla

A.AllaTlII 3af3or dJi:rTo"." 1I'polpaS




AA...y_ 30fII clETT. 1I'POlfJf

6p.ocOll' "y_


,,'I'fll(_ "IIOIAOO


" "

,~61'O1OO "p1IJAr



"AfA........." , , 3....30 "

, , 'AfT'l'O" ,,1I'POCpa

Tfexor .oc'>.or 61'01_" /SJ'O'Or "va i.e. I'iia AtAllwila " .qi 3ci'r (I~)" Ijr
IIOIAovr "

'flour" , ..Or



'A''I''I'f" 1I'pO'pa"


'l'oYTOII "T0YT" TOI/'I'O) In the cue oUhe spurious diphthongs (,aia [ie. Ilia], /!fr, ",.pg, X";C...), we must reckon as _Ilcient factor the relative strength of the constituent vowels, in that the prepoBitivea a f, as stronger BOund., have overpowered their poatpoBitive attendant I (a', + 146 d ,. 82r. The above illu8tration., taken as repreaentatives of all clallllea of stem diphthongs (eullul and prefixal diphthongs being due to gramma tical and analogical influences, a,4), &how that the monophthongizatlon of (a.)cu, fI, 01, lit, 011, a& ~ -q), Ill, M, originated ohiefly in the II)'IItem of trieyllabotony whioh ehifted the accent now to the prepositive now to the poetpoBitive vowel, and thus rendered both forme equally familiar to the people. A further consequence of thia alternative accentuation was a corresponding I lengthening , of the accented, and I &hortening' of the unaooented vowel, 80 that when in proceu of time popular epeech futed the accent on one seat rather than on the other, the unaccented vowel was further reduced and econ swallowed up altogether. It becomee olear then that the monophthongization of the diphthongs AI I1 01 YI ay (HI 0)1) was not, as generally believed, e1fected by a I slow and gradual' prooeee, witneeeed within historioal or even 'poato1uBioal' timea ; it rather points to the conourrence in primordial Greek of diphthongs with an alternative accentuation (cii a: at, It a: it, 6'1 a: ill [6ti a: il1I], etc., cp. nth. as ai-fAIr and i-fMr), with the natural consequence that as time went on one accentuation prevailed over the other and obliterated it. Acoord ingly there was no intermediate gradual proceea, no compromise or blend ing of the two vowel BOunds, no progreasive or oeoillating phonetic proceu which led on the one hand to the proper, and on the other to the spurious diphthongs, but both forme are virtually oo-eval and 80 back to primordial antiquity. At tbe same time the monophthongization in question W8B not efl'eeted all at once, but the proceea afFected each diphthong in each cue or word separately and at a diJferent time, though all certainly in preclueica1 antiquity. It ie further clear that in the spurious diphthongs the muteneae or phonetio disappearance of the poatpositive I (I adeoript, later subscript) is not due to the preponderance of tne prepositive vowel (a 11 Ill) by virtoe of its length,' but the very reverse: the disappearance or muteneae of the poetpoeitive I acted as a 80rt of compeneatorylengthening on its prepositive &I8OCiate. [Compare AB or AI-A-E(II) in flaW..., aY,.., .",,,..,, T ~ a: ...... a,., tI'1pa"Q,. T"papQi-l~Hra, Apa. .."qI'fU'G, h-1.1oIHpa. So further ~ .".,~i., -XIII ,",X...., AIl_ et", I,...". otla 14,..." or ler".". ete.. 168.86+ 1 821. Durerent ie the cue of the diphthongs a ...II (now=atl.., oraJ~. Here we find that either vowel has retained its individual sound. with prevalence of the flrst <aa", 3), 80 that the composite resultant 6u or rather A'I ..) finally became all cri or.., ef (El). --





)(pi' C.







Digitized by


8111. From the above general remarks it becomes clear that, Btrietly speaking, Greek, since hiItoriea1 times, knows nothing of real (phonetic or acoustic), but merely graphic diphthongs, the only exception being afforded by the vowel pain ClU and fU ('I", _), and that only previous to the complete COIl8Onantization of their poatpoeitive u.




H, 01.

83. The vowel symbol " whose pronunciation as at all times cannot be questioned, has interchanged, ever since the VI~ B.o., first with El, then with Y and H. The following inscriptional data will illustrate the nature and frequency of their confusion and the degree of consequent homophony among them. 34. I. Iraterchaft{J6 of I with el. (Cp. 30 & c ) The following specimens, among Bumerous others, may suffice for the purpose. (But cp. 28, c f.) ~ B.e. ~&O& Roehl IGA381cB ISdl~ 4wrc;- 'As;,lI. E' 419,
10, 1

CIA U. 465, 105 CI4>117T- ib. 104 & 105. 'H4>lIrr- ib.). ZaAa,.J",or CIA ii. 482, 11,3. .13la~ PKretschmer 36. 450 B.O. Zr~omJ& CIA i. 230. 447 B.o. Zrcryloira& ib. 2340 892 B.o. 'EJrtJf/>[!da- CIA ii. 482, loB. 'A4>~ CIA ii. 482, JJ4 (beside 'At/>poalrr- lb. 110). 878-88'1 B.O. a.. CIA ii. 678B 47 (3IEptlrr,..,- ib. 651, 4; 695, IS, &c.). IVt B.e. M~IX~ beside M,wx.l Bull. Corr.. Hell vii. 507 & 509. d~aMtor CIA ii. 681 (dp.lx- ib. 751, b, 21; & 765. 24-25). 832 B.O. 'ApctI~ou Bull Corr. Hell m. 254, 14. 820 B.O. f'AAfl," CIA ii. 835, i-I 86. 292-1 B.e. dtro~alm'lI& Lcci_ 'A/Jljll. H' 294-5, 9. B.o. M.a&a~ Koupall. 'Etrl')'p. 1835. Znpl.Ur ib. 1153. &1#" ib. 3151,5. 'Htrtp&ns ib. 167$ & 1679. Irrirr~CIA ii. 603, 9- 237 B.O. 000&').,.11 MahafFy, Petne Pap. i. 14. S. 164-3 B.O. 'A4>pO~:1III Gr. Pap. Br. Mus. p. 8, 37. 163 B.e. ';rro~.TfI ib. p. 32, 18. Ifacn~....oii ib. p. 10, 5. Kpl/TG ib. p. I 1,37 (Kprtrl w.48). rpatr.Ccirou ib. p. 16, 7-8. lnroKyMlIIIIIlI ib. p. 10, 21. 161 B.O. rro&~1m (for -rrm) ib. p. 21, 10. irr.~~ ib. p. 17, I 1. ro~')'po~ ib. p. 17, 15-18 twice; alao p. 19, 17. ~~rr' ib. p. 23, 8. 9. IS. 26. 30. dJ,n~"""""'lIOU ib. p. 19, 4-5 - and eo on ever since. For maDY other examples see GMeyerl 115.

(4uSn~ CIA 201, 1014. 1029, &c.). dtro~ CIA i 9, 28. MI~&~:O 4&. EfInI,.. 'APx.. 1889 p. SI (Mf&>'- CIA 1122,&C.). EicfJlaTC4~



Interchange oly with I (or its ~ el and H). Dealing with the sound of u, it is diftloult to trace the physiological procesa which led to its change from its original "BOund (J6b ) to its preeent i-sound. Still, BB in the absence of any explanation (that of tHl-i being a fanciful hypothesis irreconcilable with Greek phonology) even conjectures are allowable, I believe that we can detect a plausible explanation of the phenomenon in the generalization of the above principle of the monophthongiZlltion of the diphthongs (33b 1r.). We have Been there that, under the BtI'8llll of accent, the ptepoeitive vowel of the diphthonga .. and lit became early mute. With this change of every (original) DU to and every ... to i, the I&-sound came to be expre8lled systematically by .. and occasionally b,. the (rather uncommon) original simple u. Now BB in progre88 of time, DU, already the principal representative of the I&-sound, pined in frequency through the _ _on ofhyaterogeneoua (compensated) _, it may be conjectured that it gradually appropriated the whole field of the ,,-sound, while u, having already been 8880Ciated with ita comMb.



Digitized by


panion I, gradually went further in that direction and ultimately ended by being systematically either read &8 , or tranecribed by ou. 86. 800-660 B.O. JUlCffWP beside J~wW&" IGA 452. V'l B.O. 6&6l11lTor, &1101llITly.1""r, MovlIIXos PKretaehmer p. 119 (on A red-figured vases). Tup",fJ& ib. 64- 90. 408B.O. Ku~&ijr CIA i. 230 (beside K~ CIA i. 240). 878 B.O. 9/lUITII CIA ii 17 a 45. 874 B.O. , AI4&1C'1'11GP'" CIA ii. 54 (beside frequent -/CT'i-) KMeisterhans' 22. 8SO B.O. J;~AAa CIA ii. 835. ~ B.O. TIT/l~POfor 'IIT,,-, PKretsehmer 31. KI/Jpir for Ktt- ib. f. 279 B.O. XoipuAos Bull Corr. Hell. I89O~. 3H9. IIIf B.O, E~rlxis CIA ii. 2935. 280 B.C. ij/lU1TII Mahatfy ii. XVI. 2, 9ISO B.O. IWAuX"'GJI, KVllSuIUji Kfthner-Blass i. 70. XGlpuAos Bull Corr Hell, iv. 13,81 & 21, 164n'fB.c. ijl"'1TII Gr. Pap. Br. Mus. p. 22. 6-10 (thrice); 80 too 24, 5; 25, 15-17 (twice, (but ij/lllTlI 46,24, ete.). 168-7 B.O. npXGrr'pn,1I Gr. Pap. Br. Mua. p. 41, 121 (beside ~XlllfT- ib. 97). ~~ B.O. Mu ...i,os 'EI/>"", 'ApX. ill. 1884 p. 100 (M, ....IC'os Bull. Co~. Hell. YJll. 154 [45 A..D.1). 98-98 A..D. TUTOS Bull. Corr. Hell. VID. 154- Il~ A..D. Aurr':'.. (for A&tI'-) CIG 9727; GKaibel Epigr.73o, 181189 A..D. Tu{3iplGS CIG 1168. Q>al"uAias Bull. Corr. Hell. xii. 490 no. 115 (t/HJ.".Aias ib.). AI/lUAla Mitth. xii. 170 no. 3. A~pulCa..os CIG ada. I999b Bn,,~AAf&a CIA iii. 127. 170-180 A..D. UG,..miA&os ClG add. 3822 bl. K..mA,Gs CIG J738. Z/pfJuAAa Archives de miss. iii eer. 111. 244, no. 7J. ~uAG'HI..os CIG 1967. Ju""Al&GS Arch. ep. Mitth. xi. 32, no. 31. Tufjlp&Gr CIG 1168. II-ml A.. D. CLeetnaD8 . 95,6 (beside /l,,";''' 21). trO~1S for trijEcr, 97, 47. IJMpa for 8upa 107, 20. , 131, 19. A/lJIJIITa for {,/l- 13 I, 40. lIHU'"Ipj",,, J 35, 39fJapfs for fjapvs 83, J5. nit for rijr, J07, 12. ITlCOrrrpOll for IT,,ij- 97, 21. 1TVPI/N~lTas for -'/nItb- 109, 5. trV"pias for tI'&lC- 121, 45. dm!p1tPos 109,33 ,,_oii fltt8Gii for f:lv8~ii liS, 2J. "axft.. for -xV.. lJ7, 39. IIp2 A..D. poArfJ~" Gr. Pap. Bnt. Mus. 91\, 432; also 113, 926 (besrde /laAllfjoU" ib. 74, 304, and /loAufjoii 76, 358: IVth A..D.). 21& A..D. BflSwdPX'ls (for -Bv.-) Berl. Akad. 1888 p. 888,61, 10. wfv8...", CIG 2824, J8. m-~ A..D. BH'a...,.lou CIA iii. 3483. CWeasely N. Zaub. 77, 1 1!JAall7'l/plG..,dAAGIClllo-G"", a.IJ'II'IM,r, oIp1~,tI'aptlTTo.uo. (for -rTlI), au (for 1T'1), U/lfp'..oll, ISulCar (for 18"lIIas), etc. ~ A..D. ~PU""'o" Great Louvre Pap. 513 (~P&IC7'- ib. 266. 1460.3017). II"A.Jfjqll ib. 2466 (~ufjoj,p ib. 329). 4.uAvP&"o. ib. 2695. mA", ib. 2138. IV-V~ A..D. poA.lfJaiip Gr. Pup. Brit. Mus. 122,30. AplTfpor (for ;',,-) ib. p. 108, 746A..D. kl"ia (for ICUp-) ib. p. 1240 14 (lWpia ib. 20). 487 A..D.l"alll:Tu.s.os uweasely Pro1. 65. V-VI~ A..D. mrliAHIT' CWessely Akad. Wiss. 1889 p. 115. dJrGA'ITM'nI ib. p. II4. pn/WHP;;' ib. p. 115. dEup'.xGS ib. p. 106 ill. twice (beside frequent -pu.,.. ib.). ,,;;,.... fllJPTHpo," ib. p. 112. / VI~ A..D. icrroypd"'ar Gr. Pap. Br. Mus. 82. JrOAUTla. CIG VICo A..D. 6,.w. (for ~,.w,,) 8643, 10. U/l"r (for "1'-) ib. lS6SS. CWessely PlOl. 64. Gr. Urk. Berlin ~08, 13 Jp6~.a 9. 7Tprm...., .., ~o<.>.11T1S ib. 608 A..D. poVITlICU (for -q) CWeasely Prol. 64VIlth A..D. pa,m.(JCIII (beside -f'Vp"') CWeasely Prol 64. [B]afjlA..... WE6rum Coptic MSB. no. 53 (beside BafjuA.tiw ib.). dAu8,..os ib. 39. fP& (for ICV". i.e. "upi",) ib. 12.15. 42. tl'PGIT"H...;a[G],.... ib. 8 (-VI'23)-and so on ever since. aaa. ID. later ~aD8krit, Greek u is 1iraDBoribed almoat .. often b,y i .. by ..




but then oariou17 Greek, is oftAm van.oribed by" .. well (AlbWeber 615 I; 6.. f.). Ccmvene17 SaDakrit i is UaDeoribed iJl~ GnU n_ b,y f& now by

4.XWpa, T'ipl for .,.."t, nats on a mere fallaq, whether the teetimony prooeeda

(ill. 628, App. i. 11 Cs]). aa'. The allegation that the Eraemian pronunciation of 1/ 88 Aor French " ill heard in such N iuatancee as (northern) rip4 for 1.)(4,. for



Digitized by




from Gvman (Doy Lautsyatem GKeyer' 93 ; FBlua 21) or Greek - . For the former authorities are mialed by the palatal BOund of the preceding" Y )( (cp. 5610. 57. 9I) which they mistake for part of the Il11O-mog u-eound, and the latter make it a patriotio or pleasant duty to bear MetimoDY to the pl'8II8rvatioD' of ","BOund in N, since they are told that it is 'cIUllical. AI a matter of fact, N knows abBOlutely no other vowel IIOUDda than "., 0 " (16"), all well defined and isochronous, except in poaitioD (App. iL I " [I]). 86. UkewiM the h l r _ drawn by J'BJaa (39 op. PKret.chmsr 68) bum the ~t name of Kum' ancl 8NrII (KcWPIJ. ~Toiipa) for the ancient Kdp" ancl ::ir,n,., .. to the pronunciation in A of u .. '" cannot b3 accepted, BhIce th_ modam forma menl,y point to the infiuence of the LatiIlo-Venetian adminiAntlon.


88. Under Aeolic (particularly Boeotiu?) influence, the BODaIlts 0& came to be regarded among G-B scribes as equivalent, and thus were almost indiscriminately substituted for each other (29), as: 160 B. o. dNynw Louvre Pap. So, 7. ib. SI, 7. I70i Myol (for ".v Alyp,) Gr. Pap. Br. Mas. p. lOO, 675. IlNtei.". tIN"ltco". docu~.s, CWeuely,Abd. Wise. 1889 p. 115. I: A.D. , . (for pupa) FGKenyon, Claaa. Texts p.9J (-r 517). oltrptJ'}'paT.vOptlN Arch. lDlIt. Amer. ii. .16. harpVr/N (for -ap{40l) FGKenyon Class. Texts p. 106 (=0 21). W (for &&.) ib. p. loB (-0 648). Tei lUJrci CIG 2824, 6. Imf"'pal 2826, 23. dIIOEaI,.z a; TU' tlriEI ib. 1933 6-8. 168 A. D. TVaW'l" Gr. Urk. BerliJlIS3, 18 & 35. d4>lAI "" for dtll.lAfI pO& 155, 5. ib. 183 (t 85), 21 ri fplaG ,Jpor. 276 (t II-IIlf), 20 ".u" aV, etc. ete. sasK4 A.D. n_+WJIG CIA ill. I197, ii. 17. ~ A.D. dIIO~ CIA ill. 1427, c. 4- dIIU~s ib. 1428,3. OCUl&'l'iplO" ("err often), iltefTqplO. (for olqr-) KKeisterhana' 46, 10. br,,,,",, ~I~IOV Mitth. xviii. :ao6. 86 b The frequent Bubstitution of -ci. for -vi. in the feminine of the perfect participle active is apparently, due to the influence of the adjectives -lir, -U, -i., as : Ipprryda (often), Itrl"en>.fUia, fGTlltr.Cia, CJ'lIII'CI'YGYOXEia, a&fppGlycia, M MInia, YtOOOia (often), vu.apape:ia, ElA...6e:ia, etc.-8Jl in old inscripUoDL G. Meyer' lJO.
., and

a. I~ OfH toiIA I (or El. Bee 26, 28 fl'., 32 f., 3.). as B.o. [K]apllpijr CIA i. 228, 12. vta B.O. Efc/HI3os for EIl4nIfJos (on a red-figured vaae) PKretschmer 138. McQlXO~. MJQaXOS', MI~,xos (on vases) ib. 133 f. & 233425 B.o. 'HlI'oIt,.,.", Roehl IGA 26. Juc&I1Ara. CIA i. 37. nlaaa7js CIA i. 37 (rr"a.. 229, 232, 231, 233). 422-419 B.O. vufJH.r, CIA ii. 170, 19.; a1ao 172, 18 (420 B.O.), and often aince. 490 B.o. KaptlPqs lb. 263, 9 (KapIp"r ib. 237, 11. 239, 52. 240, jJ. 256, 17). 8'78 B.O. Z&It...tmal CIA i. 17, B,31. 849 B.O. SvaLiJJIl (for -"'I) CIA ii. 755, 7. 880-817 B.o. tl~Htroaa CIA ii. add. 834, c 4,2. 828 B.O. dct>ctu CIA ii. 811, c, 119 (cld>ijtef" Bull Corr. Hell. xiv. 163, 13-21 often). am. B.c. t"J}" 3l alJl CIA ii. 1059. 9- 806 B.O. '}"fIC7HtrOalvpa CIA ii. 63, n4- 1fanIT_ ib. ~ B.O. THSr, (for "i,,8r]) CIA ii. 836, c-k 43; also 992. Em}(os TV}(ItnI'iaov 'HpntclfGWlr CrA ii. 2936. tMoJourn. Hell Stud.. Megalopolia 126. ~If)lll}(a eq9~ (for e,,8ala) CIA ii. 2998. 'EtrIpemU lfor -,,1.) .ll.."os JI&."la CIA ii. 3222. t/ntM Berond. Nim. 4, So. ~"'p&OS BulL Corr. Hell. v. 168, no. 33- XPI- 'EfII"", rlp}(. E 23, twice. 188 B.O. A.ov (for ..u.ov} f9 B




Digitized by


Lo1m'8 Pap. SS, ll-IS, thrice. IJ:If' B.O. 'IW XpGlJTfor ~ GIB 477. 400 120 B.O. ,., (for nj.) plall' Loune Pap. IS, IS. AlI,w.iar (beside AIJp.;Alov) Mitth. xi'~. 114,72, 3-6. ~trpta ib. 110,66. f/lNAJwa. ib. 105, SI. Al.MOU CIA it 1049A. SS. 89-82 B.O. CIA ii. 470, 71. 80 (beside -niJ"I(-, 153, 7; 835, c-l 4S; 403. 38, &c.). If B.O. miJAA!C1W CIA ii. 470, 20. 4& B.O. PatJNPwr Bull. Con. Hell. vi. 608. 39 B.O. KaAovNcnor (for Calvisius) Bull. Con. Hell. xi. 226, 7. If A..D. TtttUp'or CIG 2739. 84 A..D. ~o, eIG 5045. rA.-'X/,-UITI" for ](pw.,.. FBlaas HermeD. 1390 9S A.. D. tr~.IJa, Gr. Urk. Berlin 11, II: U~ A..D.llJvt.,. FGKenyoD C1aas. TextS p. 104 (='1' 751). nIJI.cSra lb. p. 106 (=0 20). I&O A..D. 4&0,44", CIA ill. 11 19, I. 1', 190 trl},." GKaibel Epigr. 998. 1&2 A..D. rO 'A(mG.,os. Gr. Urk. Berlin 153,32 (beside 'Aprra#r) ib. I~). ,N tlnillr for ,.1} ,13vl", ib. 38. 1&8 A..D. KAipOu'(&ar Gr. Urk. Berlin 160,3. 181-9 A..D. 3urdp&G Le Bas 243 (twice); FBlaas ProD. 37 Dote 5. 184 A..D. '~"" Mitth. Dy. 92, 15,3. 170 A..D. Xo,.w.or CIA ill. 1133, 49 it 184 A..D. 'Apa{3tut"u Gr. Urk. Berhn 199, 23. 180-200 A..D. Z,,*, (for Z!Cii,f", OD a coin!) Imhoof-Blumer Abhd!. xviii. (1890) p. 628. brHftI CIG 28240 2. dr I. lToptl. ib. 6. nU' for rlr ib. 2826, 17. CIA iii 73, 24, S. t"a.;. "" A lAa{3fr ..0 ITf/luplr, Gr. Urk. Berlin 241., 5-6. A,m lToSIt, (i. e. d tU,. .,..",1," [for which Wl'ODgly crJ.j1T"~) lb. 223, 3; 230,3. r.a &0.0""" pd. (i. e. r... "&lJlCO~ ~"....) ib. 261 26-21. oUli.. A ,...) ft. ",COJI ib. 12-13. ti5 A..D. rijr ,..o>.Nniar Berl Aka.d.. 1888 p. 888, 61, 12A..D. KpMr !Col Kvpl!lrrr Kv..,M).,or CIG 2588. '"",.Ntr"lM 2790. KaA~paror ltoUNTVXl7 d...iuc, 6672. 'ryllJw nr ,.,. amv Bull. Con. Bell. 1893 p. 528 f.-and 80 OD ever since. 88. The interchange of " and n in the endings -f&or and -fIG, 10 ftequeDt in H-G inacriptiOD8 (B.o. ~IOO A..D.). as: mi{JND. Up., ~ pta""", (Loufte Pap. p. 370, 18 ....,M,,), 'ApamKANa, 'HpdWta, .&AdKANa, Af/Ifl.tta, raAdnca, 'HMa, AGe~-'.br.",*, r,PptJ.z-. ~p".., e.;1TNa, KaatrQPNa, .,Apttor trdJor. 'A~, ~OS'. M"'_ (K)( l 37)--haa hardly been CODsidered here, since a prevoca.lic i or /I can lead through a wea.1t i to CODIOnantal i (155, G. cp. FBla.aa. ProD. 35), notwithata.nding that this cannot well apply to paroxyi;on88 (iJ.patrHa, ~ -Ma, 'HMa), where the a.ocented. t-aeund is '"" wea.k.-See also 'Mi".





88". On the other hand, the fNc&U8Ilt QDoopation of words like Al-,ilos, OM_ (from .,,11Jor), XoAl/Jrpl frolll ."ta"... Aaroupyla from A",r., which 0CCll1' in the ill8Cl"iptionB Bince the It A.D. (KJleiBterhaJlaS 30, 6), ean be explained oal)' on the usumption of Jlomophony between., and '(Cp. 148 t) 80. The mMt u.mniItakable evidence or the pronunciation of " AI la _ by Erumiana in the two fragmentary linea where Cratinoa and Ariatophanea repreaent the sheep Of')' by ~ M and M I'8IIJMICtlvely : 6 r tAll'" II"".p -r~0J0 Bti Bit A.I-t- ItaIltC". Frg.U (Tltoot) and Ha.. '" ,"AA.. .al.",Ma BM A,."O'. Ar. Frg. 6.~ (lb.). Compare Heqah. Bit AI-ya' lJA"xATal: and BHBHN' wpOStnort. BUlt. AD. 86, I BN' -rpoSlw-IlA'Iri. 'ApcIJT"..", Ht... /A' tlTA. Bt. J[, 78. 40 N BM Inp ...taIIrina& Lrr, ~ -rpoS/nov. But even ~tll18 that it was univeraall)' Mlunded AI at the time of ita adoption (29 f.), I have el.where (Am,er.lour. PbiL XVI. [111951 .f6-SI), that neither Cratinoan or AJiBtophanea are likely to have marluid their own vel'8e with the proaodic IJIDbol " that they wrote B.B4(.) and 114(.) respectively, and that th1a IIfB4(.) d_ not rep~. the Bheep ~. ht deDOtiel, la the lllIllWll8 of infanta (and Cratiaoe l8 ricUwUne IOIBe





Digitized by




Digitized by



rax. ,.a" ~. cletl)(~ (JoiiIr==PON), eto. eto. AooordiDa17 the only fnference to be deduced from the abcmI &oDd a.ny other .imUar paIApII iI that the Athenian. iD Plato'. time had not yet become quit. familiar with the ne... ortbopaphy, but mOI8 or J_ IIdbend to the &oDoeetral or aoholMtio mode of IlpelliDg (6. ~), &oDd, what is aleo very lignfftoant. that they made no IICIOO1I.Dt either of the aepiration (72 d) or of quantity' (28 ft. 86 d App. it). ThilloCOOUDte aleo for the very frequent JDfIlpelUDg of ,.0. &oDd ~ for ,... &oDd 11) in IDOIt of the archaio &oDd o....ioal tezte. (1744 f.)

.u. b. Interchange O/H tDith E. (See 26 f. 28 if.) On the other band, the aame A inacriptions from the tint appearance of 'I in the V~ B.O. down to Byzantine times show a far more frequent interchange of this symbol with I. This phenomenon has already been fully investigated in 28 ft'. 48. Regarding the almost regular practice in Latin of transliterate ing 'I by., it now becomes clear that the Romans could not be expected to use for it the letter H familiar to them as If, or to provide a special symbol for Greek H, the more so as this comparatively modern sign was so unsettled and abiftingamong the Greeks themselves. Having adopted the Greek (Chalcidian) characters more thaa two centuries prior to the spelliner reform at Athens (5), at a time when E was the only rec~entatlve of its claaa, they continued to abide by the old system 'liar to them. just as they still adhered to the old E for n (29 ft'.), as well as to the old digraphs PH, PS, CH, unmindful of the fact that in Greece these pairs had been long replaced by the simple symboIa ., "', X (5 f. 12. SJ. 56).
'"' IV. Interchafl!Je 0/01 with I (or El and H, cp. 28 if. 3 2 ft'). U9 B.O. "will (and often since) KHeillterhans'124- 810-800 B.O. oLa (for oflro,) Kiihner-Blau i 135. .aA'fPCI (for -poi) CIA U. 768, i 24n.p&8cl"~

(for .8ol"~) Bull. Corr. HelL 1890 p. 62. 30B B.C. crv.&_'/V'II, GDittenberger 1.)4, 5. 188 B.O. AJIOv (for ofJlOV) Louvre Pap. 55, 1I-15 (thrice). 181 B.e. crv...,,,Mov8'!lCdToa av, Gr. Pap. Br. :Mua. p.9t 13-141815-1&8 B.O. "&OLc".,.OIl HCollitz. IS29t 2H. 01.,.0 ib. 1339- (Cp. 45.) 101 B.O. "air Ao.rrcfr CIA ii 467.12 f. A~ucrroi_ Le Bas vi. ... 2388. 'AICvAof_ CIG 7284D-m' A.D. 01 trpiinc CLeem&nl 117, n. 131, 30 fJ'II'O..a6. for -alj.. 135. 44 n\ MarG for Ao&ft'G. 137, 9 Tin- 11'011. III' A. D. ~ (for -,cc) FGKenyon Claaa. Texts p. 9$ (=r 262). tMlIOU Gr. Pa~. Br. Hus. p. 93. 268. avi A~ (for aV ib. p. 106, 675. III~ A.D. LcolltS,..or CIA iii. 1444, 4d",.,~CIIf (for ~o&r) FGKenyon Cla8a. Ten. p. 86 (- B 378). (for -pol-) ib. p.88 (- r 144). alMor (for alaeior) ib. p. 88 ( ... r 172). dJltuco3o"';CI'CIJIt'OI Bull. Corr. Hell. ix. 210 f. d~illW Great Louvre Pap. 3100. 1~ A.D. tmIIJ/I)V (for ",.".) Gr. Pap. Br. }lUl. p. 24- oIpitr for .;"or CWeseely N. Gr. Zaub. 77, I. ),0iII' (for A.I') Gr. Pap. Br. }Ius. p. 87, 101. ,'trOf.. (for ;rrY.II) ib. p. 87, lIS. V~ A.D. "wo.: >..pur,1I "erOIl UWilken BerI. Akad. 18H? p. 819, 9. V-VI~ A.D. ventre: cJlia. (i e. lCo&A",) Louvre Pap.4b p. IZ V - ~ A.D. cniXI (for CJt'i)lO&) CW_ely ADd. WiBI. 1889 p. 115. ollCClla (for oilCia) ib. &40 A.D. ,.OV rrpolCGfU18fPrOt CIG 9277. &99 A.D. ~II CWeseely ProL 68. 818 A.D. ;lIflCl (for ;"UtlO.) ib. p. 64. i.wov lb. ~/ (for cpocf:J[a,.,...l ib.) nfr a,ITft'om,r t'Oir Ihlar ib. i\ ft'pGIC.I,.."o& ,"~8';'tM8a Gr. t1rk.. Berlin JOB, IS. VUlt A.D. t\ ~8a",." (for 01 atln/",..r) Apocal Petri 17. 34- ;lIOf_ I, 2. 780 A.D. Japaaow611 (for -"'/IItS,,) ib. p. 5.66-





Digitized by



.... ..




iDdi..ted 117 Thucydides through the term ." I'~" " " ',."lIOIIIIequent17 then _ but one phonetic venion of the old aqing; (2) that thi8 orlgiDa1 venion".. _dentoocl to mean ",pM, tile Datura! ooncomitant of war, ainea if tile alter_tive McpD. were in the mind of the people, ita very realisation a.fterwardl _Id D~ pouib~ h~ve oauaed nrprille and therefore a di8pute, tile more 10 . . DO A&pDr i8 mentioned by Thucydides during the liege; Cl) tllet the appear&DOe of ADCpD. for the expected AapDr led to the Q poatmon lubltitution of the latter for the former iD the vemon given by Thuoydidell;-a oiroumlltanoe which nrely ftuesU a eon of homophony between 1 and 01 in Thuoydides' time. The CODteution tllet 'the very dispute' ahout the worda ill question pruYe& their hetelOphon7 (XIlhner-BJa. L 5, 3 [ID, is utter~ indefensible, .moe the .,., ".. D~ D~ carried on phoneti~ but throqh the ."aiIIg (ep. the Bngliah Ht formula How do 70U 1p811 it' '), a ZOUDdaboa' p . - which the 1UUIIfata.kable .aript rendezed 1Uledl_ for ThuoycUd. to mention. Bqua1l7 1IDtenable 11 the aqr1UD8Dt (Xllhner-BJa. i. 53) kived from HeL Op. a.u, where Zeu is represented to idiot UPOD mortalll ~ l"w .. ADC", I88ing that, unlike the above oral Ia7ing (t_ ".."",,>. Hesiod', line ".. IIIriUen (even .. a private advice to hi8 brother Pena), and 10 ".. meant for the . , which oould Dot pouib~ milltab the two wordI. A llmilar oollooatioD (ADC,..,w _ OC01U8 in Dion. H. Al'II rhet. 17

<_) after the plague had bI'ObD OIl., aiDce tile altemative wODld have been

6ft .,., 1ftIAcIcW 4AA&l AwM. .."."... ai III Ti np6JIT. ,k6TWr AOIMdN .zpiidaa. .. W "",... .par a 'rtaiI)(OI' n}II """"" mxomo. .. 14 -r-, or"." ftT' IUor IIfn'fIAUv 'I'M' GttTfpor .cai ppS; .,.,,4daa AIMON, anl ri tkck ofroIr ft/OIl"". l!'or the IJU8III9 only mow.: (I) that the '''' .,1".,.0

Th~cIH 2, 54t 2: I" li Ti - (peR) olea 'lftr ....P1atr,- .cai TOV& 'rOu , _ foG...",... 01 'IIpflI!Jvnpoc riAa, lB....... 'IffC AMpuutor ftAfptlf _ AOIMCiclp' alITi.' id" oz. .,., 7'OC; V1p6ntocr ". AawlIN w.op/Ari

So fmtber "pGI'la (for -...x,) CIa 9111, 4- I" MAm, 9113 & S. -yfJlfrO. I" cA"., 9115, 10 (also 9121, 9. 9124, 4- 9128, 9). " cOAtrIf 9131, 8. ~dIJ.or WECrum Coptic }lBB. 13" (",,).- ib. 12. :lOo 22}. qui" ib. 22 (1I'0l1"i" ib. 13). fIcoll"'"" ib. 5. )..,..0" ib. 24- JO. (>-- ib. 14- IS. 22. 25). OplOf ib. Ap. v. i-and 10 on ever since. 4&. The argument for the monophthongal pronunciation ef 01 in.A finda support allO in the frequent absence of the augment in verba be~nning with 01, as: 01,,0401"1"'''''' (four times during the I~ B.C.), beside ,;tr.oa- KMeisterhana l 137. oLucoaTpdfIxw. Aeaeh. Pera. 768; Hac. J2; olotlllCono Xen. Hell. I, 4t 14; 5, 4t 17; 01_".._ regular form from Aristotle onwards. (716.; however cp. 26, S.) 48. For the strikingly frequent interchange of 01 and v in G-B times see 29 and 36. 47. The phonetic interrelation of DC and , in tile yt B. 0. i8 D~ eleer~ 'borne oat by the popalar oonfuaion of "DCpD' and Aa~', .. rioorded 117

' ' ' .,,0

T. '.If




aacl ., too Luke



1\'1'01 _1 "0I,.ol.


V. AI (AE) and E iftterc1umgetl.

(See 191, 28 If. 33 :If.)

48. We have seen above (I~) that ea. was the oriaina1 spell.iJur of the diphthong aa, and that it eJ:changed its poatpoBitive vowel. for , after the analogy of n 01 Il1o This (grammatical) modification in the mode of writing, having been carned out systematically, did not affect ordiDary speech, so that ea. from the outset retained the BOund Of (that is la 1] f) of its predeceBBOr (32d). Hence CI& in..4. admits of another independent, after it, as (V-nif B.c.): 'AS"IIO&ltr.or (i, e. "u.,...ilr6r), 'AS"N&ir, 'AA:CIU"O', iWca,l~'Jf, 'EPl""ltr.o" KOptlJJICIluc6r, II).ea~, IIflpcawr6r, II'rO).'l'CI&lr, &c. (KMeisterhansl 26); cp. Boeotian lInnSra for 1mrOraa, Mpyt'f'Hr for -TCI&" dcfHa>.hH for -Ta', dtroypd4Hu8H, ad6xfH, e.41H.,. for e,,/ldor, "a for lUll, "Hp' for etc., (29".



Digitized by



48b ; Cp. GMeyer' 113), where H stands for E. This aaaociatiOB of termiDal I would be UDaCCOuntable for A, if we were to aaaume anothe rlndependent I before it, that is if the , of the preceding diphthong contained a distinct poatpoeitive i-sound. 48b That the vowelpair (eft)1I& had become a monophthongous e (41) before 400 B.O., appears also from the fact that, when" found ita way into Boeotia (cp. 5 [I]), this simple symbol took the place of the diphthong (OH) a" as: 'Apiunc~, 'H~ol",f, I1'11Ji"n'~, "HX,.. 'H~,,&Or, oHll'l'IIr, SfpGmwn, XHpiM. xAp'. -ra,JH (for -al), ..[rro,...., "~'III (~), 'A8allAo"etc. etc. RMeiBteri. 238ft'. cp. id. 8d.-See 2'/"&48. 49. 2. For the proDunciation of GI as &iDce A compare: II).C'rCIIiS", .lJ1Cfvr. Bl'jO"Ctur, Un,.ur, '~coUlT_, Kv&aSt,-vr, Ni. (for JICIlf",), McpmmIPIo,PtJ, , AS"PIoS", &c.-and conversely 'Epc_Ur, l1&OpGMvr, Tp'",...,.fVr, Aalov (for fA/ov), 'ypato (for ~yr.0),ICCIIM.V'rl (for "iMVS,); further ~1T').fu.,.Orrc (for dlTf).,vITOP.-II&), 31q,t11pcr (for -pa,r), IT1INril/, 1/Ii31f1D., &c.&c.-a.ll in CIA (KMeiaterhana' 27). So further M3U1 elL iv. 2269. l"sd3aw,ah-.. ib. 733. 188 B.C. w..ry.n: (for -'ral) Louvre Pap. 50, 7. 166 B.O. !Spinll (for -'r') ib. 1,386. 168 B.C.,",,,. Gr. Pap. Br. Mus. p. 38, 23. 39. 45. 40, 66. 164 B.C. d3ijnu Louvre P~I" 43, 4- 'p~ ib. 43, 1-4 twice. If A.D. ).v~,.,.._ FGKenyonClaIi. Texts 76. v.a. ib. 105 (-01). iy&i. (foral,... ib.l06 (=0 34). (Jou). .,.s' allI'~" (for - .,.s' ~amn.) ib. 106 (-0 39). H~ CIG 628 twice. " - (for aoaH&I') CIA iii. 171, ii.I-2. fJ,-ao,"I' ib. 14- yj yv...a. ~, 'l'1li,,'-, .. tfOr _') Gm 177;-and 80 OD ever since [cp. also 299]. 4910. GOartI... aDd with him 1PBlIIIB (ProD. ss) olaim to have cUacovere4 un ~ble avldence ot the pronunciation or G& . . II-i In suoh eMS or orMia _

" " (tor Mal '.), clnWoJ, _TW, and the lib. But thill phenomenOD, whloh OOOIUll ohleft7 in V8r118(16t), It! iJl88parable1'rom the1ridespreadpraotice In .A or t1"eely dropping every interaonantio I (20". 29). seeing that Mal not onlJo' It! a Pl"OO1Itio but allO tOl'Dlll an lnaeparable part or the (metrical) line in the IOriptura continua (79- 159- 16s1tj.


M - . in

No safe argument for or ~ the pronunciation of cu_ lbe IIIf B.O., caa be denved from the famous epigram of J(a,)]jmach08 (A. P. xii. 28) : A~, ri ~ Haixl . _ dUG ftp}, .ZtniP
f"OVro IT~, ~X. ~".,.[ T"z, t1).).~tx..



where to PalX' the echo lIeemll to respond 'X'&' that is Mchi -teli, seeing that the reply of the echo is, for metrical reasona, given in inverted order (1Ial~ "aMr-t1).~or 'XII). On tbe other band1 the contention of at&unchEraamians that the echo re,p.liea to wor by oI).).or (FBIaaa is ProD. 64f. and Kllhner-BlaaB i 54/"IJ) ia untenable, sinoe oxytone and &Iller paroxytone, so inat the two words could not well lend themselves to parecbeaia.


150". A pnaral survey of the pronunciation ot the in t1Ia V-Vzta A.D. ia domed by a YS in oapital8 ot the IX~, publilhad b:v ABouoherie In the N~ XXIII (1B72) pp. 27'1 ft. and 291 tt'. It ia entitled 'BPI'IJI"(,JIA-ra, ancl WIll oompoaed by Pollu: (207 A.D.) tor the 11118 ot Greeb wiIhlDc to leam Latin (ib. p. 290 note: tllllf4"'fPG1/ia 1I'Iirra 'rIl fill"",",. . . 'ITa lrf>tA.r ...,pclmHr flNAlJ7'II&; riir AIIA&4r n;r) 'Pcu,.,r.i!r). Our copy Ja the 'WOrk of a t'oreipar who knew hardly au;rthlng more than the Gnak lattere, and thu _ t e d a maohaDioal replOductlon or the ][8 Wore him, whioh _ to .... belonpd to the V-VIt (ib. p. ~), tllat we IIl&T oharp moat of tile bl_clan In it to his pred_r. Here then we And (ib. Po 300) ~ tor .. 79 tim.; I SO tbn8I ; , tor 0& 811bDe1; , ~ 11 66 ~_ lac ,




re.: " _


Digitized by


PBOlmNCIATlOlf 01' AY, eye


6 " - ; far 41 tim-.-fI b .. ti-.; " fur v _ (...,w tbr for 11 5 tiauII.-v , . ft :I times; v b . 10 times; v fi:rr " (,HuJ,lar); v ibr oc 3 times.-t tbr a& 54 times; f fi:rr " S'I _ <- above 43); 'I for f 7 times; 0 ibr., 75 times; ., tbr 0 22 timee.


VZ-V'J,I B.O. NaftruTu.,ro(Lokria) RlIhl IGA 321 (Nallll'- ib.). 'F6(CoriDth) ib. 20, JOI. dpurr.FfWTa ib. 343, 4- dF'rou ib. 409- JfGFv ~l'r. dp}(. J888 p. 173. dFwrip ib. J890 j). J3O. dfT'oia. Rohl Dial. Ina. 1267. dfror (Crete), DComparetti MuB. Ital. ii. Zll no. 63. dFTG J~ 32; df<r/w 217 f. 77-78; 'A.p.;''''a231 BqCJ 83-4 (CP .lJFf'r'II'r HCollits 1Q40. 1041. 1267,7,21 dF'raMr', IFtr.~r). See GMeyerl IZI. a:ao EtSaio_ CIA ii. 836, 40nIc. B.O. lv3olOro CIG 1$ 3. lv3o* ib. 1845, 47. 180 B.O. Alalor BulL Cor. Hell. VI. 38. Blaaor ih.43. 169 B.o./p/lAlvrrunr (for-+llI'Tfr) Gr.Pap. Br. MU&. p. 38, IS. 1&8 B.e. pau30w Louvre Pap. 40, 33 &: 41, 26. ISO B.O. ~tJoun CIA ill. 1104t I. ICCIflITICi8aa. CIG 3693. dtr,'Ai"",'por (for -'A.vB-) ih. S9Ub ;~, Weecher-FoucartlBacr. (1863) p. 31z. UQ8'Aos Rev. Arch. aer. z6, p. 382. B.o. 20-30 A.D'Aa&or CIG SZ39 &: 5331. eta. (fouw) CIG 96sJ. B.o.It-mr A.D.'AJkciroaor (twice), 'AJa&cu.Or (thrice), 'A8i&or (11 times), 'A8i'ror, "AJaor (thrice), .a8Gwaor, .'Ao8&o..or (28 times), ~'Aa&Uor, otM8&o&- (144 times), .Aa8cIWtos, .'Ajjlor, ra8&oJoOr, ralt1aor, rci8allos, roa",s (thrice), 'OlCT'll8ttuoOr (4 times), 'OlC'ra&or (12 times) 'Palina, &c. (ThEckinger 16-17). 42 A.D. Zelijpor ; z.&,plIIPH, 26piaror, &0. ib. :z8.

B. THB DnTmOlfGB AY .urn EYe (See 3zb, 3. 3ZI.) aL The diphthongs /IV cv are now pronounced in N aB at1 efl, modified to af if before hard consonants (7rT, t/Jx!J, 0') (z 3zb, 3. 91). This is also the natural result, in accelerated speech, of the original composite BOund au and flU (cp. Latin " Uld tI, 18), or rather a'4 and e- (3zl), and the phenomenon of Jabialization is very old, aB Inay be seen from the following inscriptional Bpecimen& (Cp. GMeyer' 119ft:)


61'. The OODllOD&D.tal aoand of v III .... and. .. is further borne oat IJy the phenCJlll8DOb that in oompoeition initial p is not doubled after d-

(186. 712 J, -: d/*nos, dpollf (b;,. the side of ~os, tI,poor). Ho_ _ _ also 64 Jt and App. ii. 8 tt. & 14-

as. FBI... (PIon. 82 f.) is wrong in aaaerting that 'the Greeks 'represent coDlODantal " by ov, even in cues where it is pre ceded by", .: 'OIC'rQov,or, Z.ovijpor; aDd Bide byl.lide with this appears 'Olmiior But the fact that Cl., aDd", are writteD from the second century [A.D.] onwards with av and .u, though Dever before r?], auggeate '*hat the modern Greek pronunciation h8d at that time"begun, and Datorally flnt before vowels. For my part I have the~eateat , heBitatioD iD &8IligDiDg cv - eJ ad t/J - I to the time of Hadrian; 'tor before con80nants, according to what has been said before, 'the modern Greek l>roDUDciation cannot have prevailed eTen iD 'the time of TerentiaDlII Ma1U'U8 (end of the IlIf).' All this reucmiJIg is refuted by iD8C~j)tioD&1 evidence, as: Bi8&or (fifteen timee, Del08) Bull. Cor. Hell. vi. 29 tf. (18&-180 B.O.), Ba'A;,.. (thirty-niDe times, Athens), otiAiutwp i. 288 (II!fl B.o.), ota"AJaor (eipteen Gythion), Le Bae, ii.4t 242 Cl (88-80 B.O.), &c. (cp. SI). Aa & matter ot fact, Latin (IfI is tra.nacribed iD the If B.e. three times by - . aad three timea by afJ; iD the If A.. D. twenty-six timea by CIOV, ~ times by av, and twenty times by afJ; iD the Ut.. A.D. forty-nine timeI by - . aix timea by av, aDd forty times by afJ. '1"I1e actual state 66


Digitized by




of things re~ng the transcription of Latin tI preceded by a vowel into Greek 18 illu8trated by the following summary table drawn by ThEclringer 89 :


afJ fool", ./1
'1 011

--- -011

iv -rtf3


oS 011011' 011 011/1

I- - I



1011 IS 00II 011




- - 10 24 3 5

I" G.
.... D.

-11 3

- - - - - - 2- - - - - - - - I - -- - - 3 - - - - 6 - - - - I 7 2

2 2 3 2 8 I 98 21 26 3 20 100 49 6 40 27 9 5 I - 1I'/t 234 6 3 31 83 1742 2 3 2 III~ 65 4' I 6- 7 2- I 23 17 IV~ 1 I V~ 5 I I After500 6 5 - Undated 319 203 10 7 38 136 35 19 18 4 15


-- -

- 2 - - -- 4- - - -- - - - - 1- - - I


1,- I 1 I


1 ~


Sum } 779 400 196 43 229 149 47 ~ total



1 2

3 6

9 10


5 10


34 , 7 18 20

68. The prevalent transcription of Greek 't (11) through Latin V (,,), and conversely of Latin V through Greek 't-then of Greek B (S) through Latin B (b) and conversely-repreaente the traditional or historical apel. ling. and has no direct bearing on the pronunciation (254 f.) ; while the regular transliteration of Greek 011 through Latin " ia a matter of n _ lity. On the other hand, the oocasional appearanoe in Latin of QV i, an attempt to imitate Greek 011 (19" Bc [ID, analogoua to that of copying III through ai, fl through If, and eN through oi. (Cp. 19" [1] 294 .)



A. Aspiratae mad Mediae.

Mo As there is no real dispute about the pronunciation of the

consonants, except in the case of the&8piratae IJ.I.. sounded by SErasm~~ &8 c+ A, t+ A, R + A X 'f', l TraditlOniBts &8 cA, 0.( =P),f d d b I Erasmians &8 ordinary I d b and mediae 'Y 0 fJ, SOUD e y l TraditioniBts as tlOiced lA d tI. we ahalllimit ourselves here to a brief examination of these symbola only. The method to be applied cannot be identical with that adopted in the case of the 80na.nts, because on the whole there is no frequent interchange among the consonants. But we can arrive at safe results by remembering the principle of syllabication (91 fr.) which aasigns these consonante to thefollowing syllable, so that their sound is determined by that of the next following 8ound; then by laying under contribution also the often equivocal testimony of the ancient gram. marians (25f.). certain J.>honopathic phenomena, and the transcriptions into and from Latin, bel1dea the occasional confuaion in the in8criptions. 66

Digitized by

Goog Ie



a. AspirGtae X e <1>, 58. The aspiratae X IJ ~ are sounded according to the Eraamiana like two separate elements k-A, t-A, p.A (sometimes symbolized by .:", yo', ,,'), while traditioniata pronounce them as simple cA, eA (11), f, ibat is )( is sounded by the latter, before the sonauts /J 0" and the coll8Onanta, like cia in Scotch 'locA,' or German 'nacA,' 'docA,' and before the sonants .. i, like palatal cia in German 'BleeA,' 'icla' (91). The Eraamian view (which by the way is not unanimous, FBlasB, Pron. 104 f.) reata on two considerations: the existence of kA, tA, ph in Saukrit (Wh088 pronunciation, however, is still more hypothetical) &Dd the transliteration into Latin of )( 8 tp by cA, fA, pA, respectively. But auch arguments cannot be seriously entertained in the face of the following data: (I) Latin I is always transclibed in Greek b1.' (2) The Latin digraphs cA, tA, pA are a reminiscence of the original Greek digraphs ICH 'l'H '!rH (43), which in Greece were subsequently given up in favour of their monoliteral substitutes )(, 6, tp, undoubtedly coined for the special purpose, becauae their predeool8on ICH 'l'H WH were felt aB simple sounds and the aspiration It had long become


Digitized by



extinct (12 f.) [t]. (3) If 11. was heard in 1( 8., the monoliteral repraeentatives of primordial -11. ",,1 ",-1, it ia uD8CCOuntable why the. ahould Dot form metrical length aB doel the corresponding Nargtl (allO the tmUBtJiirtJ and tJ"ii1Ia8iktJ) in Sanakrit, or RI do t the representatives of archaic /UT (XV), "'IT (ct>a'), act (s f. 12). (4) Even prevocalic or initial A, though easier to pronounce, had beeD giYeD up already in .A (72 if.). (5) In the .A inacriptiona the prepolition I" remaina unchanged before le T "" but before ~ 8 is often cbanged to lx, as: IX XaA ..i&s, IX 9nTaAlar, IX 8'17'0,11, fX.'P'" (' 82); which would be physiologically impoBsible as lie + A-le + haAlCi&r. lie + A-T+lt.]To,lI. (6) Prevocalic and intervocalic K 8 rp, as representatives of le-A, 1'-11, tr-h, ought to intercha.nge inevitably and frequently with le T tr reapectively. (7) LatiD, though preeerving the &8pllatioD h, ioea not admit of CODlOD&Iltal pain witli A as second constituent, for cl th p1l. with Romana were iDe aymbola only for Greek werU, according to the archaic mode of 'Writing (43)' (8) According to Senul (adv. gram. 622) and Priacian (i. 11, HKeil), the ancient grammarians (Stoica) usually included X 8 tIJ among the ~"itllll or """ifXltDfl8 (23b)[I]. (9) If et> B X were aounded like p+1I. t+ k+h, there is no reason why popular speech should have simplified words like z_t/H, 'AT(Jir, to ucJxl>G>, 'AB8is, BaxXor, lince the converse caae (~"', 'A'rTis, etc.) 'Would have been far eaaierand more natural. (10) Were. pronounced like p-A, it is unaccountable how v in the diphthongs QV tu should have ever been confounded with tIJ and not WIth '11' (SI if.), (11) The nasal 11 is sometimea dropped before 41 &Dd B, but ha.rdly before w, as: df/ll, 'At/xTpirtt, NUcp'l", NUquar (PKretechmer 162 f.), ".lIf/lipoVfT& (ib.193 f.). (12) Combinationa like +to.-, cr'1IJI+tflpat, xf't~, ~ Sa.... 'A'Ifir, 'AetW, ;fpxtr,., tiAeYxtrI.., ' .....,.., lxfpK, that is, p-1H-A-6POf, C7VJ'p-1I. +e-1I.tipt, k-1+~, 2ap+p-1Ht, Zap+1-p-Acil, Arl + 1tk, 'At+1-t+1tk, ;f,k-AH-ra.,.., ~).f.y~1H-hr,v, ate., &re not only incompatible with Greek phonology (124- 169 if.), but conatitute a physiological impoaaibility in any actual language lIf. See also Bekk. An. 810.


(1) I It _ _ .ay IItI'&1lp that, if. X we" reaDy spoken .. uploei... followed by an I 11,' the Greek, lIhould have felt the Deed of IIAIW IDIIU to ~

them-if DB, KH ~ deJwted their phonetio value, w~ WIll! thi8 writiDc abandoned and another adeptH wlWlh did not cl....1y "~t their mund' It _ _ a need18II8 and rather ~ innovation on the a.umption thM and X were 1IIIpaate.; if they were Qirante, it q eaaiJy oomprebuaib1e.' EDa". Gr.A8pir. SI. Were X I <I> aounded like k-h, t-A, 11-11 re.pectively, how q it poam'bJe to uplain that never 0Jl08 in Attica before the time of Euoleidee whilsI; B IItffi = 11, nor in any other dialect, .. for inatanoe in Herculaneum where they had a speciallign I- for .. 11," do we flnd on an tnacription of any kind, lell, TII, W'1a writflen in eUaioll8, 0_, and compound _ _ for X, I, .,. reepeotiveJ,y?' ib.,s. ["] ThaN few (TCPU) grammariau who ot..el X - t r ~e""'" (Sea. adv. Gram. 6aa) 01' ezplaei.... were guicled IoCOCriinc to Haeillthal (1. 2$6 &; ii. 195) by the obeervation that, 1lD1ike the other or .,.,.,... tI P Po et '" O. the three aapira... X I <I> were never found at the encl of Greek ward. Priaoian i. 11 (lIlteil) quare J 1000 mu... ponatur, iDUor baDo inter Hmhooal. ~ I artlum ICIriptorell': nihil eDim aliuc1 habet haeo litera HmiftOalia Dial nominia prolatiOll8Dl q _ vooali inoipit (i.e. ef). I8d hoc poteetatem mutare llterae Don clebuit: aI enim ~ aemiwcalia n _ i o terminalill nominum inveniretur, quod minime reperiea. P1ln11tanoeelike upTaRZ, pot1aM'fI, lllock~ eto., are ~lutely irteleftD.t, l!nee here p-1a, C-h, N are not only heterolyllabio, but even be10q tIo two aepuat.e wordI.




Digitized by




..... , and had _ e d in . . . . . . . earJ7 .. the of} [-lA fa tAia) aDClfnqeotive!F. Jror the fInID8tioD of' wlUob _ tab place ~ on the _P'ion of. apbaDilie p"n1UUliation of the two _ a n i l , 8lJPI&1'8 "eoted aInad;y fa an epichorlo iD8criptioD.: +&TAA02 Tan. 49t aI80 +.rraAor Theb. 21" acrainat e4naMP n..p. 27.. which Jut preaerveI the received speUiDg.' RJ(eiIter i. 260. ii. sa. &elt lUBt as X i. palatalized before the IOnanta,i, 10_ is IOftened in Nto nor'; (not"') before, iwhich phenomenon is ancient (60). This palataliation is strongest in insular apeech, particularly in Thera, Amorgoa, Naxoa, Ohioa, Pontoa, Crete (eapecially MItem), and South Italy (where it is altopther_imiIMed to Italian c),as: _-JU, __ -traM,W-I~"', 4-ii ... ."a;. see. In 'l'8aoomo ape.h , lOunded like tI, . . : tlfPC ,I,..), ftI1uHc6 .... ''1'he _
~ B.G., U1. .~nd





b. Med_ r A 8. 57. With regard to the mediae " a (J , EraamiaDa proDouBoe them paerally as g tl b, whereas traditionista sound them as g}t, lA (), ., except after a .....1where .uncultivated N 8peech sounds them .. " ~ b, the natural faaion of ,,+j, .. +a, ,,+,., as: S'YJIfAos, htlp., ,..Dclalos, aElfflpa, yapbpll,;, 1JapbI.... (cp. 61). The latter proDUJl.ciation is clearly bome out by tAe fact that in the .A iDlCriptiOD8 the 8top re appears very often chaDged to "I. before' and a, as: Jy{Jt1tr~ /y{Jo'A". !Y Bvtaft'tou, lyaocnr, ly30ri, Iy AtjAou, Jy ApupDV (KMeUterhansl 82 f.). Now the comliiaationa ~ and yI canaot symbolise tlae 80unds of gb and gd, since before the labial stops b and ., the mu~ , is much more inconvenient to pronounce thaJi is.. On the other hand, easily paaaea to tlOiced y (gA or 3) before a tIOice4., or an interdental b (a). 6'1'>. At the same time it may be reaaoaably averred that g, d, b being actually established as medial limpk sounds (57), cannot be declared jJUUJmjuible at tite beainJaiq of a WON (as traditioniata that the claim), unless OB the plea of absolute nece.ity, altemati.e digraphs ,..{",,), JOT, "." can never atand at the beginniDg of a Greek wOrd (62. 64). Aa a matter of fact, both pronOllciatiou , tl 6 a.ud". b 11 are supported by ancient evidence, aDd the waole caee will be better i11uati-ated if we consider each media separately. IS. The media '1 is sounded byEraamiana like ordinary g, but before guttural , '1, X like tI; TradUioniata " velar gA " " " " " (189); ~n" the SODanta ." 11 (60). Thu EraamiUIII a.ume a twofold, and traditionista a thJoeelold lOuud for y (cp. 189). 18. Leaving aside all theoretical speculation, the traditional .-oiced or hard guttural BOund !fA or 3 is supported by the following i1IIcriptiOllal data : /I. Before a liquida, ." often replaces , a phenomenon hardly uplicable if we give" the IIOUDd of J!.alatal g, as: IrA;.yew, IrA"";;r. lr 11,,,._, ir MOIe4iao.lar, If' ~t7_, If' Pv,..aV, ir 'Pciaov, &c. (all in .A inacriptiou; KlIeisterhana' 82-85). The same sound of velar g1a ill indicated by ~r (i.e. '1r)'O-), and miaspellinga like Into-r, Iu- Mvppwo~, 'ne DopaUk 11'Ir~4!vcrari. (all 369-300 & c.), ib. 83 & 84 f. 6. An interchange of" and le appean in ~ (Vlt & 0.), rNr/Mio. (IVt &0.), K ...... ~ B.c.), r.LII>-. (nra:-llIf a.c.), ,.Aaryl-ral & ~.. UpOwoMr & ar,01I'0Mr, ro",.v- B: Ko",.v-, lUleiaterhana' S8. CoIDpare f'tuother (since 300 B.e.) yir/lO~ " ~ yt(r)NcTat, OA&(r).".., dAl(r)os, .,(r)uM, ib. See alIo Glfeyei' ~18.




Digitized by





Co Latin c is not rarely transcribed either by y or by Ir, as: ~ (aarracum), 1J'I"d).'1 (scala), rdl"ruw (ClIoDtiua), Ii'rp.or (Decimua), 'Ioiiwor (Iuncua), rap.ovIM'i1lG (Ca.murena)-wuc, lraAuct (caJigarum), w,K&P&Of, KpofjcWP&Of (grabata.rlua), K&ior (Gaiua), 'AJcpUcMor (Agricolua). (ThEckinger 100 8'.) 159". Llkewi8e such miaapelliDp 88 ItAIor and '.'T'II!} for ItAI-,or and (155), can be uplained only on the aaaumption for., of a hard 8Ilttural sound: 6Algllo' Wor. eo. On the other hand, that the palatal pronunciation of yas i, then of /C IIoDd )( as ;. IIoDd before the paJa.tal aoDlloDts i is ancient (155 f.), appears clearly:-(a) from the inadmiaaibility at the end of a syllable of y Ir X (54. 91), these conBOnants being aaaigned IIoDd accommodated to the Den following BOund; (b) the unequivocal teatimony of Ariatid. Quint. p. 89 Meib.: ,... dl/>o..." f'a ,u" a,a f'''. X").". 9~jf'a, p.d..... f'oii frIIufM1SOr nj" 1I4paf,. aw.,,, Irora ,MtTO" 1fj&aC0J"IIOtI, .liS' f'1t B m1 f'4



& 25. T~r& GCurtiua Anecd.Delph. 1843 p. 73 (t98-II7). mloii for vloii 8Sterret, Arch. Inst. Amer. fu. 331 ; also i. 85. npo[ii] dcrftov for "poii &mov CWesaely, Nene Zaub. p. 213 (+ 300 A.D.). This is moreover conceded by too (FBlaas 110). eL The remaining two mediae a and fj are pronounced by ErasmiB.Da invariably as d and b respectively, while traditioniata sound them as buzzes or voiced tA and tI, except after a nasal, where J?Opular N pronounces them, like the ErasmiBoDa, as d IIoDd b respectively (cp. 57) Pl. Apart from this partial agreement, it is almost certain that, like y, alao initial a IIoDd fj were in many casea sounded like d IIoDd b rea~ectively (57). On the other hlloDd the existence of interdental ~ (ie. Il lD I t1ten ') IIoDd labiodental tI is sufficiently borne out not only by its presence in N, but alao by the tolerably clear teatimoay of Plato, who speaks (Crat. 427 A) of "is' If a6 rov a ",.."lFffilS' mi nU ... /Cai dnIMlfTf. rijS' y>.Ot.rr'"1S" [especially if we read m1 "is' roii ... d...p'icrfIt;]. See also 194 f . In the particular case of (J which, above all consonants, has been the aubject of controverar, there is conclusive evideDce of ita having had the twofold pronuncIation of b and tI in claaaical Greek. For the former. we have no criterion in the fact that Latin b is regularl, transcribed b, Greek (J, and conversely Greek fj by Latinb. since this phenomenon 18 due to the influence ofhiatorical orthography (5~), but we have an unmiata.k:able proof in the phonetic representatIon of the sheep-cry by means of Bij (or rather Bi.) 'baa.' in a ~ent of Ariatophanez (39), an evidence which CIIoDDOt be refuted b, the flimay retort of some traditioniats that the sheep-cry may be vanoualy heard by the varioua nations. The only reasonable objection that could be raised is that the spelling (Jij (fj(.) may have been necessitated by the inadmissibility of the alternative spelling p.Jrij (,.11"'_), seeing that , . can never stand at the beginning of a Greet word (57 b. 64). ea. On the other hand, for the pronunciation of fJ as labiodental tI, a whole aeriez of evidence can be adduced. First, the common

lE THC *N nApEI4C inOCAlpoyCHC, ToY lE nNEYMATOC rrpoi,p.fIlOIJ, wc Tt' r KAi TA (read KATA) TA KATipoM:E AK'pAo all of which takes place when we pronounce y /C X as palatal (c) from misspellings, like Zoparr.r~ for Zaparrlfl, Louvre Pap. 40, 10, & 41, 10 (156 B.o.). TpnnlallOv Gr. Urk. Berlin 68 (t1I3-4), 12

pay3'. ml de nMToe

fl'fp&flrf"rcd' TA


(I) For A oompan: 'A",.",..;;ru OIA. H. 789. a, 64 Cs73 BoO.) IIIUl ~m'" ib. .It, 6 (P3 Boo.).-See aDo OBoJrmazm ti. 4$ &


Digitized by






108111 absolutely refuted Dot only by general linguistic conaidera.. tioDB, but also by the very presence of the digamma F in archaic Greek and ita almost total replacement by fj or consonantal v [1J ; nen we have the interchange of av and fV with a/J .fj in the inacrij). tions (SI. 52); the frequent transliteration of Latin intervocalic fI by Greek fj (ib.); the occaaional dropping of" before fJ (193); and finally the pronunciation in N of (:I aa tI.

theol7 that the BOundsl and fI were alien to clauical Greek phono

eab B.



A. M, N, AIm



Though there is no dispute aa to the nature of the BOund of the above consommta, it will be advantageous to consider them briefly here.


M. It ia unanimou81,)' conceded (FBl888 Pron. Sg) that the ancient Greeks, like their deecendants now, pronounced , with the tip of the tongue. Cp. PL Crat. 426 0 ,.1\ ~ lpol .,_ t#Ial""" Iw, 4na....,.", "';;r KINHC(J)C ~ oN' .frto,.w [?] Bc' 5,'1'1 'XII ,.oWo ....opa. ib. D ore) 03.. /M ,.1\ I1'I'OCX60,. .ClAW '30'" &p'p"0J' IT_ ,.;;r KI NHC<UC. ib.. u,pcI -,d, n)r .,,..,.,.,. ".,.~ ("9i /M) 4-1TTCl 1'1-, pGAlllft a~ CIOMt NHN. ib. 434 0 Tb pcj) orj fopf wl KINHCf:1 nI II.A'Ip/rrrrr1 .'ollloa..... Dion. B. De comp. 79 B. ( a~) '1'1\ p riir .,Al.xtf1f/l A1TOPPA1TIZoYCHC ore) ""flipa" .pbr ,.1\.. (palate) rrrC TWN OAONT<UN 01l1TCl1'4"'1r. It waa therefore alveo Jar, 'ribrating or trilling, like Scotch, Italian, and RUB8ian r; hence when it atood alone or at the beginning of a word, it W&8 felt &8 a double r (a _ more or le811 applicable to (~ 11 also, 61). This is al80 ahOWll by the fact that in verae it very often makes position, and, what la equallyaigni1icant, in the ICri.PfwII c:ontmuc& it sometimes actually appears &8 pp (Ktlhner.BlABB L 311, op. KBrugmann" 65). Now &8 in the of words no double consonant was admitted &8 initial (op. nit. 6:z), one of the two ,'s was iae'ritably dropped, and thia omission was later on indicat4ld by the sign of the apostrophe inserted in the shape of the spiritus aaper (711t. 140). When, however, through composition, it happened to come after a vowel, the original trilling or double , !ftppeared, &8: WTO""'OI, lIaHppoor, tlftOPf*E. 'PfIIOJ', ipftOlll'l'or (but .fpour, _'"..",.01, i.e. evrua, evroatoa). (Cp. 51b. 1115 ff. 712.) [The common theory ia that initial" represents origiual 111', but op. 73.] ea. It t. this trilled oharacter of alveolar " espeoialq when it begiDa qUable or is terminal, which aeem. to aocoant for the rdgnal avoidance of termiDa1 -PH in A, inaIImuch &8 the trilling with the tip of the tongue in-.ol". a back paeition and ea'rity in the month from. which it t. inoon'ftDient to JIIII8 immediatt>17 to the front paeition required by the palatal and i IIOUDdI, .. : 4p1PA, dp7l'PA, n/1GpA, "'pAt, i.4pAI'CI, .,..,.p (186'. 269.


oil,..,., .,..i.,...

ea. The parallel, but le88 frequent, phenomenon of IIIdricGI poIiIiotI in the _ of A lA .. 11 seema to point to a different phonetic proce.... in that these consonants, unlike all other consonants, are c:oaH"UM, that ia they admit of being drawn out or prolonged at will and 80 act &8 ahort or long (cp. 92'), i.e. simple or double con80nants, &8 occasion requires (cp.IAAa/l., 'AAaX-, 87. ID N speech there are, properly IIpIIBking, three dffIarent IOUDds of A prod.-l by the re1ative position of the tip of the tongue. If it faib, out of hIIIin-, to reach the palate, it prod_ an imperfect or indi8tinct , which can be eaaiq minaken for guttural. r; this 0001UII chiefly before the back BOnanta

... 839. 8g2).


SI,.,., 11"'01,

(I J

......, ."...,. iwMa,

Tb... LNbian oll", - Dorio -= A.ttio "4,. So too 1I,,",r, BolITlar. BcONu. ~. d,.,IIDattllo. efllIGA."r-IJ_. 'liIx .. ete. (X6hnerBlaaa i. 80, 3 I; b).




Digitized by


Cl 0 .....


In 8ph&1da of Crete (187"), If it to.ohee ~ the )I&Iate, it ~ the oMiDary HoaDd, univezDl In Greece. But if it, or ftIther n. blade, ia ~ ftatJ,y upon the pelate, it produce. a thiclr. , analOP1l8 to the :au.iaD bud JI, a lOund alIO not lUlknoWII. in Greeoe Ca. g. at :Ileeka in wartem Orete).

88. Before fJ y a '" the apirant IT (-88) changes to '( ...), as: u.>.aayrUI' Le Du iil22 (1V't B.e.), ff'~Ov 'Et/>",- dp~. 2118, 4- Zp.V,... zfJ/lfJN/J& often; ;~ur 'EtI>'1JAo apx. 188,3, p. 125, l" 12. 'E~ CIA ill. 15$3. xp."azp.dl' BulL Corr. Hell. v. 228 (Cos). +#1ZfIII CIA ii. 468 (tlf), ztuipay30r 'Et/>"J.l. dpx 1280, 8 (45+) So~, Zl"p&r"A'or, ~~ zp.uM" ~&OII, etc., Ben. adv. gram. 638, 19: rronflOl' a&~ roV z yparrr/Oll 1".,.1 r~ ITpiAlort ml til' Jluerou ~ &" rov fr. Luc. J Dd. Voc. 9 r rrrra C~OI' mrocnrolTallf"& .at ff'_ d~"Ao~". til' ~uproaI'. Many more eumplea in GMeyeri 2:z6. 89. For C Eraamiana aaaume the BOund of.,] or dB (FBlaaa Pron. 11512~) on the plea. that the grammarians make it consist of 0" + a. But this proves only that the grammarians refer to the actual occurrence in written composition (25.250) of the combination O"a, which naturally imparts to 0" the voiced B-sound (cp. Bekk. An. 815, 29 iF.), wherea.s the complex aO" is a1tol{8ther foreign to Greek. Nor does the other Era.smian argument which rests on such etymologica.1 speculationl as Ipa. ptC., aat/x-dr, ~C6r,' A8qJNJ-C., etc., deserve any serioul consideration (2S).-That C from the outset represented a sirreplc sound appears pla.inly from the fact that it figures, even in the oldest inscriptions, as a simple or monolitera.l symbol (in the shape of :I), whereas the alleged double BOund Id or dB would natura.lly have led to the digraph a3 or 30", just as Eand were repreaented by ;to" or ItIT and t/>tr or ff'0" respectively. And that thl8 simple IOUDd of , was no other than fIDicItI is evidenced by the above inscriptional and other data (68): UMOa')lllCOI', rrpq/Jwrov, Z~proa, z{!JfWUI&, I~ur, z~r, etc.-and further corroborated by the testimony of ion. H. De comp. 14 (p. 112 Sch.): rp'o,. a. rill' c1"A"A_ ~J.lpcir.1' et a~ &ft'"Aii lta"A.iraa n z ~o. ~au..& ~I' dlto~1' ro,l' hi,.. (.vion. takes strong objection to the 'animal' BOund of 0" Ill). n /J tap 3", roV I[ n a. " a", nu n rOl' O"1IfHypAl' d",03l&.cn, +'>';;1' &rr.1' al~Mlp.l', rowo a; ~avxi ... fl'WU~& aaO"Ul'wa& (read CYNHXei ris voiced besides] n; rrnUptJ'I'& aafT1ll'fTCd ,.., for the mea.ningleas and contra.dictory ~O"1Ixi aatTUHra&).






70. Associated with the letters proper are a number of complementarysymbols which serve to modulate or regulate the voice in expressing a word or sentence. Leaving aside "I and w, also , (17 b), such readifag marks are generally absent from the Greek inscriptions and the earlier papyri, and though we can trace at all events some of them to the IV! Do c., tradition ascribes the genesis of the whole system to Aristophanes of Byzantium, a great philologist and librarian at Alexandria dwing the Ulr Doe. This system of complementary symbols gradually embraced ten signs, called at Bl_ 'Ir~ and included, besides
(11 De Comp. 170 &)(fIp& ~ m2 cl~r ,,) a .al .1 d.toNlI'''f lI'~apa A""; ",,,.1L3ovr ..,ap m2 clAcI-yov pilMOI' A07&dir '4Nl....Eria& ao..r.".".;;r cl Bow .. a III by far the CIOJIIIDODeIt of.u _ _ in GnU-it ia twice .. " . q1l8llt .. 1', the na:d OOJIIDlOlleft _ t - t h e GnU laDpap must be, in D~ opiDlcm, 8tted be"- fw _ _ than for men. COp. 85[1], 861, et !!CL>



Digitized by




the readiJag signa properly 8OoCaIled, also the breathing&, accents, and quantity marks. The whole system eonsisted of the follow ing symbols: the two signs - and v to denote pantity (i. e. length and shortness, cp. l'I b ) ;, the three accentual marks 1\ " (now shaped , , -); the two breatbings (' and ') ; the comma (,) ; ad. the hyphen vI. BreathiDp: SfttOOth (' spirituslenis,' .,,&A-4. originallyi. shorter 1 or .J ). as rlva, br, , rough (' spiritus asper.' &w&, originally ... shorter L), as Wo, PeG) AOO8I1ta: ' t.ICtIte (~u., originally'). as ~ Tl~ , gmtJe (fta.pu., originally,), as ~ "'.. - circufAjIe:& (11'pT7f'fIJpm" also, ~~. ~",rM~. originally I~ MA then rounded ,... in order to avoid confusion with the letter A). as ~ "'w 3- stope: , comtn/J (Woa-rt'Y",-4. originally later oi shorter 1 or J ), as t/Hflu later t/Hfl&' period or full8~ (TlArla). as ~f:fl'. colott (p.C0'11 aT&'Y",-4), as t/Hfl'. ; iftterrogatiofl (lpom,p.a.Tuc6v), as t/Hpa; 4. Quantitylluka: - the p.tJJCp4 (se. rpoatt8la). App. ii. 16.) , v the PpaXf:UJ. (se. rpoc1'fll8la). App. ii. 16). So Other Sips: ( ) ~ (~fT&r, 80) - diJs1& (mUiA.a., 80) ! ~_ (fJa.v~, 80)

(a-.-14 and +aA7) [BO. fl'po~la]. later a.lao frNii,. 3arri and +aAd)
7L Every _it sonant is marked with either the smooth or the rough breathing. The smooth {'}, called spiritus lenis, has at all times been mute. The rough Ci. called spiritus asper, is now sounded by Erasmianslike h.. (See 'la if. ; cp. 56.) nb. Also iDitial p is now marked with the rough breathing (64), while pp may be written either pp or more commoruy simply pp. '12. S~ of the breathi~ it will be remembered that they Defti' found .. place among the letters (70). . . they figure in the alphabeta of other nation.. Their original form, .. mown in some old papyri Applied with suoh ligna (e.g. A1kman, lliaa of Bankea), was .. and ~. very BOOn wom down to L and 1 (the latter also .J)-Bince the XI~ A.D. to the modem' and '--and it is alleged that they originated in the biaection of H, the first half f- repreII8Ilt~ the rough breathing (') and the second half -I the smooth bnatbiDg (") Pl. Now it is true that in many archaic inacriptiODl H
(ll Bekk. AD. li. . . : I'll """..01' ~ _ _ trot T.) &"m,.""" TOil H I'll M Nil_ rl~........,,.c) li IT.,.,. TOil dToii ""'~tlou &xmJlflJIA T.) hi ftl '-~. D4 Po 706: _UG nnaTopt." 'I'j \lIrA; mor TOil



Digitized by




appears still lingering as a Phoenician reminiacence (3', acting as a sort of breathing, either initial (tJllpinition), or medial (ifltlrtUpiratiort., but in the principal dialects-Ionic, Aeolic (84), to a great extent also Doric-it does not occur at all Aa to Attic, its pre.Eucleidian inscriptions show a great irregularity regarding this aymbol For very frequently it ia abaent (1), still oftener it is added, but even then not alwaya in the right place, according to our present notions; sometimes, too, it ia put before erJWy initial vowel (as CIA i. 324) (1), and again it often accompaniea the consonants Po )., ')', F, a case preclnding the poaaibility of any aspiration in actual apeech; finally, with the cloae of the V~ B.O., it diaappears altoff8ther from the inscriptions. This anomaly admits of two explanatlona: either that as early as the VI-V~ the Athenians, anticipating our modem Cockneys, dropped their la's, and eventually, with the close of the V~ B.O., the aspiration was altogether done away with, and that even in the polite and literary l&n~, as a uaeleaa encumbrance; or, which is more probable, that H ~red as a mere Phoenician antiquity and so was now discarded altogether. This is moreover shown bl_ t!te significant fact that the rough breathing, whether initial or medial, nner P"""'" elision (rrop' 00, 0'-030,", frdp-~, etc., forms which cannot proceed directly from _f.III+1aoii, dJICI+Wor, frapa+laoclM, etc., 170 f.1 P ], nor actually affects the sound of any preceding consonant, seeing that the case of the tenues is no real exception (171). A further confirmation is finaHr afforded by its never being considered or mentioned by Plato In the very frequent occasion offered by his etymologies in Cratyl08 (cl" 41),; by the testimony of Aristotle, who states that the distinction between o~ and 0;' consists in ",..., and makes no mention whatever of aspiration (El Soph. 21; so too 4 & 8); and finally by the absence in A of even a name for it (2go). See 84" App. i. 4" [1]. See also ESRoberta 104 f.
71-. The II01IDd 11_ CIZpI'eaecl m old AWe 1lDtil 403 .. 0. by the H; W. evaD iD. earl7 &I1tiquitJ' aD 1lDoertaiDt,. pnvaila iD. the _ of this . , partl7 owing to the weak prcm1lDoiatioD of the 801lDd, partlJ' owing to the irruptiOl1 of the Icmio alphabet, 11 beiq freqU8I1t17 omitted, oocuiouall7 also (at leut m the late iD.8criptioDl of the V~) erro~17 added. Thu, &11 iI18criptiOD of .p8 B.o. omitAI all .'B lava iD. the 'wonl lfpJr, whioh 0001U'8 four times. Couvane17, m aD iD.8criptiOD of 408 11 ia pre1lzed iD.diIorimiD.&ie17 to almo.t eYHJ' iDitial voweL' lOleiaierhaDal6s-67 (where DUlD8l'01III &re cited). 73. Koderu philologUta &re ceDera1J,y acreed in traciD.g the orlgiu of the upiratiOl1 iD. Greek b80k to the commOD stook. But it; i8 a curious ph8l10D18110D, oommODl7 overlooked, that just thOllB _ where Greek traditiOD i8 1lD&I1imoua iD. the _ of the apiritu &&per, &8 in the iuitial It- &I1d h the &8I11Dlad IDdo-Europ&&l1 protot1P8 mOWBDo aapiratiOD. Cp. HDDarbi8hire 24 f. & 55 ft'. (64),


74. Our present practice of marking the rough breat~ originated during H times (/'0). Like all other frpocnfllicu, thiS Iifrn was devised by the grammarians and placed, as a diacritic mark, above the initial 80nants of certain words which, judging from their effect in composition, were originally aspirated (lId..,o" do,", '4>""",,,,
PI ID. about 150 iaataDC8II, aocordiD.g to PCauer in Curt. Stud. viii. :033 it PI Thia iD.aoriptiOD (408 B.O.) teems with CODfuiODl: Hour.o. pMIIim (bemde olo.), ICfIT.CfTia, IlfMI" (OfteD), Ht. (for ...), HllwO, Hurpiol,.a, Ho~. H.nOs, 'ppa, H.)('6,.."or, HtP'YIICo,.l.fHf, Hf~lIofor. 't,Hllf, .; (for .), &to. [I] 8olit&q ill8t&DC8II, llJr.e wdpMlpor, n6111w." (440-400 B.C.) (J[][eiaierhaDal 67) do Dot teatif7 to the aotual preII8I1Cl8 of iD.ierallpiratiOD at the time, but JJl8reIy point to aD arWloial oompromise of pezathetic ' wrya.-INlpof, ICfITII-ItGnp. with OOIltempoDl'J' .a,..lpor, 1CfIIIO...,. (Cp. 1110, .."s.)






Digitized by


Aa time went OD, this practice met with favour among their Byzantine BUCC8II8Ol'II, and ultimately found its way into our MSS, though its syatematic application date. only from the VII~ A.D. (76C). 71. The sign of the BIIIOOIh 'lJreatAiflg or apiriltu len.. ( , ) is never found in the iDlcriptioDl and papyri, nor in the oldest MSS. Like ihe rough breathing, it is alleged to have been invented by Alexandri&n gra.mmariana (70)' It iB only Bince the VII~ A.D. that it has been syatematically applied in the MS texts aa a mere tugtJti" &ign, that is, to emphaaize the abaence of aapiration.




78. The Greek language, though it unqueationably indicated the accent at all Dea, BhoWII no marks for it either in the inscriptiODl or in the earlier papyri (72). NevertheleBB, aa early aa A times the theorists had observea that not only every word is stresaed, but that every Byllable bears a relatively higher or lower .tresa [tl, and endeavoured to expresa this streBB ])y conventional aigna which we may call here 'accentual marks [YJ.' Hence the ayatem waa adopted of marking IfJW1Itcfl8l1'U8t1d (or rather lower BtreBBed) syllable with a bar Blanting from the left to the right , and called fl'pGfT.,aia lJapfia (Latinized ac:c:mIv8 fI"In.), while the one bearing the dominant atreu waa marked with a bar alanting from the right to the left / and called ",poa.ala ~.ia (La.tinized ac:c:mIv8 GeMtw). Thus :-


a practice which is atteated by aeveral instanceB in the Harris papyruB of Homer (I~ A.D.) PI. When two conaec:::rllablea, thus accented. were contracted to one, the theorists in . the proceBB by joining the Wo Blanting bars either at the top or at the bottom: KEEDO:s

Kim02, .AOS .Oz, Mize60MEN Mlsecft'MEN, tSTA6s tuSis, M12eOollteA Mbeo"YMEeA, and called the reaultants A and V "'.ptanJ"m, (ci"*~) and d.ra.aU.IIII,u,,'1 reapectively (App. i. 19 g'.
(retaining it only aa far aa it wa.a contained in the circ ex A, 77), BO that the above worda came to be marked &imply thuB:

to be use1eBB and cumbrous (820 }, and BO acribea dropped it ~!tr.:!ther

78b Aa time went on, the regular addition of the grave waa found


.. -to with th.

PI well known among phOJ1etio1au that each single II)'DabIe iD a WON has cWFerence, that one particular II)'Uable among them beara the nlatiwJ.y hJcheat or domInaDt etreu. The prominence th1l8 given to ~ ~ II)'DabIe hM led to the popular p1'&Otice of oalUng thia.ue. the aacent fJtW . . . ., - . while all other (lI8OOJ1dary) ~ of_to being owrpowered 117 the domInaDt, haw been bf; Bight of. Hence the common laying that each, wcml bu onq one MCOIlt, meaninjr by it the dominant aacent. (Cp. 81 &; App. L 3,



L 11 .; K1lhner-Blaa, I. 318). (11 The Iix ftptHl~ attn'buted b;y Va.n:o (iv. 550, lIKeil) to Glauko. _J1ot an appq to lIOOUtio _to In faot all thOIIe term.-daof&~, ,uflfl. 'ftnTII,."" uMtI,u.", ~'o,u", or ~.,~, npltl7lGfllr (otherwise . ."...".,,), IlTtWor, ~Ia-refer to the three Inphio II)'JIlboll l \A, eDd 10 haw no !!p8ClI4o value. See App. L 1&;5. ti. 16. Pl The pnctiee 01 _ppqiDg the .,.Dablee with MCOIltual marb In A.rfatot1e'. time la alluded to by him . . . kind oIllovelt;y (BJ. Soph. ao, 3): 4", ftapGfIfI,..

J"Aav- and 'YAau.o.. SO"" and ialff&' (App.

416.), &Dd other OOI1temporari., who di8tingaiah between ,A,l tfHA'" and Al~cA.or,



['I IPhDoponOl Top. . fltltl'&TPApaTII p. 6: 1Id"~ All.. ." JIlt 111IAAaI!;

(See App. L 1-4>-



Digitized by



7SO. The systematic application of accentual marks to MS texts dates only since the VII'l A.D. (cp. 74 f. 80.).
77. The above historical sketch of the development of the accentual marks makea it BIllloiently clear that, for practical purpoeea, the ancient Greeks, like modem phoneticians, recognized two degrees of accent: the atreaaing (rising?) or acute ( I), and the reluing (falling?) or grave ( \ ), while a combination of the two, tlie circum1lex. ( 1\ ). waa a merel7 CODcrete symbolization of the rising and falling (better of the atreaaing aDd relaxing, or percl188ion and remission, 8Slt) of the tone present on two BIlcoeBBive BOnanta like f6l1s and Iwrit previous to their contraction. It is evident, however, that as BOOn as such aucC8llllive BOnanta had, under the influence of accent (atnaa or ic~us), merged to a simple aound, be it in the form of a simple vowel (c(lAr) or a diphthong (I ..d), involving_ position of the mouth, the accent was of necessity reduced to the dominant or acut~ and the retention of the unstressed or grave mark as an appendant to it (76b) was merely intended to symbolize graphically the phonetic process which had taken place on the resultant or contracted BOnant. The absolute identity of the circum1lex. and acute is moreover shown by their equal treatment in the operation ofthe tonocliaia (J041r.), as : ~ T., .,." .".,." ..wIr T., MIA,s, 'er"." [I). The theory therefore that in ..4. the acute denoted a rising ( f ), and the grave a falling ( ~) of the voice, ia, in a certain I8DB8 (App. i. k), correct, whereas the belief that the circumflex. denoted a rising.falling (! ~ ) of the voice, is only BO far admi.ible as it refers to ita original fomt (1\), when it claaped CIGo I8JICIf'/JII vowel., but as BOOn as these two vowela had 1 contracted' to one BOnant involving _ position of the mouth, the contention that the circum1lex atill continued to denote the original rising-falling of the voice ia a purely theoretic speculation, utterly impoaaible in actual speech and without parallel in language. For the appeal to the Sanakrit -ua is a demonstration of i~ ".,. ~[I), and the few supposed analogues adduced from living languapa are either irrelevant interjectioDB (reallr?1 jG 1'l) or imaginary - . 77 b On the other hand, it must not be inferred that, because all th~ accentual signa ( I , -) came to symbolize one and the _ e accent, the hig1wr IItreu or acute (their ab.nce indicating the preeence of the ' - '
-rll."... &Efia" npall'ftl,u'"l", I~ Tai. Aounu; cruAAaBaR ~, ~Off I., -rf .~.,4Atlclr (7) Itwlp4 cruAA4/HI &EWl7'w. al a~ Aonral fJapWorra&. .1 I., Tf A.Uo&"cls 7) "4",, "'pacrwci'rlll, 7) I~ .pWrq IIal 7) -rp"" 1JatW.-. (Compare Noticea XVIII. ii. 417.) Schol. ad Dioll. Thr. in BelIk. An. ii. 688 17) /lapeCa Il'flMoPlltar TWO. fern, 'rOwl",,, ds n}If cruMo/Jfjrf n}If p1} ' X - Ta" nptO" -r6_ IfIl"lIH'C11.' 'rnoeI"...or cS plTGw trpoII'~ -ra" A6-ycw trOlo.s"."or a.1J'r1 IAI'Y'To trapIl -roi'r dpxalOlr cruMo/J",a. -rcWor t tJap.ia, ..,alP WI 1ft """, erllAAa,Sijr rijr p1} Ix.,w"r n}If &Efiu 'TIBl7'o. '" N .... cS AI.,.", m riIna cruAMlN" x.plr riir lI'VAAalIijr rij. 'xo.scn,. -r"" npcw T6l1W, n}If tJa,.;a. "n&lX.TW olor e~' .,,) 8611al ora ACI) IIal n poc /Japti '''XOJf7'o. Ta.,. 0 .... n. "Off -r6""" .tx'. dpaor ai nSlIor MIA.iTGl 7) &ERa m I.I-r." n}If.,...... ,1Ial lijAo,,; lW, naa, al cI.Ua& avAAclSal al p1} 'X-W .,... 6t.ifw, Inll'l" Una.,... aI-rfIu, cln3cWr ac' ... 06 -rIBI'rIJI "" hi .a""r II'1IAAIIMr t /Jopfi'a ~E,,' '1.. p1} Hf'IIxapUer_ onl Pa/JAla TOih'o"" 06 .,t.rra&.' [I) Race Plato iclenWlea flU and in eV8J7 reapeot: Orat. 4011 0 &pIQr 1.1 a. cS n AN """. IIal aId fICIA&iJf n AN alfl6Aor Op. Uo 85 r. 8s" (but Uo -.s"). III 'The independat -"fo, which III everywhere of & biDar,y origin, -w-n .. the 1lJlion of &JUgher with _lower tone within &II7JJable. ID ita natura therefore it III identiaal with the Onelr. circumflex, bat it. origin III dH'enmt one. Pur it COIIIDlODI7 appean 0040 there where a abort or: loDe wwel is followed by






an I or: ... provided with the udaCtG and IICItiDc ... and reapectiftQr.-The ideDwtaatiOD of the independent -"cl in tha ~ft diIJue with the afrcumSa in Onelr. Ztii, .. ~nted b7 BnapIaDIl in hili Grundria i. 5390 III hardl7 ten.ab1e.' lIHirt., I: ., too IWacUmapl , ..... 1IoIId PKntachmer BinL 7&ep' .A.pp. L u raJ,


Digitized by


..... or,"*, ~; cp. 75), Gnet aceen' in claalical antiquity ..... lu e'Yery I'8IIp8Ilt identical with modem EngUah or German BOC8Dt; it .... rather similar to modem GNek and Italian or Spanish aceent which, as is well known, is 1_ intenai'Y8 and consequently does not o'Yerpower or pereeptib17 reduee (ByDeop&te) unaceented syllab1ee (App. LIt'" [1]. 17 &: [I]).

78. In a diphthong the IeCOttd vowel conventionally receives both breathing and accent, as; dl9Dr, d, dpuw, ,IXOV, cfHOyc, "Ipa, .-" __t.o6, o6nIc, TOOro.
7~. This practice, which dates from lI, la both historically and rationally wrong. For whether we admit a 1'8IIOI'Yed or a mODophthODgat pronunciation, in ineoriptiona and papyri, 80 far as they show any breathinga, the sign H or ... la regularly plaeed before or abot1e the jInt (initial) 'Yowel of a diphthong word. This naturally applies with equal force to the aocentual mark. when plaeed O'Y8r the mute or conaonantized element of a diphthong (as in i" '" 0"-11 '11 'fII cw), or when placed OTer the PClltpo8Ui'YeTowel ofa diphthong pronounced In theErumian fashion, I88iDg that in the uniOD of two 'Yowel. in what EraBmlana call a diphthong the flnt remainB dominant and the 88COnd performa a _ieonaonantal fttnction(18. 19.33,3.33'). Thi.laalaoahown flntby the very ecmsUtution of the cireum1Iex " whioh litre.... the prepoalti'Y8 'Yowel, and then by the ~t aound of _ .11 as l1li '" or which could proceed oDly from . . Iv (_ ..], U8'Y8r from tN eM: .riiptW ..,.",-"hptW .6."",, Dot "';;ptW..wn,r. (Cp. further nzr, Ifrr, etc., and the spurious diph. thonp" , ... in 19 fr. 31 fr.) 79. The four stope (, . ' ;) (10, 3) are generally absent from the old ilIIc:riptionB papyri (10), the CURom with the ancienta being to write a1I wonia in an unbroken line. called tcriptuf'fJ contintuJ (2S0).


When the neceaaity for such stops arose amonfr AleDlldrian grammarians, they resorted to the U8e of the full-poInt in a threefold but J'8'Yen8 B8DI8, that is, the high point or Y"fAna ""Y"", which denoted the complete close of a sentence, waa placed at the top of the la&t letter (u in ypd,.".'); the l"!"I fIT'1";', which corresponded to our semieolon, waaa simple pomt m a middle position (88 in yptl,."..), whereas u'e point on the line (WOfJT,,),,.q) W8B equiTalent to our comma Ill. The form of our modern comma e,) W8B also known and called imo&acrroAq or (~pax.ia) a_roM, but aerved in the 'scriptura continua' to aepam&e two words liable to confusion, 88: EJTlN,On and EZTI,Non. It is atill sometimes used u a diBtinetive mark, u B,TI-' whatever.' Ira-' that.' In proceas of time the ,du" disappeared, and about the IX! A.D. the regular comma (,) took ita place. 80. The English colon (:) is rendered in Greek by a simple dot C'), called pi"" aTI.,,,,, (19. but cp. 20~2). The note of i~",itm dates from the IXUJ of our era. In their preB811t form, the note of 1IIIDl".".". y IiMa (ancienit marked by a aemicol:!~' ), the parnt1teN, the tlaih, aDd the ~ tIIt.II"fts (20~2 ), were own to the Greeks; these signs have been introduced Into the Greek tens b1 eritice of the present ceatury, chieJly by FrWolf. ACCDTtl'AL TDIUI.


[I]), which, in consequence of its dynamic nature (85 f.), is restricted to the last three syllables, and can never recede beyond
III DiOD. Thr. in Beklt. An. iL 630 fIT'.,ptJl fill' Tptis, T.A.1a, ,MtIJI. 6tro-

8L In Greek every word has one, and only one, accent ('[6 "



fllfftptl.Y"Of , "

..u. ,".





""11'. 'IIT' Itarolar dttrtprUl,M"'I' ""''''';111'' ,MII'I


1nrofIT'''I't} ~ ,."U_ For more cletaila _ SchoL ib. 758 fI.





Digitized by




the third syllable from the end (tri8glltJbotong). It is chiefty this system of trisyllabotony that accounts for the development and t>reservation in Greek of its eminently inftectional character (3aC if. App. i. 9~. Of the three accentual marks now usedSIb. The acute (') can stand over any long or short ') syllable among the last three. If it stands over the very last (ultima), the word is called cxqtone, as 1fOpM; if over the last but one (pentdlima or penult), the word is called porw:ytone, as ,,0/1.01; if over the last but two (antepenuU(ima]), a case admissible only when the ultima is 'short,' the word is called proparozytone, as ~/I.OI. SI. The gtYJfJe (') can stand only over the 'last syllable as a substitute for the acute, when the latter would not be immediately followed by a pause (stop or comma), as: ~ cm]p, and


Stb. This practice seems to relt on the analogy of I1D&CC8nted (barytoned) syllab1ea and proclitica (94 fF.). Just as unatresaed syllables, now unaccented but originally marked with the grave (76 f.), stand in the relation of dependency to that bearing the dominant accent; just as the procliticI attach themlelves to tne leading word. for which the,. formerly received the lecondary or grave accent (95 f.): 10 ordinary mngle words in a aentence, as constituent parts of a connected wAole, are treated as if they were proclitioa, and 80 are marked with the grave accent, conceived as the sign of continuation.
Sll". Compare SohoL lid Dlon. Th. iD Bekk. AD. iI. 674 ~ t) lJa,.ia ~ TWos 'nE, _41m.. fit ~ I7UUa,8I)r n)r ,a) Tcl.. _pc"" 7'6.... 'd T4Ao11r ITE,wo. dU' r..,a) lfGTG](GpUflOWTOA ft StPJa, TOVrO ..w -, dU' fl. ,w ~ Tiir &.tar ". Tj """Wflt .,.Ehra&, oltw AN8ponroc 1lAA6c. IW -,dp .lr ri AOi IrnWBa 1T4", .. &_ Sr, nAOIIf .6p4fr,. Idr at KAAoe AN8pconoc, lW c5I. .It T.) Ao. ,.,..'" I) 1Ja".ua &.-, twrG ra1inI .6""" .,..) h'ponor.-And 689 cbrAM .,.lfWOA .. Stlpflia rI. ,w T6_ Tiir 6EtUi., du' fl, '"fW. ',.,s.",. ,w I. ~, A""""';lITIr .6pcflll6pA1f1W, l1li2 w~ .. , _ U-nVtrOA IIAA' "",,4fl1C1, troa ,.aeft n)r 6EtSr",.",. Ail,,, .6plcr_ l1li2 ''''''' AlE". . . 6go "",,'nIG .,o.p 'fir, .. t1V..,,~ Ail- l1li2 tIVH..,.."fI" . eMflfI'" ,., TIf lurrl ,.~ ...1 r4Aov, "" AlE_ f"pt.t1IfO,.m,r, " ' - lJa,.ia. 'fir", oW .l..fa. m I) n"Y,a) l1li2 I) driwalltlcr .,.;;, ~ If Sa"aTfffl'ioac, d.Uol IIpt.JIItI'f'lIIWf""", fr' .nn- .f_, n)" Alt", d.fP"flleo,.4.", 6Ib.ttIa& ft.m,.. S,de'NI. 06.,0., ."'" '.,.Ipa Altcr hlP.",,.4.,,, rPG tlV"fllflA""hJ TcW f](tIP Tiir 6E.m. Cheer. lb. 'fO'1, 2'f 'tl'f'40.. a~ I.,., tni6a Ailfl' &tSro"o', ... rj """..... 4h- ". rjf/plitlfl (read tIII/'4IpGn'), ~ 6E.i"" fl, /JatHiar XOl~ roii rE, hi ~ .,.i nr6.., ..pori-",., ""'fIlr " ,a) hnfIfW"U tI'f'C'Y'" ~TUI6r. Idr .,a,. 1.,~/prrrGl 1m'Y,a) ~.,.,.a.. 06 I) 6E.ia Saptia...






ram '"






S8. The circum,1'le.1: {.... or -} can stand over a 'naturally long' ultima or penult. If over the ultima, the word is called ~ as ~; if over the penult, the word is called

For the origin and value of the circumflex lee 'J6 fF. b. A word having DO accent over the tcUiffIG is caJ1ed barylotN, becauae the ultima. was originally marked with a {Japeio or pve accent (76 f.). [10. AJn. 6, 15 /Ja"vr- 1IfIA_ra. ft npottSr_ ... ..~ ... ",on","'"", 3ct(.,.,). nA.lI'f'IIIa.,.o6nw /JapIIrnu.)


Digitized by





M. AeoUc OD the _ hand cu-rded thelpbitu IIIp8l' (?a), and OD the other c1nw the _ t .. far back from the ad .. poIIibIe <!Koept in the _ of prepoIIitioIu and ooD,jUDatiou .. toDoclitio8, 94), . . : cl, oWor, 4AU--fl6TGpDf, awor, &Aor,.&aAor, ~,ISWIrror,'/a4lp63&T'II, /llIl1lAfVf, A.Mor, crd.fipor, cr~, 'poe, .o.IS. Th.a two peculiaritleB of AeoUc are deeigDated .. peilo.u and lImw-....:. (fiA-IS, ~crlS). Op. ApoD. de contt. 38, 127 (Dekko) GUOI p~,. '"Eu'1"8 a..n..-I ft ~ AloAlir a~ o6Bca,.a;--.nd Schol. lid Diem. Thr. m AD. Bekko 716, 9 - - . . .,. cl Ar,- ~, of .&loAm I,. TCII' llI&us Altlcr, .,., lllacr"" 3A.r ~"" Bdn. ii.1b5. of .&loA." tnicrar A4i'" "..~,




(BK...... L

.pi,. cltw-

'11'7' '

,I .

OBoJrmazm i1. 526 .)



x-tJlr No

-rpol4cr_ _ orW

Nb. Tojudgefrom old Indian (Vedic and Sanskrit), Law, Aeolic Pl, and numero118 inatancea in Attic (cp. 2S7b 704), the Greek accent on the whole was rtCIII8iN, th118 tending to baljtoneaia or rather proparoxytoneeia (32C, 2).




86 .As in all other languages, so in Greek accent was and still

is I dynamic' denoting stress (3,d. 'l7 b, App. i). It appears under two different forms, according as it applies to ordinary speech or to tJerB& CL In onlinary..- accent is the percusaion or !!tress put on one
among several ayllables of a 'Word. The syllable thus made prominent ill fixed by general COD881l81l8 and 10 appears natural to 118. It may be termed the 8fJeaking tJCCetIt or tonic b. In fJU'Stl or rhythmical composition accent is the percuaaion or emphasi8 given to ODe among several syllables forming a rhythmical p or measure (",olir). The syllable th118 atreased is selected tlie venifier and ita place determines the nature of the rhythm. kind of accent apJ,l8&!8 as artificial and is diatinguiahed from Datural accent as 'metncal (or rhythmical) beat,' as icttII. Reciting according to it is called _""'ng or 8CIIfI.Bion. 8&". SpeeJdDg acoent and ict1UI then are idatical in Dature but cWrerent in




application. In this WIIiY, while 8}I8IIoII:inc _ t fa the IIOUl orJulae of ~ ict1UI fa the IIOUl or pulBe of rhythm (metre). All .. matter ooune, pamIIlar CIOD8idenI 0Dl7 thellp8aldDg accent which it deelpatel by the simple

sac. The identity of ~ with metrioal_t (of*- with ictus) OD the ClDe haDd, and the identity of the acute with the oiI:o'caIdex OIl the other (77 & [ID, belli .. 8trildDg mutration m the uecdote told of Bur. Or. 279 ill KyMATQ.)N rAp AySle AY rAAHN' opci): __ IS ni"or W 'BoyiAoxor yclr n-p'+' "-,Gp fHcr- "Ari., n)r ~, .trIA~ 7'Oii ..,... "..,... 7'OIf "",.".OIr ~ a6tu (if DOt 'lot.) ~,., n\ Cfor &AA' e6xl ,.a~. trfIAAcN,q,.oI'. aWe) 3&4-1IIl'" No 'A~, &to. (10 too M. BaD. 303)-wllere ~' ('calm ') _ mfataken for ,aAiir ('cat' or w.-l'), aDd thua oaued a derildon (.._,..."..., 3&haftar). To attribute tile deriDm to the intel'mllmon of tile elialon or to the mkpronunclation of the _ t (-yaA'" ~), .. illIOIIl8timeB argued, fa to forget that IIIlCh .. dil~ or jan:iDc in enunciation would have oaued not derJaiOD but di. ~ .. hazdJy appI'Gpriate point for popalar fun. Op. 77 [I). 8&4. The idatity of the speaking accent with the ict1UI fa farther evid8llOed Sat bydireot anclentteltimoll7 (Quint. I, 5, lIS; Victor. ,I, 17; Auaon. 4t 47),&lld .... by t.helr _plet.e atUWv in both 1IIIC8and e8'eat,and it would DOt be .. bold



(I) APJIMIlIIt17 C7priot abo, .. : OJlol'l'rn_", ii. S320



_pIla,,,,,,,, nmr,


Digitized by




88. Technically (metrically and grammatically) coDSidered,

a syllable counts 8horl when it has a 'short' vowel followed by either another vowel or a simple consonant. (17 b. 89 App. ii.) 87. A syllable counts 'long eitherI. by position (6ilTf&), when it has a 'short' vowel, but this vowel is followed by two consonants or a compound consonant, OIfto.., 'IJ'~. (App. ii. 5 f.) as 2. by flGture (f/Vac&), when it has a 'naturally long' vowel or a diphthong (17 f.); 88. A syllable is called common or doubljW (also tHlriable, 17). counting either short or long, when it has a Daturally short vowel followed by a combination of one mute (y, P. 8) with the liquid Pt sometimes also'\' (Cp. 6. f. and App. ii. 5 f.)



88b Original and genuine (Physiological) quantity is that e1rected by What we are wont to call 'natural quantity' i8 really hysterogeneou and eoIDpeDI&tory. having developed from loat position' by uti. 8.cial means and for metrical purposes. For the historical development of this phenomenOD -119 and particularly App. ii.6-15. 89 .Aa a matter of OOIIBB, pNVioaa to the adoption of" and ., (6), the Greeks kMw not.lUJlc of the teolmlaal tenu 'lone vowela' and 'Ihort voweI&' In reo1tiq 01' nadiDc - . the prnaIant ldnd of Jiterature ~ oultlvMed (ajI t), the,. _ pided by the rh7thmical_t (8s, b) which in thoae time. ,.... indioated b,. the audible puttlUC down and raising of the foot,-the """ (also SMIS) _ 4pftcr nU ..oIdr,-the "1111 corresponding to the rh7tbmical 1IeU 01' peroumOll (iatuB) and the Ipa" to the remlaaion 01' fall, a pmotice which origiDated in the arobMtlC8 and fOl' the dealpatlon of a metrica11Ulit eR ~ b,. the term nVr (pu), foal. In this"..,. "I1&r (BC. roil ..oIclr) came to be equi-. lent to the rh7thmiea1ly _ t e d and conBequentq 'loIIger qUable,' while the IpaIf (BC. nU wuIbf) indioated the rh7thmioaIq 1UI&CC8nted or 'MorfIr 8,.1lable' of the nW, with thJa farther peou1iariq that, as movement begins am .". 11/Nttr the foot, the ournnt formula,.... '(HTII . . "11., Dot con~. ID other won1B, a . , . , . ,.... conceived aaocriing to ita pl_ in the . . . 01' measure, either "I1C& ,..,0 01' 4(HT., IJpaXEia, 11'_ _ the 'IIOIIIIIe themNl_ ,.... not ~ in point of ~ This old and simple II1IItBm, whioh eaplaiJlll the VIIl7 common _ of metrioalleucth under tile ioQa (8$!. App. l. 16b), ,.... dtlturbed wllen" and., found their "..,. lato _ .. viable ~ to ~, inMmuoh .. .,.nab'" with " 01' ., _ appzapriated the tenD. of nat1l.l'alq lonr qUableB (","- ,..,.,), while the ZMt, Uaat is ~ with MI7 oUaer vowel, __ ccmtndiBtinp.iahed a-miac to their place in the 'NU _ l.pI1ar of the " , "11ft pIIIIIGl, i. .. '1onr ~ PC8ition,' .. IJpax8ta i. .. 'ahort,' 01''' BlXJIIWOt (""oAot, ate. 17 f.), i. e.lhiNnr 01' ' doubtfal. '-l"or more partlculan _ 891r. and App. fi. 6-15- (Op. also BWeatphal, Theorie' i. 102 ft) 88 b It aur.Y be furthar JUIted that wllen in p . . - of Ume that m. .aN uta attained a hlcher developmeat, the 1188 of the foot ,.... found to be inconvenian' for the aiDcen who needed aleaB di8turbiq and 78t perceptible 01' tIUIble mark of the rhJthmica111l811111U'B. Hence the raiBiIlc and puttlDc down of the foot ~



Digitized by




80. Phorropath,PJ, or pathology of sounds, deal8 with the process and nature of cbangee which sounda (including accent) frequently undergo when they are brought into immediate C<lntact with one another. Thus phonopathy investigate. under what conditiona and how far letters and accentual marks, as representatives of sounds and &trees, are affected by their mutual contact.

8L For the diYiaiOD of a Greek word into syllables, there ia no eatabliahed rule, and the general custom followed by grammars rests on a number of inconsistent and contradictory precept. handed down to us by Byzantine grammarians (op. Ben. adv. gramm. 6,38 f. Bk., and KGhner-Blaaa i 350, 2 f.). Nor are the inacriptiona in any way afer guides, aeeiDg that they are never engraved phonetically, but either 11TOC~.. or mechanically (30). Almost equally unaatiafactory ia the 18lllOn to be drawn from the ancient papyri and MSS, because they follow no hed rule. Indeed the value of all these sources is problematical, and the only safe inference to be drawn from all these 101U'CeII is that syllabication in Greek has no reprd to the logical or etymological constitution of the word, and 80 the question must be d.etermined by the phonetic principles of the lanauaJre. that is, by ihe actual constitution of a syllable in Greek, &8- uliibited in the llameroUB monosyllables... : & , J.., ;'" f .., a., w, _. fr, .Jr, .lr; ,.a, n, 'ri, .. ri, " ' t'Oii, ~ir, piJr, rif, aoaVr,, woW, "AM; "Ci'" apCil-, p/J'" 1pW, -All.: ,.sp,.".,; y;"", Al+, fJ~E, mE, ,.pE. For here we have the plainest mdication and criterion that a Greek word, conaequently a1ao a.,zltlbk. can begin by almost any 80nantic or conaonantal com-


P) I have ooiDed thl8 term M a ool1ectlve d8lligDation of all thoee phouetio priDcdp" whioh are oommoDly oalled 'phonetio lawe' (the German ,!Aut. . . . . '). And I llave clone 10 ftnt, beoa1l8ll thII term (formed on the III1&1ogy of . . . - - , . , . , ~, ~ j Gp. aUo,paIAl/, ~, eto.) leuds *-If _veDiaDt17 to futber fomaatiou (M phonopeth-lc, -kaUI/, -UL, eto.), IIII.d &beD 011 - ' of the mitlMCIlnguoUou OOJlveyed 117 the C1IrIIIIIt hlgh--diDc MnI1 'pIumetio '-.' For 'law '18 _ iIIalterabla ~ proceediDg from_ apedor auth0rit7 _d admitting of uo aoeptiOllB or iluctuatiolY, loaal or periocUaal, nab M .... oommoDly oblerved uot oDly iD every language but iD fIftrT dialect _d period. Equally iI1appzopriate _ _ to me the altemati'fl Mrm phoaetia ~,' ooiDed, I believe, 117 Prof. Kaz MilDer, linea ~ 18 .-.aiMed with dapueratiou, _d Daturally naeete a teDdaDC7 tcnralQ or ....-ob to 1Dalit7. Now, DD .gu.bman 18lllulJ.y to admit t.bat the Bnr1l8h olto-daTor that ofBbakeepean, oompared with that. of Chauoer, ahoweaphODetio u.,..' ... a mMter of filet, it marb a mere ohaDp, _d that not ~ ~ r. the wone.

Digitized by




bination admisaible in the laDguage, that it can close withanylOnant, but that it can never close with any conlOnantal group whatever; not even with a simple coDlOnant with the exception of JI', p, a, since in words like yiIt, ~+E, the labial or guttnral consonant is sheltered by the succeeding 8lbilant (218 ft'.). The same holds true of the rare sequence '"'YE (atl>l1E, ","puyf, cflciAayE), for here y virtually represents a nasal weak JI' (9). Accordingly in divid!ng a Greek word into syllables the following rule may be laid down as the one moat rational and compa.tible with the character of Greek phonology.

82. One or more intervocalic consonants belong to the

succeeding syllable.-Only pr6Consonantal JI' p a (perhapI ). also} can be assigned to the preceding syllable. E.g. --P!'-).ij, po-{33or, 1-pn,-a8'1J1', ,",,",cl, "'pG-YI'G, dfH-8".&r, l-x8pdr, $irrrpoII', A~'r, Ja-rrf/Ht-dp-xI, (or d-PX';), Ip-a". ( or d-ptr'IJI'), da-(3GU.. (or .l-aBau_), h-8or (or 1-.), ID..-/III (or '-)./111), n.-Elf (or l-).f&r)-Ita-nx-, d-4--".-6 (foaf, W-UaTC, "...-r:"'ailroii, It.a-ILlI,,& 851". Aa regards double COI1llODaDta, like aa('IT), pp, AA, "'" W, ...., 'n, Ht, xx, etc., the cue is lneeparably connected with the queation of gemination in Greek. U we admit an actually divided pronunoiation for each letter -a cue which the practice of the .A inacriptiona (K][elaterbana' 71-78) and Greek phonology render on the whole very questionable (cp. alao ESievera' 5~8)-the paIra a", w, pp (perhaps alao AA) can be eeparated, because siDglea,., p, (A). isadmiaaibleat theendofaword~18), as: Na" _p/MI-trOl. ,HAI"-"",, .,AGHI-IIa. T'a-aop... .,..-0,.,..,.,,0.. , ".",.. IAAot,p.lA-AOI (cp. (6). In the remaining _ (that is, in 'IT. p.p., ..... 'n, Ht. XlC. etc.), however, we are not juaWled in separating the two letter&, since their aound is inadmiBBible at the 0I01e of a word, consequently alao of a ayllable (91). We should therefore divide rather: ri-'l'TOl, p.'AI-'I'TG,.,AOI-TTG, ""-TTGpff .,ptl-/AIMI, t'IA".",..,. r-w'lrOfJ &-yy.Aor. cnl-._, Bcl-XXo.. 'A-H,s, 2a..,., Jla-Hai'ar, etc., than ri'l'oftl, p.IIUT-TG, etc. 88. In compound words, the flret coDBtituent of which 010_ with a p, two _ must be diatiDguiabed. U the latter component begins with a aonant, the preceding CODBODaDta a JI' p, being admitted at. the end of a Greek word (91- aI81r.), can retain their final position in the flrat conatltuent.though the above fundamental rule (9~) haa proved 80 undiacriminating aa to a1rect even these caaea. Accordinglyla...,. et .l-ri.,.. dII'-G'n""'- et

","P-OXo. et 6w1-poxar. ~ et -."a.,.. np-alot &; ....,.. U on the contrary a p are followed by one or more other oonaonanta, then, aa long aa they retain their proper sound, both rational and phonetio coDlliderationa justify us in aaaigning them to the preoeding ayllable, as: .'a~. Sa""'" ~~. III1-np, nAl""""",",, np-fidpor, fII1P!IOA.a.. But as BOOn as they have been phonetically a1reoted, or have aaaumed a new BOund. inadmil8ible at the end of a Greek word-a _ applying chiefly to and a-they have, by the fact of their phonopathic accommodation to the next following col1llOnant, lost their hold on the preceding ayllable, and attached themselves inseparably to the auooeeding one {189 fL 301. 30a"l. as: '-p./JOAM (or ...~), I-P'/NXo. (''''''''), -~ ~, ~,." - " , . (or ......,..). --"..,ala., n-Ur,. (or .."..A-). II-a/UJ.NI (or .Ia"'). tl-tru., &6-.,.".. (pronounce -cs-, -(1-, "",", whereaa -II-!J-, -a-a., -a-".. would BOund -aa-IJ-, -a,,-a., -IIa."..).


-paa'" -"X"'t et ..

po-".... 'l"", et '-4-,., 1va-dpt1l'Tot et Bv-adptnor.

(PB0cLI8I8 AND ENCLI8I8). 84. Syntactically coD8idered, that is in connected speech. certain unempbatic little words-mostly monosyllabic, but a1ao disyllabic and chie1ly oxyton~play a aecondary part, and an 12

Digitized by




uttered 80 rapidly as to appear to form part of the succeeding or preceding word (cp. 1138). Hence they are unstressed, or half-stressed (~"'nwa,. 76 & 106), and aecording as they attach themselves to the succeeding or preceding word, they are generally called JWOClitics or enditic8 respectively. MlI. The whole phenomenon will be called iD this book tonoclids (t"OlOO4Wcrla), a term intended to include the two varieties of proclisia and enclia18. On the lIIUIle principle proclitic8 and enclitica together mar be termed tonoclUieB. 9&. L Proclisis (' reclination ') is the close syntactical attachment of a monosyllable or disyllable, called proclitic, to the succeeding word. The proclitic then is as rapidly pronounced as if it were an integral part of the succeeding word.
M. Though the ~ of prooUala Iaaa 11J1doublledly been at work through all ..... of the Greek Jaupap (op. 101b>, the older grIIDIJII&I'iaD did Dot iDdioate It by anylpeoiallWlle, but treated proolitioa as 0l'diDar7 independent wom and Applied them with the acute or grave, as the _ might be (82 AooordinN ~ wrote or 6 for ., , .. or ,,, for or .1 for fl, eta. Our modern )InIICtioe of ~ or lJI80IaUslng prooUtia. from malitia. dates from poBtchristian times and the V8J'7 term LprooUaIa' ".. onq reoentq (iD 1801) coined by GBermann (De emend. rat. !!6-101).

I... er


97. Proclitics areG. All forms of the article, both prepositive and postpositive (606); also N Orov or rn (608 f.) and ~ (623). b. The oblique cases of the personal pronouns (527) ; Co The prepositions ; d. The conjunctions I, (l)cIv, (.q,,), ~, mi, Wa.-N "a, 64.; eo The negation ~ (~x, ~, N 8iv i-then ,,:q, p4. 98. Of the above proclitics 80me are conventionally written without accent and called tJtona (&TOJII&). These areG. The 80nantic forms of the article: a, ~, of, cal ; b. The prepositions .11, lP, l~ (lx), ~; Co The conjunctions .l, ~ j d. The negation ~. 89. But all atona are accented: (Cl) when th81 Bml8X an enclitic (102 .), &I: lu, dYE, ofhr(J); (b) when ther bear the emphaai8 of the .entence, .. : .; Ix ..pdltlTlr the preposition IL' lOO. The negation 011 receives the acute when it closes a sentence, .. : ..' 4 aY; .yeat thou or DOt?' (224-) 10L n Ettcli8is (lyxAw&1 'leaning on') is the close syntactical attachment of a monosyllable or disyllable, called enditic (94), to the preceding word. In this case the enclitic is pronounced &8 if it were an integral part of the preceding word. 10111. The term encliaiaia olancient date. (Apoll.De pron.268A.,etc.) 102. Enclitics areG. The oblique cases of the personal pronouns (9 7, b. 5 2 7) ; b. The indefinite pronoun nI, 7'~ throughout {but &1TtIr S88) ; c. The indefinite adverbs wvV, wo&, -roSlv, riv, wj. 'INJ'rI ;


Digitized by



tl. The Present Indicative of clpl and "p.t, save in the 2nd person singular ct and # (982. 975 b ) ; eo The postpositive particles plv, "'"", BC, 'Ye. Ti, TOt, m, ftp, ..u, ICi(V), p&..

10Sb. Under thJII heed _ to fall also the 1IIlfIl:l[ -B.. whieh is attached to and to demonatratift pron01lDll, .. : ol_a., 1111., 7'tia., 7'01Fclcrllt.

108. Some enclitics have, like the preceding oaf, altogether coalesced with the preceding 'Word, as: ofMOl, ODTIC, oDnon, SA!!, ,..ouerAe. 104. In connecting an enclitic with a preceding word, it must be borne in mind that Greek accentuation admits of no longer termination than one of dactylic rhythm, that is, no more than two post-tonic syllables can be left without accent (81. J05e,.). Accordingly an enclitic loses its accenta. After a perispomenon or an oxytone (81 b), also after a proclitic, the oxytone and proelitic then receiving the acute (not the grave, 82 b f.), as: lp;;, TI, crorf*r TlNOON, ~ TIC, ~ TlNEC,

cf nOTE, '11',,0.; ME, .qv TINA, 'II'OV elcl, ~ cf>bCI. b, After a proparoxytone [technically also after its equivalent trochee, 105eJ, which then, in addition to its own accent, takes over on the ultima the accent of the enclitic in the form of acute (8zc), as: 8.yyU.4 TIC, .q1C1JIIOi MOY, 8.v8ponrot e!CIN. [So too eommonly: flp6.-ypla,.., (_ flpdJa.,pIa 7'.), '"i"cS" "" ..11 (-114._ flI'II),
then, according to aneient theery,

by extension ~M4,... like


,... (so

teo 61.J.Ds ,.." like cnilAd! 7'''; but _

10&. After a paroxytone or a properispomenon, a monosyllabic enclitic loses its accent, but a disyllabic enclitic retains it, as: A6yor TIC, A6yov TINOC, 'Y~ TINi, uWpA n like u,f,pA"'''' 8oii~ ltrrlJl, ",-ijAa. ,.,vd. (See 1050.) 10&". In encliais a long , ayllab1e counts short' in regard to accentuation, as: aoiiAor PO'(, JIOiIr ,..1P<Il" (both - v"'),
lOa". The operation and etreet of eneUala after a paroz;ytone or properiapom_ i8 ott- minDclenteod or miarep_ted in modem gr&mmaI'II, and thus eal1a for a few remarb hare. In la7inc down the ruleII of eneUaia the anc.feDill were evidently guided by the in8tinet of three physiolocioal prineiplee : (I) No word ClaD haft two BUClCl..tve eyllab* * - d , otherwise thia woo.ld
break the unity of the word (108) [11 ;

(lJ Compare Charas in BelIk. An. 1149 I" "" A,if" . f t crvr4X- No di- 01 tlllAlu02 01111 '7'110... lIIJ.IIOC#lOn'iaJI.,ap _oWl' .,.cl oW AN8pfllnoc TIC ....a 1JVIr4x""" clAAcl p.fIFoA.Il/J.i fJllpeia. (UD8C08Dted) 'I) I. 7'. 8pm av~. c0t6c TIC' "sa ,_ ditia. 'I) .,.cl oc ... Ill.. p.4~ 01 UfI&fJlir d. '41F.. "'poXIll_'Xorrll 360 didas I.-Efir AMoc TIC' _f~ dpxt)r.,;;,OhcrIFtlar & ApUr7'llPXGS 01111 IfJo.A.ltfr/loWlll fls , ANApA MOl 360 differ. clAAi "sa Is n\ AN, """'_ '1" dpxj _.IF_ ttapGAo"'fOl' 011 ,,~.) _tflFl,'-He_ the eymbollution (Xlllmer-B~ L 342): 1F-1,.4,... for rillM' 7'f. rill,.a.fN'I" for er",. '",.1., has no real. esiatenee in IUI7lanlfUBPt .eelngthet BIleh G41rman or Buglish para1leIa .. V4ntUcI, /lmMhen, bIefWa, lph111, eta. in reality 00DIIi8t of c.o
diatiDet wordII graphioalq linked tepther, and that UllClOn U they have~ ~ into one word, they have aIao loat their I8ClODd aoeent, .. 6hreDmaa, pntleman, hI6oJtben7, ~pence, n6b0d7, eta. (Op. IG8b.)

." . .



Digitized by




(,) No mon tbaD two poat.toDio qllabl.. are admIadble in GnleJr. word
u) No enoUtdo admlta of aJIUtrophe, othenri8e tm. would ohanp the moUtio to aD emphMio aDd ~ oriJI.otoDe word (op. 10\1) I (Compare T. with Ar,.r.,-~pow T. with .4pon'.,~l T, with ... T',

__ T' with leST' aDd .",wrt,~Aor 'Im. aDd clU&w TII"'" with &..,.", dIcSar.) Now .. in the 87811 of the old grammarians. proparoJ:ytone oompl8J: (~"'''', _ 1It1o"., "'or TI) _ pneticaUy or theoretlcaUy equivalent to properi8pOIII8D0ll (- "" . . 301,.... dj.or). the latter _ drawn into the clcmaIn of the n1e aDd thu led to the treatment of ailpa T, like *16opIl T., hen08 a&ipG T., aDd la,. TII'CI like *a.sojNl n.a, hBD08 I&pi T_. OJl08 adopted, this principle _ ~ uteaded fIam natanl Uoahee to Uoahee by poeitioJl, the _ ~ .. accentaDdmetriaal iota _ iclmti8ed in _(11.51>), theohialnad,y aDd nGnD of the theorlatI. A.rc. 146, 1 6p.oi..,. d ftptrr'pcllri.,.,. Wpo,p.4", Uf" "'.A.T&nV .....pop.4.OII ~. ,.., ,..,.a ,.., ft.pctlftOlp.4",I' ~,olo... OTKOC TIC, ~K~ON YE, KNHMON n' .a.. '/IafIOEWoaTO TPOXaZ.q 0&-11' MAoc TIC, fcTi nc, ENe.i. nOTE. To pat it lIhorily: proparoJ:ytonee attncted their equivalent properi8pomena aDd th_ &pin... rep_tativeIJ ofnatural apcmdeea, attracted


the _aiDing apcmdaio puosytcnee. lIen08 the ancient aDd ratioDal accentuation: ~ T, (like fiiM T.), W.p4 T., TVf8lami T', ,",, T,r. ftOTI. ,.;'T4 n. n"tw ft, hapa pIIC, nlnp ate. (A.rc. 141. 30 145. 11. Hdn. ft... lA11430 Cp., L 34 ) In face of th.a facta, modem gr&IDIIIal'iaq oacht eWaer to carry OIlt;r the principle adopted by the ancients and write acoordingly &AAcI, T.r, tnl"..,w TIPa, and even f/NJt.or T", cl.UM _ ..,1,." ..,... (to whioh there iI _ ancient parallel In. 01 289, teetified by SchoL Ven. ad loo. A.rc. 1450 16; Oharu 1154- 11,57), deBpite the _ption taken by BOme old thacJriN (lJ ;-or to adopt the only ratimlal_d p~ principle that the accent aannot poIIIIibly &.Il OD two 81lOCIeaive qUabl.. of the aame word (loB), _d .,tr..t encJiUc. following. properilpomenonjut .. they treat them after a paraz;ytcne: I&pcw T. like fJ6&w TI, and 60Ipa nri like fJOk T'I'II,-further ol.or T", cijpuf T .;;p.,f T'~r .poc;'cf AIIi"1t.1II{I 'IIT'.,-. ayatem which will be followed In t h e , - t book, for the plaiD reaIOn that ciroumfleJ: and acute an pb,Jwiol~ idantioal (77), dUrerJn.g oDly in form, and that a properiBpomeDaIl IH!lng'rirt1lAll,y the _ .. a paroJ:ytODe, requiral a IIimilar treatment




(.,o,a TI, .,wll Te" - "';'11 T., ".j,g TwU).

however, tJda inatIonal by the th8llllelveIJ (10 by A.ri8tarohoe W. 1154- SchoL Ven. H 199>-

ita -.titutiaD. or lI. r, T"fU 11..-, W "'111.. Generally, aooentuatiOD, .. : &pG_ life., ,.,eG and.e _ deprecatedAD. theory !pored .. anatent. in Ch-, BeJr.Jr..

ODe Gl' of two

lOSd. According to old gr&IDIIIal'iaq (Aze. 140 f..4,5. Hdn. w. I. lA1143- Sohol..Ven. Z 367), the aooent of pron01lllll beginDlDg with ~. whether of qllablee, ja nplarq thrown to the precediD.g word irreIIpeotive of


108. In cases where the attracting word, besides ita own accent, has drawn on ita ultima that of the enclitic also, the jrincipal streas is that of the attracting word, while the transpose accent of the enclitic plays a secondary part or no part at all (this possibly being th~'"I ftrav'f3ta of the ancients. Thus &ifaft MOl, Op" TINA are pronounced 3tlEa-r'fIO&, 6".,.1I'a. 10'1. m. 8ynenclisiB. When two or three enclitics succeed one another, their accentual rhythm is adapted to the trisyllabic system of accentuation (104), thus inevitably leading to dactyls

or trochees:


re TIC (=m.AOcry(-n~), ~ TINEC MOl eiciN


Digitized by




(=f/JlAOf.Tt-wl7'p.o&.l-rnv)r noy Tic TIN6. f8o& (= .r'lrOV ncrn1lU. f80&). This process will be termed in the present book 8gt16f1CUsi&
lOS. The grammarians teach that when several enclitics succeed one another, each one takes an acute from the nen following, so that the lut remains without accent, aB: .f w/p rj~ 17'1 lUll q,FJul war.. But this precept is physiologically impoaaible, since in no lanIluage two consecutive syllables in a word can have the same atreaa; this would break the word into two words (105, I). It is also to be noted that an accumulation of enclitics, such as appears in the above example, does not actually occnr; this very example being a fiction of the grammarians who coined it fOl'the purpose (Arc. 146, 15) [I).
10811 Tonoclisia bean certain aualogy to the aeoondary _ t iD BDgli8h po~Dabl.. and German compound words, aB: udert1ke, olmtndiot (..,ar _p6,); mlgniftar (a",,.,..d. rll) ; 'ft'abWty (""ponrol .,......) j dldioAte (lA"" JItH); 1IOh6J.diriotor, cltmoomtio (.,~pJ.. T'); l1tit1\diDArIan (.fftp TEr If' ptJl

IupwfaeDhAftigkait, ISberappel.lati6Doht. (Cp. lOt', 1 [I] &; u,s8.)

108. 2. ORTllO'l'OnBl8 (dp6arOJ'71CTI.~). Tonoelitics are syntactically accented or rather retain their accent, and 80 are called

a. When they are uttered with emphasis, ss : clAM ci >..I:yoJ 'I mean t1ae&' AmW&CTp.oi MHN 'the conjunction p.",.' b. When they begin a sentence: TINEC Aiyovu... 4AMEN ..ot1lVV. c. When the 80nant which wss to receive the accent of the enc1itic is elided, ss: TaW' imv (for TaVru imv). do When they precede other tonoelitics (107). eo When they are disyllabic and follow a paroxytone or properispomenon (105). no. A number of disyllabic prepositions are oecssionally put after their respective words. In that case they shift their accent from the ultima to the penultima, and this shifting is called anastropke (cbuCTrpo4n1), ss: TOW_ nepl for npl ",v".,v. (1138.)
llL In A prose anaatrophe oecura only in WIll' (with gen.), &wo ( ... & ..8...), ,,,& (='",,",), and wdpa (==wdjHlIT& or wdpt&IT&) ; in A poetry also in Irn, dra, innp, ihro, and pJra.

In studying the history of the Greek language, we find that ita gradual evolution has been determined b:r variou8 agencies chiefly internal (cp. 028), the nature and extent of which will be duly explained in the courae of the present work. Some of these agencies, however, are of such a fundamental and general character aB to require an explanation here at the outset.

us. Introductory ""'""*.



ci Moi 4j>Hci "OTC' d

"A.t- 6nINoMCAI' ci "ip Tic ci ~.fft& W ~.....~ roii "ip, d I~ mp Iul d Tic, Tcl ~ Tic W rcl ci, Tcl ~ c6 W rcl Moi, ri ~ Moi Iul .,0 4j>Hci, .,.cl N 4j>Hci W Tcl ,,0Ti, lHrr. 'fNlf}r ~-It .. _ CI'IIIboaIll' W,., nU uWIM'ror fTIIri (Op. CGOtt1iDc ~ It XGJmer..B18II i. S4lo)
[lJ Obazaz iD Bekk. AD. 1157 IJwaorcl.. ~ _

,u.. -,dp



Digitized by


[118-122. U8. AttGlogg is the very frequent paychologioal phenomenon by which an item (sound, accent, form, word, meaning, construction, ete.) is adopted as a standard or pattern either for coining a novel item or for remodelling one already existing.
U6. In this ID&Dner the leading analogue iD1luencee or attracta other items, and 80 aerYeI U a norm tor new imltatiYe tormatioD8. Thus wio,... .~,.", nr6r are due to 1101"1& tllfOT.,,6. 4'w. It. wA~,. TW6. and n8' 131"" d4Na. &Wo,... P ok: ImYx-' to ..t ..".6" olIX 6,,&" ~,. .,tro,... Jlitth. '9. 328,6 ~~B.o.],andofteDliDoe,thenNT Luke 17,22 olIx """.... Ph. 20 a3"""'. .. 29 ,..... 2, 7 IW. I Cor. I, 8ol1X 136n-... Gal. I, 19 ~x tlb. Luke 1,25 ...,,,.,,. Acta 3, 6 oM So Aota l2, 18 oIX ~ after olIx '-'". ~fI'nIMa (often iD CIA 300-200 8.0.) alter ~~ eto.--""'1Tor (~"OI) after ,.' or If' IIfI8' '''01 4: d ' bol/llml" alter"'" &; "", 4,uflG". ".1onIpI"a, alter ftJIiM after naxM.-N ,,~ (for .,.w,o.) after (Cp. 665.)











.,.lfIG". "''''fdfllr6..

11&. Both the term and etrecta of lIoDalogywere known to the IIoDcienta. 118. It may happen that kindred models existing side by side ~ve
birth to a third formation. Such cross-influence ia termed conIamuaatiOfl (intermixture), as: MIC8ooc:i.NTGII" x ",",SGIIUMOOCAN - MIC800cANTCIlCAN CIA ii. 600, 4S (300 B.o.); IIpa x ~pa ... apa; G-B J x & gUT.)


"Opm,paaXflP'''ATi)=tI'Op!l'OTii, fJOlIGx;opQ-~ (Crete, etc.), 'at'f ft., x . . . . . ."'I1T'IN'1'Of a' ~1994). 117. Auociation is the connenon oftwo or more cognate items (11 3) with one lIoDother IIoDd the consequent prevalence of one to the gradual elimination or even extinction of the others, as: 'Y.lIpa+oyap-oyoip. 118. On this principle, aaaooiated items first interchange, then ~erally coalesce, under varioua-often contaminatory-infiuences. Into one representative, usually the moat emphatic or moat familiar in the whole group. For illuatrations see 1487-8. 118. Strictl:y .peaking, &I8OCiation is a generio term preceding and comprehending analogy. For two or more items must be fil'llt aaaociated with one another either in 1MIU8e (u NAOI ~o/MU) or in form (u 'lA. ,.lJ.M) and then undergo the pl'OCMa of analOlY (~Mor 411ovA61"1"-4fU..or f,..uc.). Hence man:y grammarians identif,y IIIIIOCiation with analOlD'. DO. Next to lIoDalogy, aBsociation has been the moat potent factor in the history of Greek: (App. ill. I.) Wo ~iMt is the instinctive or studioua diaconnenon of two or more kindred or lIoDalogoua itema (113) for the sake of distinotion, perspicuity, emphaaia, or IIoDtithesia. Thus the aM person plural-

(NT), a".a. x .pa"".,.-p..a. <,but cp. 40), tmCOnJ x d(<<)",H")iLaS,." & cLaSpa (in South Italian N -1'9), MH4i x oYM""o",,31 (626),

frv Bc I/trr., 4. x 4ol,,"'37' dq>* x '_ ... dct,.;;" KA8AipGII x uBapizoo"'a6cu-


P d_1D' lAaIIar fA"'" 4AwCID' ..~ are d!atinsuiahed b:y diaaooiation from the lat aingular: 787-794.




.A .~ ..





era. S

'wA.fIIM" l 91 3 fl

US. DfIaoeiation ma:y degenerate to aA'eotation when it aims at origlnalit:y. In this wa:y, futidious writei'll or apeakel'll are apt to introduce new GpI"II8IiaDa which, uamatterof oourae, are often tranaitoJ'1. Such DBOlo-

Digitized by




giama, if they have not, or .. long .. they have not, become popular 'With the _ _ , but are merely oharacteriatic of a certain aet at a certain time, may be termed NJlhuimu or IftIIMIIf"iItIu, .. G-B: dn. (not ,ltreS.,I). A~o 1."tfI..".., for ",,/, A4!J 1."tfI.')", and m dtnlT', &rE +vri, for 3tv .r... &r_ ~ (1988), I.fier. for <435 Ifj13)



a. Introductory Remarks.
1U. Judging from the cha.racter of archaic Greek, as portrayed in the early comp?sitions &D;d inacriptions extant, as we1.l as from t~e phonology of kindred ancient tongues, anch as old Indian and Latin. the Greek language in its primitive stage muat have p'08BeBBed a. richer consonantal ayatem (COtI8OfItJntiBm) than it does exhibit in its matnre or claaaiea.l period. In particular the structure of early Greek vene and the diction of archaic inscriptions lead us to diacem the quondam existence in the language of certain mostly inte"ocalic consonllllts (as F. i.;-; see H. 2!)- 124lf. 209lf. App. it 7 IF.) and consonantal combinations (as ""', "IT, PIT, ete. 197 f. 180. 206), of which the elfects are unmistakable in the claaaical period. This tendency towards droppinJ consonants-the last to retreat were combinations of a liquid + IT-la furthermore witnessed even in the subsequent history of the J.a.nguage, seeing that here a still smallAr nnmber of them is admitted eitlier in the body or at the end of a word. (App. il. 7.) 1M. Turning to the vowel system (t7OCtJliBm. or rather 8OftG.m.., 21 b), we find that it was from the outset limited to the five fundamental sounds Cl. iou, expreaaed by a f & v reapectiveJ] (16" f.). However, the gradual elimination of the above and poaaibly other conaonanta had the eWect that in very many cases two or more vowels were brought together and thus caused the phenomenon of a. frequent vowelsucce.. lion, a peculiar trait of archaic Greek (cp. 0&01", M", .lm/a, 4",oio, cldcn-o.., yoGo"..). Here too, however, as the language gradually attained a ~her stage of detelopment. the frequent occurrence of vowel succeBBlons interfered with rapidity in speech, and thus was felt to cause a discord (XGITI""4la. AiaIuB). A phonetic accommodation was therefore lought in some expedient, and this consisted chiefil in the aacriflce of one or more of the interfering sonanta. See App. li. 9 W. 124b. The principles ruling in the accommodation of sOlWltic aa well as consonantal complexes are laid down in the following aectiODS of phonol'athy, chiefest among which are contraction and antectuia (156-165"). In perusing these principles, however, it will be well to bear in mind at the outset that the phonopathic phenomena dealt with in eve~ case are not neceaaarily the roduct of phyaiolosical agencies acting every time anew. Thus It is not true that m .A " a 6, when followed by a dental, change to IT, as: clPllCrl1ijJrG& from eLM-., ".acr6ijJrGI from "fUl"" (176). In tlte Jfl8&t maJority of C888II p'honopathy had completed Its work in preniBtoric antiquity, and Its subsequent application does not necessarily impl]' its iegular repetition. but rather an unconacious imitation or analogical f0rma.tion. (Cp. Il3. 1l04; KBrugmann Gr. Gram.l lS.) 1215. Assimilation is the process by which a sound-a sonant or consonant-is rendered like (J8~ proper) or lees unlike (accommodatiotl) another contiguous sound. (Cp. 169 if.) A .AN.nroK~ for 'A..\onrc~"", &po~ for t,pu.M; "ptAMrrOpoi for 7"pfAIICOVNpOr, Op)(Op.oOr for 'Epxo~ ~ for


Digitized by







1S7. A word is often ama!!!ed for the Bake of convenience, perBpieuitr. or emphuia, by ad' an expletive letter or syllable at the beainninR. in the middle, or at the end of a word. In the fint caae ampfifl.cation is specified aB ~ in the second aB epe1IIhuis or o_pty.riB (also aearab1latki), In the third aB pIIrtJgOgVe,- and the element added in each caae goea under the name of ~ i'fflz, and lIfIifoi; (or pq8Ifo:) respectively.



Although iD moat. _

8UCIh ampliflcatioD8 originated iD

need. for

paIIIIIio1Iity and emphuill, they have gradually loat. their oriciDal forae.

lI9. Prothesis is the prefixing of a vowel (commonly u 0) to a word (generally beginning with (T P ~ po F) either by analogy or for the sake of convenienoe, euphony, or emphuis.
I-pi 1-x61,. Ipl4* &.-pWf1Gi1 &-.pI1G 180. A very frequent variety of J'rotheaia is pt'OfIUliofl. (progreasive protheaia), by which a final letter 18 unconscio1l8ly carried from the end of the preceding word to the beginning of the nen word (Il. Thia is due to popular misconception, and occurs usually in N proclitics, IUch aB ds, !"cb" nj", riis, !"OVf, cl, ~, !"cS, !"G, but more part.icularly iD nil, !"~'" !"Go'" .JIG, ,Ja, "as, f1ar, N", h, of which the closing sound is misappropriated by the succeeding word and th1l8 acts as a parasitic or mtr1l8ive prefix (App. iii 24- cp. ISSb). TbuI,j-f1/C4&p. d-pdcrO'GiI &-cmlXVS'
.A ftpua, has led to ftOpulCOI

Th1l8 A

PI ColD. . . Ule BDcUah 1Iiobame, newt, for ~

Digitized by





Digitized by


RE'l'RENCHJ(Elft' OF WORDS. al.. (for al., App. iii 24 f.), lp ;-or ~ (,peratMIic), developed \ far c1earneu' sake, as: "cS.. yMplC- I know him (,.0 'Y"'plC- I know it); ~ ;lIyU at. Ipye (Crete), ".11& avo for ni. alio (ni a~-"o 3vO), a/.. ".-p& (whence EJIIf~ti) or JllfOP. (whence at. ~'''l'optP (as Span. 230 , I eannot.' (So too perhaps 41., EtU".., HtUJKo a'lI& *crrG.o".. ~,",lb,OfUl' ~'!..) This last kind of paragogue often appears as rw:tiH in that, though virtually constituting a prefix to the nen following word, it is mistaken for a auflb: to the preceding (moatly proelitic) word, 'and so is transferred to it (cp. 130), as: ,,0. lfj)....a 'Iwu aeeing him,' ro.. fj) 'I see him '; also ih (from iE >11"av6.p) current even in Mo as: Prodr. 3, 242, and Put 237 (cp. 208. 725. App. iii 2.4 ft'.).





dropping one or more letters from the b~ning, middle, or end (initial, medial, and terminal retrenchment). In the first case the retrenchment is conventionally called ap~(also prodeliBkm), in the second 8fI1ICIIPI (with kW~), in the third,lieion (with apocope). 138b ApItaeruiB oecura chiefly in poetry and popular apeech. Thua A tMI ~ ~ E#'OII lpAia8A.'1- G-N awo. Ilt.t"become 11'~ ',wU pAiatlA'I .. "0. a~. 184. In N a~' is due chiefly to popular miaeon:&~on, the part dropped mistaken for an alien element, or to the preceding word. UB unaccented initial a-, 0-, 1-, N-, and above all __, is dropped owing to ita bein~ associated or identified with the ftnal - , -0, -', -., -- of some proelitic like 1110, pia, 6, ro, ~, roN; ai... "dN" (pacr', crocrt)-or for the augment 1- (208.723). Aphaereaia then is the reverse of provection (protheaia), and affects particularly nouns anel Terba of more than two syllables. Thus..

l83. A word is often shortened for the sake of convenience by

".. IIIiI&aJwl for


.. ,,' IInx~~







y' ~""

~ ~""" ~ ~o.

-I ~

-I """arl"..



.. .. "

. "
.. ..



11 11 'At"(Of ,,0 'ri)(~""


aDd produoecl N

.. ..






.. .. ..

yO 'poAcJ.ra N '."a,.""





.. ,..,lfdE"" .. ""lfcul.....,... "

.,. dcwuW" ma l)(l'dpc "
tI. iDitlall-


.. ~..

"n,."Alw .. n,.'Ahano.
.. ..



N ."JlCN N 'U",W

'Eaa."" N 'tT,.,.a."" 70 pA"_



..",a,. ..",...

,,~, ~ .. /JoA6'p

.. Et'" .. err,.il, ..,.",

.. ..




IN ',w,aaAw IN 'fInIII6r,
IN ')(I'dpc


IN hcla",.....



-lEmlC.... .. ...""...." ."1,,.. . "

,..n. '''''''



..... " .
..,... "

.. .. ..


.a.... .'

r.a '""a

" "t1f'1Idr .. xNPc


~-)Cf'O ~



,... 'Emie'"I".. ' ,.....(..

!'D, ',.",.

.. ..

.. .
.. ..





Digitized by



So _ ill CGL 65Dt 9 'Xy.. r.J AmODtr aaci8ILta the term cnry..,q Is wider, ill that it maul the nd_ t.i0ll of .. WGId b7 the IUpp~ of .. --to OODIOnant, or whole qUable. [I) SO .. ill 1 1 _ ., flf,.,,,", al80 Porph. Cv. 660, ~ ('I So __ ia Proch. ., 4'90 J'or t1ae IDltIal fI- . . . 1300


Digitized by




187. All Towels iD Greek having been almost iaochron0118 (~3Sb. App. ii. I Br [I]) ad the accent (Btreu) much weaker than iD thOle modern languages which distiDgUiah 'l.1Wltity (English, German, etc.), a bala.Dce of quantity WB8 thus mainta.ined, which grea.tly checked the opemtioD of ayncope. (App. i 11.) 138. A variety ofayncope ia ~ (140"""") which coDIiatB iD the droppiug of a IODaDt before or after another homophoDoua 1ODa.Dt. For examples Bee 148 f.

189. Eli8iott (WM/ns) is the dropping of a final BOnant when the next word begins with another 80nanl The final 80nant thus elided is indicated by the spiritus lenis ('), called in this particular case ~ "..-r' 1p.a'U for pATA lp.oii, III drf for M dti, yWow' 111 for yOoaTO 111.
l~. The ~ whOle form varied floom a cane to a atraisht _ t or even a mere dot, waa very generally placed in early JIBS after a foreign name, or a name Dot having a Greek termination. aa, for eumple. 'Alfpa4~. and after a word endiDg in a hani OOD8ODaDt, aa - XE"" and al80 ,.' (ElfI'hompaon 72 t) (Op. 4) 141. In A eJiaioD 0CC1l1'8 in words, eapeoially particle&, ending iD ... -., -0, -a, ..... -0&, ucept in trp/l a.nd tr~pl (43). In N it a.trecte aJl 8OD&Dta according to 146-15414111 Ooa.IdariDg that elIaion 1 1 _ partial but In'Vlldabq toW In tbe_ of iDal cu and 0., ... may IBleq iDler that t.h.- cUphthoDp hacl 'fIW7 euly

- . c l a JDOIIophthoDpl ~CL f!D.)

142. A variety of elision is AJ'IOC(!Hl (cl'll'OOll"rJ'), which consists in the dropping of one or more terminal80unds notwithstanding that the following word begins with a COfI8OtItMIt. It occurs rarely and only in ancient dialects and N speech. (Cp. App. i. 16.) '" n ,,4'X'!", for .w f t ,,4W, "". tr"~f for cW ,"~, dy' ~ for IIIIII'1l ,.s.u, rip' niP for ftapIJ fiJ_N dtr' ti ~o or ~ ti muaAa.

cL lDrA'rlIB8I& 148. Melat1Iesi8 (p.mWc"t<z) is the transposition of two letters,

one of which is commonly a liquid. accompanied by dissimilation (126).
Thua A (J,lfHTo, SVpfJpor nv.a.a become Spdaor IJptJpfJor D"';g then ~. l~ "IUIfWIC. dpA,.. "fJpdpr,r ~"'/MI in N .",.mC. ~ fTfCpotrlC. .~.".,. ~ Likewiae 1fJal.. f!i. trIItp6r become iD N (m,;,) W trpucdr 14,811. For a. met&theaill or quantity' Bee l68b

It may moreover be


.A.. BONANTIO PHONOPATHY (VOOALISJl). weal_ coDBisted originaIly-and 80 does still in N-of the five fundamental BOunds a, 0, U, e, i (x 6 b f. 3Sb). These are divided into83 e2
I4&. Greek BIHICItItism or

Digitized by




Three guttural (' velar' or 'back ') sonants (a, 0, u): a, 0, ov. Two palatal (' dental' or 'front') sonants (e, i): ., cu-c, "I, v;
." 0&, v&.


14&. Phonetically or dynamically considered, guttural sonants are stronger than palatal sonants, while among co-ordinates, accented sonants are stronger than unaccented sonants.
Thus in tbG-ve, "la, ~.'" ~oum, sa,&, ~ the black-faced BOnanta are stronger than their neighbours. (This phenomenon applies atrictly to P-N, but oannot be clearly traoed in .A and earlier Greek owing to the then anomalous oonatitlltion of the alphabet and the lnoonaiatenoy of the orthography.]

148. Therelative powerof the above five sonants (phonodgnamy, brucpJ.n:w.) may be roughly represented by the following phonodynamic scale :



U J e, i,

in which, the absence of any interfering consonant given, each sound, propelled by the dominant accent of the word, overpowers and absorbs anyone of its successors, and conversely is absorbed by any of its predecessors. Thus0






i=o i=u

u e

e '=a

1~7. This phonodynamio aoale, whioh has wrought fIlndamental ohangee in the language, partieularly since .A times, was flnt detected, for aught I know, bI EASophooles (Bomalo gram. [Bartford, 18.2] p. 13; op. alao new ed. [1857] p &; 20). In recent times, it has been fuUy inTeatipted, independently as it appears, by GHatzidatis (30.-305). It lD8y be OODTeniently memorized by the word i.ftIfoVpnot (speak ~J-or oonTeraely 6tnBotlAMnl (~). According to this phonodynamic principle: 148. A. Two contiguous 1Iomop1loMuB BOnanta are contracted or syncopated to one (by "1IP~, 138. IS7), as: no~w,..m nob",,;, VIIVI~ B.O. PKretachmer; P "III'Hioll ". .loll,' ABpaal' A{:Jpd" (BO WECrum. Coptic :HSS 46 et 29), raIJp'.)~ raB";'~",. If either was accented before the contraction, it i8 thi8 BOnant that prevaila and 80 determines the reaultant accent. Thus.A I'f~,.". aGIor AotSo.wl become 1'fAA'rJtIIItr";fa 11&r AoiHJ, .,p.fIP and 'AMi" . B.....a.,r DflIXI'M eopalM K_.w become 'AAM " ...111.." DEIpfllr eo'" Kurm 10 too P-Q nu IIIIAl..II _""111 "rH.... become ...iP(.u.) DA.& woi'I1a&(,..;;_> ......, .,m. and in N AW&r mS.,r vifl' cA.I.., _""war become ~ftr Plr cARt ",.""., further N AWl .,n., )(pHI cA.1a 1IfII'IAw. become A.t' .,..i ')(pfi' lIAR ..,.". 84



Digitized by



. [I) )[oujs 345 "ri"CI ATT&ftif. hyca 'EAA']O'..&ir. )(ark farther that in the m.criptioDll the proper _mM are in-variably apelt "l''Yfia and ~o, (twentyfbar different _ ; "1'71"'; cp. the lDd811 to OIA W. Po 376), PI lIIIDce the oommoD derivatioll of the N word r~ 'water' :from ",,~r indUputable, wbenu that :from (10. .p) freeh water' (cp. Louvre Pap. Po 126 [ t V-VI If] aqua Nn) '), which latter I advocated (~ .. DI7 cnm) in CJa& :Hav. (viii. 100) and to which UDdue olaima ofpriority haw beeIl railed (ib. 398 r. and B)'L Zeit. Iv. 188), is improbable. The matter bu beeD fully in "Y8IItipted aDd oorrectly ezpJained, lODg time Doe, first by EASophoclea in his G~ (Boeton, 1860) p. 440 f. ',",p6r. fw IQbBtanti'f8ly ft ,",~" 10. . , . -cere r,pW ID8cr. [-CIG) S072, 10. The ~OD ,",~r m8aD8 ~ -cer, the "'pClTuUOI' . , of the earlier Greeb and the . , of the 8eptaaciDt aDd N_ TeatameDt. ID the time of Phr7Dichoe, how8'f8r, it meant ./reM -'er. in the _ of tIICIt4!r juIIt brotIgAt :from the fOUDtain; that is ,",~" .,_ CODfoaDded with 1'. . . fSlJoIp [the latter _ a ICholalltlc parapb.... of the former which _ awided .... COIDmOD "l. ID the CCIUII8 of time, IiIJoIp , . . dropped, and ,",pW became a mbBtantiw. ADd [when quaDtity diaap-





peanId) ,",pW _

written aDd


r,pIw, which -.-r,p4r. oii, ...6,

ft A ,I, B A4-ra r,p4r.-

43 ,",pW ...a 'II'M ncp6r }'reM, juIIt brougAt, ..

Apoph~ J08Il. Coleb. 7 [= Kigue LXV _ B .,,411'r7/ ..." "pttlBw."", IoiN& ft ~OJ' ...oii r,poii). Porpb. Adm. 77, 130 Cer. 466, 17. Et K. 597,


fna.). f,""" 4AAour. nriI"OII4tn) ft NfCIItI'ri dP"1FfIu

Ammcm. 1".1' rtCIAoiir .al ,,~ ~" na".,.w 1',.".1 /IOp&ri~r Aotp.' So _ earlier in his Hom. Gram.' p. vi.-Oompare alao CorMe' ftI1I8 apecuJatiODl in his A'I'UTCI JY.349 N,pW N",.w " Napclr 'xu.,r. 'roiinI ~" ch "oii No.. ft [8ic) _I'd tl'6-prpcat1,r "1J1I7~ 7"oii N ~7"oiiN4f111' (n-t,

I1y,-,. .. ...
cl.a "a

..,op "'" . .a


l111l'4I- ...pllfama





Digitized by




110'. Scmetimel tU _biDafdOD _ prod:aoeI 0, thoach eIald7 iD. northern N, .. : nii 'X. wG 'X., IMIii 'I'XmII "G PXWGI. l.I5L <>therwUa. + a, when pra~ lIDd. . . . Q'IIUeIIa and ---'ja, .. : 'fWp6r fFp6" faAor jaAl, da i.4 (155. 11). l.I5l. 2. The G-IOUDd preYaila over i e u: /WIc I; IJ6i3c S6Ic or lli/II. ~;;""II ~a6r1'11 or ~1MrTa, Ta elm oreS ..... (_804n-) -Unorllo Ta lxTO 'X (Ai'YO') AI. AW (863)'e?:~oii T' ~P'I*'oV, Wyunfp. WfI'IITI,w, flllnta ftma, JlMin;' M-ir, l4Jpow (727), "fOtlflo. fIOtIflor (u Barn. 1 I, 3)l e.dI.por ed3ctror, ~ IM " (M) PI, ~ ...,. (g6o), _ &pI,,, .' &plC", 'I',,&(oy)m 'l'pfW. (So further Rio, _0', 2ppniOr 2~ 155, c). [but'rlfl" (ELegrand BibL ii. 217' I; 237, 118 138... ~.), now 1'/'I'flG, and for 7. . . . 'JOIIT.w.1 the alternative of 'JOIITfEa *'ronlA and bydlwimUation apin 7'f'I"u, is admiaeiblealao. 1 lIS. 3. The u-801lDd prenila over i, e: (Gp..A AoWn AWn. '1'06 ' ' ' ' 'I'Oi 'poU. AtMria& Miiriw, cltrIAow ddAov, P -tWfl'ltl1I ofP'lIlG) UoNt, Uoiir, ....,. " - (OJ..eemlnl 135 [ll-mttl, "'9 for _), dnWn MoOn, ... fttIIU nii 'tICU, roW h_ woii 'N, woii ffflow trOll 'flOIIIf, woO IiIfA., trOll "fAo, .,..; ftn floW 'n,...o;,~...o; 'ftrra. (So too _IIOV 155,e..)

,..,pfI ,.".,





ltK. + The e..ound generally prevails OTer 1, but often also conYel'll8ly : 'fAta 'iA' or 'lAta '"i"", ..tfl' trMlfl' .AIIi Ale7)'" Ai" AI(7)R AI, '1'1 'Xfl."" 'Xflr or n 'xta., 3.'1'1 '](11111,'1'1 'X- or 3,'1" 'XOI, fI~ flk ". 6 ; 10 too n ,,,. '1'4 nrl'll (592 f.). (So too ""'td,,... ""Atd 155 c.)






laa. s,nuests. Two suecessive syllables, of which the first commonly ends in a palatal and the IeCOIld in a gatttual BODaIlt (144 f.)-or conversely-may be 80 rapidly uttered, under the inAuence of the accent or ictus, 88 to form but one syllable. This is oaUed synUe8ts (cnwtl'F'S, belter C111N/(~I.S) and oceora chiefty in verse and common speech. (162. App. i. 14.)
11. When the first of the two syllables thus merged ends in a. palatal IIOIl&Ilt (t, ,), it DaturalI,. glides into shod t or rather into the semivowel i (which can even be gutturaJized, ISsf.ISSb). AccordiDgI,.in N"SU', pi, lA are-.decl l j,Sj,Il,pj.pI,u: l'(.fa).l' (W),IJl4(a-), e, lie, If, "., .. S pII6. (,u), IIf1ior (lIpIUo.), ..,.. (I"). ri, f!i, If,.,;, ..... .. .. l rfci, .Xi. ~ (IRA-

.., ... lit, n, .......


....) .... (nwwlpc.).

'X', "'*"

..: 'fc.o."

Compare ancient Ca- from &0- (U2S), 8&/)r for 8m, (Laconia). f'.,nlll. for mm (Cyproe), 8.&0-. 8&0- (Boeotia.), (KBrugmann Gr. Gram. 38); furtherSapaw...." TpcIrIaII8r,npo[v} &f1'I'fOV (60); Cl'u1ior~ABC243. b. Of the two 80nants thus meraed or eontra.cted the stronger (146 f.) usua.ll,. receives the stress of the syllable: .A ''&' "Ue. xp6trf9" ~T4IfW, ~,w6Af!' or WAt.!", 'fIX!!, ~, t,06., 'Usao,.,...-H (161 B.e.) 'I'll. Gr. Pap. Br. Bus. p_ aa. 35_ ib. 28. 22 ;-161 BO. 'I'Oi Or. Pap. Br. Bus. p. 28, 2.-9 fIII~ (triayllabio) GKaibel 560, 6 (tlf).-N AO"fGI1f!!p"or, 471...!f, ~, Co If the palatal IOnant was accented before the qniaeeia took place, the accent is genera.ll,. removed to the succeeding stronger





AIM.W ~ . , . me In ..,,,., So too _ ..4. 3, '" 411rom Ut 16.. ..... : A.ah. 8ep. 68& Bum. 367. 8cph. lb. 866. ~ O. B. I..... O. 0. 1639Bur. BeL 11.... ](ed. 95$0 PI. Rep. ilL aM ... 'I'll A au,-. Z 1700 ] ( . . f11~ t 153- Bd.. I, J05.

fACIa. !pat. ad 8mJ'm. SIt

(ll So _

iD. NT GaL 6,

&,' oW " (ubi male 1IIr)


_"a. 'XO"f" '""'__



Digitized by


'''-' ~.a for ~lar treu&oii for _3,-\ tnu3aJ. for trGaala, I"IMG for ,..,Ma, __ for troCor, ..,..... for p..,w., 3uO for 3Vo, ,..(Jv;, for ,.BV., ... for ft_ C996m), tfWui' for 4HAI" hss).-But alrla, oWla, r1paprla.
i. In many pt-, ho_er, moh .. Camae In Euboea, AegiDa, llalna, TsaooDia, PODb, IODian hIaAU, South. ltal,., the ~ is still often 1"88iated (371), .. : fcA1-a, JlflAi-a, -at-OIl, _li-a, Ad..." IFE-., etc. .. ID IIII'I'8D1 iDaular, I!IpeOiallT -them, dialeoUi, inoludfD, that of eutem 0nM, aibilant Q'11able -aI- lo8e8 iUi I before a eoll&Dt iD the same word, .. (ft .ptJAri 'wiDe') ToV .ptJlloV. Td .pGtT6. (re. -cnoii. -a1Ci)---nl ."crci, IFAoVcTOI

I1Uab1e, RI: "It (..It) for "_, Mallaadr for MaMaio, (11111), 1""0 for


(for IFAG&nor), 101 (for cft,or),


tIT"",,,",,, (.ipxoI'Tic1) dpxollCi, (00..,.101) dNIi_bllt aM., 1IkIa, d,...,.,1&. ~-In N the need for pe~cuity or emphaaia JD&ylmlD. prevent phonociynamic fusion by developlng an interaonantic -y-. ftnt pala.ta.l (il. then guttural CD"'; cp. 60. 860). as: ( in Louvre Pap. IS [160 B.O.], 61). tra&3orro&ria. IBtapb. 242. 1rov~A.BC 3t, 10. 83,25. dyl(JO$ (for dJpur i.e. d~p). trAfy., & trAt,. (.A._), A~' Bc Aw,.. (A.w.), cLcolltn et, 1CpaVy.. JI~ (1IOIii), (trpau.), &yovpor (&'por),-6-j-,l, (6 ,r,) .,.-is-, &"")'"O'd, (6 olor) ')'O,d, (612. 6IS), ri-j:al"" -,a'ifllJ, riof-wl (b.t.,.,) 'P.l, d-j..f3aor ~3,_, ft-.y-on, (oIA_),';""""",,-GpI'II (op. 155, a). uae. 8tlpprvaiora 0/"'" gwltW'Gl8 'Y, ]t. Comenely Nspeech often droJ!l intenoDantic 'T fi or gh). bY' ateneion a.lao -/1- ana -x:-. either bylUDple yolatrJiaation or by mistaking them for an intrusive element in the above BeJ118 (155"; cp. 863). as: ..a ~ 4JdrJ ~ pQ trd.(Y)u. Ai(y)e, Me (thence A.), ..a .(-Ym,..a .(y)., 'W". &(X)" cnni(y)w ..AG(Y)or, m(y)EC", na(x)vRpov (Cre~, 1('1)'" c1(y)_I", (&.,..) apt! -~ go' et,.. &. A 'let,' ~~. Sw,) al".._ go '. (Cp. Louvre Pap. 26 163-2 B.o.], 9 dAl.l.. ; lb. 14 d'Alor. ib. 63 -h6S"l 10:1 cIAlovr :-a.ll for dAly-.) CLeemana 23, 4 1CIJT/trITaq. 59> c & 60'-;.

before a IODIUlt (op. r81 f.), .. : (.-lTIa).,......, (TInHor) T480101, tIT~,

pDIIG/d. (tbr -14), 1lAef!G (for -!f!c6. Le. tcA~). before a IOlI&Dt (r550 a. J 55'? .. : ~ *xllI'P) X"fJKw. (ncclr)q6r, (Tpia) TpeG, (Kupcadr) KupKlldr _ ID Cretall Q88Oh, ma-w ri ohaDpe ~ Ii. aJlCl _ t e d m to 2i,




en,. HJDi'fO"tr8lj1leooaull



115601. ID the dialect of 0tz0aIIW IIhi8 ezUaIJon ill often extended eV8ll to iDtencmIm.tio 'f' IS IJ r, .. : 'f'Oiio for .,oiiTo, M., for 1i3ol, /Jp6.o for /Jp6.3v, 1FpD.ra for.,o/Jll'nl, , io for ,0.0. (HJ'ToBer in J'ov.m. HeD. Stud.:L 1&)

1&8. amtraetion is the phonetio or graphic fusion, originally under the iniluenoe of aocent (8511'.), of two 8ucoeesive 80nants within one word into one 8OnaDt, naturally intensified (' lengthened ') at the time of the contraction, but soon afterward. unconaciouely redueed to the level of normal or oommon 80nanta (124b. App. it 14). The process of contraction, however, 80 far as it appears in the acript, is indicated, for theoretical (metrical and grammatical) purposes, by treating the resulting 80nani as 'long' (165f.).-Contraotion is either written or unwritten. 188". L In writtm COfItrtJdion two cases muBt be distinguished: (I) Plttmdic C01ItnJction which occurs within the fixed ])art (Item) of a word. Here a 80nant overpowers 80Ild absorbs another sonant chiefly under the Btrees of the accent, as: Ao.priov AoPTUw, 4iao, ""101, "lITpOlOI ftGTpfor. More es:a.mplea in 1560. See App. it 14-


Digitized by


(2) Gra_matical contractio,. which occurs chiefly outside the at.em of a word. Here two or more concurrent 80nanta are fused into one monophtho~ 80nant determined by (inftectional or analogicaJ) Inftuences, as: ",.sAm ",.sAns, !/I,"A,;.,.. !/I1A.l", .,.,,.001"1' """'''''' .,.dXflI "')(1'1. v,J- vpM, ,...lCoor IAflCovr. See App. ii. 9-15. UfJO. Thus are (phonetica.lly or grammatica.lly) contracted (16511) I. 11 + 1 to 11: .,pal8c0rl .,1141&0" 3- 0 + 11 to Of: cal3cSG callOi + , "fa: .,mr -,l1"~ 11 + 0 .. . : 1'Il1401"'' "~I"" o + 1 "eN: dalJ6..& calloi 0 + 'I " Of: a., ~

2. 11 + 11 "

a: .,4pGf1 .,4pa + 'I " 'I: ~4,," fH>Jin 'I +. " 'I: TIJIfI.I'T! 'ftpijrT, , + I " r: XilOJ XiOJ
0+_" .: *!~,

'-IS (Ill? 78") d IlAl,I'fKR' aAiBfKR' ., + , .. ,,: ..:rpMOJ flfJ'f'Por


,+u "

'I +&

.. ,1:

+ 11 + f

- + 0"


a_ -

ffpCIIII 4"., 'ftpAn' 'ftpilT' 11 + 'I " 11 : TI,..a".,.. TlpGT' + 11" 'I: .,w," Iqw """ 5. +. " 1&: ."tAff 4HAfI. lIfI4>Iu f1II4Itir, "XOrI dxfW .+0 "DU:.,wfOJ.,wow 0 +. " DU : .ptNX- .,.wXo + 0 .. DU: ..dor roiir.
., + 11"


Of: ~_, ~I
.: 11:


lJ57. If the constituent ~ had, previous to their contraction, a similar aound, and the resulting aonant is a.1ao homophonous, the contraction is virtua.lly AgpltaereaiB or absorption, inasmuch as the stronger IOnant has prevailed over the weaker 80nant (148). aa : (xIaOJ) Xlilr, (~I) Mr" (a&ior) m, (xpW'ffII) 'XJ'IHIO'' '.
1157". This is the only kind of' oontraction ' obtaining in N (1..,8 f.).

157. But i~ previo1l1l to the contraction, the constituent parte were heterophonous. the resultant may be either homophonous with the stronger 80nant (as tI>W-, !/IlAoiHr,), or dilferent from either (as a.,"A.6D 31JAoiiI', ";".11 yi"", fJafrlA;'f $urlAijr, { In the latter case the resultant points not to a dilferent proceaa of phonopathy during ..t, but rather to dialectal (Ionic) inftuence or to (1656. App. ii. 14).
1158. The omiaIiOD of oontraotiOD which is peculiar to IU'Obaio and ~ Greek (124) is oontradistinga.l.ahed. .. ~ (clcnnoa.plaEII), Ja. ciorreot
diaetuia (21).

apeech and in the 'scriptum continua' it is virtua.lly identicaJ with contraction. Hence it follows the rulea of contraction (156 ff. App. ii. 14), and is moreover indicated b:y the spiritua lenia ('). put over the resultant and ca.lled in this apeClal case corrmi, (lCOptlNlir). as : ,.a d-,cIBG TIl-,da, .,.a 6I'o1'fl nMJACI, .111 .,- d~ (20"). r9i d1ii ~.

169. A variety of written contraction is Orasis, that is, the blending of the final 80nant of a word (chiefly proclitic) with the initial 80nant of the next following word. (App. ii. 14.) Go Though craaia unites ttDO separate tDOrd8 into one, in connected

180. The reaulting BODaDt of the cruia is conventlona11yaupplied with aD , aubecript-ln capitals adacript (20". 31)-ifprevioue to the contraction the component had an" sa: (_ ftM) -4Tf1 (lop oT"",) (20").


1aL b. Written craaia occurs chiefly in verae, and that only after very common words, in ~rticula.r after the article, the relative pronouns, and the conjunction u1 :
(TCl 'pA) .,...,. (Ta ' -....) .,..,.,..".1." (A .,-) .t}41


Digitized by


18lb The coronia ia omitted when it coincides with the 'PiritUI uper, &11: (d WJ*lrO~), WptMlOff. 182. IL Untorittetl contraction. Very commonly contraction (including crasis) is Dot symbolized by the script, but is none the leas indicated by the rhythm or metre. This kind of contraction which takes place in pronuneiation only, and 80 escapes the eye, goes by the special name of ",."esis{cnw~'IJC7'&~ or 0'1WC/C~"JV'~), &nd has already been dealt with in 155. (Op. App. i. I .... ) 188. A.nBc.rASI& Most frequently one of two or three eonsecutive consonants which thus form metrical position, is phonopathicallyextruded (169) and the metrical position leads to a metrical compensation by lengthening or diphthongizing the rhythmically affected syllable (Z9 if. App. ii. 9-15) [11. This phenomenon, which is commonly known as 'compensatory lengthening,' will be called in this book ontectasis (clvr(ICTIUT'~). Thul a becomes i (also H): lI'a~ Aw-& '.'111f1 AII."j.. (from *trarrr *AwClllrCl'& */+OII(I'a) *A,I"K) ... .. (alwaya): }(api.&t .l~ 'crntAa pi,roJp (from *}(ClpUIII'S' *In *luftAua) *prrrop~ .. 0 " QV: &30~ "'POW' ~niovcn .,."." (from *&30111'S' 7powcn *trII&3,"ollrG")*YtflCllll'S' " .. i: l"P&IIa l"i'Aa 'rrlpa (from *~-r&Wa *lTtAua ~,pua) (from *4-rr *3f&1OIV1IrG'& *'iI'VI'O'a) 184. Go In the nominative cue of the third decleDBion, and 0 become 'I and. respectively (337, c), &I: -i+' (from *.OCl'8'f)~ Ial".", (from *1Ia&poI'S). tJrrOJP (from *1trroPr). 1U. b. Strictly lpeaking, antectaaia ia the compensation for any 10Ba Ill, whether of coDBOnanta or aODanta, and so virtually comprisel all kind. of contraction. In fact antectaail goel back to the first atage of phonopathy and so forma the baaia of all prosodic length or quantity,' inaamuch &11 the geneBil of nearly all long vowelB and all the hysterogeneoUl diphthongs (29b)-a very r;eat part of Greek phonology and the whole ByBtem of 'quantity in the etrecta of antectasia. That these effects were never phyaiological but technical, and that from school they ~ through the ICript to actual speech, haa been already explained in 29 ff. and will be more fully treated in App. ii. 9-15.
18&11. Conaidering that contraction and antectaeia had completed their work much anterior to the adoption of the echola8tlo IIJIOlling (6. 39 ir.), at a period when there'W811 as yet no mcha 'vowel' 88'1 orlll in theAttio alphabet, and when I and 0 performed a variety of functions (6. 13), it illllOlfevident that p-eat number of the eaBeII of contraction ('I + I, CII + I, I + 'I, '1 + I, 0 + Ill, 111+0, 0+'1, .+ .. 111+11, 0+'1) and anteotaais are virtually speculative. (See however App. ii. 9-15.) Hence it is hard to tell how much of the contraotion and anteotaaia is actually due to the phonetio prooess, how much to grammatical principles, and how much to the p r _ of transliteration from which it has pa..l through the script into eommon speech.



ii :




GelIiu If. A. if.17.S 'detrimlllltum Utter8e procluotione 1,Ynat.e oompen-



Digitized by


In e&ot, a great many of the above euee of contraction and ant.eo&uis (156 It 163 f.), 10 far as they go back to 811"11' A times, are probably due directly to Ionio and Dorio inJluenoe. To put it more plainly, those phonetic and grammatical phenomena which A mares with Ionic and Doric, were mostly, if not whoUy, fIomIINd directly from those timehonoured. dial8Cltl (04) previous to the riee of Athens to pnMtminence, and thus, once sanctioned, 88rved as pattel"lUl for IUbeequent formatioDl as well (124"). It is therefore erroneous to speak of contraction and crasis as a phonopathio proceu actually goiDg on during 5~300 B.O., and still more ventureaome to seek to determine, on the strength of such a proce., the prouunciation of the IOnanta at the time referred to (20.3.141..... 165").

188. Metoplong is a phonopathic process by which a vowel underwent, in prehistoric times (1246), a change under certain conditions. This change appears either 88 qualitative when the sonant has altered its nature or quality; or ~ve when the sonant, for theoretical purposes, has altered its quantity only.
[lee". I have mbatituted the tractable term tMtapllont/ (l.cfTO~ after ......ic&. lIV~la, etc.) for the C1UDbrou and unpliable German Ablaut(1IDC), IlOtwithltanding that ancieDt I'f'nl<lM"';" had a di1ferent III8aniDg 111.]

187. QutUitM"" metap1aon, is the change of a IOnant into another heterophonouslOnant (cp. 22411). Thus we meet with an interchange ofa and" : ~, Filt~; f1TG'r6~, tni-; 7'Ipd., 7'11'Iicr " " w. O'p~, GfHi'Y'I. " 0 and _ : . ~~., 7'pOrnw, hpdfrr,II; aTfU., 1J"I'dA.~, JunfA". ;
~tp. (."a'p),

t/>8opti, Jf/MJP'I'" 188. QucmtitMiN metap1aon, is either the (metrical and grammatical) lengtheniDB of a short IOnant, or the (metrical and grammatical) shortening of a long 80nant. Thus we meet with an interchange ofiI and
GO "

a: ~,., '140,.,,; _4_~""

0: _ , . ,


r: 7'pl/J., 7'pl/Hf; 1iAIJ,i" IrAtl1lf; -fI:HI,~. " G: UII., Aelllf; &prip&, &""/AW. a " r: dior, l3Hir; A"_,. AI...,,,; Irfi~ Irl'-M (3a'). cv" i: ".IX., '"'Xf;"; ...,.,." ~ (32 ).



.: /l8or, fllle.; ~., Bmr; "OI~., woW..

IdJA6r & dA6r. 1ftIt'6r; 1JMJw, wrfIP; IIouAllHrw, IIouA6ot.



1681>. A ftriety of q1l&1ltitMive mata~ III the _ wlaen two CIOMfpoaI hatezolyllabio veweb intarohanp q1l&1ltity for metdeal ~ ThfII 111_ monly called tneIGthaia 0/ ~ (lJnp/JIfJatl,q, 7'Oii xpwov, Bdn. il. sSl " 625). Bee App. ii. 140 and cp. 143. /JatIaA4(J)f /latnAiior !JGllaAla SGllaAHG; 10 too I'Af(J)r (Mor.

111 I Ud aoined t1Ua term for the ~ referred to, more than before the publication of Pro( VllanrTa 07Iapw. a-ar of BIIgfiM aN a-a.., where be ft.rst introduoad it, topther with apophOll7' (p. 43. 74 of Ilia BDgliIh varaion), for the German. term Umlav4 Th1lll I can have neither claimI to priority nor raIpOD8ibWty for the coiJuIce. I only rajoioa at the fact thM a Iimilar idea lIhould have CICICU1'I"ed indapandentJ,y to two diB"arent 1ltud8llt&.


At the _ time, I must conte. Irq inability to fonow Prol. JL in hi8 app1ioation of ,...,.1IoIttf to Umlaut' and IJPI)JIhonJf to Ablaut.' For wh_ I'm in Gnak _poRtion can mean a c:AGtIge,- t'61111 cOrrespondiDg to German ..and abo, Gnak d...o- can mean oal7 a dzoppiDc' or IICIIIIethblg bad' ( e - . .
........). lIence while,...,..".,,1G can mean ohanp of .oaDd,' that fa AblaU or Umlaut, tl. . . .la 'WOIIld mean either droppiDg of a 1OUUl' (Lantabfall), or a bad IOlUld' (ialaut or UebaUallt), and th1lll be a ftriety of CIMlCIlIhOII7.'


Digitized by




A. XBDIAL OOXSONAftI8JL 189. As already explained in 123 f., Greek numifested from the outset an UI1IIlistakable aversion to oonsonantal accumuJa.. tiOIl& Should therefore two or more inoompatible consonants meet together (by in1leetion, composition, or derivation), an accommodation was brought about either by their commuta tion or by the sacrifice of one or more of them (cp. m: q, lv, de). The main principles governing in this phonopathic process are laid down in the following paragraphs (170-217).
188b Thia phonopathic prooellll _IllS to underlie alae the chaDge of the aspiratae X I . to their co-ordiDate tenu T tr before a dental or lA (172. 177), iDumuch as the aspirate hare drops ita II8CODd constituent B .. " (J71) before a OOD8OlWlt under certain conditiODS, u: *3I3IUTfU 3131_, *trflTlpA *trfITJIII (NaJIII), *'rr1pulrraA .,1"(pGtrTfU. See 171, 172, 177 &; 178.

a. )(uu:s.

170. When they occur befOl'e a 80nant originally aspirated, the tenues I( 1" 1r are changed into their co-ordinate aspiratae X (J '" (ie. K.H TB nH) by misappropriating the initial aspiration (H) of the succeeding word (171). Thll8 O~I: HOtIiaIr tra ... HcSva dtr' Hoii h'-Hoadr

i. e.


~KH om.r ~X 6"t.r

treUlrH 6aa

dOH oii

IOH oadr


dtfJ' of

ltfJ-03or (1)

17L .Aa the aspiration was hardlyperceiYed !mm in earlier A (72 t), the abe" rule c&II.Ilot ha" applied to A-PGreek, either written or spoken. .Aa a matter of fact, the phenomenon reprell8nta not a ~honetic but a graphic union of. + A, T +,., tr + 11, th8118 pairs being mistaken, m the ~ eonHnua for the old biliteral collllOllantaKH, TB, DB (i.e. x, .,.; cp. 3.6. 12). ItwUi be remembered that in primiti'Ye Greek the aspiration" wu reprell8Dted in the IOript by the symbol B (72),80 that combinations like the above ware written in the lGripura COIIIiRIuJ: OKB02l02, DANTBOU, IlETBIEJO, AIIBOAO:z, EmlOA02, AOIIlBJII. We farlher know that B, besidee ita phonetic value u,., formed the II800nd conltituent of the then billtera1 eoDIOJI8nta X, (KIf, TB, DB; 12).. In progreu of time when the apilation became mute (72), ita aymool B began alae to be dropped from thelCript everywhere except after ., T, tr, with which it _med to form a natural and familiar cUsrapb. Accordingly in oilX claIM, - I ' Oc7a, IAfIl'l"" . , d, Ifo&n, ~'1"" and the like, there il no phonetic change of the tenu T tr into the upiratae X I .. but a mere mechanic revection and incorporation of the initial B into the preceding final tenuia, juat as it la mechanically done in the cue of two words apoken by two diJl'erent persona, as in dialogue (cp. Bopb. EL 1502 : OP. LU "'. AI. ~ where no man can contend that Oreatea had anticipated Aegistb08' reply and 80 matched his opening"; cp. App. ii. 5). In all other where the aspiration .,mbol R oou1d not be graphically blended with the preceding letter (cp. tIb-Ho3or, trdp-BoIor. 1-B030., tr."t-Bo3or, TpiS' hoVTM, Art' hIT"., oW h'l/Afir), itwas altogether dropped even in pre-Attic times!'),




(1) HaM the zvpetitiou of the aapiratiou (" + ') .. irrational, and we oqht to apeil: oiIX MM, De' &na, .. cl (if not 06X 0(1(0", '""'" dcra, .,. oii). (SJ Bven Doric, which p~ the Bip of upiration (H) the lonpIt, dieeuUd ... nle in the _ at. T tr, acoordinr to Dion. CoIIlp. 335 B: 4l...,uar TIl A..,...a 3ccl ~tMw OTlI1TolX_ TIlr ~ KcII ntfM't/t '1IpGtrA.,


Digitized by




notwithstanding that in moat of th_ caMe it WIll! far eaaier to pronounce than after the tenuee ....&o3or, RT-IIoIor, which phyaiologically are explosive aspirate., thus containing in theml8lvee the aspiration (ap. 56 &; 73 ).-See Dion. Th. in Bekk. An. 631, 351r. &; 813, 3ft

171b Should a tenma /C " 11' be followed by an aapirat&, it is often phonopatbically aaaimilated to ita co-ordinate aapirata (if not drop-peel, 179- 19S). This is regular in P-N speech, as: Bci"Xor Bcixx.or, AT84'A681r, MarSaior MJ8aior, ~ ~ (8ee also S68t S61i.) 172. Should a labial or guttural be succeeded by a dental, it becomes co-ordinate with the dental. (169b.)
The only combinatiolllt admissible here are :Thus (JT and .", become d IJ."I " ." IJ /ll IJ TT "XT IJ d IJ (xl) IJ '" IJ'" IJ

ya, x.6--r, {j3, f/JO.

1IT: (*Tnpc/lnu) TITpctmU

tJ8: I*'YPlltrAlrJr *'Ypatra"..) .,~ iff: *'1.,,""") 'Ad.""",

IC'I': *MAf7TII& *AIAldTIK) ).lA_

y8: *trA.m,r) trAI-,a.,. X': (*lA..,.".,) 'Aixfllr 173. The preceding rule holds good only for literary..t. On the other hand, the frequent occurrence, in ..t inscriptiona, as well as in papyri, of combinations likeIx Irp-Ix IfiVA" Ix XaAIrlIor Ix 8tnaAlcar Ix tUtI/lov I-,Ba,.". '.,-,0&'01 (-Iq-) 17Arr-


l.,tIoA" I., BIICGlfTtov

I., raP'fJl"i.",

I., 'Pv1'Qii

,., A4t1/lov


I-, 6flv1'Qii and many othel'll (KMeiaterhans ' 82-84), then -E](f'6'Ip OD ..t 'f8oBes (PKretBChmer ISS & 235)-all dating before the Ill': B.c.-8how that even ..t speech deviated from literary usage in the direction of consonantal accommodation. as illustrated in the following aectiona (174- 176. 179) of N conaonantiam. I-, JW'(IWw
17'- While retaining the groups .,a and /ll, uncultivated N speech haa changed rr and xf into Xf', and 1FT and flI into ."" 80 that it does not admit of the concurrence of either two tenuee or two 88piratae. Should .~ch incom~tible con80nants concur, the reaultant ia alwaya an aspirata With a tenUll (cp. 885), aa: )(Thor, XTIC." IJGXnSA&, ~, IX "'. (for I. "w, 1571) ; <IJ'rOIX6r, ..,.lfWG, ""f,6, ~.llAlf/iTrlr, ..".. or 16at} (1.80 .~, 80 even in Vita SA. 8- B), ."...,." (l)trpoXf'4r; (CItlxf/IfTft) C""DT.r (Acta Xanth. 60, 33), ft/Af'", (*""'I). tr~. 174.1>. The comhinationa rr f t Xf' and 1FT or .", are treated cWl'erentq in South Italian Greek, the OtmntiJle ic1iom ohaJlcIng XT (rr) to ~, whlle that of Bova turna .", (1rT) to tIT, BB : "<IJTO for "Xf'G, Icml for Ifw4 (Im).



17S. Before p., a labial becomes".: (-ypo.t/Jp.a. ft-ypa:lI'hp.a.) ypJ.p.p.o.. " "" guttural" y: (-&o,,,~) 8wy~. " "" dental " 0': (-nJJp.a. -""'''hp.a.) nwp.a..
178. On this principle, the change into tI of a dental before another dental is not phyaiologioal or phonopathic, but analogioal (U4b). Thus the change of *IIT. *tr._1nu *,--.,." into I'fITf rcrfl t r l _ '.,.lriv, ia due to fCM... traCMflG, (Cp. 1691> &; 196.)



Digitized by




177. But actuaJ. Rpeech of all times changes the combination as to


(cp. 1730 885), &8:

A1H1UrQlIGA 109. III. 117.119- UI. au, 16 ,UI1TIJ&. au, 191 la, 26,28 xricrTa&. 'A..... B' 417 'AAtnIlTWov (iv-iii~ B.o.).-IOO-Igo LO.IlCTWP GDitteoberger 294, 68. ~TII& ib. 194, 55.-161 B.Cl. ~ Gr. Pap. Br. ](UL P. 141 of. 26, of.- ISO LO. W'IIfIII'rtI'ICTac GDitteDberger a2a, 11. 140 Lo. _'"XICT- ib. 23a, 65.-91 BA rloyt(CTQI( -rl')'lricu) ib. a88, 28.If Lo. . . . .'/CTQI GDitteDberger a79, a; CIA iii. 7a, 9-10 ; 74, a.-"'n(AaCTac Bull Corr. Bell. 1894 p. 14.- 197 4.D. 7'~CTG& Gr. Urk. Berlin IS, :II.-m~ 4.' oytP/cTQI, rl""~CTQI, Kitth. ziz. 250, 27,83 (Ath8D8)."""CT.for 1.troIlIIBac, ib. mn. 64 (Athoe).-313 4.. /H",CTQ/IIWtu Gr. Urk. Berlin 34a. 5.-80 too generall1 in old Loorian, BoeotiaD, Th~, Phocean, BUan, and ~an. So now dcrr"', p&f1'f'6r, 'pXlcrrt, ete. 17710. In the laDle -1, the combination"x becom811 "., as IGA IU _ _-now _ _, then f1Xl,QI ".l'QI, I1XoARor v.oA.1d (174). 178. But IOmetim8lla guttural before a dental remaiDa unohanged in ,d, .. : a./4, ."..,.,..4., (Cp. 1 6910.)

179. In uncultivated N speech .. guttunJ is 11811ally, and a labial always, dropped before ,.,., &I: ruAI,.or (even in Et. M. 773, 5) but a.1ao rvAry,w"-_(y),,oP', ~(y)pi."r, trpci(y)po, 8ripat1lla (from SauptiC.), ;;114 (p.Vpa) , (mowiipa) PJ ;-whereu a dental either beComes upirata., changing at the time " to P, &8: d'J(l'llr for ')",.or, dpit/)..,...or for dJinptSp.'IJ"Of, crrdf/l." for crrU"", traJP'l for traSfto" from trdO"" (MOOris356; Geop. 15, 4. I) for~.., ;-or develops a sona.nt between 7' and ,.,., &I: GlOBB. La.od. 66 nro,w" dro~C. (for dt-,wr, dt-~,.); so too now ~pa (for r~ cp. CGL 414, 55 pra.eeisum est tetimemenon eatin, Le. """"pi."" Icrrl,,), , Dchvo (for DeW,",,), ete. (Cp. 131 & 187.) 180. Followed by 0', a labial producea(12.b) "': (*np7IV&i) ftpt;&i ., " "guttural " ~ : (*'rpa:yow)7l'pdtw. " ., "dental is dropped (169) : {*n&8O'w)...taw. l8Ob So still in N, loB: r,xt' ICpdl.t, cAe--.then ~pJ""', 3ouAf+-, A~ rrdf., ~,,"*,, for XopflIo-., 3ouAnicr., EAnIO'Ura [135 b], rra_., cAaUlFlt,/CIJwtr)-since ere QV (51 tr.). l8O". ID. South ltaUan Greek, the 1diom of Otranto ~l__ ", to ff1, .. :



111-" ""


l8L The syllable 7'1 (and "I) is often changed to 0'1, especially when followed by a sona.nt (l24b). This is ca.Iled f188ib11ation.
Thus *w-AourlOf, *rl3_Ul, *"r'pDllTUI, *At'YO"'.. become wAoWaor, d.IuNcrfra, ,.fpovcrfa, AI,.oIlCrL 18110. J'or a dant.aUatlcm m.te.d of aIIlbIlation ID N _ 15$, ,.

nif/nnea and Tls"", for """"''"' and Sas"",. (But see 184 f. and cp. 730-)

b. AsPIBATAE. 181. Two contiguous syllables in the same word, beginning with an aspirata, undergo the following dissimilative changes (U4 b 126): Go In reduplication, a tennis is substituted for the upirata., &I:
PI AInmin/r that in their actual apeeoh the anolente dJd not praotiM

pmiDatlon (~b), but pnmounoed "pApa (,.,a,.) for,.p6.,Apa, 7'17',.,- for -w-. e are jutiAed in appl7ing thi. hiItorical orthograph7 to N as well, and 10 write: ~r, ~p4p&, w,a"pa, l6.pptMs"a, ~""., ml'l&



Digitized by




b. The imperative endiDg -8, becomes ..., in the first aorist pulive : (>,vS.,S.) 'AVS",., (808.92O) Co The stems 0.- ad 8v- become ~f- and "'" in the flnt aorilt paaeive: (*lo.8rpI) IT's,,,,, (P i8U8rpl) hUSrp.-Cp. 176.

183. In monoay11abic stems beginning with T and ending in or 'Xl the aspirata (., X), when removed from ita place, is transferred to the beginning (124b) : ~p'xd~ .ptE, IpcEdo Stem TP'X" t'CIxt'CIxW .&crcr.." or ton.. ra# t4n... .. Tp/r ~".". .~ l84. That the two preceding rules of diaaimilation (182 f.) did not hold good for pO)lular speech even in A, appears I1rlIi.ciently from the

,. *

ancient inacriptiODB and papyri, &8:


IJ'fauIGi; ...."",

......or (beside Du.a-)' '}(!Mw (belide XI"") M'xapxOl', fpo+(n, ls (for '""") xvlpir (beeide xwplr), fia>MSuw.

(for KAlAxor),

If"""Axwr, x'


terhana l 78-82; Blaaa-Kllhner, i. 277 f.), are anterior to the III, B.o.-Compare further 14>SJJ' oWor Aeach. :&mD. 458; f!esr,t Wo.

184b These inacriptional evidences, beside many others (KKeil-

."all, .,..ba8&.

(Iyt B.o.),--1IoIId

Eur. Or. 134S; 61Jffb8.Ur, Pt PoL 310 A; S~ GKaibel 71, 5 the regular forma ixVIP, lo."AxSr,,,, l~ ~,

!M". lDflaeDCl4lll by Iw.liaIl phoD01ocr, tlae Idiom of OtIaDto ahaapI iDltlal , to T, and IntenollADtio' to tI, 18: TI1.OI b ~.lACII7t1. for /W.\aIr.., TDlpW tor tmJtTt b t1frfJIl, A..ript. for A..'., ~ tor' ...,."..o.





18&. Technically initial P is tI8fM.Illg doubled when, by inflection or composition, a abort vowel is prefixed to it (64), as: /Ilnw, lpp'trrO", IUJTtJfIplfI'f'Gf-p",.or, Mr6pprrrw. Bee 64.
l8I5l>. In the ICript this rule haa heeD conventionally adhered to throqh all P-B antiquity, and la Itill obeerved in N. 188 The doub~ of p here it believed to have originated in the presence, before initial Pt of a primordial For " which W&II aaaimiJaled to p. Thus Fp",.or, Pf1'l"or, p".,.(Jr. The phenomenon, however, it ~ bably connected With the trilling character of Greek po (Bee 64. and cp. SIb. 209 f. 712.)

(op. A .,4pa -rfipar). but t1fJVpl, .,upl, /lmupo, KupcGq, fllTUpW, ete. 188". Par the almClllt replar appearanoe of .,.. for .... or -rl, In laftpa. fInvpa, ",pUOI, ~, ..."., etc., _ 650 (Op. aIIo 269. ... 8a9o 1191-) 18"1. Before a conaonant, P-N uncultivated speech changea ). to Pt or interp088l (131. 179), as: E64pa/ITor CIA. iii.1:I02. 'Epn3lou 3466 (beeide 'El..- 3415 and 3475). 'Bp....., d3.~ 3536. TIIP~tlI (tor TCIA"'.I) lour. BelL Stud. 1896 Po 2:16, 2 ...-1ff4IaAa...r4"'" Great Louvre Pap. 137.~r PhllOltorpOl (4'5 ..D.) ~8 BA; d.. CGL296, ~ "..,.,..pyiII. w"., for Np&>.pr,Alcbem. 348, ,.-lIenOl 'f'O".,., ,.,.",., CIA 1iL 14~Jo . So DOW: dppNpIn, "..,., .",.,. (~6r), 1IIepfItr, loa-

188". 'l1Iat < - t e l l ) InItlal and mecUal ". ~. . . In Q-Ir, hIS 1IeeIl aplaiDed In 401 when add: for npIa (Le. npla), ,"pi tor ",,'""

"}ye." It.,.




Digitized by




in"Aa. lA. IizIlIlM phonetic pheDomenon III witneaeci In 8plJMi& of Crete, when A befbn 11 0 tI ~ pttural, thu app~ r (67)' . . : ...,.a, flror, ~, .r6A;-tha at LUIroi of Oanea wh41f8 A lIat'ore 11 0 "Ill 18d1lOOCl ta a IIhori l18D1iwca1lc 1ft ~Ih to, . . : . - cfIl100rt _ _ (wAos, i ... 3Aor). __ ~ (-.Ai nvAAotIpcG).-Apin in Ionian the qDabl.. AI and ri are, UDder Italian iDlluence, palataUHd _nding like Italian ". 01' and gI. .. : .,,. ~
0 . . . . : I'll

i. e. 'AJ.IJg/), (.JScyUt.., 739), ~ & fJ/wa1/Mll, tI6pfot (~_ ' lap,' 'bay'), llfapTM (afaAT4s), etc.~"" cIAtfa, eta. 131. 187'. : a - , the aombiDatiou ~ IIoDd oAr- aft DOt UDpop1l1ar, partioaJaJrqin DOrthern and Levantine ~ .. : ~, "4AN1, SaAphot (op. 904). 187. In 8amothraoe the liquiclll A , aft dropped altoptber (cp. 863), .. : "r", ,,'M, X&J'a, TV" So Iarthe1' ID TtaeoDlc, oDlT betbre





188. Between liquids and nasals, a consonant is sometimes phonopatbically developed (epenthesis, 131) to facilitate pronunciation. Thus is developedbetween" and A, and l' and p, a {3, BB: p./JrfJ-M-, yap.-f!-pdr It It P a 3, BB: JI...a-pa. 188. Before gutturals, ., is usually, by phonetic accommodation, changed to 'Y uaaa1, tba~ is to a weak ,. (58, 203b). Thus l.m:u, ~r fI1I...X"'P!' ri;".11 become iytuiA_ ~II fI1IYJf!III* Ny qpv-. 190. So still in N (58). with the oDly difference tbat in UDeul tiftted speech ., altogether dwindles awal before .. X, E (193), BB: tT1I-X"P-, tn/>'xrOr (for fI1IY}(DJp&, tn/>,.,.,.6r), avEvXor.
18L This phonetic departure, however, ia of no recent date. Cp. RA.., .,.. CIA ill. P. 312. IA4' (for "-4-,t&) 8ept. .Tea. 2, 4 (M). IA4tf' U, 130 fIaI,I' 57, 5. fItt~I' .Ter. 9t 17. adAnt,. I lIaoo. 6, 38 (M). "oM Cant. 5, 16. MM .Tohn 6, 30. 13, 11. Pa. 5, 10. Bom. 3. 13. RAnt I Cor. loft 8. .LnrAflXJ'O' GIOll8. Laod. 65. A~ ib. 88.

lea. Before labials, If cha.nses, by phonetic accommodation, to po, and is usually so written (203b).
Th1l8 /r-hrr. l~ fI1IIIII>I{* 'I'tux", but also l_iflT'OJ l ..twf7VII-4#>.ptt '.-+vxor l83. In N the combination ,. ati11 holds good, but in those of p/J, "., ,., ,..-r, uncultivated lIpeeeh drops the lA- However, tbia phe. nomenon -which by the way point. to the pI'ODUDciatiOn of fJ and aellllmd/(6s. S~l)-can be traced back to ,A-Ptimes.

Op..A A4(p)/l1a j EvlJ/lAA..afG4 CIA ii. add. 52, c,8 (368 B.o. ).-n+l,..", Gr. lnacr. Br. MUll. 477, 33.--rijr aw/llov CIA ill. 3510._/1/1" nS/lt,a,T, Gr. Pap. Br. MUll. 117, 38-39 (t~).-riJ ~ lb. 117,48 <TlV\I:').-Afl\ficir" (for ~) Pallad. 1105 Bj alao Heeych. ,.. S.AT CW_ly ProL 29 (tVI!f).-N ''''''' rip._, Ip.tI~,; but n/lOflAo., a~po, ~r. ft+ttxor (d,...,. *"-"1) ft~. tOp. 190-)

184. Before dentals, If holds its own in .A composition (though ClG 129WI' ~,), but in P-Nuncultivated speech it is generally dropped before 9 and 8 (because of 9 and 8 P and it, 561. 61). :Moreover vB in N al80 appears 88 w.

nit a..a,-. Gr. Pap. Br. Mus. 41, uS f. (158 B.O.). d8p1ttrovr CIA ill J71, ii. 4 (tI~).-.a8ap.. Great Louvre pap. 65 nit a~ ~pG Gr. Pa.p. Br. :Mu 119,loo._ _mSMo. ib. U:I, 33 (tIVt). Porph.Adm. I ..... 11 fI1I~c8yIa.. 95

Digitized by




"in", Ta; 1IcIC1.lA.., 4:0. (beside cultivated Ufcii, """"Pt ft.. "61', ftp . . . . .
_ (1c)1IcIC1.lA_)-&rrpar.

1Mb. 80 too now in unoultivated speech: dIGi, lIOAoftI., nlIa, ft 1t6", nl

m- (I..U-). ~ (~..,,), crfl6PTt1Aor.

19&. Beforer. or a liquid, "is usually asaimilated (or dropped? 171b. 179 & [I 201). Cp. 203b. fTVllry. fTVp~. Ta ).~" 4p ~ Thus J".pi... . beside J...,.... fTV...~ fTUl'-pan. ri.. ).~" a.. ,."
But also ~pl"""'... CW_11 Akad.WiaL 18119,p. 115. l"I"I"tCW_Jy Prol. 64' .ls RI "'TpII3oIpw (for TcW IL), fir Boppi "",4 ib. CLeemane paaim. 80 N a,,(p)~ fora.. ,..(Span.' lo8)-Tcl(p) ,,;;..., ft(A) Aiyo, Tcl(p)~, &c.
18lb. J'or partioulan reprding the irequenoy ofpermutetion, in the A pIlblio iDlOriptiODB dminll' the V-~ B.o., of 1lnaJ. .. before Jabiala, ptturala, and liquid8, _ JOlb and lUIeoht L 5~ 181. Por IIu.iBzal or term.iDal and movable "'" _ 2191 221, and App. IlL

198. The combination "1& becomes fTI' in the perfect paaaive and in verbalaubstantives haring a ...thematic(897-on the analogy of 176?).
Thua become



*Fp.a f/wp.a



adjectives. For the perfect paaaive see 688, 1875, &: 2140. 197. Final.", when followed by 0', is usually retained (201) ; but medial -". is dropped with (Prosodic) antectasis in the following cases (0 29 ft'. 123. 202. See App. ii 8-15) : a. In lome nominative&, aB: (",).o"r) ",?ir, (l",) .fr. b. In the accusative plural of 80nantic atemL
ThWl become

1Mb. This is applicable to N alao, aB far aB regards verbal

xWPcm xdJ,as





..,.,.. .or

In the verbal ending -IIII'C.

ThWl ......a.-, become ......':OUIII ThWl ,uluaJOIII become ,.4AII6,


*Ic/JoaJOIII 1c16icr,



But in the dative plural, " is dropped without antectuiL



W,",", Wpocr,

199. 2. The preposition J" retains (by constraint) ita -JP unchanged before p, fT, C, aB: J"phnw, J/IfTf/_, IJO{.uyrtv"" 200. 3. Metrically the prepOlition aV.., when followed by a simple fT, generally a.aaimilatea" to tT (but cp. 195]; but when it is followed by a combination of fT, or by C, it generally drops ita".
ThWl beside

"w-ll,nr -""Tor

lI1III-IInuoiC. /IVoII&.va.C.

""""CvorlG "",C.".

10L The precediDg rules 197-200 deal with a proceaa initiated and completed in pre-claaaical Greek and subsequently repeated in literary atyle by mere analogy (124b). On the other han~&.ular speech, . . tea" before both ancient and modern, mvariably drops or fT, p, C (19~; cp. 190- 193 f.). This is shown (1) by the inacriptiODl and papyft of the time (beiaterhana' 86 f.); (2) by other cuua.l instances where .. is dropped or aaaimila.ted even bI A authon; and (3) by N coDlonantiam whiCh does not tolerate" before fT, p, C.
ThaI in A, beside 'JP -'&


, ...tIc


I., 'p~ '(P) 'PtSIp

~.w ~, ri(A)~.


Digitized by


-------------- ----------




201. The consonantal groups vr ..8 ~ before u are dropped with antectasis (29 if. 123. App. it 9B. 14).

3130va, 108. Strictly speaking, this rule applies only to archaic Greek, for the occurrence of combinations like ~, .aa, "su had become impollBible eveninA-Pcompositions (124, 16). In Nspeech, however,BUch occurrences are not rare, first owing to its foneIne. for syncope, and then in consequence of its adoption of foreign elements havmg the consonantal combinations referred to (cp. 205). In all these cases then N drops and the resulting sound is TV' (i.e. tB) and -re or", (i. e. u). Cp. 205.
S08'. .As shown in the public inacriptionl of the V-mh B.o., the actual condition in .A of fiDal ., 8IIJI8Cially that of the proelities 1'3'. n}. ftip ... tT6P, before the labials, guttural.,liquida, and the sibilant", notably of enelities, ia illuatrated by the following synoptical table (based on MHecht i 6-27). many of the cas., especially those between lengthy and independent words, and above all those between elaule8 leparated by a paUlle, do not l8pJ'eII8Dt a phonopathic, but a mechanical or analogical proceSB (25), due to the ~ COtIIinua, is more than probable. Cp. ~ (.f.60 B.e.), 'O'T'M (,.00-350 B.e.), "'..,.",,'r Irai (before 376 B.O.), 1'~M ..,aGAoa (235 B.o.), ~OIH1'M' +&A6&rJpot (323 B.O.). KMeiaterhana' 86, 2. Op. GIB no. 925, ... 12, 15, 20, ete.

become W'acn






before aaaimil. Dot ...


51 2,.




-;s -;; -1-8- (I) I - -6 - - - - 8 14 28 6 18


I ~;.!! ~ AI Hip


3 3

1 3 ,.


15 30

d. SPIBANT u. S04. Interconsonantaluusually dwindleaaway ( 12 4b 884, c:i). Thus *nTapnx0'6. *'ycypat/Hr6a& *A.A.XO'S. */unAulJa& become 1'tNpaX6. 'Y'YtWl/llJa& A.AIXS. IfTTaAlJa&.
~ or Pt'~

80 still in N, the only combinations tolerated being 1''' (- ts) and (-u) (203) .. : .a1'a. (from n,'''f, i.e .all"f [136] .. "a""o.), 1'1Iii (from 1'r i.e. n;r 562), 1'''Ua. 1',,6xa, x""Cfir, cfrrCa (ie. &dCII). 5108. After a liquid Ap. the sibilant u is generally dropped,



and the (rhythmically a1fected) preceding syllable is compen-


sated either by inserting into it a (silent) " or by doubling the liquid (29 ft 215. App. ii. 9B. " 14). .
Thus */fTTfAua */l/>6tpua */"PfTII *11Cp'IHTG become 'fTTfaAG ,t/>6,1pa '"&f.III 'lCpW or Aeolic 'fTTfAAa 't/l8.ppa ''''l'1'li 'ymta ~. Old Attic 6dpuo~ x.,uo~ X.pu6"'1uWlth New & P Attic 8dpp. XfPPO~ XfPpO""O'O~ 510'7. The results of the two preceding rulea 206-7 are applicable to Nalao.
III CIA. i. 324. 0, 21 n}r 'P"" (408-7 B.o.) .....


Digitized by






208. Note finally that, in the case of .I, (1554. lI), and of the procJitic pronouns 7'OJI T'If" ,...."" TCM TIl. p4' ft. TOur (TOIf), inatead of dropping their final 11' or tT, or accommodating it to the following initial conaonant, popular N speech very frequently inserts a protective or revective -f (133 f. 536. 7:1 5), tor the sake of perspicuity, .. : TOI'C IoJp/iI, 71JI'C SAIot., tTA" XWfIITf. R1" XP/WUl woAAG, C~ 118A6-lov tTOII, ''In W (Tp.), ..irn) ete. BLegrandBibl. ii. [)[8138.~.D.], 233 fir ..w01l' . . dei Siixu. ib. .37 dei (IV.~. CGeorafllM Const. .71 N TONI EIPCC6Httn. 473 N :ACI fO/Tltlfl. 49:1 N TONI~. 546 .a TONI ",qtTITf. 1195 licl 1IAfIpoII'o"w, ~. 911 N CACI lcop8Olt1f1. (ib. 929 awn TIN. oYKC tTaAfdfTCIt t)


e. PRIXITIVE SEXIVOWBLS i UD F. (See App. ii. 9 ff. & 14-) 209. Remark. Of these two lettera, i never occurs in any Greek dialect; it has been recently &88umed or deduced by philology from the cognate fields of Indo-European languages. and naturally refers to primordial Greek only (cp. I I. 29 if. App. ii 9 if. & 14). On the other hnnd, Fis found in archaic and dialectal Greek (3. u).-Aa a matter of course, neither i nor Fplays any part in the historical period of the Greek language, 10 that the following remarks (210-1117) refer to primitive and archaic Greek of which we have no adequate literary relics in their original or genuine spelling. 210. The semivowels i and Fappear to have interchanged with their cognate vowels, that is {with, (first silent then voiced, App. ii 9 if. & 14), and F with v and fJ (51. 63), or to have dwindled away when they happened to stand between two 80nanta (App. ii 9). Compa.reSOut Sw.. SoF-or SoF-, (bovi)
II'AUt Jlllii-II'





Ill. The semivowel ~ when preceded by a palatal, presumabJy became uu OUT (App. iL 9 if. & 14). Thus the 8I!IIUD1ed forme ~..p *T'CIpM-fGI ~AX-i-

or TT.

or ..,AliTTOl TA"'"",, ~. 212. Sometimes i was apparently blended with a dental into
n,MrtTOl ,(aplftTtTCI. 218. The combination Pri. apparently became U (cp. 2(2). Thus *W'CIII'T-jII *AuI.JI'TojCI *d.on--jII became ritrA AulfttTCI Invtra.
Thus *wAIIT-ibecame ..1iUtr.
*nplll-f.oJ *xaPlfT-jII

avowedly became




214. Preceded by 3 (and sometimes by,,), i apPfUently became C (App. ii 9 if. & 14). Thus *'A..,3-ioI *.3-iopaa *ol".,.,..fGI became 'blC. rcopaa ol"",., 91&. After a liquid }. 11' p, the semivowel l is dropped and the (rhythmically affected) preceding syllable is compensated either by inserting into it a (silent) &, or by doubling the liquid (29 if. ~ App. ii. 9 if. & 14). Thue *"fAv-jCI *.--fGI *~ */UJp-jII
become p4AC1tJ111 and *&Ator (aliue) become 4AAo.
Again beoome


XII,..,.. but in AeoUo X'''''''


pii.AMtf lAM,.". . . . .-f:O/ *~ *oIn1p-jol 411ttp., ",..,., cUTtp. . .",. #rA'- oltrrlp,.,.

*JIIIA-p *dA,-iopaa (salio)



Digitized by



118. Initial F was apparently dropped. Cp. o'Lror or.or 'P'fOI'

with 1IiCUI


217. Iutenonantic j and Fwere apparently dropped. Thus /Jotor tatFor *"A._



a. Constituent.Fitaal ~ 218. A Greek word can close with any 8Onant, but no other CODSOD&Ilt is admissible at the end of a genuine Greek word, than cr, ", ,--also ~ and '" 88 combiDations of cr. (91. Cp. [Arist.l Poet. 1458a 8 cll ~ oMQ. o.oJl4~) Any other final CODSOD&Ilt is simply dropped.




me b. So too in P-N (but Bee 219 f.). Even Biblical nouns (Scripture names) familiar to the masses, notwithstanding Christian piety, conform to this rule, inasmuch as a final consonant other than IT, ., p, is either dropped, or, more commonly, the word is Grecized by anl1enng a familiar ending. Only in ctlltifXlted speech iB it retained. though even here its pronunciation appears rather affected. Compare: ~ 'Jda.6or. 'A3Il,&'AIIapor, N 'Aaa,..... ~~, N 2#t1. (134011).
'llJAwG89 and 'AMII'~and
ra/JpJ,A, N ra/J"'A",.


N ")CAVAo. and "XdA",. 'EMII'Mn, N AMII'd/Jea. BaJKNxBapotlxcar. (Cp.A.pp. vi. 35 [I].)

5U.8 0. The two particles Iw and 06w are only apparent _ptiolla, inasmuch aa, beiDlf proc1itica <97 t.), they generally attach themll8lvell to the next following word. 5U.8 4. Labiala, however, are sometimes allowed at the cl_ of a word. 8Ip8CiaIly in excIam!ltiolla, aa: MS.. j cp. /lcall'1A.v, .,pcaii (where ., j 51-53).



:118. The above leading rule, 218, which is peculiar to Greek alone, haa been in full force thro~h all st~8 and Periods of the language in written composition. But in popular speech it began a.a early a.a H to receive further limitations by the BUccessive dropping first of p, then of also, BO that present N speech admits of no other terminal consonant than IT (but see 221), then of " in procliticB followed by a 80nant or 11:7'' . Only the dialect. of the northern Sporades show a fondn88B for final" (221), and Taa.conic for final p. [See a.lao 219'.] For further particu1a.ra see App. iii. 11-15.
S19l>. On the other hand, owinl to fundameutal chanpB iD their pbonolor.v (0,0 f.), norlhern (Bpirotic, Tb-u&D, lIacedonian, eto.) and Pontic dialectB can 010Be a word with aD,. ooll8ODant, aB: .,AW for .,AI".. (lJAlfIf') 'he _ , ' 'eY8Din&'" d/A' 'to do,' 'lA" 'thou wilt,' .. df to cut,' ,,"Mp' for ....w,. , toaJ.,'-Alwrd.p' 'lioD,' I'fIlar ' ~bl.,' U~ for hi,.,.."., eta.


m.&e. Oonftrl8ly, Tuconio ll;yltematioall,. d~ ftDal of. Tbia fa DataralJ,. the __ with South Italian Greek aJao, owinc to ItaUan id_ee, .. : niC,,' '.,.., for -Co. ., for '16



!l la

Digitized by




b. Euphonic (Movable) Consontmts ),. cr, (le).

220. Before a 80nant or full atop, certain endings may annex a final _called movable or )'1~cW. These endings are-

a,aoiiu,", A.I-yovu,-, f#JfJfIl".


The nominal verbal and adverbial ending -en", as: lI'iiu,-, 'AS;'""er,",

2. The verbal ending -'. as: 1A.ry.", .1",.., J",al3fV1J''', .fpr,ltf". 3. The words ttUt.ou," and ",cwrcitracu". 4- The word 5. Sometimes the 3d person singular of the pluperfect, as: fan", 22l. The preceding remarks do not strictly apply even to A, inasmuch as, to judge from the inscriptions, papyri., and earlier MSS, movable .. is almost indiscriminately appended to the above endings (HIMaaasen in Lpz. Stud. iv. 1-64), and frequentlystanda even ~ metre (FAllen in Arch. Inst. Amer. iv. p. 158; RWaguer 6? f.). In the course of P-B times, tbis tendency for annexing eupbomc .. steadily increased, and gradually led to the identification in the popular speech of the intrusive element with the constituent final .., and its consequent extension, especially since G, to almost every verbal ending, as: l~p;,6-qtc 6 rads, trln'pi .. a; IM" ~N, &rr.... cnvrro"UN- since B even to nouns, particularly neuters in -pa, as: O"TCSpaN, SlA.'1fMlN' This practice was very general in M speech and is Htill surviving in several dialects, particularly in the insular group of the northern Sporades, Cyproa, Rhodes, Cos, Calymna, etc. up to Ic&rOs and Chios, then Pontos, ete. (219).-At the same time, when the use of such final" had become 80 common and indiscriminate, a reaction set in which gradually affected every final .., whether movable or constituent, and eventually led to ita dropping from all endin~ so that it has almost retreated from N speech except in the few dialects just referred to. For more details and examples see App. iii 16-30, 222. A movable er is attached to the adverb Mill [and the preposition lit], in P also to pAXP' and 8.XP't which thus become ~,[/~].


P pAXP&f, 8.XP&f.

223. A movable It appears in the negation by the spiritus asper, becomes ~X (170), as:


o;'X 116. Accented or emphatio oil (not 06.) stands before a stop (100), as: lurJ/OVr70 -,dp aY. oW, '/IN&rror o6UN (Ken. An. 4, 8. 3).

followed * which,..when &"0'" d-yca8O ,


Digitized by


A. THE lfOUll.



ZIa. h the Greek noun (and by noun we mean any substan tive or adjective) there are conventionally m,tinguishedA. Three decknsions: First, Second, and Third. (238, 253.)
228. All three declenaioDS are atill substantially preserved in N, but the latter shOWl a frequent interchange and MSjmUation among them (256. 264-8. 338-346). 22'7. B. Three gerulers: :Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter, -all still preserved in No 228. O. Three fttIfJIbm: Singular, Plural, and Dual. 229. The dual refen to two, as: d"sp/wfll >'~'" 'the (two) men speak.' Whether it W80II univeraally current in preAttic speech is an open question. This much however is certain: that it was abeent from Aeolic and Ionic; that, with the close of the v~ B.O., it generally retreats from the .A iDICriptions; that even .A writen make a limited use of it; and that at the end of the IV~ B.o. it had entirely disappeared from the lugoage (63Ib. 633. 668; cp. 315). S80. The singular and plural are still preserved in N. 28l. D. Five CtJ8e8: Nominative, Vocative (both distin


guished 88 caSNB recti); Accusative, Genitive, Dative (called a&8II.9 obZiqui, or oblique cases).
282. All the casei are still preserved in N except the dative, which hu been replaced part]y by the simple accusative, partly bl the genitive, rarely by a prepositional circiunlocution (1242-7. 1348-95.) [288. Literary N has to a certain extent preserved or revived the dative, especially in prepositional and adverbial e:l}m!aaions, as: aw 'witli God's help,' ill 7'0';"0"' 'with all that,' I .. .; 'while,' 1I'fJ1PI'1 ",,", ' with all one'. power,' III or h' dJl6par' ' in the name,' , in behalf.' Several of these turns have pUled into popular speech. See alao 1247.] S84. Identical in form are :-(1) The neuter nominative, vocative, and accusative in all three numben; (2) the plural nominative and YOCative of masculinea and feminines; (3) the dual nominative, WlC&tive, and accusative of all genden; 10 too the dual genitive and dative. 101


Digitized by


281-1415.] DECLENSIONS -GENDER OF NOUNS. 2815. E. One definite article with three distinct forms for the three genders: c\, TO, 7j, 'the' (A masculine,...o neuter, 7j feminine).
283 b. The article atillsurvives in N (251 f.).
838. Originally the article was a demonstrative (558 t. 1195~), lite the English eM, the German der, dM, daI, and the Romanio il, le, 10, &0.

5137. The function of the i1llkfini14/ article, as represented in English by a or an, was commonly J.Mlrformed in A Greek by the mere absence of any article (624), and thls usage is, on the whole, still the one prevailing in N. In many cases, however, its place in A was taken by the indefbiite pronoun ''IS' (525). On the other hand PGreek introduced, besides ,"w, the numeral .lr 'one,' which, under certain conditioDB, has ever since remained in similar use (594 if. 622 if. 1206. 1448 if.). 288. F. Modem granlmarians-since the XVII~ (239)further distinguish: t1wee Declensions: First for nouns ending in -a or -H ; Second for nouns ending in -0; and Third for nouns ending in a COfISOf'UIfIt, also -I or -u (253). 289. Ancient grammarians distinguished no 1888 than ten declensioDB. Some also trpated each gender separatel:r, and laid down thirty-five rules for masculinea, twelve for feminmea, and nine for neuten. Our present BIBtem of d~hing three declensions has been adol'ted since the XVIr~, chielly throuf!:h the grammar of Jac.Weller[usJ, issued first in 1634 (cp. KEASchmidt 283). 240. The gentler is determined in Greek partly by the sense, partly by the ending of the nominative singular. According to the sense241. MtJ8CfIlim are words denoting males; also names of

toitIds, rivers, months. 141. Feminine are words designating femaJa and trees, both conceived as frui~bearing beings j also most names of eotmlries, islands, and tOIDfI8 ; then abstract nouns denoting a quality, state,
or action.

148. Neuter are the names of .fruits, and those of most dittKtw-

tives; also indeclinable words conceived as nouns.

K4. Of common gender are nouns which may be used with either the masculine or feminine article (A, 7j 6E~). Conversely names of animals usually admitting of only one form of article for both gende1'S are called epicoefI6 (brUcowa), as: I> ~, H ~ '(he or she) ass, bear.' Ma. All the above remarks respecting the determination and qualification of gender (241-244) are still substantially applicable to N. The only aigilal departure therefrom is that names of trees in -or, which in A were feminine, now very often appear as masculines (cp. 292). This change, however, goea, in many cases, back to P times:.lI6pt1pOf, P 4 ... N 4 IWISp4por. 'II,,"or, P-N 4 'II~ (even Ar. Ban. 859) Ipiir, P-N41piir (or N 4 ap;;r, 343) SQ7"Or, P-N 4 IJ- 'II~

P-N 4 'IIA-. ~""""or, N 4 (d)fJfNl'Tllpor. .lfIIripcfJfJor, N 4 /l-. fJxi-r. P-N" (cp. GBatzidakia 24).--80 further. iMn" N 4lM.,or. ....". N 4 'IIMot. N /l,wOlf, N 4 .plvor (cp. 24910).



Digitized by



He. The disorimiDation of sender by means of the Mdi1lfl of the Dominative singular must be l8se"ed for the respective sectiona of the decleDlion (252-666). Here suffice it to state broadly tbatM7. N01lD8 eDding in a (~ -I!i 218) are mainly ma.eculine; noUDS eDding in a IOU'" are mainly feminine (261 f. 248); while aceptiona fiom ma.acu.linea and femininea make up the Deuter. MS. Thia broad aDd general rule aaaumed. e'ler .iDee .A times, a more

eoIIItmIJ'" .....

ra P-N ra (ra "'A_. .. BT..,a"a'AB.i".w.B. Cor".... N ,,/, for. "'fICII.or, 11-15 , __ ~ra -Xfl,..). ""A_, Q-N"a @or( then ffiem. often. 6, 1& 2. !It I "/,.,, IQ...,. 4101' "Aor). ",pij.or, N"c) ''''.os (.,a v.aiipa). Tb f4paP, P-N ., HptII (" -".,.. /1XWor, ~"5~). "a ""pG, P-N " ripra (J) RfGA"), "daaAor, N ra "'-v1uI' (ri HroiiP)." .t.1hwor. N,,/' trl.3wo" (ri .dior, ft "",JMI). ,,/'.&iAcw, B-N" .w.or (" "".,.,.6r). "Aadr, N "a Aa6r (ri "AijIor). "A.'~, N. AftriN (t rIM,. ftnIplcms). ra Adlf-w. N alH , A.~ (& .._p6s). "",0'161, N ri ",;:;6- (.,a 'Ator .,a 1lGA6"). "pwA6.. N ft ~- (.,a trpUiw. ~"). fA4A.", P-N ""wAor. "a ..wAw. P-N ,..wAor. Iq. P-N ,,/, ";_or. ""701. N "a "701 ("a .,6Of, "a "uSP,) " _p4BftO'Of. tnlpGaturo (" .6Aaa&r). "';;xvr, "'XfI (" ..Ba"" ......lP'l) " "Aeiiror. P-N .,a _AMOf. "a Ii'for. N " 1'701 (" fIIIptr6r). "aEB"por, p"a .lJqpIW (N "a ala.po"). "tIfI*. N" tIfIAfjN (" ."ale). &a~. N. ~ & .rina or ~ ."TtG (. tAl""...). " aril', N ..,..... (t .,,'(0). ~. T-N" ..,G/JAor (" l...w). "..,~or, N "a ..,,..,,- ("a trflllAAoii,., OK' at.ooiation from "Z"~Of). ,,"'*". N" ,,"'*" <" "ocX or). rFrrI. P-N ra "pVyor & "T__. ., "up. P fltSPt N ~ (. _Er or .. feminine of ~AAor) pt : " X6pror. N"a x6pro" (alao Bap. aea. I, 19t" v. LJ (ri AG)(ID'CIJ'). .~, N ,,/, ~ (ra al/lar). '!tiAAa, P-N " ~AAo.

~.T-N"a /Urw1W("h4xuar). "~,Nra N /Hfos (,,/, 1lG1or). &adnv.\or, P-N ,,/,IcUrvAcw. ~or, N BpHor 1tpiJos). P-N

and more definite ahape, the popular tendellcy being to diatinguiah the pnder by 80me external (terminal) criterion. A. IJUggeetive buis wu alnady dorded by the ut declension which distinguished .igmatic maecaliDes (-ar. "",) from voealio femiDines (.... "'1) [a61 I.), aDd thua dered a pneral prinoipte of claMi1loatioJl. O8oe staited, the prooeaa of this terminal dietinction received additional impetua in the fact that in the vd declension numerous feminines in ... -ur. -["JtJr), 0win8 to the homophony of their terminal IODaDt with the -" of the 1st dec1eneion (~9". 37 11.), lent themaelves eaeily to &IIIIimilation by aimplydropping their ilnal-, (cp. rr,Bt_"pli_pdE,,; ~-Ith. ete. 343), thus -r being preserved for maaoulines only (2630 338.343). Accordingly in N all mllllCulines end iD ... all feminiDes in a _ _ (exoepi. 'ria I), whereaa neuterl may end iD eiUutr a 80DaDt or ill of (aIao in .; cp. ~41. an. A.pp. ill. 12). . . . So far, then, the above proceaa has not materially deoted the gender, nohrithatanding the long history of the Greek laDggage. which would lead us to expect a radical tnn.formation. The chanpa etleoted are, apart from oertain loceliame and dialectal peculiarities. neither very cousiderable Dor very diJIlcu1t to explaiD. They are the relNlt mainly of analogy and uaociation (aIao diaaociation) of meaDing. ](any of them CaD, moreover, be traced bacIt to P times (cp. GHatzidatia 354-73) ..... Oompare-OIIC~: .a6ori, P-N.,/,.3yor (ngeatedbyra#nos). ~. B-N "a 1J/uI- ("o.-s.). "lJlor, N "a lJlor ("a "Aoiiror). t


/lo1w6.("Uporl. "/JtMr.




(~wc1 .. tbe male

of. f/ia;') iiJ.

Digitized by


2150-2158.] 2150.





1Iasc. Neut. Fem.



c\ ,



.... " ....



~ 'fj

lIasc. Neut. Fem. , a1 01 'nl T4i ~


K. N.I'.

..... TCUi " ... .....





2&1. The interjection I, Oh !' aervea .. a vocative of the articl~ for all genders and numbers. However, besides this z" G-N speech, particularly since T, often uses (written also I), an ejaculation now very general in N, .. : Apophth. 280 0 at at 3o&po., tl'oii T'piX..r; Leont. Pachom. Mon. 13S A Neap. V. B. 1708 0 I ~ ,-pdr for&' dSfJG .1>.A.0&,u. ri &, II:~&M. brlpfl'll"'t a>.A.0& 3' 11..,.1 T'OVI'OV T'O I. (Cp. 136b.)


261". Alongside with' we find in A-P compoeitions eometimee, in Q-B oftener, and in N epeech very frequently, the term ".,~ CA "... or ".,.., 257"), ueed .. a mere exclamation in the eenee of A " or , oliror, .. : M. Nub. 397" M , ".". tW 1I'r1<. Bur. Ked. 61 Xen. Kem. I, 3, 13PI. Leg. 857 J). NT Matt. 5, 22 6r I' a. 1IaIpI, '.oxor '11'NI&. Epict. ~ 22, 85 'pO) lToe, ".,pI, nlcw ~.. II'rA. So,3, 2,3, 17.-In N this ".,~ {fem. ".,pft, but also "."H .. an adverb), which stands for ...... (hence "cl ".,pc)- ....uw, IJ~r), is often ehortened in Oretan epeech to ,,',4 and in northern unally to IJpI, dJpI or simple 'pi (136").": ~ ('~) 'Ihn, - , '1_.", ".,,n, (or IJ]~) ~fI'" ~ IJJ/N .oi.-The lI8IIle flDlction is performed in N, eepeeially in politer parlance, by MIA~ I .y,' ueed alao .. a crystallized adverb (in eastern Crete it is even ehortened to simple.a or ad, ao...s [2]), .. : mA~ MlD'dJA'I-' ~A,MlAl ~.p, MlAi 'XpcnllD'ol- ~ 'Xpcn_ol, mA~ 'P'''Woc -, 'PtT'''''''. MIA~ 'Ft Ahf; 'laneyl' 'indeed I '-Not different from this is the uee in (northern) N epeech of.1I or a_I I 'I .yl' 'What is your name Y' (1)

.r.,' ' por.




51&1. The article is substantially preserved in N (23S b). For .. few changes see SS9-S62. Cp. 1248-I2SS.

GDBBAL Rnuura,
2152. The various cases of a noun are formed by adding certain eMHtg8 or terminations to a fixed part called the stem (or theme), of which the closing or final BOund is called the chafV.lCler. The stem appears in its genuine and full form by dropping the ending of the genitive case. 268. The stem character of a Greek noun can beG: 1st declension; 0: 2nd declension; a ~ also I or u: 3rd declension.

Cp. GB....","" iD B)'S. Zelt. iv.

,,2 L


Digitized by




Accordingly the stem character of the 1st and 2nd declensions is always a sonant (a, 0), while that of the 3rd declension is mainly a consonant (238). 2&4. When a sonantic stem is succeeded by a terminal vowel, it undergoes a phonopathic change (contraction), and 80 does not show its genuine character (342). On the other hand, consonantal steIns generally show their true character. 266. The 1st and 2nd declensions retain throughout the same number of syllables, and are on this account called parisyUabic (luouVll4/3Of.); but the 3rd declension generally exhibits an additional syllable in the oblique eases, and is therefore called _pari8gllabic ('n/XTTOf1"6ll4{JOi). 268. In N the lilt and 3rd declensions have been, to a large extent, fused into a single declension, the sinlfUlar of which substantially corresponds to the sinplar of the anclent lilt declension, and the plural to the plural of the ancient 3rd declension (226. 338-346).

Rules of .Accent. 267. The accent remains in its place, as shown in the nominative, unless the constitution or quantity' of the final syllable calls for a change, as: ~ piAurav.v, piN.uua.t.~ 1:yyWw, d~-but p.U.lcratt'1, d:yyD..ou, dyyl>..wv.
967'. Generally, however, in exclamations (and interjections), it lies in the nature of 1angaage to stl'88ll the j/TBI II)'llable uttered and reduce the end. Hence the vocative aJao, &8 tile case of exclamation, has the tendency to throw the accent &8 far back &8 trill)'llabotony admif.a (81. 429), as: (~) -yWa&, m"" ~'p, h.p, Ul7ffOft&, AltI"'lT'P, /1;;' ...1', A'Ip/lriwu, 2MrjlllTU, "AtrOAAo." 'A.,a".",OI', D&,...301', .Aa.poI' (353), 10 too p&pa, ...,pa, ,JJ)(Irp, 1Af/IJ'" Cp. Rnli, rlna, TlnCl. 168. The above remarks partially hold for N also, but in the


~ority of caaee the accent generally conforms not to the quantitative' but to the qualitGtiH changes of the endings. Thus, whenever the terminal BOnant of the nominative singular is retained throughout, the accent also remains in its place (cp. 311); whereas a metaphonic change in the terminal BOnant often draws the accent from the antepenult to the penult, as: .; /Ul.lITfTa,"';;" pfA,afTu; 0 .tyy.).o", 7'~" Ine>'o -but TOii ay,.'Aov, 01 dyycl.CII, Tit., dyyf'A (BO even in Prodr. 0*0lIl"

.,.nS.u,fTU, aQ.,.WP'I'" fTI(ovl'frpatrriAfllWMrratnov).

1&9. Geuitive and dative endings, if 'long' and accented, have the cireumJlex.-This applies also to N .0. Nominative, vocative, and accusative endings, if accented, have always the acute.-So atill in N.


28L The first declension comprehends onlyFeminines ending in ea, "'I ;-and


" -cw, -11'1' lOG

Digitized by




Efldi"ll' 01 tM Firlll Ikt:lenriora.



V. A.




-'I -'I.
" -4 w

"DuJ N. V.A. G.D.

" -'I" -'1r -1I

" -a.
-ar, "-'If -q, -1I

-ar -a -a.



PIu. N. V.




G. -OIl' oD. -aIr 188. Generally speaking, in maaculines terminal "' is the sign of the nominative singular; in femininea, it is the sign of the genitive singular (cp. 247. 27 6. 339).


S84. Greek declension began to manifest, as early &8 A time&, a tendency towards simplification and lIDiformity in its terminal vocalism.

P-N Sif!l{lUklr.

S815. Thus, if we look at the si"fIVlm' of the above endings (262), we find that the preva.i~ vowels a and " have attracted and eventually assimilated those of their co-ordinate eases which had an heterophonous sonant. Accordingly the consonantal masculine vocative -Go the genitive feminine .-'If, and the masculine genitive -ov, have been assimila.ted to the uniform. vowel of their other co-ordinate cases, and so become -'I, -ar, and -'I retlpectively, after the modelq piCa, It PlCa, e,Ca", rijr plCar, (~ ;,C,)-6 POw'If.1 PO,"", ,,0. POW'I"t ..oV PO,"", (". "aVTfl,. This phenomenon signalized itself as early as A, but owing to the Atticistic and scholastic spirit of all P-B scribes (011), the assimilation of all terminal sonants appears full1 established only in M-N speech (277-284). S88. The simplici~ and regularity thus obtained of the 1St declension rendered it peculiarly appropriate to attract and assimilate other c1a.sses of nouns, especially those of the 3rd declension (338 f.).


b. P-N Plural.

S87. In the plural a more atriking and fundamental chanse has taken place. Besides the presence of an identioal senitivepluraI __ in all declensions, the 1st and 3rd declensions genemJly had in the accusative-the most familiar of all cases"":"the common endina -ar. This coincidence then associated them with each other, anc! led, as earl, as P, to a confusion between them. Such an. interchange was moreover to be expected since, with the retreat of the dative (1348-$1), there remained only one varying case, the nominative, which ended m -al (for the 1st decl.) or ~r (for the 3rd decl.). Now the homophony of CI& and _both sounded like, (48 tf.)-was in itself sugsestive, and the question at issue was which of the two forms should prevail over the other. It was naturally ,"*r, since this ending was far commoner,


Digitized by




and therefore more famili..... It had aJeo the advan~ of a aibiIant dOle (-r), a sound very popular owing to ita presence m moat ofthe other plural cues (-ar, -our, -oar, -cur). (Cp. 69 [I].) Accordina'ly -u met with general acceptance, and gradually supplanted -al. (Cp. Pallad. Vita Chrya. 330 ytJ'J'Iia.c for,..,a&u. Kal. 170, 3 Al....a&,. 331, 7 D'pa-u. Apoc. JIar. 120, 32 01 I!'lpyapiru. Leo Gram. 78, 14 Sri&r, as v. l. Attal. 254. 15 1mr6ru). But as already explained, this proceu of levelling became manifest as early as P times and ap'peara complete in B-JL popular speech (see 332 IF.). For the accuaative plural see 332. 16'7.. Considering that the resultant common ending -er (-ff) is greatly due to the homophony of aa and f (ripen X.;;"), the nominative spelling JlC-, r,,.,u, "plpaIf, ~, troAlTCIU, etc., now commonly followed by Greets, is not altogether unjulltifiable, since U may be argued that aa in this ease has been not ohanged, but ......._ and amplliled to -aa' by borrowing Anal of from the ard declension.

268. I.



Sing. N_ V. A. G. D.

'house' ollCl-ci




,; 'bee'




plC-h plCl ' piC-lI







DaaI. N. V. Aa oUrl..

G. D . . . w -


N. V. oUel_
A. G. D.


"C-.. -0"

PlC-o. PlC-fir

7.,..4 7.,.....


r,w" r,,,-aw




289. In declining a noun of the ut declension observe thatI. The vocative and accusative singular agree in accent and quantity.-So too in N. 2. The ending .(i~ counts 'long' throughout; " .(i " in the dual ; " -cii1' has the circumftex.-So too in N. 3. The ending "'I remains unchanged throughout the singular.
-So atill in N.

4. The ending -a, when preceded by a 80nant or p (in which case the -a is called pure), remains unchanged throughout thEl singular (cp. 65); but when preceded by an ordinary consonant (1& impure), it counts' short' and changes to "I in the genitive and dative singular.
170. ID popular lpe4!Ch, ever sinee the

both ... (whether pure or

the aiJI8Ular (277) I7L A.greeabl)' to 155 b-c, in N nearly all paroxytone femininee and _ (-la, ..Ea, -la, -ala) have become oxytone, .. : (lrGpMa) 110",.0, Il&.ui, --...,..a, (,rla) "&G, (prfAlG) P'lAfIi (or ..0). au" (or -ut), IIovAf.a, tJrrpal&, (yA_ila) "Awlfla. Nevertheleea the paroxytone form is alao fairly oommon In the dialects mentioned in 155 11, eapecially in Ionian speech (whioh III moreover in1luenoed by Italian -icI and -fa), .. : npIU&, P'lAla. 171. N femininee in ... (ch1e1ly namee of a-) appear also under the form -L This III due to the oircwD.Btance that with the eetabliahment of

impuft) and the accent are retained unchanged through all the caMe of



Digitized by




-er in the plural as the normal ending of the lit and

aM declensions (267), the presence ot another (thematic) , betore the ending gave riM to hyphaereaia (-10) -4. (]48. 157), and this accented plural now oalled forth a novel nominative singular in -', on the following pattern: t) /Af1A1 pl. "",AI-o "",AI-r new nom. ling. +"",1..1
n.1 " nn-" nn-r

.fTpfla" .f-rpl-O .fTpI-t "".. .,-rpl IMlA .. 1NU:-" 1NU:-r (or 1A4-.) " " " or 1A4. S78. A. further ooneequence ot this prooe81 was that teminin81 in __ affected maacu1inee in -4tU and reduced them to -4. 10 that IOme N dialecte (as Crete, Chioa, lcaro., ete.) admit ot .5 tIao"A~r beside tIao'&AItU .5 I~r beside I"tU, .5 lIa~r beside ~, etc. (407). S78". That in popular N the whole plural otthe let decleDlion follows the plural ot the 3rd declension, has been already explained in 267.



914. Inflection of N Feminines 1st Declension. Sing. N. "V. aI-rCa(ISS,C).apW pea .,.,pI,
A.. G. "D.
aI-rCa" aI.,.Car







For the plural _

267, 3] 2,

C, "






, 6 young ma.n ' '6 citizen' 6 Skythian Sing. N....GJti-oS' rroAt.,."S' zte.,r ...pi-ca rrMN z.w8-ii z/Cv8-.,,, A. ...GJti-i" rro)J'f'-"" Z,Q,IJ-ov G ...GJti-ou rro~lf'-Ov



D ... p/...

4IIAA (sic!)

nAlM troAl..-

2onII-4 2dI_

Doal N. V. A. ......l-cl G.D.........

Pt N. V. ...GJti-a,
A. ...alli-a, G...._-... D....pi-uw

rrMi'f'-m rroM-r-iiS'


Z.wk z.w8-fi



278. The declension of masculines essentially agrees with

that of feminines (262), the only deviation being thatI. The nom. sing. ends in 10 -So still in N (263). 2. The gen. sing, ends in -av. (For N_ 265" 277 t.)

S77. In .A barytone eubstantiv81 in -ar pure (269. 4) occuionally formed the genitive aleo in -a (after the Dorie inflection). as: 7'oii InI'f'paAola. /JpP'Io8It,., ptI1Ilp4-,6p, 4aplJltA4a (CIA. ii. 968, 3o-n~ 11..0.). 'OpW'rG, "TAil, 2tSAAa, 2dwa, 'Anl/Ja. 'A.,plfln. 'AriAa, XlpIJa. rI"., Ka&.&a, r6J..8a (ThEckinger 129)' This torm gradually affected all eubstantives in -tU and soon became a ruling princip,le which hu ever since remained in tun force, as: .,.00 'All'rl.a, /yha, BafwUa, JlaTfla, 'Iotlaa, KaiGfa (all in the NT; great many more eumpl81 in Bdn. ll. 64865); .,.00 '~, 'ANPla, 'hH7la, 'upl'f'll, fiXAla, .,.apCa, &C. (10 in N .,.ov X~. IJMa, 7'oii Xoxa. etc.). The popularity ot tbia practice llince H is moreover expreesly attested by Berodian, who in the tn'l' teaches (ll. 665, 10) that the genitive ending -a had beoome _ : itri .... ,I, __ /Japvrlll''''' Id. .,..., "r -a ~ .,......., 01'01' 7'oii _ . nii 1IfIXACa, 4&IJpI";' ~ AI-to,..." T'1 KOINq llAMICTCP CYNH8M reNoMiNMN



Digitized by








(with Dumero1l8 examplee iD pp. 648-54)' lIoeria 241 .,atOW 'ATTIM, Ikcllla '1'6 '1', ~a.. ..u 'l'a 'EUrpf..a". Por ~ in -clt or -cIs - 287-290S78. The same tendency for equalization IOOD a4'eoted a1ao eubatantiwa iD 1f, whOle A genitive -011 was autmDated to the .." of the other endings (~65), .. : .....v DaIl'IoCp&n, (CIA. ill. 3519. 3459. 3464), 'I'Oii 'E",;;, AXIAA.Eaq, obraiTrl (for MWOW CIA. ill. 3513,3 4IO ~D.), 'A,alocAf1, ~, EVrix'7, "ATrI, 8..-,4"", W'ptIl'Jlwn; (CIG 5366, 170 ~D.), (cp. Theoph. 373. 21 f. 'l'oii AGraW'p',44raG"l'p' [cp. 298&301]; Theoph. cont. 427, .. -.u"W'O'I'a,..,v)-and thi.form i8 nowruliDg m Nspeech. (430. App. Hi 15.) fiB ]!'or ocmtnot.ed or parispomeDa in -'I'seel8ll-29Qo




S79. 3. The vocative singular ends in -4 when the nominative ends in ~ 88: ~ tnW'I'IIo -So too the vocative of ethnic nouns (1030) and compounds, 88: ~~.rooa, llipau, ~plpa..
280. Popular speech 8ince B has lUl8imilated the terminal vowel of the Tocative to that of the other _ (265. 432, (1).

S8L The vocative of &~ , master,' is , 8icnron&.

a.~ hu been preserved through the chuoh in the _ of 'bishop,' whUe the vocative 34tnoT11 (title of the clergy) hu giVen birth to a novel nominative cl '11I'ffOTfU 'the Reverend.' (Op. 386.)

sa. The form

S88. :Masculines of the 1st declension in -CS' are mostlyappellativea and. proper namea (due partly to Doric influence, 287), as:
,..,.tar, IIOXAiAu, cl&wTllII, -PXapllll, '_roplar, _tar,"III, EI~r, 11''1'1.,,,,m-, (cba}tlolzAaPTlcu, pIUIT'"f"!s, Evpia.r, Ipvlpia.r, 'l'pavIl4Tftu, ~"'III4"III, X'lJlllTlcu, 'Xl"l1I4'1'ltt.r, 1nI1I'Wiar- A,alftu,'A"",a-,6pa', 'A,.rWras, 'Ap'X,ltt.r, BptIG'13cu, rAawlar, rOfl-ria'1 'B1rGfH...w3cu, 'Bptulcu, 'Bp4a., K.\,wltt.., A_lla., J/IapfTtSar,

IJcrwaaolcu, IlfADlriIar, Du6a-,6pt1f, .,114., .,Aiar-Il4Aar, 'I6.\ar, ..oAIII, etc.

S88h. Those iD
-nJ", as:

-'I" are very numerOaB, especially appelIativea in

'Aplrru, Ba,...asa., Zaxapiar, IlaTllIII (1la1'TlllItt.r), 'IIAlar, TOII/Itt.r, 'Io4Ia" 2dnr, Tlpiar, ':r-Itt.r, OlIpia.r, 'ANrlas, rdAJllII, 'B'Y'1I1'IIll, 'I.ptpUu, 'Ar.pIar, KlAar, AwulAr, 1IaJoTIar, ~Tpia.Z 'oNrar, 1IGA.Aor, XtJIJpitt.r, M,CI'II'ciAar-'IMbo"",.-N rtIJ""., BaG'tAt]r, 'AI'CIC7'r'GCI't, etc. (Cp. 301.)

ete. ete. S88". Since.if common speech has added considerably to the number of proper names in - 8 and -q", and made either claas very popular, as:


AlfIxlntr. 'AAIrIScU.,r, 'ApcG'T.Eaq., 'H~A.I"'" D4pG'1J1, -""IJf-7'OI,MTP"I', nAt,..,., r,xvI,..,., ~4frnIs, G"I'paTI"",,, ~, W'poMn,., '".,a'l"1" n.,pI,..,.-OI.,.,., uAJpi" -p'~ "'~" "Mir, tI,pt...., ~, Al1ni.,


IftjIection of N Masculir1e8 1St DecleMon.

Sing. N. 'ArarItt.r, .,.6Aar, ",,'par, _rpcap'X'T', _p'njr, ..v,..,r pt6.,,'pa, .aTpcGpxq, _pcnj, I'll,"" V. Arultt., A.. 'Ararltt.', .urcSAa', pIz-,.pa' n:rpcGpX'1', _pcnj', 1'11,",,' ~ G. A...., p/ -Ipov, 296) _'I'pclJPX'1, -PCTrl, 1'IIImJ.




:a84h For the plural see 267 & 332 ff.


S81. Some stems ending in ..Qa and contract ..Qa to -ii, and to ~ (but -pia. to -pO. 369, HI), and drop a. or. before a 'long' 80nant (but see App. ii I.). All resulting contractions techDicallyand conventionally receive the circumflex. (7 6b.77.) 109

Digitized by



c1 SoppIu 'north wiDd,' c1

'I) "Ha 'miDa,' 17M4.. 'fig-tree,' 'Bermes.' Sing. N. "."a ITVlOi V. " .. A. "."a. ITVlOi. GIl" ITV.


PL N. & V. """"

D. IM'9


fJoppa, fJoppG fJop"o. fJoppfi fJoppf.



Epl"l" ',EpfM!.V Epl'1l

D. l"'Oi~

A. ~ G. "."."


'E","" 'images of H.'

:Ep,m Eppiiw


sa8. As expected, popular speech, ever since A, being UDcoll8cious of the nature of contraction (I ~6), treats contracted forms like ordinary cases. NevertheleBB historical orthography requires us to follow the ancient accentuation in forma common to .A and N, as: (;, z,) </Hucij, (;, z,) 'ri; n," f/lalCij", -r," 'ri"; -rijr f/>aij~, -rij~ !!ir; cS fJofHM (from fjoplGr. not from fJoppfi~. 155, Co 407) d" fJofH"", -rot; fJopta. So too all'Aij, a&II'Aij [11. 1187. In.A the number of oontraat.ed Dl8BC1llines in -Gr coDBilted in a few mmples traceable, as it appea1'll, back to Dorio in1laenoe (a77. a83). ThIl7 were mostly shortened proper names (petnames and nicknames), or appelIatives designating a character or occupation, as: Z'I"eir (for Zrpod ), M'l'rplir (M",.p63oIpos), M" (Mf/J'6&por), (RTCI)<tIa,..u 'glutton,'~, 'I'pcueir 'coward: Xlueir cacator' (cp.IAlrif, dAAi"a.ti., 'I'p'M, -rl'l'pir, 'EtU -G. -V-ros). Gradually, however, this 0liliiii of substantives, owins to their ahortneas and vigour, met with great popuIarity. which they have everainoe maintained in common 8pe8Cb. Thus P 8.o3cir (for 8t~), '~('A,. M1I'3por), 'A1t.'Eeir (,AA41II'3pos), 'ApN"cU ('ApT.pl3oJpor), Naw"cU (NaftpaXOS). (A_tb), A""cU (A"p./rrp'os), 'Emflpir ('Emflp6&-ros), 'Bp"cU rlr9~ IIoIpor), 'cm,uGr (,OJo4u'IlOS), Nu".. (NU,, 'OAulltrcU (,OAIlp.n6&pos), IkPIlIN. (lkp"...l",,) (+-lMo) ;-furtber G-B Aovair, K'l'fHi KAomis. 2-r..,...eir. 2..-r, :k.vir, r_'rir {compare CIA. ill. IU. 10-13 ::Icu'rir, AlOII1lcr&os, ZM7&poI, 2~, +oc1los, A'r'r_. ZQ/(1,,,er. :r.Im,,), Xp/HIeir ('I'oii XptHti Gr. Urk. Berlin 6,11 f.-t 158-g) ; 2apIJcir XpII(1i -roii 2apBi (ib. a4), 'IIpuAir (ib. 21, 5-340 A.D.), eto. etc.-~ (for ",,",-"(6po.r), ItOMeir, .,AMr, X'lAir, l1CI.... eir, 'rfIIhIAeir, iHrrpmair,, Aox-ar, ., .....eir. (1)(OCPir, p4XGOpir po/kl'l'ir, I1CIl"Bapir, AoI""rfOr, ftpo.'Tir, 'Afllcir. lrfIGI1ir, SfAo"''' n-frir, U/JI".,a" dBSeir, ~ir, ""Aeir, hABr. ItOp/Jo.Nr, pa,.".",ar. etc., etc. (for great many more apecimena _ Bdn. i 648-668). -N ....eir, Xf&Acir. 'YAGIO'ueir, ~, "4N"cU, ArAfllir, dp.nAir, llI'Tf11ir,, u''rOpir, ItOA.oo 1nIBis. IIfIOflPuBlif, mAapapcir, C.."..u, eta. etc. (cp. Theoph. Cont. 1911, 11 ICpclrir. 656,:Ia K~r. Cedr. i. 47a, a4 TpGX'lMr. ii. 607, 3 II&~ nioknamea.) (Cp. 1043.) 1871>. All these P-N formations, thoup not aotttally contracted, but merely abbreviated, are treated as contracted noUlUl, that ia, they are ciro oumllected after the analogy of .A (....,...)cIIqir, SoppcU, eto. The same holds true also for the P-N proper names and appelIatives in -fP, whioh may be traced back to Ionic in1luenoe, as: A';;., Tpijr, 1Iov(V)friir, ~ 'I.cri)r, "Wi" 'IapB~ - N 2-r1.,.";;', KaHJ'riir from Ko{r]lI"rID'7'iir (- X-lM'!W'r;;'os), A&o,,;;. (-A,OII1lcr"r), Ma,;;r (-MopWos or ,..or), NIRA;;. (-Na.cSA_), etc. For the spelling KGIO'TIII"rlr, AlMr, Moplr, etc., _ a98&: 301. sa8. Since G times also circumflected shortened names (mostly petnames or nicknames and appellativesl in -ii~ and -ijr (-it, -w; 343) are occasionally inflected after the impariayllabic or yd declension, aa :
PI The aocentuation ~ (u Kart. Petri., beldde XJIIIf7i'l'po..I,,,) ia both Jnatlo.Da1 and iDconafItant.


Digitized by


I'IBST DECLENSION IN N--2ND DECLENSION. [188-181. hV BotSi3or. 1k7'Tfilor, (Brdn. i. 51: ii. 657); m; 'Am a: 'AniJos, 'A.-oUi a: 'AnAAAiIor (CIG 3353), a:'E..afpiIor, ElJIIII'Ii a: ~, z-a a: ZMn'iJor, .".,. a: _".aaor (CIG 3143 ill. 10), z-a a: ~ 6&owni (CIG 3137) a: 6&0I'IIni30r (CIG 3343), 'Bpi a: 'S"aa.r, Borni a: BoTTiIor (GDittenberger 172, 4-m~ 4..) (also 1IcwTcWor); .,.. +aMriJ& (C1G 3393); '-ill Arch. IDlt. Amer. il. 1I.----roV 'Bp";; a: 'E"n;IIor, 6&cwA9 a: 6&od.ijIIor. KaAA.u.;; a: KaU.u.;jIIor (GKeyerl336; XflhnerB.... i. 136, 3). S88. This imparisyllabic inftection naturally aaggeated an imparl-



111l&bic plural in -ci&~ and .ij&~ (ao far as a plural form was admiaaible, as in the case of appellativea 290b ), and thia impariayllabic plural has ever since remained in common use, and even gained a wider popularity, as :
fcI~r,.--GIft (cp. and _waBlT(,.. found in 'literature'lmce 500 A.D., IIllejun. 1909 B wa..atT(",), pari3f., d/JBi3ff, "",,,p&I.., fnrt8&r, .ff/IGAti3ft,-N,.oAij&., 2"~r, llf",.M)lIfr, x-n;Bt., .te. (3gob.)


n}" ~ ";;' <t-ij. ",}" /Jopti" "oii /Jopra N" +a.,tr' t'oii +a..,a ",}... IffI1ni" m ....a ,,/r IlMiIrij" "oii 1lMiaf; ~ Kw";; ,,/w Kwpt' "oii Kw'" The plural follows the ani decleuion (367. 333 fr.) : 01 (4Pl) ..,piJu & ..,p&aft rir ("~r, nlr) 01 Boptillfs & /JoprGJu t'Olot IJopr8Jft t'iiI' /JoptlJlo/' 01 tf>a"JGIIft & ."....,aa.r -roW tf>a"JGIIft ,,0/' ~ 190". Compare ImIOIIC others: Theoph. 4450 30 (d/JIJis) d/J/l43ottI. 451 ..d,.,pSllfr. 451, 23 .,."p&aar. 445. 30 d/J/JIa&w (op. 405. 30 .... cIAAaat &nib 4"," ,..a1Ju .. v. L). CoDe. Oout. iv. 869 0 / (op. 908 0 d/J/JdIIcw). Porpb. Oar. 67... 13 d/J/Ji&ar. Theoph. Con" 145. 19 . .C,,.aa-. 438. 15 a: 439t I & 6 dT(.na-. 1"lriDch. 171 (tu41) ItollG'caaTCi3ft. 441 (h68) a: 451 Kpt/J/Jania-. 458~. 480 +Aoop..u_. ChJoD. )[or.Prol.I049"cMRt'G_,.",.aIIfr,ADd 80 OIl fmlr.mee: xoprunillfr, 3caAaA"riatr, ~r, If_iltr, ~r, eta. (up. 2119- GBatmda1de 385).
cS /Joprir cS ".,...,.. cS waftS cS ~,,;;r cS Kwpij.

180. 8peci_ 0/poJMlar N Jilt decleMcm contracted. ,; ..,pii 'mietreIa,' ~ ~ 'lentill,' cl fJoPfa, 'north wind,' cl ~ 'glutton,' cl ~ 'pneat,' cl MlIIl1icrij~ 'Moaea,' cl Kov"ij~ 'Jacob.' SiDgalar : Nom. Voc. Accua. GaD. 4 ..,pa & ..,pa "' .,;;r ..",ar


&~ & /Jopti & ."....,a & wan & 1lMiai; (1)

..,,,aa.. ""'..,,a..-


I 811B8ToUTIVES. leL The 2nd declension comprehends all nouns of which the Dominative ends in o()i or ofW. Those in ~ are mostly fJIGBCUline, rarely feminine; those in _ are all fI6IIter, I9B. This rule on the whole atill &ppliea to N. However, femininea in -os". few as th8f were even in .tt, have been farther reduced, one
after another havmg either changed gender (by merely adopting

80 _

iD tbe Sept. Num. 9t 2a-


Digitized by




the article 6) or exchanged the ending -" for that of -or (245. cp. 310), as:
.A. 11 (beelde t) cLrriAaII., IIpl-,vor, /Jt1.,.., P 11 "xh, "Ad.,..., 3odr, /J'I'fllmr, "RPOf,41{tw6Of, iU,.Ior; B 11 tNtOf, 1/+IIor, /lGJAot; N III.1A1'Of (besides t I.I'JAO), -"palf6r. RtnIjHIf, ,6A.Of, (-y)~, .lIpor. ""A6., ~"".; -P t dd6A.'1. ~, '2upa; N t npIJl.a, 3attftA.a, etc. (cp .A.-P I) .a,&ntor " I1ripror " -'I'f1, pIri. " -Iq. (lJfIfJIOf " -"'1, ""p.,- " -Fl, I.trlJoAot" -A'I, ete. GHatzidakia ~45 f.) llb. Aa a consequence, N now prelMlrve8 only a few feminine8 in _. and that 8ubject to rules 347, 263 and 338, &8: t I.p.p.o, /Ip6I1o, ~pIIo (K6paBOf),KU.rpo, ~o. MijAo, JM ("I6,). D4Two (IIci1'por), X&6, 'P61o, K4cro, eMo. (Cp. Chron. Kor. 137 "';;r ~I"rior. ~47"';;r DlAm...""Of.)-8ee al80 41+ I9se. Nevertheleu the ancient feminine form -or to linger Btil1 in 80me iaolated idioInB, &8: (Icaroa) t l./Ja1'or, tJ.p,-, XAor, 'P6Ior, Z4p.0s





298. .AJJ regards 'quantity,' the neuter ending -cl always counts short, and this still holds good in N, as far as regards accentuation.
11 word '

Sing. N. ).6yor V. A. ).6yo1l G. ).6yov D. ).0,..


11 'people' bijpor aijp.r




11 'man' hSJ'fI'6O'" hS/*rr. hSp."roll d.8pe.rrov

.,..) gift. U,POII ..




G. D. MYPlural N. V. ).6yo,

DaaI N. V. A. A6)IIt

aijpo' a;p.ovr a",..


w,..;.. w,..m..
h8pittrow h8pe.rr11I h8pe.rro&r

3itptp ... ......

aipa. .. ao./*II

A. ).6yovr

G. ).tSy.1I D. ).6yo", a~po", a.po", 194. The 2nd declension, 801 illustrated in the above example&, 8till survives in N, the only deviatioDB from A being that: (a) proper names in -or 8ometime8 preserve the 0 in the vocative, as: (li) NUro, D;.,.po, f'.a.pyo (from 6 r.a.pyor); (b) owing to the influence of the accusative and genitive plural (cp. 379), the nom. and voc. plural of proparoxytone 8ubstantives accent the penult, and this accentuation 18 regular even in South Italian Greek, as:
N. " V. Pl. ~'A.oc after dnfAoIII, dnfMw (cp. dn1Aov) " ftoAlp.oc" "oAIp.our, fIOA''- (cp. fIOAlp.ov) " UpiinnH" U,..OIII, U,.... (cp. ~v) " p.a-rfpOl" ,.."pour, p.a-rf,.", (cp. p.a..,.tpov). " d~6A.O&" dft0l1'l"6Aour, dftO/1'l'6Aaw (cp. d1rOl1'l'6Aov) 5. The _tuation dlp4Jwoc. advooated by some recent IIOholan, Is unteDable, since the queRion at iaue Is not about the uatlU8,' but about the JIltIu of accent. The plural of the and declenaion, taken in conjunction with the genitive 8ingular, has attracted, aince Jl times, a number of polf8111abic muculines in -af, which in .A. were in1Iected after the vd dec1enaion. Their accentuation naturally follows the above rule (39+ cp. 346), &8: 01 _p/JIto&, dpx6rroc, -,.p6rroc, p.apwpoc, 1lcup.6_.-'I'oii _plurou, dpx6Prov, .,.pdIl'l"OU, "".".upov, 1lcup.6_,......,.oii dM..,.dpou (CLeemans ii 33 [tUI-I~]). -nom. Bins- 11 dpuat, I.pxormu, -y4pt111'1"G1, pdp'I'vpar, 3alp.OIlGl, dJWnOpu (339- 346).



Digitized by




S8e'>. OoD..-ly, the popularity of ma8llUUIle I1lbttantivea m -er (339) and the beed of diaorimlDatlon between sUbstantives and adjeotivea in _ has recently led to the ohange of many proparoxytone IIlIUI01lliJlee ia __ to those in oar, as: p./rpptB (for ,w,.cpor), Il'fIOptB, lIdIJovpar (riBft.por crab ,), frroNr, nWfMr (nW7JAOf)-with pI. ptJ"yIpoa, ,,."poa, "a./JoVpoa (:196). S97. A couple of neuters form, besides the regular plural, an imparl. qUabio plural after the pd deolellllon: &. .,., 'dream,' pI. &...,.,. 11: .... fIJTd; w~ 'faoe,' pL wp6ft_ 11: ~Ta. This cdudoal peculiarity .un IIUrrivea in N, the aboTe I1lbetantivea having even received a further -.,mon in the B-N word ~ 'horae,' IIDd ..veral neuters in _ (4:14): pL ~ 11: ~, ItipIrrra (beside ,,4pIr,), /ldprJnI. (beIlde ""), etc. 198 .Just u the muouline ending -at of the let declenlion hu called into existenee a multitude of shortened names, both proper and appalJa.. th'e (287 fr.), BO too tbe lIllIIIouline ending "'If hu Jiven birth to many corresponding shortened names. 'I'h1ll 1'Il';"1', flGTpta,xr,I, II'xoAcipX'1', eto., Apaf1TfilrtrAAItls.aa.,r, ZoI"pd"1', '~. ' Apll'u"r--!A~, Al&t,r, 6&o~"r. DoAva.liqs, 6&oyl~II1i."/MHI'I""r, 'ApafI'T"""r, 'Apall'rOTIA"r, and all the rest ending in '""(I""r, -JIWf/I, of1"~, ."pG,"", eto., which had a1read, been identified with the lit declension (432), attracted proper names in -108 and lIhortened them to -is, that la to the familiar ending "'If of tbe 1l1li declension. TbJa hall bean partioul&rly the 0888 with proparosyton811 iD ('flOf) ....hich. hem, polyayllablo and oambrolll. 8IIIil,lent themll8lyea to abbreviation (1040). .Acoordingly 'A.~,.,Of became firIt 'A.oa;;,...r, then 'A~,."r (CIG 957:1) ; AWlor Av_ AIiqs; ~paor Serrij",r ~P'l.r; ~)(cor &,ttIx" ~; A,,,,rP'Ol Af/,.i(r1M 1Ii.",..",,; 'Anlfwcor'.briiI<cr 'An""r; Do,. Dofl4'Upar Dop4Nr.!'; 6&OII1'H7cor, 6&";11'11, 6&OII1'H7f/r; BMlAfcor BacrlAfcr ~. So further AwoAA&Wcr, 'A",I,...,. 'A~",cr, DUx'" rdir, KoV",,.. ADWcI, Aowrpfi'rcr. 11;;111'. 'OAtS,."er, DaptJl"er, eto. <an in CIA ill, index); ...,...,." BlllI'IlIMr ib., A6pfjAcr BITct\Hr (C1G 5700); 2",.&q" 1(0"",[.",; 2"",..,or 2T1l"pdIt.t ::t1'Qllpd."" etc. eto.---So also proparoxytone appe1latlvea in "Of [paroxyton811 iD -lor having becom.e ox;ytone ..6r 155, c). as : .upaor ripar (and linee 2') ftl"lr (then u proclitio title 'Xr. reduced to indeclinable rip); Wfp8urdpcOf ftplurdpcr w.~; 'AwplAcor 'A.pIA" 'AftplA".; tiprlor I14prcr JIci"",r; 116ror, Jldtr, IIU".,-aad the T-B nicknames IttWTOXI"", "XJIIIfI'0XI"", _oyl~, "olfTO"vr"rAaT1llr63rJt, AfI)(OtSa"., fl'TpalJo,.v.-"" etc. (AJlaupofpVa"r 4:14).-That the whole proee81 may have been initiated by neuters in -c, will be aeen in 30a t. see. Corresponding iDfiuenoea of analogy affected BOme P-B proper names in ..,0'/ u: 'AtJ~or 'A~CII' (1IoJIIz"II'CIIor, .cM6ljl'Cllor ....I'CII.), Elpt-.Of m,..CII', ApltlTCllor'A~r 'Ec7Tlacor 'EI7rlall, Hpacor "Bpacr. AftlflUor or ~ ,_" lIotSaacor IIOIIII'CIII. However,a nominative ending ... ('11, -CUI) being abnormal and alien to Greek declension never became popular. [This circumstance, b, the way, is an additional proot that neither 'I ...... then BOunded lilte e, nor CII like a-f, 37 it 48 it] 800. The N ending ... tu -+It oofftJe,' _rrlr 'clunoe,' "Mer OOIUlt ') is fbreign ancl of ~t origin tin Chron. )(or. cS lhC,.,Jr, 'FIlii NTC,.,J ~im. 44$5, etc.] 80L :tnatead of EfIota."r, lli.c-:.,."" 'APT"""", lIOIlle IClholara (I), following the





pre..tent lIfelling of the iJlllClriptiona, write ~I".r. 6&0"';11'11, 'An"'1I (or -&rll), etc., on the _ptWn that the ending "or hu been reduced to 'er tlmJagh the men c1roppiDg of _. a phenomenon without parallel in the Greek langaace. ()tben l'l _ in th_ lIhonanecl forma a Roman influence, and contend that ~r, A6,.Acr, ,~r (BO aoeented 304), etc., have been formed dizectly after the Latin ...".., AareUt, AntoIIi& But to begin with, it may be even diBputed whether th_ Latin forma are Dot due to Greek infl1lllJlce, the more BO ..

EASophoolea Glo-. 82 f. &: La. p. 36 f. ;



M GBatddakis 183 11: 3111.


. Digitized by




they 1lrst appear not 10 much in Home as in Greece proper, and that at a time (t I:> when corresponding names in -q are not ourrent in Latin. Then thia would be the only _pIe of Latin inAuence OD Greek in1leotion [for -Grof _ IOS2], and dord no uplanation whatever of the lUlIIlosous formation of diminutivea in -,I' from -101' (as 'E,..n-,I' from 'EpOtr'ol', 301). Lastly, even admittiDg a d.irect Roman inAuence in this case, it is to be remembered that the Latin ending-q met with popular favour among the Greeks just because it lOunded like -'If, a termination very familiar with them. Whatever may bethe oontention, popular feeliDg identified the ending ... with the -'If of the lilt deolllDlion. Henoe the ourrent spelling EU-yi""" A'IJJlrrP'lf, BaalA'If, which also occurs not only iD B-1( compoaitiona, but alao iD inaoriptiona, as: ~Hf, K.p.AAHr, MapTtGAHr, M'pNovpcGAHr, Dpoll'I'K&GAHr, BaNAHf, ICOIIpotSAHr, 'ICoWtlTpHr, '~OHr, &c. (ThEokinger 4\1), d.ervea unquali1ied preferen08. Forms like EVyo,ar, A'1JJ1rrpcr, BaalAm, ptJvpG"f'I'.,r (/COICICwo-yll'm, eta.)., with a genitive TOii EVyo", A'IJJlrrpc, BaO'IA.., ptJVpG"fo,fI, /CO/O/O'I'.,.,'I'''. etc.), besides their oddn-. are alien to the genius of Greek infleotion, which since .A began to show a oonatant tendency towards aimplilloation and uniformity (265-7 &; 327), reduobag nominal declension to the simple pattern of substantives in _, -'If, and -os (op. N ~, ffpo'O'TOr, with genitive 7'oV ArryoV, ffpo.tlToli-for the A Aa~, "PMO'rM, with genitive TOii Aa~, ffPOftrrWrOf);

'EpcW7"I', XD.pi7'l0l' XD.pi7'll', XpvO'lOl' XpuO'lr, "B1W-7)pllllIlIAal' (on a coin of .A.egion , 146-143 B.O., Or. Coins Br. Mull. Pelopon. p. 18), I"'IPnpcl', O'TdIlur, dpO'fI'' (cp. 1040 4: GBenaeler) i 10 too Jl-N 7'pa"'CI, .0, or )(fIr'" (174), /NGIt'", ffOTii,.", filii.", clrc!rr"" or hWr,, rfN)(d.,.", ete. (App. iii. 7.)

302. The convenience a.IForded by shortened 'proper na.mes a.nd a.ppellatives (287 IF. c~. 298), led eaaily to a.n a.naJOgIcaJ shortening also of their diminutives ID -10. (whether feminine or neuter) to c", &8:KaAAlO'7'IOI' KaU.lfJ7"., +tA'Ip.47'IOI' +tA'I"&7'II', 'AprI""OI' 'AprI""I', '~_


808. However, considering that, when the above shortened neuters in

appeared, terminal '1' had been identifled with movable or analogical-I' (uIl, we are warranted in assuming that the formation of this olaes of diminutive neuters was 1irst auggested by the preeence of corresponding familiar neuters in ... (39!)f.), such as: ".IAa (with I1ffo"..A" 'AaceS"..Aa, I"'IAO/A'1u, ",...o"tAa, 6u",,~!:,"'" crlMa, tTOpc, ICUcl, 1Coii_, 0'Ti,u or tlTE,.."." .,wG/Japc, ffmpc, O'lfJ.Aa, , 7'&111"., alraff' CN fJ,.iitr&), O'u'J(ofH, _pc, eta. (for many more examples 888 Choer. ed. AHilgard 343-5)-(cp. allO .,.a 4O'7'V,, pUv, plO'v, -XPV,lJUpv, 41"'O'V, eta. [where v and , are homophonous, 35 fr.), and 7'a i, "" xl, ".0, rV, to,I/tii, 9).-See a110 298. ... 804. Some reoent acholan, at the inatanoe of EASophooles (La. p. 35), accent shortened subetantivea, whether proper names or appeUativea, just as if the7 still ezhibited their full form, as: 2am7PIf (like ~pc"f), 'Arr4wcr, A""JrTpcs, ICtSpcr, ral,. (== l7'aipcOl'), tfla, (- 6.;&01'), .""",pc, O'lrOvA.\7,.., etc.; but such a practice is arbitrary and incompatible with the principle of Greek accentuation. Cp. 301 4: 347.

...1' 1irst


Specimen oj popular N 2nd declension.

cS u&pdS'. ' weather,' 'time,' ijtror 'garden,' &",,0S' 'wind,' ,.0 crii..o 'fig,' X-P'o- 'Vlllage,' {IvdIa" 'brook,' rr~l" 'child,' cIJ,;,}&" 'upper room,' ,""Ac" 'honey.' Sing. Nom. Gen.



II."or .,un"

_Ill" ".g.,.


-- -..

-= _- ...

_a _..=

Digitized by





308. The great majority of Greek adjectives end in ~, and lollow the 2nd declension. The feminine gender ends generally in ..." or -ca, and so follows the ISt declension (-441).

Sing. N.







+- -


D. DaaL N. V. A.,,~ G. D. Mai.





+- +- =

allUllor alo&e aUca&o.. alalov auuJ,p









+- -

" "

+- +- =


" w';" wqr


" &IUIW.. &alar



Plural N. V.
A. G. D.




Md "
+-... +- -


almlO& 3llUl&a alalovr " alol... +- a&IUIlolf +- -


w... waw


3Lcaw& ! a&mlor a&o;'.. allrolaar


The above rule and infteetion holds substantially also for N

cp. 2S8 & 3 U ).

307. .AB regards accent, the nominative and genitive plural of the feminine follows the masculine gender (contrary to
26 9,2),88: Maac. aUca&OI' 'jUBt' Fem. awJa

Nom. PL 3Ucmoa


[not &ulli..]. 308. A great number of adjectives in ~, chiefly compound, have a common ending and inflection for both ilie masculine and feminine gende1'8 (communia), wllereas the neuter ends regularly in -oil. Jl. & F. cJn6r, f./"por, rfauxor, m_r, fllT"por N. dpytS.., '11"PO", fuv)(o .., m_.., fIlT'IPO'" 309. Many of these adjectives, however, OCC11l' IOmetimes with two, sometimes with three endings, li0ii: M. N. F.
fJlfJtuOl' '' il"ljIM 'desert'


"aw&o& [not allUlicu]

a,1UIl... " a.....

fJlfJtuo.. f31fJa&OI' & f3-fJala ip'Ir o" 'P'lpM & 1p.;p.'1 ](P'IfT'p.OI' useful' JCP'IfT'PO" w'por & ](P'I1Tlp." cbainor 'guiltless' cbal",o.. hal"lOr & _"la. So further: p.G"a.or ' vain,' *IH').&por '1l8eful,' ~la&Or ' violent,' '''Olpor 'ready" haylUlior 'necessary.' 810. This terminal fluctuation, noticeable even in A, not only in adjectives, but allO in I1lbatantivea ending in -or (cp. 245 tr. 292), UI11med, in the co1Ulle of P times, greater pro,POrtiODB and eventually led to a complete aaaimila.tion of all femmmea in -01', whether adjective or substantive, to thOle in -'L or -a pure (cp. vita. SA 40* 0 ~i&" rr6pl/G& rral d&d"potral). Hence N now noWl adjectives of tmee endings only. &8: &ypG~r, lypa9o', lypat/nJ 'unwritten,' al_OI'


<''-,Ola. 155, 11), 3Uca&0', 4Lcaia 'j118t.'


I 2

Digitized by




SU. A further peculiarity of N is that, irrespective of their termiDal 'quantity,' an adjectives retain the accent on the I17Uab1e throughout (cp. 258), as: ~fJtI4T., indefatipble,' Mo{,pac1TOII, ~, UoVpatlToc, UWpal1TOtlf.

312. N


of ~ 2M aM lit clecletuiott.

~IP" evident'; 1LciUc0s,

mAdf, GAG', -., good '; clEWf, 1Ew, ~ able';, 1Lt/JIUI innocent.'
Nom. SiDg. IlllAcIt


!/xJwpdr, !/xJwp6",

Plur. IItIAot


""'''t '-or
+- = +-= ++- = +-= +-'" +- =


1.01 .,.,.pol

+-= +- =

_... _a

+- '" +-'"

+-= +-=

--+- '" +- ..

Sing. IIIIA.

Piu. After the 3fd declension (267. 332. 357"). IlllAlr +- .. _ .. (I; ..0.) Ilft ... '" +- .. (I;-ar> fu.p/r - .. +- ... (I; -dt) ...... +-a ..... ,1;_)

Ira ...."



+- .. +- '" +- ..

c. J'.annna. RA.

Ira" .,.,.1'4.



313. Stems ending in 10 and 00 contract to ov throughout, but drop I or 0 when a long' IOnant succeeds (op. 285 " App. ii. 9. 14).
6"," I mind'; ,.Il ~ 'bone'; 6 I) _ _, N " - 'faYOarable.' Sing. N. POVf doTcriiJl d_ ri1JI01W V. JIOii " d_ " A. POiiJl " mow " G. JIOi doToii d_ +- -

PI. N. V. IIOi
A. JIOiir G. .... D. JIOif


" doT..

.yNOII("",,,) cYNN I ,,_ " "".., - -


-- -




Digitized by




'pow 'report,'

cireamnavigation,' ri _POWII baaket,' etc. 8l~ After dJHW dllOUII are inflected ma1l7 adjectives, 801: 36cnoovf ill-aifected,' -s.o..r ' hoatile,' c1tr011f fooli8h, , ~ 'l.Wlttheaded.' (c1r)._) "')..." 'wmavigahle,' "ul'"AOVf 'Bailing togetlier,' .~povr 'fairly flowing.'-So too adjectives compounded with trOVI foot,' inaamuch as they form in 1'00/1 the N. V. and A. singular neater, ofte,D also ~he A. s~ar ~e, and f~iDine, as: (7'0) _ _ {lpa!vrrovlI, 3iJrOVll, tro).vrr_; ~ 3irrOVII, "'PltrOVII, a._OVII, belideB ~.).. 3ltro&a, .,.pltro3a, a. 31&. The dual does not occur even in A (229.633). 818. The uncontracted forms occur only in Ionic and AeoUc. 817. In adjectives of two endings compounded with W'NM-, MM, "'IrVO~ 8poiJ<;, the contraction is omitted in the N., V. &: A.

.s ;ow 'flow,' cS Bu,arp&30iir' grandaon,' dw')'oiir Davigation,' cS npiwAow

81811 So are clecliDed: cS




plural neuter: ni. ct-. 318. Simple substantit168 and adjectives take the circumflex over the ultima through all the casee, but COffIPOUfIds retain the accent of the nominative singular throughout.
819. Contracted and, IDt)r&Over, perispomena thl'oughout areI. Adjectives ending in ...or, which denote material or colour, 8011 :
(:xpIlttfOS) XJMItM, XfNtlaUr, )CJ1Ut1fj 'golden.' (4".$,-.) dp-ppo&r, 4rtvpli , of silver.' (".ot) _ _, dark blue.'

Yvru" -;; _oW.


2. 'Multiplicativea ending in 1')._ (Latin "1''"). (653. I), as:

(41rMot) uAoiir, 4"AoW, uA;; 'simple.' (III"Mo,) IIIIrAoiir, III"Aoiir, IS,,,A;; , double.' SiDg. N. }(JIIIfTfIVr .oiiJ, -ij dpyvpoiir A. ](pIIfToiill " dpyuPOUII G. ](pIIfToii ... ... -2f GpyvpoV

Aa ..,. .. .... the iDftaotion of D01ID8 of the 2Dd declension (wbeUler eoatraeted or n_) cobWdea with. thU of _ _traded adjeoo tiTea iD all the caa. ucept the DomiDaiive and aoeuatiTe 8iDgalar. Thia eoiDeicleD_ co1Ild not to IIIIIIOCIiate the two ~ with eaob otber, ad thus lead to the UIIimilation of the two deviatiJlg _ _ to the nplar fOmlll of the 2nd declension (654)' TbuaIIaADii ~ot, MIIAoIit. nlGiP, aaAGir 1II"~Aoi'. III"AM. /ktrAMr Ikd.oU led to 1II1rA6r. IIItrAO"; XJIIHIoii. XfNtIf-XfNtIrX, XJ1f1f1Oiir, ~. XfllHlOIr XJ111116r. XPfHT6". 82.L Compare P ISoMI, Ik"AO".poI, 6."AOnpor, XJ1IHT&-r.pos, ffO(ltlllll,M1npor (Ktlhner-Blaaa L 401 &I 559).~""lI6t Sept. Cant. I, 13; J4.5. I. 8, I. Theoph. 140, 31 (also 159. I ; 187, 33; ....5. 1). (654-) Xfllltl6r Sopbron. 3597., coin. '/op'yvpIw Tbeopb. Cont. 734,3. dtrAor Porph. Car. 379, 30.,-wp4nISoP (from .,...,.p4n1Sa) CWe.ely Gr. Zaub. p. u8. [Cp.lIoeria 360 IHrroirf ATTUIIft, irrlw '~. 336 'r{ll"Aa, 'rrrpa"AB. 'fl(IIntOIphwr al


D. XJIVfT' PI. N. XJIIHTei A. xpwou. G. JiPIXT.II D. }(PVfToir

- ... - -

.. - ..

-71 -si -fir

- -

dpyv'" --iy,.,poi
~pcill apyvpoir

-oVII " - ..


-a -a..




... -

- -

- ...





Digitized by




all. A. further peculiarit1 of N is that, irrespective of their termiDal 'quantity,' aD adjectives retain the aeoent on the same II1Uable throughout (cp. 258), &8: o.oIIflIIInS 'iDdefatipble,' dnlipacrTOII, o.fllljlClCJTrlf, ditoVp4tITOC, o.mlpGllTOllf.

;a"fP9 evident '; &caof,", /LcGICJI 'innocent.'

.. JiI.uo1n.nqa.

inflect_ of ~ 2nd and 1st declcfvitHt. ~. GAG', ~9 good'; ~-, Iltw", &fu.a ' able'; ~"pOr, tPawpi',
312. N

+- = +- = ++- = +- ... +- = +- ... +- =

Sing. ..,...


+- .. +- '"

+- = +-

--++- .. +- ..

+- ... +- '" +- =


....' "


...." .. I.traInI" Plur. After the 3rd declension (267. 332. 357 b). 1IfIA4r +- ... +- '" (& -cia)

+- ...


_ ..

+- ,.


+- = (& - ) +- ... (& -cB) . . .. ,&_)


313. Stems ending in 0 and 00 contract to ov throughout, but drop or 0 when a 'long' IOnant succeeds (op. 285 & App. ii. 9. 1-4).
cS ..nit I mind'; Ta &c1ToIIr 'bone'; cS" . . ., N " - 'faYOlllllb1e.' Sing. N. IIOW daTov.. d_ d_.. V.IIOV It It A. It M_ JI G. ... dcrToii d_ - -



PI. N. V. lIOi A. NUr


danj dari

.... -eYN011("",,,) cYN04!

dllOW d..... .. --



daT. dfn"Oilo 116



Digitized by


OON'lBACTBD 2ND DECLENSION. 813". So are declined: .5 cl3t->'4H30w 'nepbew,' .5


" PoW 'flow,' .5 Brr,arp&30w ' grIoDdaon,' .5 ..MW 'navigation,' cS ".pitrAow

circll1DD&vigation,' ri uPOli.. 'baaket,' etc.
81.... After " - ,,_.. are inflected Dl&1I1_ ~fIi.ea, u: aaicntov, ill-aft'ected,' ICcucdJOOvr ' bostile,' &!IOUr ' fooliah, , ~ 'liR1ttheaded.' (&..>._) b).8t/f '1lJlD&vigable,' uVl'"AoVf 'Bailing togetaer,' .~jJOVf 'fa.irly flowing.'-So too adjectives comIJOunded with foot: inasmuch aa they form in ...,,-OVII the N. V. and A. singular neater, often alBO the A. ai~ar maaeuline and feminine, aa: (orA) _ _ {Jpa!{",-ov.., aiJrOVl', "o).wou.. ; ~ .,.plffOVII, 01III,




beaidea ~II at"".' Tplrr03G, &


318. The dual does not occur even in .A (229. 633). 818. The uncontracted forma occur only in Ionic and AeoUc. 81'1. In adjectives of two endings compounded with 1I'MM, l'Oiir,~, 6~, the contraction is omitted in the N., V. &: A. plural neuter: ,.a~ .u.-. 818. Simple substlmtifJ68 and acijectWes take the circumftex over the ultima through all the casee, but ~ retain the accent of the nominative singular throughout.

Contracted and, moreover, perispomena thPoughout &reAdjectives ending in ...or, which denote material or colour, u :
()(JIIxs.fIJ) )(1IIIIOUt, 'XflllHlaUr, XP"ii 'golden.' (drt6fH o,) dnvpoii', d.pyvpoiiI', dnvpii , of silver.' ("for) auuoiis, AMIJ'OW. - i I 'dark blue.'

2. Multiplicativea ending in otrMor (Latin -plea1). (653. I), aa: (4lrAcSor) 4lrAoUt, 4lrAoiil', aAiI simple.' (/Ia..A&o,) a. ..Aoiir, a.lrAoiiI', 1,..AiI double.' Sing. N. ~ -oW';; dpoyvpow ..oii.. -i A. )(pIXToW " -ijII dpyupoiJII " -a.. G. )(pIXTOV ....... ddf'lt1~ -.. .ar D. XPW .... .. -11 PYVP't - ~ pt N. )(pIXTei ... -ai dnvptJi -i -ci


A. XJMTow G. )(pIXTiJ.. D. XfJVfToir






- ...






... -


- ...

Aa -1' lie - , the iDfIeotion of n01Ul8 at the Ind declenlioD (wWher collVuted or not) coiacidee with that fII _traoted adjeeo tivee in all the cas. except the nomiutive 8Ild aoeuative lingalar. This eaiDGiden.. C01Ild Dot to UIIOGiate the two with eaoh otller, and thus lead to the UIIimilation of the two deviatillg _ _ to the regular forma of the 3nd declension (654)' Th11&-



led to /Ia.. a..A6"; ](JIIH1oii, ](JIIH1f-'XJIIIIIIoc", XJIfItIf1Ur, ~, XflllHlocr XIfIIIIM. XJ"HI6". 8S1. Compare P Ioputl, a...A6".por, 4..A&npor, XJ1fH1n.por, npt/ltlplrrfpor (ltlUulerBlaa 1. 401 11 559).~16. Sept. Cant. I, 1 3; '4.5, I. B, I. Theoph. 140, 37 (alIo 152, I ; IB7, 33; 445. I). (654') XJWIIM Sophron. 3597., a coiD. 'ArfvpOr Theoph. Cont. 734, 3. dhrAor Porph. Car. 379, 30. nrp4wo1tw (from T.,.plnk) CW_ly Gr. Zaab. p. liB. [Cp_ Jloam 360 HTfIir 'A1'TUIIIIh, HTIoII '~. 336 "PI..AB, 'f"ft'IIGlrAci 'fIf/IIntDlpl- nl

MGAoii ~&'tJAol, IUIADtIr. ~ &CIA ....AcJ, a...Af-lllrAoi', /lalrAoiir, "-MW




Digitized by



""""" 'Arr",Ow /Jpax- 'EAA"._. 365~'" xaAd) dluupihlS 'ATT..&r XGM.or XcWt1a"EU"n.. XptlIlOU. . . xpurii 'Arr"&s vH.or xpuIIla"EAA".u. 376 xaAd)Ir. xpucrij.., 'Arr",fiIr IIuzA.AllpI_ Il~ -EU".u.) 811. The only nominative and &CCUBative singular which appears to be a genuine IIUl'Vival of A contraction ia ..cM, ..oW (with a modern pL 01 ..oUkr). The inflection or ..oUr ia followed by the rather dialeotal 6 ..a~ (..4....0S). Cp. also 6 'I'llioU


828. The 2nd declension includes a few substantive and

adjective stems in -Cd, generally preceded by c, This Ill, which stands for 0 and ov (6 f. 26 & ib. 6. App, ii. 9 if.), remains through all the cases and becomes 't' where otherwise 01. should result. The vocative is like the nominative (349. 377). 824. As regards accentuation, the terminal Cd counts short throughout (327. 393, App. i. 15, b). 826. This inflection is peculiar to ..t, and has for this reason been called the (2nd) Attic declen8ion by ancient grammarians, evidently because they knew it only from A writings (327; cp. Kllhner-Blaas i. 403).
6 . . . 'temple,'


(A._ 'gracioulI"

Sing. N. V, ",., A. 1'f.1'

Dual N. V. A. ...

D. "'


7>._ (1rf. & F.) 7>.1' (N,) 7>.11.1' " 7>... -7>.' _ i"_

G. D. -;.

_ -

7>.... - 7>..4pr - 828. So are declined: d ~... 'people,' d Ifd>..r 'rope,' M.I"'>._ , Menelas '; and the adjectives 'whole,' "AI..., fl'A1... (with fem. fl'Ua, 1st decL) full.' 'lCfI'~f."t 'ICfI'A.... 'completed,' dlroXP'-, ~,dXP'.1' 'worth,. of credit'; then compounds In -'"'p6)r, -',.>...., -yqp.... Finally,,;... ' dawn' with an accusative n)1' (J) I (412).

Plural N. V . ..., A. G.

w... w... D. "r;..





IT.", IT...

817. The 3nd Attic declenaion, if ever uaed in A parlance (Gp. HAc. 689, 6 (350 B.o.); alllo 01 .GAQII .. if from 01 ~r. like of 4,..,r, "15; 4t,axpI_IGB 3073 [II't B.o.], 37), retreated from the Ihiug laJ18W118 in the COUl'lle of P times, making room for the replar declenaiOll in -or: -SS, ArryW, 6,.0., .GAor, IInxpfor, etc. (Cp. 3(1). [Phryn. 162 ~ 6 'A'M'UhI Ilc4l ,.oU 06 ..... AIryO Koerla 351 ~ An...., fcAo'rIMrrff 'EU".,.&is.]
'Xflltloi CIA if.

828. The cas&endings of the 3rd declension are : K.!!'." N. M. &F. N. 14.&F. Dual Sing.N. V. -s Plural -cv A. -cz,(.,,) -If,["]f " " -Ill)' G. -Of ......









..a "

Digitized by




DECLENSION. [829-382.

828. Mark that: (1) all endings begin with a. vowel, except the Dominative and vocative sinQ'1lla.r maaculine and feminine, then the dative plural of all three ~nQers. (2) The neuter has no distinct caae-ending in the N. V. A. aingular.

830. I. In the Singular the accuaative ending -a ia attached to con

tion to the general method of indicating the object case in the ~ by a final -If. This peculiarity, aPl>lying as it did to the minonty of DOuna, came to be felt as a certain anoma11. since forma like MIfG beside ra,JaN, )(.ipa beside .ripaN, &>..,e.j b881de dya~N appeared incomplete and naked, and 80 called for the finishing -If. The earlieat traces of lOch aaaimilation go back to A antiquity itself, and the start waa aPearently made by contracted nOUDa, notably ).!roper names, ending m -~, which were asaociated or rather identified with subatantivea of the 1St declension. Thua "'~If H~, Ii&oy;"",., liql'''"" ~, Ap&lT'rarArjN. etc. occur even in A beside .,.,}If Impci"l. Ii&oyilfq. 1hI"",,6iIfrj. 'Aplt1TariAq. etc. Soon hereafter, if not aimultaneoualy, appellativea followed, as: "'P&9f1'/H, .,.wpqf1'/H. beaide "'p'qpq. 'rf'rpqpq, and 8lDce lOO B.C. (if not earlier) proper Dames in -lCAij... as: M.wlCAijN, A_&lCAijN. etc., beside Z",p:&To/C).ia. li&olCAia. etc. (431 if. App. iii. 3-10). From the III~ B.C. downwarda the instances become 80 frequent as to warrant the asaumption that popular speech closed every accusative singular with the finishing -If. (App. ill. Sf.) 8801'. Compare Sept. tlni.",.... daplllllN ...s........ irytijN, al'JGII. '&1,.-, Xf&pa.. IlatTIAIaN, pcwoyoijN. etc. - NT x.ipaN, 'Arnoxlorc, 4laN ..v.naN.
dtTfllAijN, etc.-lnlCriptional : ha,.... ~N. fvya.,.lpaN. X.lpaH. dlfaptfa.'FIIN. 4pXonaN, ......,aa... xdpc7'Glf. Ifl~ Olal.oaa.., &c.-end 80 OD down
80nantal stema, and the ending -If to aonantic, 80metimes alao to conaOo nantal, stems (3S8). The former then appears to constitute an excep-

App. ill. 3-6 4: 30. 38L Similarly neuters like ~au. y).v/Cu. vri,.&, I'f).l.,.&, etc. aaaociated aa ibey were with lC"'fl-. trcuMaN, fu).ON, etc. appeared naked and thUl ealled for the analOgical finishing -JO, as: .,.e) .."... "AIION. ".Al.,.IN, nijuN. iJllllal/JlAlN, JIII."rof/lN, "&.... ',","1,-,
For more particulars and referencea _

to Jl8peech.

etc. eto.-80 fwther .,.e) .plpaN. ete. For more details and references _ App. ill. 7-10 4: 30. aaa. H. AB to the Plural in P Greek, the two case-endings -ff and -as- of the nominative and accWJative masculine and feminine .hoW' a tendency towards complete equalization, due to their aaaociation (267). For apart from the identity of these two cases in all neuters (fvAa. 7lpG-y"""'''r m>.&, 'xovra .,.a, a .,.&.a. '/C~ilfa. etc.), sonantic .tama of the 3rd dec enmon exhibited identical endings in the maaculine and feminine alao. the proce88 beJlinning with contracted nouns of the atem character .. (391. 394) ancf gradUally extending to the other IOn antic &tema. Cp. al-nb tr6Af&r, 01...... "'Xllr. 01...... 1latTIMit, 01..... al-Telr NW <Phr1n- 147), al-rir .,pafIr, oI-TOW IS,." [11. oI'ToW -'AM [KlIeiBterhanat 101) ___..aJ....~ dA",ti'r, "A.,, ptlCCM. 01....0"8 ."'0111.

-.,..,.111, 'BAAG3cN, 'HUN. etc.-and T-B

'I,... N ""paN,

~Ca,..., /nfIGpIN, .O....a,.N. dcriilllN.



(I) Compare l'br7n. 137 01 IS,." oil AI-,-IIf. dM' 01 ISfllllfr TflltlVAMS.,, 1ft ~ ..... aJ'rIIITlM'fir ~. TOW fII-' I.ttal S-'-ir 'Aot~ he) Toii 01 IS"", (op. 327)



Digitized by






88lb. With the opening of G, CODlOD&11tal stems followed the proceaa initiated, the start being appa.rently made by the aecuaative of those propa.roxytones which liI.cked atreu on the ultima.
.,.em IAcltT.Ol'tr, f1V"fIOA.";'_tr, "...a-~, .,.cm IaIJ"OIflIlAaar(Ach&i& AFick m Bez. Beitr. v. 521; .,.oW AI'(OI'7''' Louvre Pap. 315 (153 B.O.); .,.lWs 11"'1""'" .,..AOWTtr, 6fjoAem .,./"tlGptr, IfIIII)(JI4r .,.1.t1Gpfr, 1",,/11 IX"'" ItnBtr, GKaibel 134 (Attica); "" ,n;l'fr ,', ,.".Iptr ,,' ib. 483. "vpuSltr Tpuuto.tllr (III~ B.o.) .,.ow .,u,."f' (often) .,.cm I'Vnr (often). JlcurflWu; ,,;;"u & (often), (all from mlcriptiona: RWagner uS; GHatzidaldI139); 1ptJxp4S'rI.tlGpt, I'lmden Petrie Koptoll p. 37. 28 (1"90); 'rlliIr'ff, &AAtr. GIB 358 (tI-II't). CIA ill. 48, 39- Louvre Pap. 333 ."wr _7fr; 3u (fts) -r-cm; Gr. Urk. Berlm 177 (1'47), of " 7 .,4f1111r T'1I1t1Gptr. 46 (tI93), JI &..crvr ""."lIptr. ib. 62 (tl99), 7 'fIIII)(IMU ....... 290 (tI50), 10 If1II'I("~ ""I1I1I1pt.. 301 (1'157), 10 "(,par .,.1I1 r. GIB IU (tI-II't). 43 'POIJAGlOc 4oyov1J' MaAI.,lIIIor (for -It.) ",AIar. 33 CtII-WJtl), 18 .,.oft ... 164 (tII-IIIrd), .,.cm ,.,oi.ovr .ov ......,. 338, 4 IfIIIIXP4r 0')'loI;""11 .,.111.aptr. 261 (tII-fIIs,d), 15 Il_u I . . IJTIITijp.,. 268, 3-3'f1111XJMl .,.lvl1Gptr (twice). 322 (tII nI~), 5 ,.,.as boylat.,OlfTfS, ' .,.u.IIXms. 276 (tlI-W~), 2[0 ",.as .a..ns (twice). GIB p. 106, 6J4 (tIn~,.,.em '..,..>.1_ n . (Cp. Jrlat. 223, 19ft& .Ac!ncr [read.AMn]; Tbeopn. 405, 30 "" ,..".. as v.t. Vita SA 18* .&. 'I"GIr IvITbo ISlopdltr.) (See a180 367 I.) 888. This phenomenon, though totally auppreaecl m the lISS of ancient texts by the classicalist and echolaatio Ipirit of the times, haa no doubt been all along m operation and progress, _iDg that with the flrat appearance ot popular M compositions (m the XI~), matan_ ot the nominative for the accuaatiye reappear almost witfiout number (op. Prodr.6, lor). In point ot fact, the phenomenon already constitute. the rWs, and every eubaequent atap MO"" a further retzeat ot the ... ending oar. Ne'Yerthele88 the prooeas, tholl8h it originated m H, haa Dot ye* come to a c1oae, for eeveral N idiolDl (al Chios, Iearoe, etc.) IIt.ill preIIUV8 the ... torm oCU.-For the nominati'Ye plural_ 267.
[In~ B.O.]).



&_"" pt"


834.. In the 3rd decleDBion, the first point to be considered is whether the atem ends in a consonant or in a sonant. This generally shows itself by dropping the genitive ending -oc (-s-). It then appears that tht' 3rd declension oomprehendsI. CONSONANTAL stems, that is, stems endiQg in a ooDlOnan~ which may be ata. LaIMl or ~ ('-1


/Je1fIqJ ('"

c. LiqtHd

a, 8);
., p).

/3, ~-, y, xl ;

(roctJlic) stems ending in(11), 11, GII, QV ;-ftI ;-1, .; v, .;-0, ... IlL ELmBD stems, that is, conaonantal .tema droppiJlg their final consonant before certain endings. 881. The stern character of the 3rd dealeDBion generally eoaleeces with the caseoendinga, and the resultant form fa determined by the two following phonopatbic principles : I. Only certain compatible conlOnanta can atand together (16g). 2. Onll a lOD&Dt and the aemieonanta ., Po r e&D ,tand at the enel of a Greek word t2IS). 120



Digitized by






888. From these two ruling prineiplee it follows that coneonantal stems retain their character whenever they annex a 8()0 DaIlUC ending (<<Np4~, Np4T-&, ete.); but they change it when it is not compatible with the succeeding terminal consonant, which here happens to be always rr- (t/lM/H, t/I>.#; vVlrM, VU"",, vVt); and they drop it when it is incompatible with the terminal "1, or when no ending whate"er i. annexed (180). 1Ja'1. Agreeably to these phonopathic principle8 :
.. Labial and guttural stem8 p~oduce
(lIDpaIl+er,) IlIIpaE' (180). b. Dental Items are dropped, &8: (,"11.",3 + r) budr, (&p"'6+ r)3pm (18o). Co Liquid stems eject er and at the same time commonly lengthen by
~, (;",op + r)

+and E, as: (4)A.fl3+.) 4>>",+,

antectaaia the precedingf to ", and 0 to. (164. 168.197),&8: (A.'I"II+r) too Items in -ollr-. . . (A.'OIlr + S. A..ON) A./.".


I. OoNSONANTAL STEJIS (App. iii 12 f.). 388. Since A, consonantal stems shoW'the most far-reaching change. and greatest 108888 incurred by Greek declension. With the gradual dropping of final P. +, E (219- 221) and the identification of final 11 with the accusative case (330). nominative forma, like "uTqp, XfI,.,., ~".., .ropaE, afE, q,A.I+, 13aer&l..fuf (- 980IIileti 407), WOW (= ypaq,f). became unpronounceable and there remained but three alternatives open to them: (a) either to make room for synonymou8 terms, &8: q,plap for "..".,a,(0JI), IlIiA'E for .,onjP&(o.) etc.; (b) or to adopt the diminutive ending -&011 (-Ill), &8: 3J1t1E &""XIO., d,,&.. d,,3cl.'OIl, ~p Sr,plOll, "pt. ..p&d._; (c) or-and this is the commoneatcase-to adaptthemselve8 to some other nominative t~ more convenient and familiar. Such a popular type was found In the 8Onantio (1st and 2nd) declensioDl, wmch had &cfopted -r for all JIl&8CulineB (2~l~;nd a IOnant (particularly -a or -i) for femininea (247). Acco . 1)" the cl&BBical final consonant P. er (E, +) being now inconvenient had either to make room for the received ending (-r masc., -a or -" fem.)-as actually happened in a number of nounB (cp. 439). &8 :""", for &p"", Great Louvre Pap. 361 &; 370, also CIG 1464010; 11 .,4,.. for -,I,.", (cp. 1IfIA/rtt,.. even in Pallad. 1058 8, Callin. 1% 26, e~.; Allflflr,.por Vita SA 9* B), X4por for X~, tp/JJror for a,a.-., a.Gaor for W- (Q-B fonn for hlcol1Or). u}(III'0r for &rx!l,.ti#. llAGwor for IIAlw [cp. JIaL ua, 19 TOir ..AUa.r (read "Ad .,); Tbeoph. 405. 30 TOi, I'vpcUi'J, dAA.Of for ~, ..,-tlTa. (G. -nW) for "po,tTT4Jr (363). W'IIIelr for""" i 'SGplTos for ~. Tel ~4po' for l1V~pOII. Tel .."..,cl" for ..p4'f1011 (as Com. A. 518), ,. xr. 6A.SnJ, I.m, for,. xr, ~, I..m,r (361) i cp. ,..,.,... beUW .,.,....;Or the more convenient ending -a had to be adopted. The latter

alternative had a far better chance of meeting with popular favour, owing to the presence of -a in the accusative (Telll "OT/pa, Xflp.6i1fG ; yiPOPTG, Ip~~,:;, .ropGICa, /3acr&l..Ia; n). al,a, rpA./fJa, dJcpi3a, ~M'1Ta). Thia vocalic en' W1UJ moreover the moat frequent-the accusative havingto .. great extent Rplaced the dative and genitive (1247)-and coDl~ent;l1 allO the moat familiar of all caae-endinga (Ta" x.'JI!M!a, and WIth prepoaitioDl .ls-, ftpOr-, _-, _0-, 3&0-, 1'"0-, "apci-, (citrc}-) WG-, /nrip-, .inee T times aJao -0, pno- [ - with], itt.-, riII-, ri. X",...,.)


Digitized by






and the most perspicuous, since it showed the fullest (impariayllabic) and therefore most vigorous form. It was the accusative ending then that lent itself above all other ex:pedients conveniently to the eJ:igency; in fact it was already a fiDlshed nominative feminine: n}.o1yo, 8vyUY'fpO, RlCpl3a, IIUICTa, o~.m".o,-q 0110, 8vyarfpa, dICplaa, "1CTa, dA6r'lTO. See App. ill. 12 f. 889. As to the masculine gender, it was very easily obtained by simply annexing the normal ending -r (263.276), as: TOIIICOPCUCO, rraTlpa, }(!'~IIG, -yiPOIITa, IlPXOIITO, fjaal).fo-o 1C01'fI'C1IC, frOTfpac, xn~"ac, -yiPOIITac, ipXolITQc, {Jaal).fGC (cp. 'l,pcucGf Vita Epiph. 57 B &: 60 A, twice; 0 eiryar Anon. in Porph. ill. 358, 9). Aa a matter of course, such new femmIne and masculine formations in -0 and -ar went over to the parisyllabic ut declension, the more 80 as their respective accusatives bad already adopted a terminal-II (330. App. iii. 5-6). 840. In a very few cases the dative, owing to its frequent use as an adverb, gave rise to a N nominative: (Tfj aoBfJ4T9') 7',} tlGBfJ4Y'o, (Tji 7'f7'pci&) 7'.TpU., (so even Theoph. Cont. 430, 1 .t 19 TfTpU.,,, nl wapacrICtv9,,). 1395. 841. Only in a few isolated and mostly dialectal cases is the ..t genitive singular still met with, especially when it is ozytone, as: 7'oii "..",6s. dnp6s, .,.;;r oywa&ICclr, I'1IXTcIr (op. also ~6s-dlllI'TOv, after fnrt6t-,."u; 354). This occurs further in neuters ending in -or, as: TOU I&rou', .AMou',

/J4Iovr, 1/19>.._ (-Iollf from (II)",,>"'}, after /JUor). 6pov'.

11. SolfANTIC STEII8. 842. 80nantic stems annex the endings directly and without change, but if short vowels should meet together, they undergo grammatical contraction (156b, 2 f.).
HISTOalCAL a_uaKS (cp. App. ill. 14). 848. In 801I4f1tic stems the process of transition has been much simpler than in consonantal stems. Forms like apvr, &/Hr Slim, TciE&r, rrpiE", owing to their terminal VOWel-I or -v being identified WIth the terminal-" of the 18t declension (261.298.395), were easilyaccommodated: that is to say, the few instances of the masculine gender were changed to the homophonous -'If (298), while feminines first dropped their final -r (which was the characteristic sign of the masculine, 26~) and then changed -I to -". In this manner, masculine. and femlnines alike have been assimilated to those of the 1st declension: ~", rr"oh (cp. ~ xa"" 396; ~ Y""q beside ~ ')NI'Gica, d &/>"r, apijr, ~ 338); so further ~ 1If.m" 0).0"" rrA_IOr" beside ~ oA.m".a, rr).ouaWr",-a, etc. (338). 844. In the!le N nominatives IOme IIOholara _ DO uaimllation to the 1st deolension, and cling to the spelling 6 &1xr. 6 Ipiir, I) &fe, nitl, triiXV. imagining that this mode of writing Uluatratea better the historical oonnuion with A Greek (301. 304). On this principle, however, they ought to write also I) 7'.,.,0.& and Y'i 11a/J/JO.,.. for I) 7'..,.pU., and Te) aa/JfJ4'f'O

&+", . .


(340; cp. 301).

846. On the general formation of the plural since A see 267 & 332 &'. 848. Aa early as H times, a confusion between the plural of the 3M and 2nd declensions arose, and the process has gradually resulted in remodelling many (mostly polysyllabic and barytone) masculinea after those of the 2Dd declension (296).


Digitized by





Compare vocr x",p4T01~, lupllfOCr, waftJ,,4TOCr, 1'06,,0", "fO..1wl1'" IGS 1-117 1787, 8 (cp. KilhnerBla.. i. ... 7); vl..wr RCollitz 149, 5; lu7O,4011 !4IS. I at 3; dp)(Mwr J415, 2-1; &TW~ ~for iHrl Phrpt. (1188 433, 15). IF Ap/IIJo&. Alchem. 346, 10. 347, 11. VOll .~.wOlr lilC. CP Rist. 29, 18; IIA4wovr Apoc. liar. lJ9. 33; vm p.rfIlTT"-r Syntippa i. 7, 82, 8Q; Vfl1ftpoc SCusa 151 <+1175); Vfl1Rpovr 616 (+ufS); vwr "(OPfovr F'I'rinch. 99 (+1 I 1-1); Vfl1110POC Chron. Mor. 5221: VfI1t14p011. 668; 670; 672; 4818 ; voW 'JUn.0IIf 737; ol 'YflVcWOC 7108 i-and 110 now 01 I1_A~, p,opnpoc, ..,a-. ."woe, 'YfpcSnw, "X6PT01, ete. (296). 847. Since the singular of the 1st declension h .. attracted the singular declension (265). the question ariaes whether the numerous of the nonna ancientl,. belonging to the latter are to be treated. in regard to aecentuatioD', after the analogy of the 1st or of the 3rd declension, that ia whether the endings ~ and ~ should be treated .. gr&nImaticall,. 'long' or 'short.' This is very essential, inasmuch .. it must be decided whether forma with a 'long' and accented penult, like ~ ~ wpat, (if correct 3#; cp. 34), al'l"l, 11 P"IPOr. iJ'IXU. XII,..",', ~ l1~pa'Y,3a, etc. should take the acute or the circumflex. Some BCholara, following the anal087 of the 181; declension, write ~ .,.,.,alm, o'I-,a, 11 ,J,/ItlS, iMlxor. xa,w.o. But this accentuation is indefenaible seeing that accusative forma, like n}r ~ af-,a, va .. ,.",.., IJII'XG, XflpOwo (with their plural .,.,.,at.... o'I'Yf~, ,....... ete.) are formationa of which the terminal ~ has not been borrowed from the ut declension, but is the very ~ of the declension (cp. P I) M,/Af1T,a from '" n}r 6,,.,,,.pa 384b); and since that -a was anciently 'short.' there is no reason whr it ahould be lengthened on ita transference from the accuaative to the nominative case. Moreover terminal -a in the Jst declension was not alwaya 'long' (op.pot"'" 'YNiKTl1a, ~.,a, and N 11 _panr, 'YfPOP7G', 'YfITOPOr. etc.).




Dumerous clB88 of neuters ending In -pa (369) and -~ (424) still preserve in N their ancient form and (at least partial) inflection. as: va mpa, tMf/,.", 01,., nar,po-va /JUor. wAGvor, 4101, wQo'Yor, IJ/Apor, ",or, Mvor, '4por, .4,&, vlAor, ete.-So too va.pIu (420).

348. Of all substantives formiIlfr the 3rd declension, only the


848. The vocative singular is identical with the nominative

if the latter is oxytone or has a labial or guttural stem, as: c\ v,.,., :, typ.tfw, c\ alfJ,OI/I :, aJ.()&OI/I, c\ IC~ :, IC~. In all other instances the stem generally serves as vocative (3 2 3. 3'1'1). dental stems naturally dropping their final .,. 8 () as unpronounceable. (I80. 33'1.)


8150. Monosyllabic stems,al80 syncopated liquid stems (383 fY.), accent the terminal 80nant in the genitive and dative of all three numbers.
BilL a. The follo~ monosyllables, If. (gen. a,acSt. 150, rl) 'torch,' oZr (1ncS. .f330 15) 'ear,' wan (wa&a.s,) 'bo,.o' girl,' TpcSw (TpMl~) a Trojan,' v6 f>&r (f*T6r) 'light,'-ars paroxytone in the genitive plural and dual: 111ilia-, tnala- walIoo.., etc. 8111. b. Monosyllabic participles accent the stem, .. : (h) G. &..Tor, D. h ; PI. G. D. oItT'; ('''s) 'inor, '4n,; PL ,frrrwp, '.il1&.-So too ... 'e'Yery,' th0118b only in the plural: wdn_, ritJ, (whereas sing. G. wan6s, D. '"'"t)o



Digitized by


3&8-818.] CONSONANTAL & DENTAL 8TEIIS 01' lar, ('A-,a,d"".",) ~ 'A.,.,..,.".". (~) dfaltr (257 b).



"8. In compo1Uld barytolUlll, the IICCent reeedea In the yocative DPAI:

364. The accentuation of the 3rd declension has aince .A timea naturally shared the vicissitudes of ita infiection. That is to eay, the plural and those few iaolated forma of the aingular, which still survive, preserve also their ancient accentuation, as: ,..ijw~ ",,~.', &.rp" QlfrpGt", 1"lfGias ')'11.,.';'", X&A&G&, x&~&aa,;," (659); m; """0,, 4IrnO. (but G. PI. 4l';"Tft,,), mpds (then p".,os "fM, anil after it "aii ~ 341). Aa to the singular, on tlie whole ita assimilation to the singular of the lit deClension has led to a corresponding change in the accentuatIon (343. cp. 347).

31515. L



.Labial aM GuttNral8tem8 (11', p, t/t-K, Y, x).

6 AlII,.

(Allcow) A1lthi.oplan'

,+ fA~) /6 ~Ml (~AffJ(fIIIAu-)


yein '


,. riAftI.,E) 1 (IhIX> IHtE (4FCiA...,.,.


Sing. N. & V. Al8lat

A. Al8iorr-a


D. Al81Gtr-,

G. Al8latr-o

4>).f{j-o, cpUA...,.. 4>) 4>6).01(-&





Dual. N. A; V. AiIio.... O. A; D. AII..s...o..



1TA"",.,..ft fhtX'" ITA,..,,.,.., l




I~ -.~

Plo N. & V. Al8lotr-.,

A. . G. Al8.orr-.1I

D. AlS""",-

4>Aifj...r 4>V'1UMc-., 4.ifl-a, 4l6>--ar 4.ifl-iw 4>v).--."





aa>.w'n-II fJ'Ix.....



The vocative is identical with the nominative (3.9).

8157. Popular N ItVfection

of Labi4Z and Guttuml Btmu.


"it ~1/Jar;-6 ~r, W~Atum, .,.a" ., S'XU, .; Bfixa. ,,; JHixa, .,.OD IHixa.

Singular, after the 1st dec1euaion (365 f. 318 f.): fAlBa. .,.-

"oD ~AGIIG & ~AMou (a!)6);


Plural (a67): 01 (or ~ [ti] 560) ~IBff. " ~ISff. -NI (.,.~r, ~, 561) fA'lJ. ~A./JGI":-oI cJlvAd.o& (294. 296). "~IN, nM ~AAl.our. 'f'iI' fNM-";cl BfiXfr & S;;xO&, 11 Jlfixff & lJ;;x", Bfixu .,.". 1hIx&'.


81571>. For the development of this popular idectioll of labial ud guttural stems in P-N apeech Bee 364-7 & 338-341.

h. Dental Stems ("" 8, 6). 8158. The accusative singular ends in ." (instead of ~) if the nominative is a dental barytone in -&" or "119 (330), as: .q xdpq 'grace,' n,.. x.&Pw; .q Ip&s quarreJ,' n,.. lp&,,; .q KOpvi 'helm', "'" Opw. 8158. But deat&l o~ea ill -lr or -w take -a ill the accuaat.ive
Iingular, aa:

"awls-' liope,' ""IIIA,..laa;


,; x'M.p.v, 'cloak,' "'" x.AapNk

Digitized by


"", c""..)
SiDg. N.

'b& ('A,"I-) , labourer' hope'


I"cl aDlII4 <l11li114"-)

bod,.' RpAI

'old man'

tS -yJpw (~porr)

I AII6cI, (A"'...,..'

'looeed $


V. " A. 8ijy-fl G. Ir,r-6t



Aft' .'Aft,a-a yi,PO"'d ~Jj;.,.a " .'Attl3-o, a/DptJ'M1f "P,POIIT-O' ~tJIN.,.o, Awia-, Av6ivr-, 'Y'PO""



.Da&L If. V. A. f4-_ G. D. .."......

Plural N. V. ~ A. iJijy-ar

oD. Br,-trl"



.'Aftl3-t, .'Arri3-ar .'Atr,a- .'Aww-,

".pD.,. "",.-a," y,poll-a,' ' Au&i-a,'


""par-a ..


AvSf.,." 'Y'poJ'r-Gr I )'vSlw-or


880. So are inflected nouns endinll in:-I. -'1r (G. -." iJ,jr) as: Kp';r' Cretan,' yvtnlJr 'light-annea,' f"Gff'Ir' carpet,' I"fh)" dresa,' fJpa3vr.j& & -(,r-qr 'alowne88,' ,.a~ & -Vr'lr 'Ipeed,' &E,6r'lr 'skill,' IT,"",,",' 'awkwardneu,' a&JCcucIT'I' 'jUlltice,' ).a,..~r 'splendour,' ",.6np 'fidelity,' and mlUlY other bar,ytoD88 in .,.", (-en,r and -irr'Ir.)


laughter,'.n.r 'helot,' lpolr 'lo1'e.'-80 too all participles perfect active ending in ~r (neuter -clw) whioh, however, have -Mor in the genitivel. as: )..Av_ 'having loosed,' G. ).,).v6ror, wffr8l8.r 'confident ' u. ftfff0l66ror. 888. In N this ala. of nouns, 80 far as the1111U"riVII, have moat}y gone OYer to the lit deoleDsion, AI: " flpema', lpema, (339), rarely to the :rod
AI: "

an Of this cia. of _bttaR". . onI,. abstract feJnininea in -Irrqr still _!'Yhe, and that in the modified form -cS"I or -cS""", (338), AI : 1MnJ, . " , d.oucr.on, (& ~), TClft'~ (& ~), ~ (& ~,,). 88S. :z. -.r (G. -oII'or, like iJJ/r), as: lape' 'perapiratiOJl,' 'Y''><.

"potfI'I'6t (318).

G. trll&~; 80 too woV' 'foot,' G. tI'036" with its compounds, as: tro).v.revr, 3ltrovr, rpl1rtlllf, ","pGlrol'r. 888. S. 1r (G. ~30r, like .'Awlr), &8: x>..op~r 'cloak.' 887. The number of oxytone nouns olassified under 36H which WII8 Dever great, has been considerably reduced in N in consequenoa of 338. 888. Like vOJp.o. are declined netdmJ ending in -p.a, which ate very numerous, and all barytones, 88: "pi..". 'thing,' .,pfll'P4 'letter,"Gppa 'coach,' 'blood,' trrijplll 'pos~on,' Sl10pIII name,' Blpplll 'akin,' anP4 'mouth 'lesson,' .vI'" 'waTe,' flYpA,.fllplll 'army,' XP9P4 thing' (Pl. ;;;iII4T11 'money'), 7'poVP4 wound,' etc. ete. So too !"A' 'honey' (G'/'fA'f"or). 888. This class of neuters in -pAl hili been preserved and even iDereaaed (348) by the accession of a great number of abstract femininea formerly ending in -11" (1024), as: 6t'A'I" (-S.'A9fTIr) 'will,'

-Por N " +*vris lea ~87 & 367. 886. 4- -ff (G. -l30r, like Awlr), &8: df1'fflr 'shield,' wair 'boy, girl,'

864. 3- -cir (G. -a30f, like .'Awlr), as: ",vyar 'fugitive,' '>.Aar 'Greece/ >..a"war 'torch,' "A4r, 3vdr, "pw, etc. (6S8).-In AGpnJa, "EUdaa ~H8), cl~Ad&a for doytAIU 'cow' (80 even in FTrinoh. 171 [tlJ49]).






Digitized by





'purpose,' d",fJatr"" (=cW/Jaa'IS), IttJ'l'_fJarr"" (... ltG'rcl,9aou). They form the genitive singular in .:QV (l~aroxytone) after the analogy of the 2nd declension, aB: rov II'pa(y ,..arou, ICTfJ,A4TOV, clllO,A4rOV, 7'OV IIft1l,.,mv (CLeemans 33 [tlII-IV~J , dara...~,..arou (Chron. Mor. 338S).
370. The great frequency of the above neuter ending -". in the lingular with ita corresponding plural ending '-".ft, made the occasional preaence of -". in the plural ("c,,,,,, ,,,,,.) appear abnormal and inauIIlcient. Hence when -". occurred as a plural ending, it was generally amplliled to !.".TG. after the analogy of the numerous claaa in -". (aWpa., .""pa). This proceaa naturally affected all those verbal or abstract proparoxytone neuters in .po. (1022) which made their appearance after T and became ever ainee very common. 371. The infiection of this new claaa of neuters may be iUUllf:rated by the following example: Sing. N. V. A. d.AAd/,po., G. dAMtpov" -o.Tor (B D. dAAatE". " -aT1). PI. N. V. A. dAAdl.". " !.cmz, G. dAAat1pow " -cl"", (B OD. dAAatlpou " !.oO"1 CGL 643. as a,- 4p'j, .MAIIMA 'U Ta lfa,Au.w... Porph. Cer. 157, 14 d.AA.Elpara. 441, S dAAatlp4nw. 779t a dAAatl".ror. 7, 1 " 137, 1 d.AAat1pow.Porph. Cer. 86, 13 pATGO'TUlp.tII'. Acbn. a34, a JIATOITT'GO'lpllTG; 10 too Theoph. Cont. 430, a. 47a, 19 ,..-racmIO'lp.tII'.-Porph. Cere ~3, 9 adllp.tll'.-POrph. Cer. 194, 1 tlTr#".; 10 too aos.... aos, S O'T~p.ov.-Porph. Cer. a,S, 3 " S UElp.oI'. a,S, 6 hEip.ov. Theoph. Cont. J4a, 1 kEI"... 371. In N "Ilu follows the intlection of diminutive neuters in .. throughout (303- 35), TOii ".luoii, nll'llull.

8'18. The popular P-N inflection of dental atelDB (so far as they have been preserved) is indicated in 264,-7 it 338, and illustrated here. 878b Popular N injIection 0/ dental stems.
Singular: 4dAcS",,", dA6"J,rilrdA6"JrrlIA.laa(6".taa 187),", lA.taa, Tijr 'Ariaa.; N " A Ta ,"(pGl'pII, Toii ,"(,."P/&TOV (369.~71);~ 'pomar, Ta. 'poma., TOii 'poma;-d -,lptWTlIr. ra '"('po ....... Toii '"(IptIIIT." '"(.p6.,..ov (296). Plural: 01 (or 'A.II.., nlr (T~r, ....r. 559-5(1) IAtftltr;-nl ,"(pGI'pIITII, .,... ."."p/JTOI';.-l .,.pcSrroe (296). ToW ."plwTovr, TGi' ."p/wnI'.



Co Liquid stems ([A] '" p) (335 fr.). 874. The only stem ending in A is found in the word nos 'salt,' which in A generally occurs in the plural ~. cl aIM> cl htp4w cl aatpow cJ .oe,. cl II,p 6 fJrr-, (al\ (htl'W-) (1Iac1'W-) (_"...-) (",,.) (firrrop.)
'lip (


N. V. A. G. D.

aIQn.-or aIQn.-,



t=:.. =...


'pide' htp4w ht~..-a. ht~..-

'di~ty' 'shepherd' 'wild beMt' 'orator" BalJ.WP .001"9" ';'p Balp.tll'-a. .011'1"-0. 9fjp-a. IalI'O""Of ~~ Ialp.ol''' -"",1 V'lr


!T. V. al... ht,.,s..-.. BalJA'W-f' A. a.lQn.-o.r ht~..oCU Ialpo.,.a,r -1'I....r

G. alcIIao..,., ht~..D. alW-..,. htp/Nn

:=:... :::.. -I'IP"',



_1'1"_ ,.""... _1'1....,. ",p-tIl"

teat,' 1If147ip (ltflll",,.) 'm.lxins-bowl,

875. Further examples: lu,J,l' (A',..... ) 'harbour,' cl."w (cl,.,.,-) '000~p ("OIf'fI,.) '&aviour,' ~p (up-) 'air,' alll,p (alBe,.) I &ether,' . ., ,.-,.) 'thief,'-and I18Veral adjective. ill .., (472), as: cl .,., 'fatherlea, 'motherleBL'

ilI'' ' '


Digitized by






RBJuRK8. 878. The nominative singular usually drops final ~ with antectasis, if necessary, as: ('If'Ot~) 'If'Otp..qv, (/nrrop~) /n'rroJp; but (&.\4>'~) 8U4t~,. (la..\apIM) la..\a,..k
877. The fX1C4tive singular is identical with the nominative when the latter is. oxytone; but it is identical with the stem when the nominative is barytone, as : ~ 'If'Otp..q" ~ 1rOI.p..qv, ~ &r1JI-fIW ~ &uj.&cw. (3 2 3. 3049.) 378. If the character is 1', it is dropped before the ending -fA. without antectasis (337, c), as: (&up.o..-m.) &r1fUXT'' (Vycp.o....



879. Popular N injleetion o/liquid stems (cp. 338 ft.):

., ](f.pGwrtr winter,' et kip",' demon,' cS d4pas air,' wind.'




3al/'OlfCl ok 6I'0Il




d4pas Plural xpliwtH

+- +- =0 +- -

3alpoN" d4pa"



lI<up.6_ 114,.. ok .ipoc

3alp.6"ollf d4povr

3alp.6".,. d4po1'

380. The inflection of liquid stems is followed by adjectives ending in "fIIY, -oy (especially -p.uw, -p.oY, 469), as well as by the masculine and neuter of the few adjectives in -G11, -41', -QlJId, of which the neuter exhibits the pure stem (446), as: ~, .q cUa.lp.wy, .,.0 d&up.w happy'; ~ p.D.D.11, TO ,"MY, .q pAculffJ, black ' (4.6 f.~. Neuter Fem. Maac. & Fem. Neuter :Masc.
Sing. N.

A. .Malp.o_ G. dJl1alp.o,,-or D. eMatp.olf-l

DuI N. V.A. daal,aot..

V. -'11a&".,..

.Ma.p.oll " " +- = ... -



"lAa ....

".'Aa..a /AfMlI-Or /Af).a..,




" " ..... ... -

s: ID



PIu. N. V lJI1olp.o...f eMatp.o_ A. .lIl1alp.o.-ar.. G. dJaaJpM-_ +- D. fll3aip.o-"," ... ""

/Af).QI'04r I").~_ /Af'Aa...a r . .

~ ~


".'Ad....... /Af'Aa.",
+- -


.A contracts the accusative singular, as: {JiA:rlw {but P {Ju.:rlwo.},

and the nom. and ace. plural {Ju..no11<O {but P

38L So too comparatives in .LWI', -lOV, with this difference.that

aea. This cl... of adjectives hAIl altogether dieappeared from Npopular qeech (cp. 3181.


Digitized by


888-887.] LIQUID .t BONANTIC BTBJlS 01'




888. Owing to the dynamic character of Greek accent and the facility of blending T with Pt the following four 8Ubetantives in '"'"Ip: 1lUn1P (1lUnp-) 'father,' p:IP7IP (p:rrrcpo) 'mother: 9vy&.T7IP ( 'daughter,' and ~p (')'CU1Tp-) 'belly,' suppl'el!l8 the vowel f of the stem in the genitive and dative eingular, and at the same time develop an epenthetic + before the -a". ofthe dative plural. (App. i. 16.)
8aa b The vocative lingular aooenta the tlrat ayDable (257b). Bm,. et ...Tltp. anp. Ta.. "'I'Ipa. 'I'oV (*nnptlr) ......p6t. T. fltl.Tpl; PI. '" flGTlp" rrIl'l'4per. ToW ......4,.. nU. "''1'4,... TOir (*nTtpGal") ......,.. 884. To this class belongs the proper name A'It4nIp, 'Demeter,' viz .; A",,T'IP, :, 4';"""fP, nj. A';"""pa, n;r A';"""paI, TO A~I"I'I'PI.

884b But in A';lrtrpa, after the 1st declension (347). 886. In their inflection, the two words uqp (0",-) 'man,' and dpq. (Gptll-) 'lamb,' also suppress pre-tonic f, the former moreover developing an epenthetic or euphonic -a- (131. 188):
Singular. Plural. N_ ~ ... l.~r lp-." V. h f p . . .. ., A. l.-B-pa Ip-N h-l-par lp-.'JI G. .t.-I-p6t dp-p6r .t.-I-p&;. cIp-..&iI' D .t.-I-pl clp-1If .t.-a-pGac" clp-vcLt," 8118. The popular P-N in1leotion of aynoopated stems has been adapted to that of consonantal stems (338-339). Aooordingly et "''I'lpar (beside an indeoliuble form et "Tip 'father,' zt" (title of monks], from .aT.". found even in Vita Epiph. 76 .t. et .a'l'fP so lb. J); op. 282); t) """Ipa., t) Iv-raTIpa., I) d)')GCr'l'fptJ (Crete). et ha,a. (lrr,at).-AB to 4'11';"""" and ""' the former, after having been remodelled to 4ltptrptJ (a84b), disappeared with the Christianization of Greece (OJ4fr.), 1t'hUe 4pItP (In ita aecuaative form tIpPa) gave birth to a diminutive dpIIfw, which in ita N form dpI'l naturally follows the 2nd declension (305).



Do SOliA.lfTIO 8TJI)[S (884. 148).

887. a. Substantives in -IS (G. -&CIr) and -ut,

chtr (<<r-) 'weevil'




et /Aur

et 'xliis (lxHr)


Iv-r Iii Iii-. Iv-?r IV-'



Sing N. Id-r

IxtN-r (l)(Hr)

" A. i-II G. ,-0, D. I-t

DulN.V.A. ..... G.D.........


Piur. N. V. i-.r
A. (<<is) G. ,-w D. ,-err'


'xBv. lx8i1-or 'X8i1-i

Ix..... Ixev-.

1". I....err'

'XBV-er, IX8Vr lxBiir 'XBiI- 'X 8j,.g,"



" aGp....or



Digitized by


SONANTIC 8TElIS IN -tf, -Vf, -t.


pariJ;r been mocWled after the analCIIY of other rep1ar forma of iDiIeotion. been ahaDaed to 11 Ipiir (...s) or rather lpijr (343), while I) ~pUr - ,mm birih to nl .",wa. (.34, b), 11 OT0XV'to,.a cl]aftXI, I) wEnr to 't II'I'I'V4.
'!'h1lll I) .ptir -

888. After is declined only the poetical word Ai. I lion.'-Both /C" and Air M8II1 to have been foreign to popular llpeech even in ..t timea. 888b After JAW and 'X8W are declined: d & ~ ITU, or " fltJW,' d (Jarpw c11l8ter of grapea,' I) &/Jpur 'eye-brow,' ~ ~vr 'loin,' ~ ap~ I oak,' ~ "iTVS 'pine,' d mXW I ear of-com,' ~ 'Ep&..vr 'Fury,' etc. 389- In popular N all alKml aublltAmti'Vell (387-8b) bave partly become eztinot,

880. The neuter 3Upv at.W formlUpuw.


in ita alternative and more reguJar

88l. b. Substantives in -JC. -vc. -U, -I (G...~). I) 17'r1icnr I) ..sAi, 11 ";;XV' ,.a Gtrrv ,.a fllflfp& I faation ' I town ' fore-arm' city' pepper BiDg. N. crrdcr" ".6)." "'2XW &r,.u mfp' V. crrdcr, ".6)., '"I](V " " A. OTalT'. treSMio "';](V. " " G. OTalT._ tr&Af-1DS '"IXfet".... trm_pplDS (& ',os) D. "den, ".6).f' miXfI cfaT" trm_Pl'
ua1.N.V.A. nUt.


G. D. '"""'-'







PI. N. V. cmicnll ".6).", tr~}(f" &rn, trmp" A." " " II " ", G cmicn-.... ".6).fllO-II "';'Xf-.. cfaTf_. D. "an-IT," ".6)._," "';'Xf-fT, cfaT.-", trftrfp,-tT,' 38S. All nounll of this claaa are barytone. Their stem character in the nom. voo. and accus. singular is .. in all other cases f. The latter


undergoes contraction, though only in the dative singular and Dominative plural. 383. The endings ... and -.... of the genitive singular and plural counts tiIwrl (324 if. App. i IS, b; App. ii. 9 & 14). 384. The accusative plural is asaimilated to the nominative (332). 886. .After mITIS and treSA.&I are declined all barytones in -ITII, -E'~ r.... MU], -",IS [=trITII], which are very numerous and mainly abstract I'eminines, BB: lepltT&I 'judgement,' rpVITII 'nature,' otlTB"O'lS feeling,' ~ persecution,' ItriSflTII 'attack,' troi'IIT&I 'poetry,' "pOEII 'action, I ,+&1 'looks, I IE'TotTlr 'examination,' trp6t/lolTar 'pretut.'-Further manY' other barytone maaculines and feminines in -cs, BB: ~ citadel,' lTfta.,ar ' scarcity. I ~ avJIOpu ,strength,' ~ "llTf'lr ' faith,' t.fJp&r , outrage'-d &1>" serpent,' d ".a.,.,.II 'Beer: 898. Of this numerous clllllll of substantives very man,. abstract feminiD.eB IIUl"vive in the modified form -c, -tTI, -E', -1/1" or rather -., (-O't1, 3043 f.), as: I) ~0't1. flpOt." &fnJ, flpOfaa", Bm".,. ft'"'l ;-110 too 11 &ti&r or rather &FIr (U3). BfY1. After"';;](III are declined only two nouDS: cS JrfAUVl 'hatchet.' and trpltTfJvr 'old man,'-wbile &r,.u is almoat unique. 888. Of these four words N hall changed ';;l(1If to I) ';;](V or rather ~ (3043), to the diminutive Ta flfA/Ie., while flpI,,/Jur and Itrrv have, for obvious reuCDll, become altogether extinct. 398. After ,'P' (which is a. foreign word and does not actually occur through all the caaes) are declined many other oriental (mostly 129 X

-E", -",.,

Digitized by




, -v, .


Egyptian) substantives in -I, which are all fIIUIw. However, both their form and inftection lluctuate, a.a: IT"","I it ITtllfDr' (in N 1T1P1i7r1) 'muata.rd,' TOU ITlPcUr,/IW &: ITIN"'IOf; aJao TO 1TWr,trV &: 1T'JHJ1n/ &: 1S1Tt-, TOV lTivo1l'll_all for the .A Mitrv. Further Ird"", 'gum,' either indeclinable or TOU IrOpp.nof " IrO"",aOf (cp. ltop.",.a'F &: lto"",&a'F). ~i", or /TT,,,,",,, TOU -lfI)f, -f/IW, it -&aor (beside ;/TTip&r or /TTI"""" /TTa,.w.). KlwGfjap& (a.lso rlyy<i,9capI) 'cmnabar, G. (beside IS 1r1JllNif3ap&r). UIT.>'I (also IT.').I) 'Tordylium QfficinaJe,' beside ~ IT'n>'.r, G..... Kiltl 'ea.ster-berry,' beside rijr ItUc,/IW. e>.licnr" beside ~ IJAtimtw, -Even """,.pI shows a. variety offorma and cues, a.a: G. frftr'JH/IW &:-cor, beside IS """"PI" A. -IV, G. -,aor, D. -,al; Pt 01 tmr'pla", G. -iatw. 400. It has been already observed (303) that the presence of theee neuters in -I has, in all likelihood, auggeeted the change of neuters in -c.. to those in -," (also -co. in -er or '"'1', 11gB), aDd thus eJrected a wrlform in1lection.



401. c. Adjectives in -de.

M. Sing N. ">'Vlr~ V. ,.>'VIrV A. ,.>'Vltv.. G. ,.>'VIr'_
Daal N. V. A. G. D.

..v, 4a.

'YAvm, 'YAVlCU, 'YAv.tia 'sweet:



+- -

ete. after the



D. ,.>'vlt.i yA"".. y.wu.....

- -

_ '"' _ '"'

ut declension

Plural N. V. ,.>'VICfW A. " G. ,."A.Vltl-_

D. ,.>.v,u-IT,.


" +-+- -

401b So are declined numerous oxytone adjectives in -wo as: IeMt 'deep; 1Jap6r 'heavy,' /Jpa3w 'slow,' ,)Hr 'sweet,"~ 'straight,'''''''' 'daring,' ...~ 'thick,' ftP 'swift,' cIrd. 'swift,' /JpoxW 'short,' kcrW 'denae,' '{,pvr 'broad,' ,,w 'sharp,' 3pc,wr ' p~nt,' IfAGm 'broad,' rpaxW 'l'Ough:-So too the barytonea lijAut, IijAv, //ItA (Q-N ~r, lw, .), 'female,' and f$fAItIW, f$,.tlVt ."'erllo half' (Q-B f$/MerM [as: 'BfnIII. drX. 1886 p. 158, 15 ft. f$/Mererov, often; Gr. Urk. Berlin 142, 15 (60 A. D.), rdlfout BVo t,..lerovs], whence N /Mero.; also indeclinable f$/MtIV, BB: Gr. Urk. :Berlin 290 [tI50] & 139 [t202]. 13"sa.. f$/MtIV. 888 641). 401. This 01_ of adjectiVeB in -~r is still aubatantially preserved iD N (as 1Avm [IlIJaTl rAyKicp from 'YAMIM Alchem. 310, 3].1JaHr, .AGm, traXW. /JapfIs, 3pc/AW, Ilau~r. etc.; a1ao .payW i.epaIr (, 'tame,' and has eYeD encroached upon other c1aaaeB of adjectivell, as: pGlCp6r (80 even in Kartyr. BarthoL 2) for p41fpOr, 1fIIC,M (and by metathesis Ifpcltrir, Crete, etc.) for ".pOr, d./lptlr for d.3p&r (but al80 converselY'YAv.dr, a recent formation due o If'lr,,.ss).-With regard to their N popular inflection, their itaciatic ending (u"""O has naturally cauaed them to pall over to the pariq11abic lit declension (34a), namelyK. N. F. Sing. N. TA_. ~ TAwt. V. 'YAvtW tt A. 'YAutW" " 'YA: ..I ' " G. 'YAu.(,)oG TAlrIC(.)oil 'YAVlCtciw 'YAvlr,cI, PL N. V. 'YAUN A. 'YAIr)o4r " G. TU. .)IiI' -



Digitized by


408. d. Substantives in.... Theae are all oxytone maaculine, and seem to have originally had cF for stem cbaracter.

Pl. N. ttacrWir &-fir

DulN.V.A. ~

an. ~

D. flauiA.v-v,

V." " A. ttacriAmr, P -fir G. ttacriAi-."

408". After /lalllA", are declined all the Dumerous lDIIIIOUlines in .Ils, as: ' AXlAAfW Achilles. Ifpttlr :priest,' ~ mUJ'derar,' dJllllopttlr 'am. phora,' DflpalM 'Piraeus,' dAifllf fisher,' '03tHrlldw Od:r-us,' .P/A""""'" interpreter,' I_m 'rider,' ~ 'b1ackmrlth,' T""w 'lICl'iyener,' .6AIpIm 'Dorian,' 01 'YO"flr parents:

40&. Substantives in ~ change their original stem character cF to cv (51. 63) in the vocative singular, also before IT. Every where else cF is reduced to simple c, which undergoes gram. matical contraction with any succeeding (short) voweL 406. Also aabstaDtivea having a vowel before fV are often (especially in ear-IYA) contracted in the genitive aad a.cc1Mlative einguJar and plural, as: n'&pG&i"" & nflpcuGir, nf&paWa & Dt,pcuQ, 'EptrPli.." & 'EpR',,",'" 'EP"'p&ar & 'EP"'

4.08. For the acc1J8ative sing1alar -iG, P writers and inacriptiODl often show a contracted form -ij, 88: " . ttacriA~ (CIA n. 161, :& [:&80 B.C.], l.~, 'Ypa~. This form, the occurrence of which in common speech is reflected by the Tragedians and even Homer, has met ever SlDce with wider po:pularity, owing to the general tendency towards a uniform inflection (264 ft'.).
40'1. Aa a nomiDative endiDg, -M (that ill ",. SI t) being incompatible with N phonology which admits only a ample final -r (318 f.},-the diJIl ea1ty was obviated. by treating nouns in .t~r like co~nantal stemB (338). Accordingly /Jall1A4. gave birth to 6 /latM4ar and by synizeBiB /IoII1A_ (155, IH:) or rather /latM'Gr (a861[.) [or /1at1wir (155, a)); ,.a. . . .~ """,,ir [ 01" "",,,.or], ,.a" )(GAJrla-6 XaAMGr [or XrzAKlis), &C. Mark, however, 6 'Y'I"7it (nU -yew;; Corn. B 10a).I.pijr (-406), beside 6 ,.plor (out of deference to church) " "plr (273 t).


4OS. e. Substantives in -oOc and -aGe. cS. " flaw 'ox,' cow'; "ypaw old woman.' Bing. N. {3oW ypM PI. N.V. (Jo-tr V. fJoV yPll! (Jour A. fJoii-" 'YfICUI"" G. tlo-Or ypa-dr fjov-fn"




D. fJo-t






o .& ;)CM eumach,' also cS JIOur

cS pg 'a measure' and in P . '-while the inflection of ypaur is followed only-and that even partially-by, Nur 'ship' (433, 11).

4OSb After fJoVr are declined


408. ThMe few noUDa have altogether cliaappeared from popular N with the uception of "... wbich, agreeab17 to 407. haa been remodelled
J[ :I

Digitized by





ainoe H to 'Y(1lUG, that ia N 'Y(1lUa [or .",, i.e. 'Yn' 155, b-c], and then oontracteci to (Cretan) 'YpA (16g. cp. 285).

410. f. Feminines in 4 (also ), Gen. -<m. Vnr.8w persuasion,' Val8Wr shame, awe.' Sing. N. ,mS. al36J~ V. fff&80i A.,m6o, G. ",.6oii~

D. ff.&80i

No Plural. After ",.8. arede.clined many oxytone feminine. in -.. mostly proper names, li0ii: ~ 4}'o, echo,' ~ ~f"o, health,' ~ AfXo, , lying-in woman,' A",*, Letor KM,""", Calypso,' 'EpaT*' Erato,' 2atn/* (Sa~, 56. et 11' I7l b ) Sappho,' etc.-Their nominative and &CCUBative, though contracted, is o~ne. 412. After ala.r is aeclined only ~ 4- ' dawn,' for which, however, .A used ~ t inflected after the :and Attic lIeclenaion (326). 413. The above feminine. in -. and -.~ sometimes form their plural after the common :and declenaion, .. : N. V. Aftrol, A. AIp'o&ir,



A'1"ci., D. A'1"oir. 414. No appellative example of thia cl... _ to have outlived T (B pI"IJ [Suid. "lfrtnr " pi", and Achmet. 135, a8a Tj pi"] is apparently & acholutic paraphrase of Nor ratherTurltiah pDllAOii 'ape'; A'X. has changed to AfX0iH7a or MlXoWa). However, proper names (inVariably feminine)


in -ell, used as pet-names, appear to have had an unbroken currency down to the preMAt .time, as: P-B "./WJ, KaAAlm. Afcu.TQ" JII.4paI4I, Xapcnlr, .~ .."..,. Ko,."ftl 8fOAtA'1T4I, 8 .,4I-N XprH141, 'ApyvpOJ, Jlapc1* <also "clllap&6,,}, 'A~;J, 'AyytA"', BacraMt. Aa to their inflection, it has been shaped afterthatloffeminines of the popular and decJenaion(ag2b): ,.. +..., KaA.\&C11'&ir, AIarrIUr lcp. Tj Aa".OlG 255... 70, Crete; thoqh cp. 26,).

4115. Masculines in
Sing. N.


D. '1/HP & "per' 4J.l5b. So are further declined: cS 6.,' jackal,' cS ""per and pJ,rp.~ 'uncle,' Mw_ 'Minoa.'
41S. This small cl... of nouna is unknown to N popular speech. For forma like d ffpMzr, MlNlGr (1st deal.) or lIrfiVor (and dec1.) have reoently been reintroduced into the language through the literary atyle.


V'IE' &"eA. f*G

G. -c.JOi. c\ ;/Xft 'hel'O.'

Dual .,....


.. .......

ELIDED CLASS. 4J.7. The class of elided stems (334) consists of numerous Bubstantives and adjectivee. The former are all neuter and have in the nominative singular the ending 0(111 and most commonly -OIl; whereas adjectives end in ~, -Ell.
417b Neuters in -or and adjectives in .."" u, contract by analogy.".. t.o
-f1II (inllf;ead of.pG, 65, 186". a6gJ. as: -Td &pH, ("cl. n)r Td)




Digitized by






418. a. Neuters in -GC (G. -A1W, ~). TO ftpar 'wonder,' TO ICfpar 'horn,' TO tcpiaJ; I Besh.' Sing. N.V.A. ftpt# U{HIf pEar G. T'i~ "ipar-or & Jptfi "ptotr D. "par-I "ipar-' & i(lf pE,
Da. N.V.A.
G. "",,_


a,4.... " 1ft,.." [......2.1 .,....[""""'r]

....... "....


PL N.V.A. ftpar- & T'ipi Jptrr-a & Jpi ptG G. n"m-.& ~. D. ftpG-fT' "fpG-IT' ..pta-IT, 419. After T'ipG~ is inIlected trfpt# 'extremity,' while i{Hlf stands alone in ita inflection. 420. After piG~ are declined T'~ ITAar 'splendour,' l7f/M'Aar 'stool,' Ihra. 'bowl,' yi{Hlf 'prize,' Y;;{HIf 'old age,' ITmar 'cover' (421. 424); alao "/Jas 'awe,' which occurs only in the nominative and accusauve aiDgular, with ITifJ'I as nominative and &CCUBa.tive plural.


4SL In the COUl'llfl of P times all the above neuters &llllUlD.ed T' for stem eharaeter, thus following the analogy and in1leetion of .,./"".. and "Ipar, namely: ItpiGs, ItpiGTor, ItpiGn; PI. ItplaTA, It"'-'-, 80, &Aas 'ealt: and 'ripa. (but T'OV 'ripoyc Leont. Neap. V. S. 1677 B; T'fj nP1 Callin. 95, "7 I: u5. 30 ; Narr. Zoe. 10!,. 10). AI time went on, this P in1leetion led to N ItpiGr, Itp1Tov (after .,~au 369) ItplaTa (I: Itpt6.TG from 1tpffb 155 k), It"'"",; 8imilarly'ripar has been remodelled to N ri -,.aTftG " ..,'.l -ppa or -,.pGpv.-ra (<40), while "t"".. Btill 8urvives in the PL ri ,,;paTG (op. N 'Ill"."". , plUlll8g8 '). AlBo IIlt4"as 8urvives in ita P by-form IIlt1nr.



4I2b Neuters in -oc are believed to have originally had ; for stem character. According to this hypothesis, the primordial .. has been retained only when it was final; but when it occurred between two 8OIWits, it was dropped (elided) and thus gave rise to contraction (cp. 156 & ..4.pp. ii.9 & .,.0 &poi 'mountain,'.,.o ntXor 'wall' Sing. N. V. A. &pos T'fiXor Pl'&P'1(417b) nIX'!



G. &pollS


D. &pt,

{dPffllll) 01*"




418. 80 are declined all barytone neuters in -or, which are very numerous, as :IIIp10r 'gain,' ItpUor 'helmet,' E7~r '8WOrd,' IIItIAD. <leg,' 'flower,' plpor 'part,' wUor 'BUffering,' 'paBBion,' &II"lJor diagrace,' fDos 'form: _;,or 'width,' ,,;;cor 'length,' 'IIAijlor multitude,' ''''or ' people,' or cuatom,' lGpfTor " Hppor 'courage,' .Ipor 'lIUDlDler,' lfNxos 'cold,' ,,""'Of hatred,' \fIeUIJor 'lie,' 'fib,' 'IIIAa:yo. 'open - , ' ,fu.,or 'pair,' x.i).or "lip,' ...rior uteDBil,' ItpGTOf 'force,' TlAor 'end,' etc., eto. 4M. This claBB of neuters, which are mostly abstract, i8 substantiall, pr.erved in N (M8), and has even re.ived many ..-ion8, by attract iDg other form&. Amol:lf II1lJ'Viving eumples mark: Ta &,0" /lUor, .AciTw, 'T'o" dior, fMppOr, .Ipot, TIAor. ,upor, dAa-yor, "ilros, 'viotory'

.,o.or' gender,' <race,' "or 'habit' Blor' fear,' 'T'or 'year,' lGA"or 'warmth,'

1JGlor 'depth,' SOpor 'weight: /os <height,' pl'Yflor 'greatn88ll,' <size, ,




Digitized by


ete. P-Nformationl : .,.e) MSor ' error,' )(p4or' debt,' wAoWos 'wealth,' "lwo~ 'cover' (.po), ..lfc!.'cloud,'.pfi..or 'lamentation,' 'ice,' p4.,.po~ 'measure.' ",,.v-,o. 'vintage,' ..ailAor 'fare,' 4trr~ (beside 4trrpd') 'star,' "wAAl)("or 'meroy,' 'tendem_,' tPiiAor (from (")"AtSr)-for, ,u,o. (from plUfptS.),.;;"01, etc. So nl 34..a,n, or 34...,.", (FTiiDch. 11 [tIOOO) aoa,n,) for .h3pa.They are now all declined as follows : Sing. N. V. A. G. Pl. N. V. A. 6por lpo'" 6", wAoiinr wAmOtl' .\ recent wAD.!...OtI wAotm,


424". A further N peculiarity of this cJa. of n81lten in -or is that the plural IIDding -11, bavlDg beaD milltaken for -I, that la for a nom. aiD. (P . ), was in IIOID8 _ ampliAed tc -H + A or by anaJ.or7 to -lA, and thuled to a Dew nom. ling. in 1-, as:
.,.c) nfjIor

= it!::::: :: = tt,::: ::








,,/J/llou " ltippov


& ~ntsu.,...a (397) HPf1/I.... HPP"f"I"


'breast' " "1I4Aor ' leg'

" Xa").o, 'lip ,

...a ~& ~~+a),,~

" ,,/tINi & ".A" + a) ,,/tIAla " XRA" & + a) X.iAAa





Adjectives in
K. &F.


G. -cor -Q (Masc. & Fem. ~, Neuter ~).

'kindred'; cS


,,~~, rO rTV'("ff"r

9 a.lJ8Ga",.
K.&F. aMG!",

ri aIHWu

Biug. N. rTV'("ffl'ljr
A. C7VYYm; G. lTVyynoiir
Dual N. V.A. onon-i

N. dSa3ff


ononMPI. N. V. A. ""YY'"l. C7VYYm; aMcia.w aU1ci3" G. rTV'("ff"&.. a~ci3"".. aUAi&-v,' D. ~-"" 4Ub So are declined numerous adjectivel of two eDding&, &8: u,.fHlr ezact,' 1IaI/I.~t 'abundant,' hA"""~' 'expelllive,' ~ 'clear,' claefHlr' impioUB,' clcrfGA.r 'eeeure,' ",..n,s 'favourable,' ~r d_t,' w~P'I' 'full,' dAv""true,' '1'11,0..... 'temperate,' wPfII'V' (65) 'deolivitouI,.

---... ....


alJ8al1., all6ci3., aMtil10vr







... =

~ falae,' ~r



'invisible,' "~~ , docile,' f'~ 'happy,' ~ 'simple-minded,' IfJpW3r,. beastly.' &0. &c.
~.,... &8 in

for stem character, which manifests itself in the Deuter, as well


This claea of adjectivel is believed to have originally had

the vocative singula.r of all three genders (cp. 422).

417. The accusative plural is identical with the nominative.

U7". In fJ-N apaeoh the ~ft Iinplar IIIMG1Iline and feminine _cia liiio in -ij, after the lit deolanalon, aB: XP"1III'rfri Gnat X-V1'8 Pap. U72'"3o w"..,.ofarij, ".,..,..."...,;;, IIMTIxap9 ib. 1794-50 (See 265 & 4J2. a.)


Digitized by




os. b. Adjectives ending in . . contract to .a instead of .;;, whereas thoee in -&~ and -vVi admit of either contraction, as:
(ft., n)r, Td) .w

~ ~ ..,;,.. the accent reoedee everywhere almlpqr ae1f-8ufticient af1rapICU

"'rai .~ ""'rail (llaert. 341 "'rai 'Anu&lr, "'raf)'IAMJI'I-.] 08. c. In compound barytonee, other than thoee in

..... 'need,y,'



"'ra~ 'health)o,'




(cp. 257 b), as:


fTVf#JrIr common ~3qr 'haughty'





418b So too ~P'+" trireme (acoUL -{Jf1, 417b ).

ing the feet,' nlijpu, etc.

428. But ~r 'fragrant,' &" ~cl tUiaer (not dWtrl), tro3tjl"1J C reach-

ao. Popular feeling begAn &8 early &8 .A to identif,y the nominal ending "" with maeculine ~ of the lilt declension (378) and to treat it accordingly. Thus beside ft~ Tj XWfT.iPL Phaed. 3 ..9.&. and et 41im,r. we meet : TW 'Em, 01 n)r .EI.,.... PL Lea. 79.f 0 i .,.", "'pcuovrom.r Rep. 7, 59J .&. i lI'...,.."aorrotlnu Legg. 670 .&.; ml.,.., .6"" Ar. Eq. 1388; !flUids CIA. ii. ,,33, 13 <Vf B.o.) ; 'II'O'I'.Aoii KlrIellJterhan... 107, I .. (lIlt B.o.); "'pcfTf)p BulL Con. Hell. 1890, 163; ...a.. 6ncv. .a..lnpr, ' ...""na/Tolrr"., Dio C. 69, 17; w.....7j J08. Ant.. 15, 9, 773; 110 4 tIVy', Wywlr; thell .,.'J4J'f1Cl, xaAn/JOpeca, t)lv4nca. clpT.I,,,,a, etc. (for 4 4pt'Yf~r, xaAn/l4iJtr, etc. Kllhner-BlasII L 5....) In the coune of P, thil conluaion !pread wider aDd eTentually turned all adjectiveI formerly ending in ""I' either to BUbatantiVeI in the aen. just referred to, or to adjectiVeI in -os, the latter alternative having met with greater popularity (_ 1151 ; cp.I'IA'Ol . . ~_ for 'EdJAflr . . ..a..4IAfI', Bull. Con. Hell :u. 33; 10 further ~or for AA...."r, UdA.lI')(or for UoAIa-X'I'), &I : .,.", WywcM Leo Gram. 359; Gr. Pap. Br. KID. p. ..6 (1 ..6 or 135 B.o.), 38; ib. p. 79, "35; Great Louvre Pap. 357.., alIIO Gr. Urk. Berlin 153 (tI53), aDd CLeemua puBim; 4,uIIor. 3tinv)(or, 4SAaIJor, d1rpclJ6r,~; ",tvIcSs Leo Tact. 190 13 ; ~Aor (FTrineh. 16 [tlOI6])' etc. Hence even Latin noUDI in -ie alao -I'et by their Hellenizatlon, remodelled to nounl in -to, (398 If.), &I : ~OJ. WtAAlaptor, flptpA1l'aMp'or, lI'ovAuwipcor. lrOV,wAAcor (curulliI), UTIAlor (hutile), 'AlI'plAcor, A~IOf, lEu".MiAcor, dA~II"or. (algenenlil), 'Al"''''''''or, .~IOf, eto. (TEokinger 133 f.) The ultimate result 01 thll proceII W&II that N now knOWl only adJectivea 01 three endinp (..a8).







43l. Proper namee in """ follow the infiection of adjectivee in -1'IS (425 ft.). However, 80 far as they do not end in (~) -~~, they form the accus. singular in -1J or -1J1', after the 3M or 1st declension respectively (330' 43 2).


l"'Kp4"1 & "Ill I l-p&"'CM l",,,pan&.

Digitized by




'Eftov.ijs, etc. ;-61~IIIJ" 4101'~a'lr, 4rIlUXT8."'I', 'ApulTOT.A'Ir, 'ApcfTf'6~r, 'ApuITO",,,,,', noAlIpdn]r, 'ICTOpcin,r, noAlI..' . , ~lrA'Ir,

481b : So are declined: HpaV.ijr, 9.p'crroU.ijr, ZCJC/IoM.ijr, 'AyaSoc>.ijr,

TUTfTot/Ifp""r, etc.
432. The tendency to a uniform inflection manifested in the coune of P times (264) led to a gradual aasimilation of all nouns in of the 3rd declension to those of the more convenient and familiar 1st declension. Accordingly P speech inflects all proper names in -'I' after the ut declension (265. 280. 330).


'EXIK"arq, 881.,,,,,, (GUatzidakis 77 &I 380) ; """"~' Jr1IKr",,"vii, INnrxap9, Great Louvre Pap. 1794-6. (427b. App. iii. I R .) b. Accua...", for -81 (300-200 B.O.): MWI.A"v,',.".",o.A;;". A1If1IKAvv, E'K>';;" (KlIeisterhanB" 15'; 80 "Etr1K>';;", SE_>.;;' (ib.), 'IIpcw.;;', 4Io.AV", etc. [Compare Phryn. 134 'lIpaK><fa, O.ptK>.Ia, 8./,,~ n)tr 'O'xarqv ><f.,I, dMa I'~ 'lIpaK>.ij.. KGI D.pc.A;;' Kal 8f/UO'rOK>'VV.] Co Gen. -011 for -OIlS (400-300 B.O.) XtUpt,.,1v01l, 'ApcO'rOK"arov, 'EpoyopltroP, 'Arrlf4r01l, TlpDttp4r01l, 4'1IMN1,.ar01l, 41.1"011, A'IpD",I..OII, 'EtnrlAov, ~I .,11'011, 'AptO'r~..01I, TlpDO'OO1l, +"0lil0011, A'IpDX4poV, Afl..ottp4rOII, eta. (KlIei&terhans" 106). So further: 'AO'rv.,lv01l CIA ii. II58 (a85-284 B.o.) ; 410'11""" 1745; 'AptO'ropa,01I 1747; 2458; 3131 ; 8focflhOll 1709; A.EI,...."" 1923 (bis); +iA.oK>.I01l 1937; ~14rA4011 1~3; 8.,...,I..ov a067; ''"t!!"OKUOfI 2077; 'Av3poK>.I01I 2145; 4I_0'f1""" 2232 (bis) ; A"I'O",lrov 11358; E91U1'1111f111 2508; JUfoa,I..01I 2844; lII'aO'I'1'rov 2979; 'Ar3porilv01l 3132 ; ~I-rI""" 3183; DpoITO'flvov 3277, ete. etc. d. Dat. -,. For the dative we ha'98 no IJUJ'e criterion since R and , were freely interchanged in P-Q times (26, 5; cp. Kllhner-Bl888 i. 513)e. Plural. 01 A'IpDllloGl, 'ApcO'r~ (Hrdn. ii. 697), 'ApulrOf/har (PL S)'IDp. 218 B).

Go V00. OO>'II.AV BCollitz 1206; 4Io~a., 1210; 'Apt~ 1191 ; 4GorpurAij 1215; 'A-ra'o.AV 1243; 80 81."", l!iltl'OlffE", (Kllhner BI888 1. !i13), Nlo.AV,

I. "AP'lr (cS' Mars '), V."Apu, A. "AP'I'" G."Apno" D. "Ap''' With the introduction of OhristiaDity, thiII _ , lib th_ of all defti., Daturally feU into oblivion. (015-017.)


-yd),a (reS: Inilk ')'. G. ydAacror, D. yd).acr&;. Pl. ydAacra, G.


D. ~aEI. P-B. G. ~or, D. ~ ete.


The P-B by-form ,.lA-, ~I, &0., has led to the N declension: r ,.L\a, roii oyaMr01l (369), ra,.L\cara, from which et oycWarir 'milkman.'

3. ~ (reS 'knee '), G. oydl'ClTOr, D. oydNn. PI. yeS_a, G. )'OJ"Iinw, D. oyd/IQm".

In N re) .,waro", zepIar.

V. ~ A.".",.wca. G.'Y""D'-, D.')'1IIIIWd; DII& Pt ')'1IJlGUr.r, A. ')'1IJIIIUror, G. ')'1IMIUCQ,P, D. ~l". Accentuation similar to that of d~p (:a57 b 385), with which it
ywain, G. D. ~;


~ (~'woman'),

naturally a.B8Ociatcd. .,.",;;r (ep. Antatt. 86. 12 oyvral clrrI 'fWtUltff, +aAl_Ia.,,' Aa...."'C.tUs : FTrinch. 114 [tll2l] riir .,.",;;r), but ia now obmlete, ita oommon form. at pnMIlt beiDc

b. Thia subetantive nrrived down to 11 ~ in the form. ~


5. Mp" (reS spear'), G. Mparor, etc. like yeS".,. The dlaul8 of the weapon hallIIIturaUy led to the eztfnction of the _

6. Z.ur (cS 'Jupiter,' accent after 9'1CFM, (jau&Am), V. after fI, 9'1"'.v), A. 4la, G. 41cSr, D. 4&l.
For N

z.v (accent

above (433, I).


Digitized by





'/. 8pll (~ a hair '), A. rpl)(G, G. rp'~, D. rP'xl; PL rpl,,'r, A. rplxar, G. rpcxiw, 8Rt (183).


In NI) rptXA WS),

atr A. ICA.u, (P 0.i4a.r), G. 0,,4, D.olwt.

In N ra /, flom the dimfDutive .MlIl. WS).

8. odr (4 key'), A. o.g, (P o.i&l), G. 1C~.&Mr, D.

o .at;

PL o.i-

9- - I ' (6 dog') V. ICUo., A. ICUI'II, G. 1CVI'dr, D. 1MIl; PL ICUlfff, A. Wof, G. a:vN., D. 1CtI1TI". In N ~ (218), ita p1aoe having heeD t&ken by " I7nA(A)o, (OlD'l'Ult .moe 7'), and .,.~ 17..,"(A)110. p.dprvr (6, 4 'witneas '), A. "aprvpa., G. "aprvpor, etc., but PI. D. p4pnJa," (163).

11. Nvr (4 'ship'), A. Jraii., G. D. ""t; DuI o. D........ I Pl. ~f (P Nvr), A. NUr (P PijAr), G. ,,61., D. IICJUITI". (408b.) (Jloeria 244,,1f ch eoulCll3la.,. 'A.,..,.ut&r NW'EAAII] I'or Niir N _ .,.a .",os., from B " .dpa.fJor.
12. Sqp (nS 'dream '), G. " ..lpa.ror, D. ""Fe, etc. (297), beside the regular forms 6 'Iff&per & ,.0 'Iff&pOI' which follow the 2nd declension. Bti1l nrri'riD(r ill the form .,.a &"'po", PI. w.I,..,.A (297). 130 (0, 4, 'bird '), A. &p"'. & 'pl'&6a., G. &pl'&8or, D. &p"'8,; PL &pnthr, ete. D. &pl'&l7'" (G also &P"'E'"). Another plural &P"'" G.

N" ,...,..,."

replar WS).



'plff.I', D. 'p"ITI". ID NI) &,w,1a. (after 338), which In Crete hAUl heeD lIhortened to [&,..'//A] &pia. 136- 194 f.

~4- trpcfT/Jwr;'~ (6 'amb888~or'~, V. -rU, A. ~,G. -rov. D. --rU; PI. frpctrfltlf; G. frpcv{k.... D. fr(ICafjfl7& In N atiIlot, topther with all other termB relatiq to anoient political iuti
$uticIu (012 1t).

IS. cM (nS 'ear'), G. *'nIf, D. Owl; PL.a., G. ,;.,.... (351), D.



[PhryD. 186 &roe. Ja} A4Tf, In r,", rill' rpAMMATlKtdN, d.AJ..' rIH1L Cp. Koerla a64 dS 'A.,..,.&aiir, irrlrw 'EU"., ]
Itpiirfl _

.,.a Ad.cowtr). anoient Dorio (0Dly P) Air, G. eJrrE, from

AWeS, (op. Rea. Air, aWeS,.

16. D..uf (~ 'Pnp' at Athens). A. D~ICI'G (also Dl'Ua:a.), G. DVoOr (and Dl'ua:dr). 1>. Dvul (and DI'VICl). 17. rip (.,.cS 'fire .), G. frVpeSr, D. frVpi; PL frVpG ',' G. frVpoiII',

D. frupoir.

N _ I) ~ (He& Aa.,...pEA - &PII4Ta.) flom (tboqh ~ 'I heat,' and " '"'P6/JoAor '1Iint 'J.


.,.a ~ (G .,.,.,.or)'

18. ai.,.er (6 'corn ') in sing. regular, but in PLmetaplaatie: rQ ai"a..

b. In N .,.a I7cft", (alao I)'Dcopated 17.... 136). [In N metaplum118 0001U1I iD "."u, 'mud,' ri ..,AG (10 even in Callin. 66, 27), "AV,or 'word,' TIl "~&G.; -tbaD ., xpcIrIor 'year,' TIl vW&G. (beeide 01 x"woe), " pua.AcIr '1mrJD,' TIl ~ (bNIde 01 ,.a.Aol), " .weIr 'mloU,' 'tobaooo,' .,. .....i 'tobaooo' (01

'vol_ ofanou ').]


19- rntMp, (nS 'dirt '), G. Cl'a:a.nSr, cr_ _

etc.-P (Phryn. 261)


a_er, G.

ID N.,.tl tnIII:rcI" ... In SohoL Az. PJ. SOS. 'PI; Pao. 42-


Digitized by




20. ,",,&0.. (,.0 'stadium') iD Bing. regular. but iD pt"c\ ,""aUl & 01 aTd3,0&.

The word became extinct with the retreat of the &1lcient metrio


iJ&.p (TcI 'water'). G.


D. iJ30Tij Pt iJ3OTa. G. Md,.... D.

of the old colloquial adj.

In N replaced by 'I'a I"I/pOs. - 'so, c &; [2]).



1"1/"&'" neuter

2? ,,~ or ,Mr (d ' ~n .) decliped re~larly a.f!-e~ the 2nd declension, be81des G. "uor. D. "I,,; Pt "l',r. G. ",,,.111. D. "'fcr, In N vIas or rather't'''' (I. e. jps. 'ss. a), after the 2nd deoleDBioD. 23. }(ftp (~ hand '). A. x,ipa, G. x"pcSr. D. x"pt; Du. G. D. x'PO"'; Pt ",ip'r. A. x,ipar. G. D. X(pci". In N. Xlpa (Crete, etc.) &Dd commoner Ta xl", (after 218 &; 3311).


434. Certain adverbial terminations which denote relations of place, appear to act like ease-endings. These a,re-I, -fTI"

-e. l = at. in (some place),---e. and -I being affixed to

Sgular, and

to the pluraL

the sin-

-.... =j'roM some place. -8c, -ere, -zc=to some place.


(in what place?)


olitoI", 'from home' 'home(ward)' 1JAAoI, 'in IOme other place .1.AAtI8", from elsewhere' IDoa, 'to IOme other p!Me ' 'AIitrq", 'in Athens' 'A9/t"",,,, 'from Athena' 'A~" 'to Athena' MapallW& 'in Karathon 'from everywhere')I~ 'to Jlep.ra , xaplJl 'OD the ground' xapiil", 'from the ground' ](GII4Ce' to the pound'

ot- (s2s") , at home




43&. Unleaa we admit N forma like d~oV8. (=tI'aJITaxdSt-..), tl'ovs. & flClNr (=tI'OlI), to be ancient remiDiaeencea, all these adverbial caseendings have become extinct. However, their retreat from actual speech goes back to G times, if we may judge by instances like: 8eft. Job 39,29 K(icE &" ('IT.i TIl criTa. Polyb. 5, 51. 3 dtr0308i,If'IW a' K(lCE 3uatJo"AtOll. Acta 22, 5. Epiph. ii. 804 B. Polyb. 5, 101, 10 n}.. iK(! 3&ei.Ba"", (for I/C.&cr.). Callin. 62. 29 tl'ap4 nit. iKEicE a&~4*". Agatb. 140 .yYOC( for awoii.-Sept. 2 Re,r. 20. 2 Ano omc9(N. Polyb. 40, 6, I An' Nn~N, 80 Method. 400 B,lIa.ear. 541 o. Epiph. i. 276 A An' K(nkl&. ii. 7370 An' Nny9EN, Callin. 88, I An' Nn~N. 55, 19 rij~ KicE ,-.;;~, Also 130. 23, Mal. 117, 22 K NHm09EN 35. 5 K n.I~Ici9EN; SO 429. 4; 237, 16. Porph. Cer, 357. 20 An' EKEi. Adm. 148.9 An K(ic(. Cp, 1516.



438. Greek adjectives have either three endings, one for each gender; or two endings, one for both masc. and fem., and one for neuter. Very few adjectives have only one ending, and

Digitized by





even these virtually act as substantives of either muculine or feminine gender (4'16).
481. For the P-N history of this rule see the following aectiODl 439-478as. In popular Greek, all adjectives of two endinp, &8 well &8 thoee

of one ending, have been dropped, one after another, 80 that preeent N mows only adJectives of three endiDga, in particular the claaa ending in -0-. -'I (or -a), and .w.-6, .tfc& or .,ui (401 ft. 444)'


439. Of all Greek adjectives those of three endings have at all times been the commonest, and among these again those ending; in __ <-l,-'1, or .a) and 'w (.u, -fIG) enjoyed the widest populanty. Above all. however, those in -or (-011', ." or ea) comprise the great maJority of Greek ~ectives. Their numerical preponderance, their frequency, their perspicuity in indicatin$' each gender br a distinct ending, and the convenience of their pansyllabic infiectlon (2nd and lat declension, uA6r, ~,) ap{'ealed particularly to popular taste, and thus a.ttra.cted manyadjectivea from other (conson&l1ta.l) cla.saes.
Cp. ancient pD..aI'_1IOf for and beside /AOII'6.I'ffV, aLft'tlXOf &; Ill1rT~r, fGBPfi &; mpcxor, "If'JII/NmIE &; ""'~XOf. aL,"" &; -,.a)r &; ",.,-ror, dpl&urpur &: dpcBMpwcw' dpc-llMpvor. nAvr(A)GTGf &; nAn(A)tWaoyor, &X6,.", &; IIcX61II'I"Of. &; lIctl.Topor, &; ",,6IJfM1TO" d,.TFI' &; ~TP'1Tor &; 'pi",.,. flpoIl"" &; flp6lJArrror. Ifpcr &; dpuoor, clprpIft 4; ~cw, qn,r &; lHAa-ro- &; ~, etc. (.338.)





440. It will also be remembered that, with the gradual disappear ance ofthe conaonanta.l inHection (264-7), adjectives of that claas. so far as they survive (430), have been remodelled either after those in -or or after thole in -w (cp. arc/Hfjor for arcp&{J,r, v.uaor for ~qr, dl"BOr for dA"s,r, frPQrOr for and from fWr{Jfffr,r, llurOr for and from fpwor, i.e. fl"tnlr, 40l b, etc.). Aa to the subsequent formations, they have naturally been framed alter the above two familiar tlPeB (-or, -0.., ." or ea and ,ur, u-, -f&CI), so that practically all adjectlveB have been reduced to these two claaees.


44L I. -, -w, JF/ or -Go Of Greek adjectives (and participles, 2IIO) those ending in - are the most numerous (439 f.) and have a separate ending for each gender, viz. ~ for the masculine, -01' for the neuter, and JF/ or (when a vowel or p precedes) 4 for the feminine (269, 4. 285). The ma.sculine and neuter follow the 2nd declension, while the feminine follows the 1st declension (306).


y-yflG#1+lhrt 'written' 4uiala jUlt ' d8pdor J.Spda collected ' putp6r "",pG 'little' 442. This cl888 of adjective. is atill fally preserved and haa even considerably increased (320. 430. 439). The only N deviation from 139

iI+'1M .~ h' ..&emj fa.i.~'



Digitized by




.d is that adjectives in -por now form the feminine in -P'I (instead of

contrary to 441).
mAOs "",A6r /JptU1T6s

mAO" "",11.6" /Jptat1T6'


rfnIAq 'high' /Jptt.tTTI, 'boiled'


MiAq 'good'

3Uracor "".p6r IlGIap6s

ac-o" "".p6" n8ap6"

'just' (311). ~"" 'little' IftIIatJI clean


443. 2. ~,-ovv, -'1/ (or -4). This class of contracted adjectives has already been considered in 320 f. 444. 3. -~, -v, -EUJ.. Adjectives of this class are considerable in number (401 ft'.). Their masculine and neuter are oxytone (-~, -v') and the feminine properispomenon. Only compounds, which are very few, also ~p.un1i 'half,' and o;A~ 'female,' are barytone. 44&. For the inflection and P history of these adjectiveB see 401 W.
446. 4- -ar, -all, -fU"u (380) iB shown only by the two adjectives /U"Aas (fM"AIIII, I""AII'III1) black,' and 'I'MOr (ni>.OII, 'I'd).mllfl) Wl'etcheci,' and their compounds rrllfA/""Allr veg black,' rr~ and a~II' 'very
.cd clnSap7'o" 'A,..,... EAYTON). .'>.as appears in G-B in the form. /U~ (&8 Gr. Pap. Br. Mus. p. 94 [till:] 301; ib. 105, 607 ""IfT,plb "w...ijs; further Great Louvre Pap. 800 /UAc&Ifijr 'ris; 80 too CW8l88ly N. Zaub. 310. 717), but in N it h&8 been replaced by pnupor (from..t cI,.collp6S), the ancient term. pl>.as still surviviDg in the substantive 'I'a /UA/w, (from G-B"a ",4Atu1, /U>.&ww) 'ink.'

miserable.' For their .d inflection Bee 380. 447. or these two adjectives ,""as is extinct in N (Apophth. 289 C TAAAN

Sing. N ..u _ ..aII'll PI. N. ftnofS dn-a ..acraa A...u.'I'II ....acral' W'I'IIr" ricrar G. _1"I'6s .... = ..".", ~ .... = __ D. W'fII"I't .... = ...all', ..acr,..... - tniacur 449. This adjective is preaerved onll in the incledilllJble form. ..acr. 'every' (621). &8: ..cill'1I ,rr 'every. on.,' _era,Jpa 'every day,' and in the adverb ..drra 'always,' current since T, &8: Apophth. 265 B n dn-a (v. 1. ftnoOT') oGnIlWItfCS;

448. 5. -a~, -av, -Cri is found only in,.v (nv, mi.cnL) 'every,' , all,' with its compounds ct~, cr6p.'If'G.~, 'll'pOwu~, br{'If'G.~, etc.

460. 6. -ci~, -41', .Qri is peculiar to participles, as: ~~ (~""fIV, ~fA/! 'having abandoned,' laTc~ (iaT4v, loTDcn&) , erecting. '

They are inflected like


4601>. In N extinot for reasons given in 338-341 I: 439 f.

"'~" (p,M""'cr) I").''I'oVr. Sinr- N. xaptfCr, xapt.... xapt,tItIII; V. xaplo, ](&IIIlfll'tIa; A. XapEfVTfl, xaptw, xapI'II'flaI'; G. XfI"I'OS, ](&IIM1fltI'If; D. X,..,." ](&It1C1II'f1J. Pl.

415L 7. -n" -fP, -fll'lTll is found in a. limited number of adjectives, a.a: }(&IJJ&.ar (Xaplo, Xapl",._) 'lovely,' f/H., (f/HPij.II, c#IeI.;,t-) 'BOunding,' '1""'9'" (r,,,ij'II, 'I"1'9'IIVII) henourable,' I").'",s,,, 'honeyed.' 'melliferouB,' fr'I'fpMcr 'winged,' ITlruHcr 'ahady,' lIu1>6tcr 'mow-clad.' ThoBe ending in -.]t" and -0." admit of contraction, a.a: ('1',1+,,)


Digitized by




G. 'nIfIJ6fIl'f'OS, do., nlf/>Stl"'lf' and 10 on. (G. Pt lem. n46"ri)


t 4&8. 8. -elt, -lv, -eiau. Thus end only participles, as: ~f{t (~ .,..,.,.'Um.) 'beaten,' nlhit 'putting.' Sing. N. nIf/ T'VfIl8.II, n48.itTa; A. ~1IrII, n48'", n4',u"",;
In N estinct. For the 0 . _ see 338-341. 439-440.

SiDg. N. ""I'fir .,.,,..,. ""I'fitSR; A. "",.;;....a, .,.,,..,.,.,pfitStSU; G. "",.n;..,.or, .,..",tS""" eta. 468. This olua of adjeetivea ill eztinct in N for 0 . _ given in 3381r.

xaptm-, ](Gp&ftStSGw; D. ')(GplftSl". xapcltS_,.

N. V. xapl_. xaplfl'nl, xapl.._; A.. xapifrrat, ')(Gplflml., xa",ltStSflr, G.

Thus end a few participles of the present and md aorist, as: &8oVt (&&W, &8oVou) 'giving,' &Vt 'having given,' ~ 'having known.'
Bing. N. 3oUr, 30., 3oUcm; A. 301I'f'a, ad., 3oiicrall; G. adll'f'OS, do., 3ow.,r, aDd 10 OD. (G. Pt lem. 3ovri)
668. In N eztinct for ~nl given in 338-.~41 ell 439-440.

46&. 9. -cM, ..0., -o1iou.

467. 10....., -0., -ovcra. So end many participlea and a lew adJectives, as: }.d.. (}.,iW'OII, }.mr_) 'abandoninff,' nv.. 'atoppmg,' ~~III. willing,' I""'. (I, llfoiicra) 'voluntary, /Le (Lo., h.ovaa) unwilling.'


Sing. N. Atl_, Afi1rOll, Atl_-'_, ,_, 'niiIJII; A. AfiWOllrG, A.. , __ A.&o.cru-idl"l'Cl, UdII, 'niHru; G. A.ltrOl'To" do., AfI~'.s.ror, do., hroHq" and 10 OD. (G. PI. !em. A.._Gw, 'nucrGw.) 468. Botoooontractedparticipleain -dew (..00., -a-a), .... (-IOII', -I_G), .. : (n,.u.) .,.1"', (.,.,,.,so..) npiiw, (.,.,,.iowfl)n,.&io'G; ('/HA->~, ('/HAIOII)




418. In N eDfDotfor _

given in 338-340 &


480. I I. -1ft, -itv, -iiou. So end only participles of the present and 2nd aorist, as : Sing. N. a.loVr, a.",M, a.&/fII~C7'II ' ahowing '--4>Ur, ",w, t/JVera 'ha.ving generated'; A. a.ur..v.ra, a.1IfIIW, a.&IfIIiicraII-t/Jlnm1, ",VII, c/>iiuaJI; G. awllfllUlI'f'or, do., a.~mos, do., ",wqr, and ao on. (G. PI. fem. a.1D1IriII, t/J1IG'fw.)


In N eztinct for reaaona given in 338-340 & 439-440 & 936-7. I 2. ~ -0", -via. So end only participles of the perfect

active, as:
do., "",ol'lcuiar, and ao on. (G. PI. feID.
Sing. N. _01'1'""', ......"",., 1I'f'II'00'llflliA 'ha.ving done,', .lMr, .lhiu 'knowing'; A. W'fW'O,,,,,m, W'...Ol'l.ror, W'fW'OI'IIfIlW; G. W'''''Ol'lccSror,


4.83. In N estinct for reaIOnl given in 338-341 & 439-440. 2166.


4&&. In adjectives of two endings the masculine form is used also for the feminine ('U6), while the neuter has, as usual, ita separate form. As to the inflection of these adjectives, they follow partly the 2nd, partly the ard declension. (For P-N

see 310 & HO.)


Digitized by




'peneveriDc,' pI,,- 'mfndtal,' .,...,....., '1IJUDfndtal,' I~,.... 'eo..fal,' tfHAocltTlpllM' oom~te,' I1..,o.,JIIiII' '1IJ1lIaa.:v,' 'idle,' but1iDc,' &c. 470. For the inflection and P-N hiatory of thia clasa of adjectivea see 374-380. Cp. 1074b 47L g. ~ -\'. So end numerous adjectivee for the inflection and P-N history of which see of25-.Uo. 472, 6. -o!p, (.op). So end a few adjectives, which are all compound and paroxytone and follow the in1lection of HrwP (37 of ft.), 88: d.7nI:fWp' fatherless,' d.p.-frrwp , motherless,' .wa.,..." a./rroICpO:fWP, ~ ~, "If'O.JI-P-tTrwP, ~1'fIIpo They hardly occur in the neuter singular, and their feminine is often formed in t.&pG., 88: 'It'tl.p-p.'9n&pG., ~ft&pG.o 478. In N extinct for rea&On8 given in 338-340 et 439-440474. 7. '"'~. -c, and"'W, -v. So end a number of compound adjectivee declined after their second constituent, 88: '&}."w, tiff).", 'hopeful,' G. MMr'aor, A. ,&).".., etc. Il)(ap&r, Ilxap& graceleas,' G. d~",r, A. &~, ete. 1"I)(apIf, Irrlx.oP' 'lovely,' G. lm](dpc'f'Of, etc. ':xopar, ':xop' 'lovely.' G. n,xGPwor, etc. al'"l}(tlf, 3l~' two ells long,' G. &.ix-or &i.:pvr, . 1I:pV' full ofteara,' G. dpaltciyuor 80 too 4AA w,4AA6tro}.& 'patriotic,' G.4AAorr6'AJ&r. ~715. In N eUiDct. Cp. ..a6-.f40 & ..a9-.f.40.

+,u,- 'fntelllpnt,' ....cmt,-

48&. I.~, -cw. So end many adjectives, mostly com pound, 88: a. simple :-/3&pfJapor, ' barbaric,' ;;,.por I tame,' fl11lxor 'quiet,' MAor 'talkative.' b. Compound. 83'lCor' unjust' dShat-or 'immortal ' cl).oyor unreasonable' d,&qXlIJIOr 'perplexed ' &l1Ol'Or 'illegal' &'r&tTror unreliable' &fl'f&por inexperienced' d1fIJ"n" sonorous ' 3wfjaror im~ble' l"a~r glorious' dJ~or hOBp'ltable' wqll:oor 'obedient' 3.dt/>oPOf different' llypo'lCor rustic' '1'7ff1pOr expert Irrt:A.uor 8elect ' "aptDo/AOf UDlawful ' dx~ior 'uaele88 ' OI'OPOf adjacent' "CIJIOvpyor artful' 488. For the inflection and P hiator,y of thia claas of adjectiVeB Bee 306-312 487. 2. ~. -ow. So end a number of adjectives contracted from -~ and ~, for the in1lection and P vicissitudee of which see 313-322. 488. 3. ~. _I'. So end a few adjectives in1lected after the 2nd Attic declension, for which see 323-327. 489. of. _I', -oJ'. So end many adjectivee eepecially in .,-.. (380), 88 : ., t) ..4~, rcl ..11rCW ripe,' ., t) tT~fJOI", rcl ~fIIO" '...n.e,' ..~ 'wf1liDc,'
'lm.owiq,' ..., - '1I.IlderIItandiq,' .,.~pow



Digitized by




476. Adjectives of one ending are either masculine or feminine or both. They denote animated beings and as such, they have no neuter at all In fact they are rather substantives than adjectives (436). Such are for instance:IS I) ~, ~r, 'fugitive,' IS t) ~. Grros, 'unknown' IS I) 4nn. ,.", childleas' IS I) clAaC......or, boutfal IS t) p/taP. por, bleaaed ' IS I) ..1"'1'll'/Tos, 'poor' IS t) "fIJF1IS. i;Tos, 'light-armed IS ,. ra,.r, ,or, knowing.'

477. Used as distinct substantives, these nouns have often been modified. especially ainee P times, to nouns of two or eVeJl three endiDga in the Bense of 338. (Cp. Kflhner-BIass i 552, 2.)
478. So far aB they sarvive in N. tbeee adjectives are treated like substantives according to their respective endings, as: IS or commoner .-..,as (after '/IfI"[ir. 287 It a~)



479. Three adjectives show irregular inflection, namely .".~ 2oe) 'mild,''lnlAw 'much,' 'numerous,' andpAy"~ 'great,' 'big.'
Sing. N. ftpCos A. _P8.OP G. _pdov

+- = +- ..


1I'pa.ia ..patEar ftpa.u,


480. In..t poetry and P-B prose a aingular frpG~'" formed from the plural, is not uncommon (as Sept. Joel 3, 11. Didache 3. 7; Bam. 11}. '" Hermas :Hand. 11, 8. Great Louvre Pap. 1042 Bc 1046; WpaVII 451). ThiB is still preserved. in N in the modifica.tion fl'pay(Jr, wpay6, fr~", (155 b 402) 'tame,' , meek,' which implies that the singular w~r has been current in popular speech through all times.




Sing. N. 1I'OAtl, A. nAw G. 1I'OM.oii




Pl. trOAMl 1I'OMGIr 1I'OM..f

+- = +-




+-= +-=

481. So atill in N. Sing. N. ,J,a,


=- :


b. MrA (pfya, pqi>.'1)' ",.-,4A'I PL p.rrGAoc




,..;a...ow : = ~ =



482.. I>uring P the ampli4ed stem iW'fGAo- began to be transferred &110 to the nom. ancl aecus. singulal' muo. and neuter, and thus gave birth to a reguJar form l'rrdAor. ,..-,dJuw. twPA'I. current since G even among nch writen .. PorphyriOll (v. Plotin. 67, 3) ; it fa now UDiftlllal iD N. 143

Digitized by




COMPARISON OF ADJEOTIVES. 483. In Greek, comparison is expreesed either by means of

endings or by periphrasis. 484. L By means of endings, and that: I. most commonly byLn~, LnPOJl, ~ for the compat"tJtive L.ra1W, L.ra'l'OV, JI'Ii'"l" ~it.l& 486. So still in N,tbough "nn-or is now retreating before ita periphraaia. (490 f.) 488. 2. Lees commonly by -fA"JI, t.&CW for the ~ t.&O'TOr, t.&aTOV, ..f.aTq for the euptriatit.l& 487. This haa become extinct in N. (506. cp. 495. 503.) 488. 11. By periphrasis, that is by~'mo~'rorthe~~;

~ most'


(511 t)

489. This is still partially preserved in N.

490. The absolute superiatWe which denotes not the highest, but a tJe7Y high degree (1191), is expressed either as above (by means of '-Ta1W, t.&O'TOr, ~), or by some adverb of intensity (' very'), as: ~ >..t-, nvu, dyo.v, ~, 1rOAv, ete. (Cp. 515.) 49L So too in N, aa: ICMmf'or, ~afnnoor, ~,*f'_,-but the periphrastic mode is now the normal. I. COMPARISON BY~, L.ra1W. 492. The endings ~ and L.ra1W are atJixed to the stem, as shown in the neuter, as: ,.."It.Gf (stem ,..>'011) 'black,' ,..>.a.,.,.: ,..~ ,,>'VIfW (">'VIfV) , sweet' ,,>'v.wr.por ,,>'vlfwtlf'Or rra4J;'r (rrnf/Hr) clear' rrat/>/Uf'fpOr rrat/llrrnrror ItDUtI- (1:0+) '~ht' ICOvt/r"por mvt/r'llf'Or >.mTdr (>.mTo) thIn' >'nmSnpGS' >'f'!ITdnnoor p41Cpdr (p.upo) C long' ,-cpd'rfpor ~f'or &ypo'_ (dypou:o) 'rustic dypollC.bfpor dypou:df'llf'Or. 493. For prosodic and grammatical purposes, adjectives in -or change 0 to 0), whenever the p~ing syllable (penult) is metrically shorl (App. ii. 10'" 14). as : ..or C young,' new' "'''por Ii,or ' worthy ~'6rrtpor rrot/>dr 'wise rrotfx#wyor ..o>'fpucdr C warlike ,",>"PUC""'_ but "O"'ltr C wicked "o"'lpOnpor ..pOor (7I'~or) 'mild' ..padf'fpor 'w&!'or C honourable' lllf',p.dr.por ..pd6u,mr ' willing' ..po8vp.drfpor ,.aoEor C ~lorioU8' ..",pdr , bItter' "'tcp/snpor >'fIITCIr fine I >'"",6npor 144

Digitized by


10 always


The common (a, I, v) in the penult generally count B1turt ; in adjectives en~ in ..for, ..fIC6r, -r,.or, -&.or. But they count ltntg jn the compounds of "'''''' lJVpM, ~ii_, as: &r'J'0r 'honourle.,' ~ 'honourable,' I8vpM 'cheerleaa,' 3W8vpM 'dejected,' .r,(Jvp.or , cheerfuL' So too in ~ 'unpleaaa.nt,' and lcTxiip6r , stroDg.'
~I. It will be remembered that popular IIp88CIh. has in the long run nduced all adjectiftll to the two claesee ending iD -or and -tlr (438-44)' Aa a natural consequence, all N adjectives now, ending as they do iD -os and -0., form their comparative invariably either iD -Iw.por (-4n-.por) or in -mpos. as: lIUIplwyos, B./lallwtpor, olnMrr.pos, hraTd1r.pos,-/Japt'mpos, lJaM,r.pos, -xlrr.pos, yAum.fHI', flNaM.fHI', BpcpilT.pos. ~. The comparative ending -br'por _ s to hne particm1arly appealed to pepular taste, for it has attracted a number of adjeotivea in -os, and has eYeD, b,. a resr-ive P - ' tPYeD birth to a few nM"el pceitive fODDII in -Vs (40a). Thus:-


(after flNl.nTIpft) 'short' ~'fHI' " .. 1WJdAos 'big' ",..,w.4T.fHI' It " ](O'1p6s 'thick' XOfIT,NnPOS ~ It -xlrr.pos) ~ 'puDC8Ilt' n&#'rfpos .. 'p'piIT.po.) Mp6r 'rough' Upw'JIOS .. TpaXmpos) ~p6s & licht' ~ < .. /1ap(,npos) ..."r. 'bitter' fI,.,wryos (It yAwtVTtpor) 'rAirropor 'rA'I"fOFrefHl' ~ ., TaXw,por) .,.airor '&a' flporrWyor "flptfSBWyos)





{.=;.wve} ~




. ...."




) 'paviou'

or ,~, (beBdes '~yos); (op. also dialectal.lfEur 'rie:ht-banc1ecl,' ,.plJtlr '1aft..banded '; dptk' thin ').-Oon'nrEly 'rAv_,po, (efter flUfplrr.pos) from whioh 'rAvds after flUf,or.

. . . 80 farther ..Mr 'fOCICI.' traAmpor (it ~ mMlnpos frGm ftAAaor Le. ~ ss8); ,.vpor' bIaoJr,' ,..,Nr.pos; &npor' white,~"'r.-.por; ~


497. Some adjectives in ~ drop _. mtfQle -'f'~ and as:

~pmdr , aged ' traAacdr ' old ' ",~aMift 'leiaIuely' ~pa1Tfpor



';aAalTOTor fI'}(OA,wfpor fI'}(oAa&raf'or ClliAor 'deIII-' ~~ftper (136, I) q,iA.'rTJf'PS'. ~8. Of tbese adjectivea only wMactlr ill etill current with the regWar comparison, flQAaWTfPOS, waAauSTIlTOI. .tAos ill also preserved; but as. 1IIlbet&ntiye : 'friencl.' 499. Not !npor, ",",TOr, but -irrIfos, .lnc&TOS is annexedf to


the stem of&. ~ectives

in -l1li1',


88 :

ftW,- 'happy' fS~(I01II 'wiae

b. Contracted adjectives in -ovr, -OVII, 88 :

uAoVr ' arimpJe'

fflrOlll 'well-dispolled

(1lIFA04n.pos) Ilflll.cWfSftpor UADllnIlTor (.iw04fST.por) fiwo(,n.pos QI'O(,I7TIITOS. But in N: dlFA6r, IlflAlwyos, d71A6TGnr (aao f.).

e. Some isolated forms, 88 : '".,phos 'strong' .,,.,,..~6rryor


'pleasing' 'poor'

xapoifrrfpor fI.Mcrnpor


Digitized by


COlrlPARISON IN -to)ll, lUTTOr.

600. So too P "A'III,ltlTfpor, "ArltlCltITG:ror (507. 533) from "Arltllor 'near, after which the literary but inoorrect Nforma tUJAcltl,"por, tUJAcltl'ru,.or, from MAlo, 'miserable,' and d)(p*,ltlTfpo~, d)(p*,ltlt'Ut'Or, from dXPIior' ahameful.' [Cp. Acta Xanth. 77. 7 tllIl""fIIl",..por aal f6cnrM'Y)(I'CTEpoc.]

60L Similarly -Urr'por, -l",.tm)r is affixed to some adjectives, especially to >'&>'0. 'talkative,' ftT.xOr 'beggarly,' ~-yor 'dainty,' u.ovotM-yor 'eating alone,' ~ 'libidinous,' u/fm'lr 'thievish,' ,..Or'1l' fond of drink' I. COMPARISON BY -WJI,

aos. The rarer endings -WJI, !.wv for the comparative, and-

I}Ur 'sweet' 't3law, ~1J,0.. 43etlt'Of " It 'nIxW 'swift' "'~, 16."",, (for 'nIxt-, 183) (1) ftXCtln, " " JrUA6r 'beautiful' 1tfIAJJow, .GAAc0l' .u.u.,,,,.or,, " ollT){P6r 'shameful' ,,111)(1_, "rl1)(cOI' JI1)(CtIt'Of" " Ix'~r 'hostile' 'x'law,lx'co.. lx'ctIn, " .. 60S'. Beside 'x'p6,.,ptn, 'x'p6Tut'Ol. :Mark further P ~por; t)a.m,-. 'I)/Ithu,.or; 'nIX1mpo' (also 'niX"',,), 'nIXWut'O.; "'~fPO" ""'xp6nst'Ofo 608. Of these adjectives ..aAa. and MUrar still IUrvive in N (for whose comparison see 505), also IX'pa. IiX"i*, Cretan U~r, 130) as a substantive. while and "'tlxpar have become extinct. Ta~r i8 preserved only in the adverb" 'nIXb 'in the morning' (after whioh also ,.a /Jpa3U, beside ,.a 8p4&u 'in the evening '), and in the adverbial (but dialectal) comparative form 'nI)(I17'lpov (' earlier '), 'in the morning,' 'to-morrow.'

_6, 'bad'

are affixed to the stem of a few adjectives.

'WTOJI, -tan, for the superlative

These are&u,tIn., !.ct1'r'OJt, -ltrnt

_law, m,w



604. Under the above head (soz) fall the following irregular formations of comparison:
I.pct1t'OJ 3 'excellent' SIA"",", 3 'morally good , " ",e""-, It,-i''''Ol' It"""'tlnr 3 'superior' >4-, 11.;;0" l\9itlt'Of 3 'advantageous' 3. MUr6, :bad' 1raId_, mcor &UCtIt'O. 3 .. Xtlpo1lf, xr;po" Xflpctlt'Of 3 'poor,' 'low' " ~. twTw 'inferior' ~tI'nI (adv. 'least') 3 ,w,ur 'great.' 'big' I'flC-. I'fitor l'4-t&tIt'Of 3 + ",It~, 'small ' ",.plwfpor 3 ",.plwat'O, 3 " ,Ac{~, 11.4"",, 'AclX,tlt'OI 3 5 IiAl-tor 'little,' 'few' 'M~,IM""OIf 'MxctlnJ 3 I'ft.a.r, ""Or 6. ftOA.I,'mueh,"many' "A.t.a..., ,,11._ W'Afit1t'OJ 3 7 H&or'' H-, f+w Htrror 3 8. dA')'ucSr 'painful' dA.,.",lYrfpor 3 dA.,.cWrut'Ol 3

d.",ur 'good' "

S,Aft_, SIA",.

dpfl_, .c"OI'

.. 9. "h- 'ripe'

dA"I-,4A'Y'0" ntral,..po, 3

41I.'Y'tlt'Or 3 ".7tul7'CIt'O, 3.



604b. Beside P d"flllm,-, -brat'Oll'l; . . . .po, (80 even Homer In T 321 & X 106, then P-B proae; G-B cImlt'Ol), XplI'rfpor (x.,-c6flpor, ep.!1J6); ,..por (farther G-B pryaMn-fpor, -cImlt'Ol).-On the other hand, P .".I+n(as PhUo I, ~I; Arcad. 191, 14).



Digitized by





A, teems to have been felt weak and inexpreaive as compared with Hence the latter suffix was superadded to the former, and tbua gave birth to a double com~tive form. This l::nomenon, which ap~ even in ..4. composltioDB (as rl""..onpor Do fr. J 19;,vnpo.. Find. O. 8, 60; PF,porl1l), extended gradually to moat comparativea formerly endiDg in -l6ll', as : -wrfpOS A.. P. U, 7,.f; XflpUrfpor I; XP'1fM-fpor, /l9&hrtpor I; /lq.3&ltIT.pos, frequent; traAAw.r'por {Phryn. 121),80 still in z..'; p,mpor Ap. Rh. 2, 386; p,Cmpor NT etc., later alBo I'flC""'"'poS; even "..,.,itIT.por (Vita SA 6* 0) and ".."tTT6T.por Gr. Pap. Br. 1IU& 1340 49 (tI-n~) [pry&tlTcSo ftlTOfP1,I.>.ax&tTTcS-rfpor NT Eph. 3, 8; .aJtlTflTOf Apoc. 8edrach 134, 14]; wA.flmpor Arat. 6.u, 1005. 1080 (so still in 1t); in Ppoeta also AMT'por and Atp6npor, M"mpor (cp. also IIPntltlM-.por PhryD. 111);and this form finally superseded -loop, tlCM'Of. Hence N now, with but two or three exceptions ("~flcSr, K4).~,or, pM).,or [from ~o .. x meglio 1]. knows only comparatives of the ending -npor. 6Oeb A double -Tfpor is shOWD in vl1Tpc.1Rpor for vtlTfpor (505).

606. As tar as they atillll1llTive iD N, the above adjectivee form a more or 1_ regular compariBon, viz. cI.-ralcSs, d"fGl&rrfpor (so even in Aristotle), -Os, ~-JIOr, ueually Xf'pUr'por (506; xtlpov in South Italy); p.rydAos. PryaA,"fpor{4~); putp6r, putpUrfpor (al80 A), iI>J-,os, 6Ae-,dlnpor (also p), JL pior; ..M"1 ...... ios, and now ..A.,eSs (obBOleacent) or (Crete) ..Amis, from which ..A.,fw.por (506) I; ..AIIM.poS, otherwise "'Pltltlmpos (80 even Fl'riDch. 9 [1'9991 &: 11 [tlOOO]); .aMr, .GAA.or (obaoleacent, trom the neuter .dAA&OP) or (Crete) .aAAlisfrom which ~4mpor (506), ueually -Jnpor or ~por (496); GfI'rtpor, ueually ilnfphrfpor <S06b). 608. The comparative ending -loo", t,o.., limited, as it was even in

807. Defective comparison. Some adjectives occur in the comparative and superlative, but not in the positive. These are :"pUr.por 'previous' ..pGrror (P rp4mtlTOf) 'first' lnrlPT'por 'superior' 6ftpTGTOS (al80 haTOS) 'supreme' GtTTfpor 'posterior' Gcr'I'UTOr 'last' ('t 'from ') 'fTXGTor 'extreme' (..AtJtI&c. 'near') ..A'ltluUTfpor ..A'1tIuU'l'UTOf (500). IOS. In P-B we further meet with the following forms:('- ' up') am.por ' superior' cl.l'hTGTOS ' supreme' <_TIU ' down ') "".fpor ' lower' nftITGTOS 'lowest' ('_ ' within ') '"41f'fpor interior' 'intimus' ('''_ ' inside ') IJ,acS-rfpor" '"IIcSTGTM" (ltOl outside ') IhT.por 't,,",TOf (In" 'near') ~fPOS ~ I; 'TrIt1TOf (..cSp"., , far ') ..opphT.por (..Ipa' beyond j ...polT.por ftpolTGTOf (d..cS or 4_? 'oft') dmepor,s.

(..".s 'before ') (hIp' above')



Digitized by




&08b. Most of th8116 comparatives and superlatives have been fomed from their respective adverbs (S23).


&09. The periphrastic formation of the comparison is effected by means of,u;:MoY (sometimes also ""A~O" (ll) 1 more,' and p.& 1 most,' that isp4llov 'more' for the compaf'tltWe, and p4)..urra. 1 most ' " superlative. &10. Such a periphrasis (which has passed through the Latin to the Romanic languages) was sometimes resorted to for the sake of variety tas in 4>lMr, ~~, /l.~, &:0.), or when the positive was unsuitable for a regular comparative ending. This was particularly the case with adjectives of one ending and with participles. Thus :,..aA'AtW f/llAor " .".......ior " &Ecor " ri'A"",

" " dyatr" all. For ~'A.o" P substituted the synonymous and more popular adverb '/r'Alo" [furthered by the Latin plu., the parent of Romanic pIu., pill, &c.] 1 more,' which gradually '8&sumed the ascendency, and having displaced ,u;uo" from the colloquial slleech, has remained ever since in unbroken usage, &8: Arist. Civ. vU. IS, 8 ri'AllI&o" "'Alo,, "pov'i'!0vaa". Ignat. ad Polyc. 3, 2 '/r'Alo" l7lI'ou/)aior y'yJIOu. (Cp. ~Mav pot/lpUl)"r 548.)-For A see above S09 & [2].
In.s. UAIOII or ..A."", has in N, properl,. speaking, two forma ..Aaa- or trAlla- and d . or trA.ui. Though often used Bynonymousl,., the,. are now generall,. so specialized that the former nlfera to time, aa: a~ lupiN".
..A.(1)6" 'I remember no longer,' whereas the latter (..Aeel or which is formed regularl,. after 518" 5U) refe1'll to the dI!gree and thus conellpOllda to .A pJlM.ov, as : ..A'(1)4 p.ryOAor =1"..,aAw.I'Of, ..A. (I)4 ..AoHIOf =..AoK,rr.ptW. 1518. Since H a periphrastic superlative ia sometimes formed in popuJar apeech by simply repeating the adjective twice, with or without an (521. J192f.), as: ,.~ p.-yGA9' p.ryOA9' (-I"'rfJT9') Kitth. xix. 21:1-3 (mr B.o.); also Bull. Corr. Hell. 1894 p. 147 (91 B.o.) " 148 (88 B 0.). 'EpJA'If cS JAI-rar .a2 pf"(tU CIG 4697, 19 tRosetta atone). cS JAI..".r I'r,as Zdpa1ll1 CWeasely Gr. Zaub. (1888) A 13. Gr. Urk. Berlin 149 (tII-III~ 1"-rGAov p.ryOAOU (five times). 229" 230 (tll-llIJll) 1'f-rGA0I"'~ 296 (t230) I'..,aAOVI"-rGAou.-Hermas Sim. 9, 17, 1-2lAAoua2 IDor. Eucho!. &)101 p6l1Or &al ~vOf. Leant. Neap.V. S. 168A mAl) mAl) ml dila. Antatt. loS, 5 pJlM.ov p4AAOII clIITl1'oU cid &al pAAAov. 6 AAtl,r D.Covt.u ".iCOII 1"""011, purpIw clarTl TaU 'A'rpoUr9'. (II92.) 1510&. The comparative sometimes stands, especially since H, for the relative superlative, .. : Dion.lL De Camp. 14 p. 1li9(Sch.) TOW..,., ~ KPATlCTA Jdv ,.a ptUt,a xipco If .,.11 /Jpa)(fa. Lue. D. Dear. 204 'I'7}v 11","'/11 JllHp&/I. Die. Chr. 3t 39:




PI On the periphrutio compariaon in Greek, .. well ..


the _


..11.4. for pAAAov, _ OSohwab in KSchaDs IV, iii. 124" 148

Digitized by



a d _ ftclctdmpor. NT)(ark 4. 31 32 "';'0 .a.-. .,.,. Lub 21. 3 trAuill' ~. I~. IS, 19 IA.fCrir.pot n~ dripdtnw. Eph8L 30 8 Tf lAaXUIT'O'I'I".~. 8, 12 (I: 28, 13> tlr Tcl tI.ons Tcl 'Ehf'.pov. Gr. Urk. BerUn 33' (tn-IIIt>. 4 IS pDC .arr- 'tlTW dw...,_n.pov. Hermaa Xand. 10, t) Av", trGl'T_ -rOw


-cor. [&1~18. "",Mepor n- .,.,. fIfty"Mow. ib.



9.""" ..-SYCpoc MMAo...,.,. t)Alwawa,.-.) BnDap. 44,nnr. PJlII'r"IfPCB (..",) '157 B 7 t)l1IIXla d.a.-. """fPO"'r- Tbeodoa Can. in Bekk. An. W. 1187 Tell Ac8cNicTepGN WGpx. wd.,.". '#lM"/'"_.

~~. H8J'OII. Geom. (ad. H1lltloh.) 47 tni.T_ 3~ -rOw """"'- 'AIIXUIT'o. 'tlTI3Unr.\or. llacar. 514 ftAtllHNlTlp4 Inr~p (Cp .Jutin.



IrfI1 h,,,OTan,.

A.then. 3, 147 ~ nprGw

614. This miaapplication whioh waa undoubtedly due to the influence of popular speech, has sprMd !ITer since and ultimately established itself in N as the absolute norm (op. Kilhne~B"'" i. 574 'EOI), the relative superlative lIem, now formed, u in tile Bomania languages, by the com~tivep~~theutid~

616. The various modeB of forming the comparilou, explained above ("&3-491. 5II-5J4), may be summed up as under, where.A tI~p4, nn., &,v, Ala.., ril'TOIf, and troAv (490), are replaced in N by troA.\Ii (518):
l'ositi17e A-N t I ' " wile ' 0.,. I A-N tlOtt*npor 2 .A-ppiiANw tlof6r

7'fIftWC!f humble t ....fp6r~'

'rGftIWw.por piiA).oP Tlltr".6.



M-Nft"" " abeolute .A-N .~





" N troAAu .. " :relative .A-JI ."""IITor


.A-P.a.vl:o. .~r

..... 1:0. TIItrfIJ'lS, ...., 1:0. f>tu"p6, .uv 1:0. tIT'now trMAG nAAIl ". (no parl in ue)

" " TGftfl.waf'O' "

p.i,AAw ....fp6r piiANw trA'_ ft~O/I



tIT'now content'

tIT'n" (459)

" .....~r


.A-JI p/WIITra -+6r

6+ ompr.

,.GAMIT'G .,......5r ~".,. fIINp6r ~ tIT'now

" ... ompr


". . -pr.

". . OlDPI'.

&18. Adverbs of manner, derived from adjectives (denominative adverbs) end in -cor. (1102.) This ending corresponds, in form and accent, to the genitive plural of the respective adjective. __ 'bad' G. pt Imdt", adv. _ _ 'badly' aim," 'juat' " "a,mu..,,, aClraiew 'Juatly' Ihr).ovr simple' " "IhrMiIl, " dJrMlr ' IIlDlp.I}' , ... 'whole' " ""w.,IIJI,,, "w.,..,,' wholly , fl'm/lfrr ' clear' " "fTllt/*", " ~r' clearly'
n,a"l,.. happy' "~MaJ"o-.,,, ,uQI",s_' happily' &18". Cl. So too ~).., 'otherwise,' ow.r '10,' a~p6",..." preeminently,' .llrn.." 'apparently,' 3..,.., 'indeed.'
S17. b. In.A. the adverb ofti-yaBllr 'good' il d (not dya8a;,r) 'well.'
t1IxV~ quick'


,,'rax.'.", "


quickly t

&18. Denominative adverbs in -cor are frequently replaced by the neuter of the corresponding adjective in the accusative singular or (oftener) plural, as: t'ax (for ""xi.,) apeedily,' 'BOOn'; ~. & I"1rp4 ahortly,' ,,0". only,' ","0. 110 much,' "0)." & ,,0).).4 (515) 'very,' ,Jya & ,.".u.1I


Digitized by




:.greatly,' pmcpa 'l~n~,' tTUxN,' frequ~tly' (uS? 1266 fr" c~. RKUhner 11. 270 A. u); 10 o~a, .'A.flUIO, tnllCJIW1, oll/>.m.a, dU,uma, aCTlllln"a, etc.-

Many other A-P examples in AMaupo4>pua.,r 684618b Such adverbial neuters, owing to their very familiar endings, their convenient accentuation, and, above all, owing to the presence of a similar (neutral) ending in the superlative (SI9. 1267), met with popular favour 8.8 early 8.8 preAttic antiquity!ll, but especially since A times forcinl{ its way even into Atticistic compositions (WSchmid ii. 36), and gradually prevailed over the regular adverbs. Hence the present phenomenon 1D N, that adverbs of all three degrees of comparison, with a few exceptions in __ (8.8 aAGJr 'well,' d).).ocQw otherwise,' aCx.r 'without,' towr 'perhaps,' wr, ICIIS"r, '8.8,' 'like '), are always identical with the accusative plural of their corresponding neuter adjectives (S22; cp. AMovpo<l>pva.,r 684 f.), 8.8: ICaAd, 1CaICd, trAouala, XO/"/Ad, noW, ~a,

mo, mlllnpa, XOI"IA6npa, etc.


58 ,.0X'''' ell "EM".,.. 06 ArplH1', liTTW 14. 59 1Jp6.&.,. -" -roV7'O 'Ha[olor ,u. '1Jp6.&.,. I~ mu.~"aal .,.l.f,,' IIAAT.. I~ -" eou.vata"r -" 01 I61rlJ'OC IJpaIbf,.,.. lloeria 332 ft](lfW oil A~ np' 'ATTln&r. dUll SiiTrfW.) &510. Some adverbs form their comparative also in .ftpGllr, after the positive (S 16 f.), 8.8: rll,a. ' broadly') rlIpwlpGllr beside rlIpmpo. ~A.olc.w ' ridiculously') ~AOIOt"fpGllr " ~A.OI6np.,.

619. Adverbs derived from adjectives borrow for theirComparative the ace. neuter singular of the adjective j S~ive" "plural" ,,88 : "oI/>-r 'wisely' fTOI/>e.nfJOl' ~ fTO~ , clearly' "nt/Ht1T.po. ".fTTtmI ~. ' gla4ly , 43,0. fa,,"o XGpI'lIf'O)r ' gracefully' Xapc'a-rfpo. XaPUfTTOf'O ICOMir 'beautifully' ICdUlW mAAIOTa _GJr ' badly' X!ipo. ](Ilpl"" -rox'.r ' speedily' Bano. ..aXlfTTII So ~ , well ' (S 1 7) &p.1JIIW Ipl"" ,..aAII'very' piAA.o. ,..aA1DTO. 619'. For SiiTrfW orlUaw P1lM8 ftXI.,. and after it 1Jp4&w. (Cp. PhryD.

dfTIIxiA.r 'safely') dtrt/HiAfmpGllr ,,~',,"po. &5IOb So too .'A.a~_ beside IACIfTfTO., ,qmrTtT6_ beside ,cp'-'a."o., ICoAAed..r beside /CdU,o., dA"e."fpGllf, tr'(JIfTfTaripGllf, ete. (<<aAAicrnw Great Louvre Pap. 2443 " 246S).

611. Another popular mode of forming the superlative of adverbs is resorted to, since Q, by !limply repeating the positive (lI13), as: roA~ roAu-..A.i'aTCII'. 'rIIxb -rllxu=ftXUITII. This kind ofperiphraais is now very common In N, as: ..ptt ..,., 8ept. h 16, 21; 10 too 'Theoph. Cont. 694. 7. a+6lflll crf6Ipra 8ept. GeD. 7. 19. "xb TllxU Gnat Loavre Pap. 35 t. &: 8s. ..,.." TII~ 'rllxU lb. 1230 and often i 10 too OIAemaDa 13, 190 alao Ar,. a&"ff a.-rj Ao-p. Gnat Loane Pap. S73 &: sS2 ; 4pn I,n, .., 4a". TIIxb TIIx' ib. 973 '"


1593; 12450 even thrice 11I'ri

aan aln ib. 557-&


Gr. Pap. Br.


9S (tlV)

N Compare the frequent ... of II'OAAIl as adverb even In Homerl .. : :1 4.M troUA pGA' oil. lf4Ao1H1a. B 3sBtIIIUIl All7aoJAb'l. .A~. Pr. 4! ..0M4 ,... . _ Xfl~ 4 1295 i II'OAAIl ~, n.V.Il r d crof9. 8oph. AIlt.
1046 01 n.V.Il luol.


Digitized by




611L AI obeerYed above (518 tt. ep. 1185 f. &; 1366 t), all denominative adverbs in N, whether in the positive, comparative, or superlative, end in -ca, thus being identical with the acousative neuter plural, &8 : 3uJoaoni 'atroDgly , &twrnWrfptA 1I'oU.clllwaTCi (Gp. 51811) T_.cN 'humbly' TaWf&",".ptA 'l'oAAIi T1l1l't&PG nAG 'simply' 6:rrAlrr.pG woAAIl cl1l'Aii Bapa1'hea~' By}nptA 1I'oAAIi BIlP.o. .aM 'wall' nAtSTfpG -AAiTfptA (sos) woAAIl mAA .. &; ~o, also .ci.U.1l oraMla .-ebMq' _hr.ptA Xf&p6nptA (xf,&rr- 40)


611'. So !fOAM e much '; ompr. 1I'A..a, 1I'AIo (Otranto) and 1I'Af&6, recent and _oomman 'I'f&a or ....6 (op. Italian ~), 'l'A",".pG ~ 'l'ffM"""T.pG; snp. (woAAli) _pl"o(&P (tor woAAIl trCIAAA 521).
6151". For adverbs in -0IITIl' see 82:1 f. &
1102 b

1SS3. Original adverbs of place, whether ending in -cd (.....,) or otherwise, retain that ending in the comparative and superlative also.
,",' above' R_ below' Iar ' without' '_'within' ",.,. , within ' (P) (chnl or ... , ' from ') flptA 'beyond' 'oyrW 'near' 1I'A""tar C near' J 11'6",., 'far' 11l'pGuOl &; npt1.



W30T',., farther' clw_l,., 'l'fpllCTI,., further' .,.,.,,1,.,

e e




~ nTOl7'liTOl


(also 'new Ill} 1I'AfJt1UJ.1T/,., &; -olTfptJII npporrl,.,



(also 'nllT7a)

.oppo1T1aTOI 1I'pG"_4_ &; -&

GM. As far aB they still sunive, the above local adverbs form, since T, their comparative by prefiring the preposition f1'llpll- 'further' (cp. Vrr'p 1615 W.). This formation is a.l8o followed by some other kindred adverbs (cp. ancient fI'IlpIll(ll'rc.,,; _~ Apophth. 261 A. & c, trapi,,,c ib. 1570 & 158 A. trIIpIiIItt Leont. Neap. V. J. 1S2, 7). ' - above' comp.1I'IlpCinI (for or dnwl,.,)
.Irrt C below' It- without' (8- [Crete] 'without' . _ 'within' .lptA , beyond' W ' there' 'I'wp6s (or IJpp6r) , before' 1IIIpUIiTOI (for 1tf1n'01T1,.,) wapI. or -pGIEOI (for lE-I,.,) "wv.p6t. for 'E-I,.,) " npi_ or _pal"OI " 'I'IlpfIfllptA (for'l'potIOrITl,.,) " rrap4.'" also fl4pfi' (for 'l'fpacTI,.,) "fl4pffA1ltf or 1I'4pIll'.pM (ISO, c) " flfl(HJ'fIi"OI or npGft_ (150, IJ) " wapIiIIf 'nearer here' (Crete, 564) " ']wo,a, , hither' (Crete). " "


.1". ' behind' (ch. 'here' A)


III Phl7Do 165 frpw

'ft Toii ,.,..,.n.fptJIIl"J} Ai-p, clM.' ,..,.,uTfptJII.


Digitized by






1st Person.
Emphatic unemphatic (orthotone) (tonoclitic) Sing. N. A. G. D.
Du.N.A. G.D.

l-y0'I' lpi

2nd .Pmoft. emphatic unemphatic (orthotone) (tonoelitic) vU 'thou'

. . (1)

.... 00

PL N. ~JU'i<l 'we' A. ~p.O.<; G. ~~

.... ....






lJJU'i<l 'you' lJp.O.<; lJplSp lJp1P

3rdPerson. unemphatie f'mphatic

a.WcW, 0, ,p. a.broii, do., 7j<; a.lmp, do., V
,or ....


(tonoelitic) (orthotone) 0, '7) 'he, it, she'

a.~, '7",

.w~ do. (or .)') do.'


a.brov, "If, ov

, {a.brol, 0., fII.} 'they'


a.'II'rt.rIP a.W<;, do., cUt;




a.brov<;, a., 0.<;


a.brOf.t;, do., fII.<;.

696b The accentuation 'pol (pM) and O'ol iDlIteed of'PO; (JcoI") and 0'01, _ _ to rest on the theot)" that, unl_ ~ ftoom _traction, 8nal -GC and . . coant abort (.,10). Aa to or wn and or-, their quantity and IICC8Ilt were pl'Obab17 ~ by .... -Xoi', 'Itrf,.;, eta. .,

&~. Beaidel! the 3rd pe~D &8 ~veD above, there iB 801!other fo~ used m the oblsqw caBeB: Smg. A. f,G.d,D. ol,-Pl.A..S', G. tr4*'"' D. af/ll'''-' This by-form, however, is found chiefly in archaio aDd poetic Greek, while A does Dot use it except in the plural aDd dative singular. On the whole, it m&y be questioned whether thiB form was current even in A apeech aeeing that it disappears from the inBcriptiona &8 early &8 395 B.O. (Cp. KMeiBterhana' 120 & Kabner-BI&BII i. 595-8).
[698b Koeri8


310 O'~f 'An,_, awol-EM".,.,. 0'fl0'", 'A,.,.,_, aWoCf 'ATT"', aWor'-EUf1Pff. O'~ 'A,.,.,_, aWw,-EUfII'8.]

&S'1. The emp1ttJtic forma, which generally are leugthier or fuller, occur through all the cases, and are aIwaya acemted. OD the other

](oerlll44" Iuz.M 'A,.,...&s,

'"OIl I,


."fI' 'EUf1P&.&ir.

..", I'1l ~,...

Digitized by




haDd, the ~ torms are wanting in the nomiDatiYe and bear individual streaa, but are (or ought to be) treated &8 ordinary tonoelities. 94b 97, b. 102. (Cp. Ktlhner-Blaaa i. 339-340, & 501-502.) 628. The ~ forms are used when emphasis or anti-

thesis is aimed at, as:

fMeic iMi htlA.w.n Mol ,"~~. 628b The emphatic forms are also generally used after pre-

cC ~~ , it is tAu I mea.n.' tW lMol d).).o coi d,*,_, 'it pleaaea not - but tAle.' Xen. An. I, 14, 16 reO ,.0. f4" y c ha,.. o"Qlr ai 11111 ....

positions, because these words are proclitic, as: hI lp.ol 'on me' ; pAT4 ui' after thee'; npL ~,u;,v 'on you'; pAT' C&WoV 'with him'; ...,m draW 'to them' i-but ...p6s I" to me. ,
628. The emphasis is still more intensified by adding the enclitic particle 0y, as: 'yi. y, vU y., 'pi y., lpol y., lpoV ,..-.j,..~ y..
618". Owing to their '98t)" frequent UII8 in &DSW8l'IJ (2q$8). the two eombinatiODB .~ .,. (seiL rilplU, tyoiiP'l'. 30'&, "o,"'QI) and 'pal .,. (seiL 3oM") were cnduall7 weakened to IltandiDg adverbial pbraaes I."..,. and lpoa"lf (Heln. U. Z4, etc.), in which the reeeEve aeeent _ probably II1IggIlIIted by the synonymous terms "AAA or,.vu.,. (cp. the voea.tift also 257">. We must therefore distinguish behree the emphatio pronoun '-rhP 1 and the adverb ,..,...,. ,,", and DOt write, .. is commonly done,,..,...,. tor either oue. JWBCke1"JUlgel'B th80f7 (Beitrlp So Lehre d. Gr. Abenfa, 11193. p. 19), ....hioh BIIIIIIDle8 ,..,...,. to be the arigiDal aDd an ~ compJez. is too specmlMift and improbable, .me. it gin. lIIte (mare .A) fonn~a muoh gnater age than it d_ to the Iim.pIe torm 'pI with ita vet)" old derivative ip6t, azu1 moreover l_n. UDeXplained ....hy there ia no nroh analogue of I."..,. .. *fJIMC"", *'~. *crWOcryt. *...,., IMing that these pronominal fOJ1llll are aarel7 vet)" old. (Cp. al80 HHirt 33.)

.,.r,. 1..,.,.,._

180. That the unemphatic or enclitic torms ot the personal proin all three persons were uttered rapidly and without any atreaa even in antiquity, ia expressly stated by ancient authorities. (HChandler' 944-957; Ktlhner-BI&llll i. 339-340 & 591 ; cp. M 204 a6+~ -,Gp awo" [aic] 'XO.,.,.,.. Chara.x in Bekk. An. I1).~; ApolL ProD. 41 Cl; Hdn. ap. Behol. Ven. M 204.) Their tonoclitlc nature and the Jlreaence of monosyllabic beside disyllabic torma, even in early antiquity (lpt pE, lpou POll, 'pol p.a" cp. "DIOr "o11, ,.,,,, "11'; then pAJI, i, cV, oi, utflllS', . ' " t1f/u&.), a.ft'ected the reat and have thus reduced, since G, all unemphatic forms to unitorm monosyllables, the proceaa beginning with aWOl', the commonest of all (cp. 1399 f.). ID this way crWov was shortened to !'OV (after POll, 11011; cp. aJao the article 7'0a.), IIWqr to "If, aWe" to 7'0", aWo to 7'0, aWrpo to "1", IIWOllr to 7'our, aWa to 7'II.J.. aWlIs to "IIS' (still later "'1' 561), .wr-.." to ,,_ (still later ,... 534). Ulat this procesl was furthered also by the li0ii80ciated and kindred article (orcS", 7'cS, nj", '/"Ou, "ijs, '/"061', ,.&, "as, ,.ciI,,) is obvious, since all these reduced torma have become uniform with the corresponding forma otthe article (cp. 546). ClG 86U (after lint), 5 ti' /11111110. , TO'(. ib. 7 ,.;;, ".,C6-yow TO'( 8to..... cw..ty Prol. 63 (1'618) .".,.,.,..""., MQ)N. Mal. 381, I tl'Fp4wra,
THII (v. L .,..,) &cl pAnou Porph. Cer. 395, 10 IFOM.G TQ)N ... ,",. 80 too 395. 15. Alehem. 36. II , 'm, TO ,a-M." Ilea TObr 1ITQI~OtSr. 31 7, 7 '.EI'Fa AII/Unf TO. 334, 13 u" TO IX-'''. 336,33 N TO .CIC~S /JaDeS. 338, 19 . . trdADo TO /JIW.. 330, I If. hapcw dmj",,, xfor. TO /1dA. TO, npE TO ,mu. ~, /1dA'TO'( tIT.....,,; etc. eto.-80 too in Prodr. Span. GIycu, eta. (cp. ELepaud Bib!. H. P. :n, 107 a, 'Fa MPI"ii ".n1.,HC), and ever since pa88im.



Digitized by




an inacription of Boman times [PCauer Del.- at.]. and is sometimes reduced to b6r rep. TpAuA6r. N TptuM,. TptA6rJ, also hot. and whioh owes ita initial I. to qo" 1uV, u.wor (532. 572), i. also common, ~ oWly in insular speech, and oorresponds in UIIe to cWr6r.-The third. AT6, has been in popular use since Q (cp. JWackernagel in KZ 1893.7; TdT6 UWilken in Bermes 38. 417. tII'lci). But while still preaervins ita .A force in Pontos (al80 in Ioaros and elllewhere), it has generally become determinative, like .A I1w6.: 'lieU' It is now almost a1waya (1.33, b) followed by the enclitio genitive of the appropriate penonal pronoun (546), 88: AT6s /MW' myaelf,' AT6r flau 'thyself,' Am TOIl 'himaelf,' A~ "7' 'herself,' ATol par 'ourselves'; AT6r TOW" /lIlfIwi, or .. /lIlfIWG., Am TOW 'the king himaelf.- '.bl1Tc\S has a similar use but is more emphatio (547. F49).-The last, which, owing to Ita unemphatio nature, is not required in the nominative (op. 116.), supplies the unemphatio oblique 08888 of the arel person, and is always uaed 88 a tonoclliic (14113, c). H8. Oooasionall,y *,,"0' is heard in the colloquial ~0JI8 TOI 'thGe he is,' and wov .... TOS 'where is he' P Theae phrases, however. are far more popular and commoner in the form ..a TO'" (al80 ~ .. TW", in South ltaUan Greek Ill' TO", where I .. and a.. point to Latin 1lfI=131.1301l), and woV .... TOI'", both beinar apparently due to the analogy of the onrrent phraae hila) IN .,.,.,. , _ him,' 'look at him.' Now as the 8Ilclitio TO.. is inconvenient owing to its final .. (218-219), it had to be either amplifted into TOfff (536), or altered instead to *Tor CS34)' namely TlWf.1I'o6 .... TWf, or ..a TOt. woV '" Tor. That TOS is a moclliled &CC1III&tive and not a nominative, is farther mown by the iaot that it never appean as aubjeot in the II8Jltence-in that caae it would reaum.e ita fall form I1wclr or ririt-and that the above phrMM, when tumed into the plural, rnn thus: Toye, 11'06 .... Toye, n _ " TOt. woV .". TOt.


1544. The reflenve pronouns which, owing to the nature of the case, are reflexive only in the oblique cases, are composed of a~ and the personal pronouns lpl, cri, and I (526) used as prefixes. In the plural of the 1st and and person each component is declined separately.
Sing. [N. A. G,


'myself' almSs, -7}] 1p;a.11f'6v-'lv 1p;a.11T'OV-7j$ lp.a.vrc; , ourselves '


alnW. -1}] fr{)cumSv, ... er()a11T'OV, -7j$



A. .qp4i a~, - aWM lrp4i AWoW, - cWrM G. .qp.&v aWWv lrpJiw aWWv D. .qp.iv a~, - aWaL~ lrp.t."" a-bnxi, - aWaL~ , theniseIves ' 'himself' [a~o~] alrrol tmo&] 1~' , , ' , , 1-1_ (I)a.Wdv, -0, ... atn'Otli, -ca, oofIi. also--C:- A1I7'OW, A _ v ~ (l)aWoii, do., -7j$ I a~, also CTf/Hiw AWcdv (l)a~c& do., -i (l~ do., ~; also cr#ru- A~ ~. 156

PI. [N. .qJUis alwot, -czl]

, yourselves ' [lrJUis a(,rot, atJ

Digitized by


REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. &4&. The 2nd nd 3rd perIODS occur both in the fullnd in the contracted forma, ns.melYITJVTlI.. a.nd CJ'flvr6'" (l)ovrll.., (l)oVroVr, etc. (IS0, c)., fI~

1548. The inconvenience of the cumoo1'llOme J>lural t),.a, aWM, "pAr

1IIInft, flfl- almNr, as compared with the short forma (I)a#n'oft, (')aII-.

aWM, .,.... aw.., ,."...




t),.a. cWToii, ",... ..

(')a6nMr, was 80 much felt even in claaaioal antiqaity (cp.ITow, &....w. &nIu. &na. for Wr.I'Or. ete. 610). that even AeaehJloe, Plato, Iaoeratea, Demo-

lIthenes, Xenopbon, and others oeeaaionally CA interiptionll regularly since 400 B.o.. cp. XJ[eisterhanll' no) BUbatitutJe the more serviceable form (')aWollr ete. for the corresponding _ of the Jst and 3nd pe1'IIOD&. P writers. influenced by popular Bpeech, went atill further in this direetion, 80 that PolybiOll knows no 10nge1" any other plural fann than 'otlT'ollr (FK&lker "'77; Kllhner-BlaBII i. 59?), while in NT Greek both the plural and singular forma (l)GlrTa.. and (1)a6ToW lltand also for the 1st and Ind pereona, when this does not involV8 ambiguity (GBWiner, 187). In the farther proeeu of time the use of (')alrTa.. beealne IItill more UDiveraal and ultimately obtained almost exclusive currency in the popular language. At the same time, the emphatic form IotlT'a.. very often appears in Qpopular speech (since 74 B.o.) in the reduced by-form lam (.JWaekernagel addueea 1lfty inatan08ll in KZ xiii. 5-8" 6J ; cp. also CIA iv. 6ao b (34 B.O.), 19; Or. Urk.. Berlin 197 ~tI8'. 5 ~r; u loT.. 18a [t85J. aloToU; UaTj; 19 r; cp. XJ[81.terh..... Ill, 5" IU. u)_nd this popular by-form, iD proportion as it ~e general, sWrered abbreviation and weakening of meaning: that is 'aTa.. was reduced to 4TcS.. (ISO, c). Now 4Ta.. having lost ita originalforee oalled for some compensation, and this was found first in annexing the genitive ot Uae reapeative pe1"llOll&l proD01IIl (J<t-07b). &lid lIub eequenUy in prelixing toitthe article also (543; cp. 5lO). Aeoordinsly:-

....'r, .. ;

lat pers. Ta.. 4TeS.. pDV

."nd pars.


..... 4+,...,.
..... 4rV flOII

...a.. 4"cS. fltIII

par rircmupar "olIs4TMIJIU Ta,4nb fiar


"~r 4TM


Tclr4T.b ....... n)II'4hi.. 'f'fjI 147. A I8ClOJld &lid perhaps more popular form of re1laive pronoun ourrent .mea I, is cl_Tlls (542) from I cl....".cSr (549), which is followed by the genitive of panona1 prou0UD8 and in the obliqae _ tabs the artio1e, .. : cllJG"J'6l ,.011 q8IIlf,' cl...,.cSr flOII I yomae1f,' ';pour hOlloar' ;-Ta.. cl_TcS' p.ov. n).. cl_ti" JIIItI; ...a.. flO" ....p cl_.... flOII; "a.. cl_"" "OIl. n)II' cl_rV "Is-PI. T~r &llfG'TlllS. pat, "olIs cltrU'FocSr fiar, mr 4ftn-ocSr...... (Op. PI. Phaed. 2$84 TrN eAyroN It) Ar,.w nl ''Y-,..ciC_.) Ha. On the other hand. Iowa.. and ,,...,...a.. are oceuionally met with in poat-ChriatilUl inscriptions for the 2nd and ard persona (SSterret i. 347. no. 178, 5), and this practice is common in 11 compositions (as ABC 23, I T.w 'lI/1wcS.. I'D" 'my own self,' NSophi&llos 79). These forms are IItill often beard in popular llpeech, but their present _ge is probably due to the in4uenee 01 the literary style. 1149. A.Dother intenaive form ot the reilexive pronoun was anciently effected by the repetition of a~cSr. namely a~llr a6TcS.. (rather aII".s..). awllr ."oU, etc., which aubaequently coa1eaoed into the compound aWatlT'cSr (Kiihner-BlaBII. L 600; cp. ~AOIIf and 'lI/1,"cS..). If this clumsy form was aetually current in the common language one might feel tempted to _ alAU'Vival of it in the N cl_"cSr (547) : *~cSr: *clcfIanr:, which ill the genuine reflexive pronoun in preeent popular apeeeh (more genuine than __.w. 548). In reality, however, cl_Tar is identical with 11 and ~nt (chiefly northern) cl_cSs, that is curiously atrengthened by the prefix cln- (547).

aM pers. TW 4TcS.. "OD



Digitized by




RECIPROCAL PRONOUN. &&0. The reciprocal pronoun earA-otlw which, owing to the nature of its meaning, has no singular, is formed in Greek from ~ repeated in due form: ~ &Mov, dU.ot. &Mow 'one another' and fused with dissimilation to ~. Plur. A. d).).7).01lS au,,).a dllrj).a.. Daal WoiAot G. dll,,)..v +- =+- = ~
D. dllrj).Ol..
+- -



&l50b For N see 1410-1413.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 155L (I) Unemphatic: 'my':vpG." a~ti" a~ti" (or _,,) 652. So still in N with thia difference that the monosyllabic (tonoclitic) forma "ov, "'I", "01", "., O'ar (525' 538) are substituted for the disylla.bic a~oii (or rather -Gv), awqr(-"r), awtill{-.,,), q,*,,(_,,), vpG.II(-.,,).


"cS, ;-01, ,,~, al ~ "cS, ,,-01, "a, al ",."




15&3. (2) Emphatic, also reftexive:


my own.'

(6) l"or, cS", ri ~6r, cS'" rj (6) q,unpos-, 0", a v/U"por, 0", a I5M. Also raw.., 0", a 'own' for all persons (556), which form T-M has modified to l&.wr pov, and finally to the more popular 1]310" (130 ).
564". On the other hand, the A forms ,par O'~ .,u"fPOS _ to liDpr still in Pontos and Oappadoc1a. Thus the Trapesuntian dialect _ T.,.a" for 'my,' for 'thine,' '],unpos for ora,' tli"fpos for 'thine,' and even ')"WiT'pos for 'their.'


1515&. (3) Re1lexive: 'my own.' ~ .,0, ~ol, ft, cd l.p.o.vroV,


O'favroV, ~

l.o.vroV, ~ ft, cd ~p.lnpol (o.lmdv) lJp.mpos (o.lmdv) l.o.wWv, also ~poI o.lmdv. &68. Instead of ~p.lnpol (lJp.lnpot) o.lmdv, the forms ~J&W (lJp.Wv) o.~cdv are also used. Moreover the adjective r&oi, w, a (sometimes also olKt:~) 'own,' may stand for all persons. See l.p6f. .,0,

15&7. (4) Both reftexiveandemphatic(I416): 'my very own.'

6 r3&Or Ip.avroii
(" 6 l,.ar r3,or 01 qp.lftpo, &a,0&

"" " i&0l 01 O'f/IfftpOl ) or 01 t3c0l (.,,) cWr.ito U'1h. For more particulara and eumplea see 1414-1.
01 Vp.lnpOl r&o&

cS %&0, O'fClvrOV cS O'llr &3aor

6 r3&Or



Digitized by





1568. Demonstrative pronouns are current in .A Greek : J. ~.,.o,.q' this' 2. &ac, TO&, .q& 'thiS (here)' 3. Il~, IlbrO, Il~ 'this' 4. ~,TOiiro, IlWq 'this' 5. llC"~, llC,ivo, 1IC'("'I 'that.' 669. I. A,.,.o, '9, the oldest, simplest, and weakest of all demonstrative pronouns, had even prior to .A lost its demonatrative force and become a mere definite article.
For its form and iD1leotion 888 250; for ita history and use II95-u41.

680. All masculine and Deuter forms of the article still fully survive in N; so too those of the feminine gender except the nom. plural al, which still lin~rs only in Otranto, while everywhere else It has been changed to " that is 01 (if not q rsometimes misspelt ri] after q T~" TiiS', cp. 561). This new feminine plural made its appearance lirat in 11 compositions, but must have been earlier in popuIar use. FTrinch.155 HIIIIClan. Prodr. 6, a74 H "''';..'. Chron. Kor. Prol. oj dD)(6..~III1U, oj 1I000U. K. 1059 ~ nJU#lon'uuf. 4631 ~ 'ICICAfllliu. Belth. 202 oj 11".,7fl'lIStr p.ov, -r-rr1CE. llurl. 110'. 60a rllTOI/To ICGl oj T(Hi, (&lPCUf') i ~Ol oj xQptTfJ, etc. Pul 45 ~ IIGpICE'. 51 ~ fVott"Ia., &\Qlt,-and so on ever since. (Cp. NSophlanOll a7 'I) .H.iG [Le. nom.],.a;., ",AvlfOw ftAfJlhnmICOI" oi.)
~e XI~,

I8L A further departure from ancient Greek is the change ot nb, since flrst to T~J (some write nU, or Tair, NSophianOll a7 'I) alncrr.q

[Le. accus. pl.] _ ",Av_ TAic) through the inJIuence of the homophonous nominal ending -Er (aa:a b), (GSpata 90 [A..I). 109~1 fir TAic "'(Hi, cha/llocr. 124 dft.) TAic d-yxact. Chron. Kor. Prol. 769 TEC titpfllff), then to -r9S (written alao .,.oir, Tlf), a change apparently due to the frequency of the i-sound in 'I), 1i'" Tijr (.,.oi,), ol. This phenomenon, however, is still iD. proeMS of evolution, and has not yet ousted the classical form ftt, nor ita subsequent by-form "r. For the form .,a, still survives iD. several chiefty insular idioms (Ohios, Rhodes, Icaros, Leros, Pontos).
189. Another still more recent change-since the tXV\h_peouliar to aome islands (Crete, Cyprus, etc.), conalsta iD. the change o~ the form rij. to .,.crij through syncope (146), and epenthetioa (Ial f.). Thus rij. (u representative of '"i' and .,af) ~e flrst Tf, then .,.'.+i. T";;. u: .,.t? ...".,n;" Tt? ~....-rcrii /Io~Aar, .,.,,~ /IoVAft. This double prooess BOOn
~e same prooess Tt",,.,.., ~e T&..o.,.II. (Cretan .,.[/JOTIII) something,' apparently also JL-N ''''''' (se. A"";;r), W" then'TII. [cp. Spanish GBi] so' (u IStaph. 437. ABC 37, 6. 51, a. 71, 5. 74, 6. 75, 4.) NSophianoa 8a vat, ET%H, ","IIICf, tiTlC, oImJ.. (Cp. 573. 596[1].)

deoted the masculine accusative mr also, thus producing Ten (written .,.crij, .,.~, or .,.,,01), u: .,.001 da.AcfKWf-TlI d/lfpt/>o~.; .,.In} (or .,.IIM) ..,lpollr. By

...,.0,-,.. br.,,"II4TG

688. 2. &ac,.,.o&, ~8r, 'this (one) here' points to something pmeM or fltiW. It is simply the article ~ TO, '9 (559), amplified by the addition of the intensive particle ~ in its original form 8l(4E, 6. I774b ). The inflection andaecentuation, therefore, are those of the article (:150) with -& annexed to each ease.


Digitized by


688-&70.] N. A. G. D.


Singular Ja, ,.0& 7'0v& ,. 7'0ii8, +- == 7'.p& +- -

Plural ol&...&Br

684. Owing to in N, the only form extant being" """ (for the of _ 2.8" 339)" TUh ..o,cSr. T,) ft&" ft& .."u,", 'I) Tal." TciIJr W'OIa. ull6d in the B6DII6 of lJfi'lra (600) (cp. also the Cretan adverb .."p&;IJe 'nearer here,' riiIJe 'hither'; 52.). 68&. 3. O~, 7'OVTo, a~, 'this' (person or thing referred to),

+- = ~ ita abnormal inAection, this pronoun has not IIlll'rived

njv& 'I"iju&

+- +- ..


'Tfdv& 7'Oia&

is also a lengthened and intensive form of the demonstrative article (559), and substantially follows its inflection.

Singular N. ~ 7'OVTo A. TOiiTov .. G. ro6rov +-.. D. ~ - NA.





7'tI.V7u ..






oroVToc~ +-..


delctic force. It was therefore extended to the few cases lackiDg it, and has thua produced the N forma TOWOl', TOiiTol, TO"",, TOWU (cp. the Donc form TOWot, 7'MIIS', also TO&, 7'RI), in Bova t'Oiin-o (from TOWoo x 7'OWo). The uniformitl thua effected can be traced, irrespective of the Donc form TOiITo., TCM'IIS' (TOE), back to P times, as: TOtlT'lII'Gr. Pap. Br. Mua.38, 17 (B.O. 158-7). 68'7. In addition to ita changes referred to, ToUTOf has been recently -ecteel by the accentuation of ita aynonymoua dT6r (539), and thlUl aaaumeel the following N in1Iection (578) :N. 7'oUTOr ToUTO ToWr, ToUTOC TOV1'f& ToUT.. A. ToUT". It TOt?'f TmOllS .. .. G STOWoU(S70) 4 - " 7'oWr,S 7'oiI...... 4- = 4- = '1 T06rou-NOO ...... ToVn,-NAs 7'~ 4 - " 4- = 68'7 11 Cp. CIA n.30S, ]6 [400 B.c.] " RW&gller I09TOiinu ; CIG iv. 8683 ~f 'FIIVn,; Alchem. 38, ]] 'I) ",..",.,,- 'I) kAOlin-) 7'01'In,; 8702""'" TOiiTos. (Convenely oITtI for 7j3t, GKaibel ~, Attica; o&T. Bull. Corr. Bell. 1880 p. ].], Tanagra.) &88. 3. AbnSi', cMo, 4,"" 'thia.' For ita inftection aee 525 & 538 f.; for ita P-N history 542 f.; for ita use 539 f. & 1418-2J.

nnm... 4- = 4- = ( .. ___) &88. The initial complex 7'OVT-, occurring as it does through all the oblique cases (cp. alBo ,or"f, 'I'OlOWo'" TOaol', ~u:ow..l', ,;il'Ol', &Dd 589), seems to have been, ever since A. identified with the seat of


.... ...

DaaL N.

.... =(aIoo . . . .)


.689. ,



lE'vo, laM,

'that,' follows the inflection of

570. This demonstrative is fully preserved in N. But ita association with 41/TC~~ (542) has gone ao far as to even affect their accentuation. Accordingly the genitive throughout, and the accuaative plural masculine of .1&"0" are accented both waya (567. 577), viz.
N. wor A. '.fWO

G. lPoii +- =

'.' ' 0 '.d"" w.,"




'ml'OtSr " ...W'" +- -




+- =


Digitized by




m. A I!yDCIOpate4 tbrm I_,s,. 1.,141. , ..!i,(op. "hIlllOf) la _etimea heard iD. the Ionian IoIld TIaoouio dfalecta; then I.or iD. Ponid.
IrIS. TIle initial ,. of 1.,rl'Of. _iated with that of I,.r" ('ITV, 'I'fCr, ek. cp. 533), was mistaken for loll intensive prefix, and thus has been transferred, since G (54a), as nab to .kindred words, 'riz. (aleo ,,,.sr 543) for and beside a ......,s' (543)


'....Wros III n h_,



10 far .. to IlUperadd IIf demODBtrative IoIld emphatio prefb: ablltraeted by dioprimilation from. 134. &Dd O1ll'nIIt even iD. 11 IIp88Ch (915), .. : .lfl'Owor 'thia very.' .a..ft~ 't.batwry.IIf,.,scror'lDm1lOhiD.deed(Prodr.3. 432; 434; 441 i 617. 4t429i 435i 435; 44I;!llJlSi 617; 5.73; 161. 6,144i .c56; p[op.4tW&622]. JlGqouQi .gs i SII i Belth. 68; 'lU"cr& ABO 51,8 (op. P}-r.nd1O on ever 1Iinoe.

Jror '''l1li0' _ SS4. 678. The..- of iD.\eJudfloatlon hu pne even


.. ..


"holor ,,&tor


574. Demonstrative pronouns are rendered more emphatic by annexing an aecenteti -l (iota pamgogicum), which, owing to ita strong atresa, shortens a pretonic sonant and suppresses pr.tonic a, ',0, as: Wnxrt, a.lrrijl, TOUT01i~ TfNf't, MW'; iKC&voul, bmMwl, iKfl.Jlalft; Ml, 'f'fH.Cr8l. See 8Sd App. i. 13 if.
iDteDaifled by annexing a 1IUftlu1: -I (analogous to prefixal .. 57a). and oftener -Cl (probably from M [ -19?] or rather IIf 1'4 573) which, however, bean only a eeoondarylltreu: 1t'OiIToC!'.1. lToiITocr-L Should thiB lIu1Ilx be preceded by a lIOunt, a .".. (formerly movable, an) i8 inB8ried.

15715. In N the demolUltrative pronolUlll (')"oiITor and I_"or are often

8iJIc. N.


G. ('~.Q(,) I.~ _.. I..l..".~(r) PI. N. (')'I'IIiITo&N (1)'I'CM'aN (')'I'oiIT'G'-4(') 10.l1li1'-4 1..a.a...4 100",-4(r) A. ('}ro6r_-4(r)" .. , ..Wow.u(r).. G. (1)'roW.... _.. _ .. 'm--A _ .. _" ..
or (')TOiir'OCI'-I(,) (1)"oiITor-I (I)"w,."...l '.,,~-I(r) , ..0.01'-1 W.."....4,etc. 178. This iD.teDsive .a haWig pllduaUy Ion It. IIUftIDl character. a f!D&l ~

A. 1)roiIT.....G

' ' '0ISnw-a _ ..



, _-4(,) 1 WoN , ..trr,..-A

,.,WoI'-4 .. ..


.. pDIII'&Ily IlUpendded iD. th_ _ which 'W01Ild othenriae :require it.

177. N aWd. (,......,s'. 57a; alllO hrSr 54a) la strengthened by repeating the terminal IIOnant iD each _ after having inBIIrted .". or rather in oorporated the formerly movable ... (au). dnIPor (I] .......6J'O a~ Pl a ......O&"1III aimboa ~ " a~ a ......oiwoVs(1l .. " ~ - '" a .........." aVrIwGi' _ = 1577". 80 M,s.,or, .w.wo. .........", then 'I'oiITor, "oiITo, 'rWn, (10 even iD. NSophianoe 78 f.). (Cp. 581 .) 678. The doub1e-aecented forme 0C01I1' with either aocent (570), but the tendency ill in favour of the ultima: a ......owotl. aVrrJ"lr, aVrolWOllr, a~ (also _ _.... NSophlanOll 79). after the simple aWlS,. These intensi1l.ed



Digitized by



forma have aft'ected a few other abort (mouOll1Uabio or diayllabio) word&, aB: dMowoii for and beaide 1IMou, 1lAA'I,,;;r for and beaida clAAfIS



"OIo,,;;r [I)




7'0,",011, Tovr_" Ill.. _oii (155, c), ,,_.. ..




. . . . _..



679. a. So too .d...OI01/Voii, n1rCl1AlJ'Oii; n .._ " , nftlClw; furtherJoII4I'l7r [IJ for and belide ",ar, ",,,,,oii for and beaida IHr d.AAew.. .. .. W IJvo..&i" .. " ,.."., Uo .. TP'~.." T".. 680. b. Besides the acouaati'9B8 al"6,,0", 1lW4",,", there oconr Il~, drljN' but the latter forma are due to other influences (535).


681. Amplificationa like e&WoW01I Il~r having been miataken for independent varieties, new forma were evolved out of them: Ilwoiitros or fwoii"os, -0, "'I, and IliIrijllor or .tnijIIor, -0, -'I (cp. alao '..0.01, 570), aneologiem found even in Jl popular compositions (aB Prodr. ... 360: IlWoWGI')_ Even 'Toiil'or and TOWor (in Bova'TOWO, Otranto ToWO).

&82. Besides the demonstrative pronouns, there are in Greek demonstrative adjectives of quantity, quality, and age (or Ne), used mostly with the intensive suffix -& (563). Op. 601.

Quantity: v6aOf, T6aOIl, v6a", oftener in the intensive form ~, Toudl!3., Tou~3., '80 much,' '80 ma.ny.'

Quality: f'oior, Toioll, TOla, oftener in the intensive form ~, TOldll"., Tou1l1f, such.' Age or size: T'/~Ucor, T'/'A.UcOIl, T'I~l.", oftener in the inteDBive form f"I'A.,ada3., f"I~&dl!3f, f"I'A.., 80 old,' 180 big.'

dror, viz.

688. These demonatmtivel are atill commoner in composition with

Quantity: f'Oaoiif'or, f'OO'oiif'O", t'OcrG.m" 'BO much,' , 80 many.' Quality: f'O&oWor, f'OlOiin", f'O&Il.m" BUch.' Age or at.: f"IMlWiivor, ~'lI:oVro, ""~&Ilw", '10 old,' BO big.'

aM. Of the above demoDBtrativea the one denoting quantity ia atil1 fully preserved in ita simple form vdaos. On the other hand that deaigDating quality (TOIOr) TOIoVror WaB first modified to the Jl T(o)ITOCor (AMlzvpocfi,*"r 606), then reduced by diaaimilation to the now univereal ,.4TOCor, a form which is sometimes further reduced by fresh diaaimilation to ITOCor (lStaph. ii. 184). (Cp. 136 &; 593-) . 686. .As to the demonatrative of ap ,."Ai.or, with ita oom:tOund n,A&.oWor, it has become extinct in N, the circumlocution 'J'6cj1l "....,aMr haring taken ita place.


&88. The pronoun ns n is both interrogative and indefinite. AB an interrogative, it always stands first and accents the initial syllable (.,.{..) throughout, while as an indefinite term, it is a postpositive enclitic and always accents the ultima.

AlIo TOIIT_&i"... NSopbianOll ,a f.

lIIJ See nok [IJ on p. 161.


Digitized by




A. l~iw. B. IrttUfotiU. .M. & F. N. .M:. " F. N. SiDg. N. rlr; 'who?' .,.i;' what?' "' 'some one,' 'any,' ri' something' 687.

DaalK A.

G. n-; .,.oii; D .,.In ; PL N. nwr ; A. n-; G. .,.0."; D. M'-;

A. .,.t.a ;


- - ..
+- +- -

"''''~ n.a ;.,.&IIfr .,."

.,.,..w, .,.DV


",I'd, &"""a

- =


""i G.D..........

......,..,. .............

n". ""tT~

... = ...._
.... -



are always marked like ordinary words.

&88. The indefinite neuter plural form &rra is never enclitic (103, b). The forms 'I"0Il and .,.., for .,.",or and "'p'1 dissppear from the..t inBcriptions about 300 B.o. aBSb The two lO1itary forms .,1, and.,.l of the indeftnite pronOUll are eommcml7 marked with the grave accent, 'I'lr and .,.1, merely for the sake (1f diItinotion from the corresponding interrogative rorms .,.Er and.,.L This is however irrational aeeing that the remaining indeftnite rorms .,.,..d, ""', etc.,

1588. As shown above, the masculine stands also for the femiDiDe thro1J8hout, as well as for the neuter, eave in the nominative (and aecusative) aingu1ar and plural. In fact all the genders, caMS, and numbers are almost identical in form. This uniformity in 80 common a word, uaed both as a substantive and an adjective, was felt to be something abnormal in. the ~~, the more 80 as all,?th!r interrogatives happened to begin With n (_or. WOl1or, '"IAUrOf j cp.1rOII, _ cWf, ftIw, etc., cp. 566). Hence even ..t writers often had recourse tc the normal and cognate form woe"". _0.., wola in place of the interrogative ftr [ll, then later to the numeral Rr .. pla for the indeBnite .,lr (6u t). P speech, bent as it was on uniformity, showed a more decided preference for this expedient, and the _ of _"" for 'fir, Hr or ..tHlr for (inder.) .,.lr, gradwUl,y met with general acceptance, and caused the retreat of .,lr. The ascendency of fr, and .dnlr over the indefinite 'I'lr WAIl moreover soon manifested by the circumstance that the latter, following the prepoBitive nature of eR and ..Jnlr. also became prepOllitive (1'448-9). This proceBII of substitution and interchange, though. of ancient origin, has not yet come to doee, but can be atill witneued in N. See also 597. Span. 160 a. ~ ft1fll7'4 TINAN ,.., .,06 '1'0 a.31tlJlr. a~r - ' TINOC ~IAOV, I 4Ir If TINEC MlI11fflfJOlllp' eir .,..)](01" IJfI6ptW, xolt-r I~- fir IIWj) .cd lalllU'oW .,.a.




Digitized by



690. ID p _ t Nspeeoh, wblle"";os and ff, (&a,) analmoetthecm.l7mpre.entati.,. current (save In South Italian where .,.E, and .,., IItI1J. obtain), a few older forma an a1ao II11niviDg, II1CIItIy In a II11h1tantival function : ftr, .,.lros.,.1, or .,.1, ""1'6, (596). 69L On the other hand, the A meaning of ..oco, 'which,' 'what 1Ort,' wu transferred during Q-B times to trnnIW"6, (cp. Kattb. 8, 27; But. 476. 13; Apophth. 285 B) [11, and II11baequantly (duriDc T-M) p...a to the neuter 'Ii, uaed. .. an indeclinable word (cp. 0,.,.,610tr.),": n hlpowo,; 'what IOrt of man" .,., /J./JAJa. .4A.Ir; what sort of books do 1011 want" (cp BasiL i. 8 B .,.! ~ t) .,.d1f 1 Acta Xanth. 62, 19 .,.E ,,&or amu 11 6/M1A.n 6 ...pE_To' l .,.! d,....~r iWroii .,.e) ..,du_I.,.! dJ"IJP'I*' ...,.uani.w. .d.fti'Uf 1 10 72, 18; J90 Stud. 1668 A. -rE .a.A1} 1...t1'f'OA1} "if nr,.1I'.Ea., uov 1 CGL 648, 5.,.E ~ia.P 'XII,IantuClt1lcu; pili opu1tGbeB ",utuan1 Ducu NovelL 324 n1 .,.. iEOIIfIUu, 'X" "



/Jaq1A.-6, ;

691b This function of.,.i is now often strengthened by the addition of the I18nitive Aon' or (plural) ['11 (pUir A~, ftoMGI' AIryc&i') ~ = what sort; cll81Orla., .,., Aoy.&.. tIN aort.-. ooUoquialiam appanntq due to Italian in1luence.


691. :For the neuter .,.E' what,' now in uni\lUl&l - . some inII11Jar d.iaJectII (.. Cretan, Cypriote, etc.) employ by pzeferenoe fll'1"lll, a corruption or Btreme contraction of B-M Ti NI TA-later .,.E '11" ft, .,.E .1.. 'rIi-' what is that which,'

p'. Cl que (154) PI.


698. That.,.E &. ft(orn .rII" ft)"'" ftIIIt contracted to-rE ',,' ft or"'!P'I'IIand then reduced by diaIlmilation to fll'ft (cp. "or-rill'ft, tmrijrra, 639; &bIl~, 126; .,.4.,.ocor, '.,.ocor 584). appea.ra clearJ.y not only from the ezp~ tMt;imonyof Pachom. lion. (Kigne ~ 1352 A.: Kpij'rrr (AI~III') iNTA '~r clrrl 'f'oii d IIAII' , dd 'f'oii Ti iNI TO, n1 Ti ENI TA, TiNTO n1 TiNT.,,;,, Aft1/Jloc., lE d n1 nptllCp1Jal n1 4AAocr IqIVplJlr .,.cl iNTA), but a1ao from B-M popular 001II.positions .. : .Jlloaohoe 3064 B Ti iN TO 'XII', ..!pt. M6t1X'; BLegrand BibL Intr. lziv. 53 &i". rfNxII p.av Ti iN' TO AI,; Ti iN TO -rAvd I'ana.,.o; ib. 67 " 5 -r.a Ti 'tI TO .. W.,.i; id. 62, " I TiNT d+opp1} u'I/lI_.,,; id. 67, .,,' 6 -rul TiNTA ; id. 68, .' 6 TiN' TA 'n".,,; id. 76. A( I TiNTA Iappf&.

I ..s. III!-r'lf, trIIln, i" d.II'Mr.

0t1ter Imlejiflite .Pronouts8. 694.. For the English a, CIfI, .A uses ns, P cts

and N

nr, m" .T


For some, .A-Buses TwIs, TtN, and N n,.6t1oc or .&p..6t1oc, .&ococ, p.putol. 696. The indefinite pronoun which in .A. corresponds to the EDgliah indefinite article is .,.~r (337). However, there is another repreeentative also, (589. 633), which, though not common, has held an equivalent position,

[11 Phr:Jn. 39 nnl1nlr Ilea .,.oii T p1} .f..", dl6.apoll',o,. IM .,.06 3fAft ~ Ahow ...l-rlll'ollr nlIaW"6. '''''''; e,,/JGlor. 'A",... o,; ,,,.,., -,clp 01011' .,.ill'O' 1Ia...IBou; .._clr aI '''''''11' ., IJO'rG..a, .,.cl" .,.pInrrw .pW.xor; .1I'l.... 1(PD .,z" mM I".,.,.a,, ..OCM .,.1, UIII .1... ; - riJ The. in. AoyIw. is of comwe no additional letter, but a meana of ~rViDg



the original palatal sound of." which would otherwise become guttural (J) The spelling .1VT'11 adopted by some 1Ich0larB is inadmiaaible, thd in. the whole phrue .,.E ft. or rather .,.E I" .,.4 (I". being the form fOr frll'f 985), the interrogative .,.E is the emphatio word and 10 cannot 1_ ita i, while'.' (or .1..), like ita ancient ~tetive (flu;,,). is fIIIClilfc, and .. noh very often undergoell aphaereaie (,11'.) and elision or apooope (.fll"). It IIl&7 even-and this is very common.-hrinlt to simple ',,', aa: ~6 ',,' aa1...Mo IIOOd thia is too'; ..oii '11" ft 1rGI1lcQ; where an the children P' Hanoe the writinc 6"'" is both untaDable and misleading.





Digitized by




eepecia1ly mce H times (622 ft). For the sake of clearneaa. subaequent apeeeh prefixed. to it (598), as well as to the other indefinite words and thus produced the combinations.a. or W.&-If4TIf, __ Of, _ _......IIIf, .a1,,_or, ete. All these words, Tts, .ls (Cretan now -pir, 155 b), and (abIo or /CllII'dr, Cretan _elr or /CUIII$), together with their by-forms TINs, &ID, and (Cretan _fls or _mu), are now very oommon in N apeeeh (6u ft). As to the plural, their clumsy inflection made room for I14pftttOl (now oommoner _".ftOtSOI.), "..purot. 698. Of the indefinite pronoun Tlr likewise aevenLl forms are still preserved: ftr, T...aS, Tl, TI...!' (590), formerly also TIN. The neuter n ill now current chiefly in the strengthened form Tmw. (dialeotally also Tmwtr, -T1I~, -flr, Tt...orlla, TtSorIIl, 562), which 0CCUl'II even in P writers in the sense of simple Tl, as: Epict. 3, 13, 18 olItOao"..; ft...ore -lTCI _TGIIT~I. 2", 39 ~...."o;. morE. Apollod. 2, 6, 4 _ nSn 'P1W'OFE 1IoW1II'; and so on increaaingly (6Mtwpooppa.,r6u) [lJ._Tl survives further in 1f4'P' (used also for 1CIInJr) or oftener ",T' 'P' (in Crete also _T", Tlr) aomething,'.u. Ta 'every thing:



&9'1. The oonsiderations which prevented the free use and perpetuation 01 the interrogative Tt. (589), naturally apply also to the indefinite form TH. The absence in it of a normal ending for each gender rendered it

inconvenient in popular speech, and thus called for a kindred substitute. This was found in the nUDlenLl adjective r.., pia, 'a', 'an' (622 A aimilar function was aBBUmed later on also by w.l. ( . fr. 595) and during JL times by _ _" both of which, however, have since become either adjectives, '80me,' or substantives 'some one.'-All these substi tutes are now current in N.



598. The oompound partiole ... (-_ Ir), which oocun even in .A as an intensive simple ICCIl 'even' (as Soph. El. 1483; O. T. 615, I; 1078; Plat. Prot. 318 B; id. Rep. 515 B; etc.), has, apart from the

common phrase /Cb.f 'even if,' met with ever increasing popularity since
..A times, and that simply as a strong ICCIl 'even,' 'at least (op. 629).' E. g.

Kark 6, 56 ffGpt~ aWe)., &u KAN ToW lp.aTlw aWoW ~ (also 5, 28). A.ot8 50 15 fl'Q 'Pxopl..ou nlTp01t KAN IIlC10l .....IIIC1Mr1 TI" aww... Luo. D. D. 50 2 ph, 1101. K.tN ,.. 'Yi pl.._1. id. Tim. 20 ofs oM~ K.tN ' ..or " wMroT. 'not even an _ ' j and with numemlB, as Phllo if. 29t 13 K.tN ., Ta.,;;",

'/Cf'' ' '

II,-,oOw l,q_",.

- - . '.UeutOll8.' Luo. Ver. HUt. 4 K.tN I.. -raP" ToVTO cLU,'f. A.,., this one at leut.' Galan. 6, W,lD KAN ".,ar.".lpar 'for at least 0118 day.' Aota Xanth. 61, I KAN JM/CpO. clI'E~. 77, sS dW Toi frPa. K.tN "..,.

.T'' ' '

"'s (_a.Gfls _.Ir,


&98". In it. _1ati0ll with cardinal n1lJD81'll1B, . . grad1l8lly a.umed the forae of marel7 inde8nite particle, as: Apophth. 261 B wVTIIIf Il~ lE ClWW KAN ~N dplUfI alwfj; Leont. Neap. V. S. 1709 B W XPflCl fl'C1 TtW'OFf, KAN MiAN -rap -,.lIlT,." 'E 4}s IX" _OI"COIlUCl abrcl.. lfa.,... 'fPpiow Cbrcm. 7230 20 KAN BAoMHKONTA trGpaIJOI.' some II8ftlltyboata.' 133 KAN IHKONTA IAr'fCl lIOJIle sixty ho.....'-In N apeeoh, it oocurB chieey in composition, as :


594), J:n, _ ...OI.or, _"....lxros, "trOT.', ....ov, - - .

tute for oVIftr ~l.) _ 6290 I; 1....9".

&88". For the use of nr oil (or /A1l) and" ft. oil (/A1l) as a popular substi-

PI It may farther be noted, by the way, tha.tTI...orf has given birth to a. number of bJ'-forma: when it came to be OOIlIIidered as a mbstantive (Tcl TWorf), it _ ftnt nmode1Jed to ft...ora (after "'~JMJ), and then ampliAed to TinTas (after ""ms). Apin when ...eST. was amplliled to ...eSTtr (after Tms), fttrOT. became Tmwtr, then plldualq TltrOT&r, ntrClTlIl (562), and by dj_mnMfOll Tt/JOTU' (cp. "'~68It.).



Digitized by


&89-807.] INDEFINITE



&88. Another indefinite pronoun, always used with the article as a substantive, which was current chiefty in colloquial speech, is d, 7'CI. ~ Mm 'the maD (or Mr.) so aDd so,' 'what's his name?' This term was treated sometimflll as aD indeclinable word, but more commonly it showed the following iniection : Sing. N. d, T~, , 4iN PL 01 MNr, ,.Q It.iN A. TO" T~, ,.rj" 4iN ToW It.iI'Clr " G. rov, ToU, rijr 4&lIOr riI" MWOIIar D. T';,~, -rii M",
800. So still in N: 6 s.wcu (2.8. 339). Ta 3tiN, pt 01 3tWCH, ttl&i".., nl &iN. Another Nby-form, current since T, ia: 61131._ (130. 612), ft 111....0 1l3I"", (even in (Chrys.] u, 779AToil61ldPOII; BO Porph.Cer. 18,15; 198. 3. etc. cp. CLeeIll&Il8 u9 (tII-Wt], 3. Tcl.. 3Iwov), which may be compared with the form cll4rl'Cl of the grammarians (Apollo De Pron. 75. c; Et. M. 68"" 56; op. ltilhner-Blau i. 615). For ,",31 _clr _ 56

801. Interrogative adjectives of quantity, quality, and age or

siee (corresponding to 582 f.) areQw,r.fllitg: II'cScror, micro", wcScr", 'how much?' 'how maDy ? ' Qualitg: 11'0&01, lI'O&oar, 11'0&0, 'what sort of?' which?' or . . : rnjAilcor, rnjAiIco", rnjAUc", 'how old?' how large?' 801. Of these adjectives, only."Ahros has become eztinct, while ..i"or and ..aCTor are still fully preserved. NevertheleB8 ..wor, now commonly _cS. (155, c). has exchanged lta.A meaning of 'which' for that of -rir 'who.' For thia change _ 589.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 808. There are in Greek three relative pronounsa. &r, &, ~, 'who,' 'which '-in T-NIl ..ou, NffOlI b. &rnp, o-np, ;np; '(just) who,' 'which' Co oo,-&r, &,n, ~&r, whoever,' 'whichever '-in N hCHor. hou. 804.. I. Or, &, -ti, 'who,' 'which,' follows the in1lection of Il~ (525; cp. 538 ) and bears the rough breathing throughout.

Sing. N. A. 'ar G. d




- ..

& "

Dual. N. A.. A G. D .r...

~ I






dr ".,

- =


8015. Mark the .A. standing phraaeII_i &r .~" 'and he aaid,' and r Ir 'said he,' where &r 8tands for aW6r (1.37 ; cp. 978). 808. The form Or~ Ij, is frequently replaced by the poitpositive article (w..OI"IM'rura" dpf1poar) i e. the article in those cases where it begins with ,.. Thus ni often stands for 8, niar for rov for d, r.jar for far, etc. (1438). 808b. The poatpoBitive article 8til1aurrivea in N (1.38), though onl,. in the accusative and even here it ia obBOI88C8nt making room for IiffOll (608).



807. The relative pronoun Ilr, " Ii, remained in unbroken ~ through all antiquity and partially lingered down to the XVIt. as may be gathered from the M compositious. Since then, however, it has disaFpeared oJtogether from the living language, ita place having been taken partly by the poatpositive article (606), partly by &roU
(608. 1438).


Digitized by




808. Besiclee 'r, ., If, mother relative made ita .ppearanoe ainoe Q. This wu the adverb ' - 'where' (prob&bly sugested by 6..ofor), which took ita place beside the poetpoeitive article (606) md BOOn uaerted itaelf . . . popular eubetitute for'r, 5,11 (I.US). (Olem. R. ad Cor. 23,3 ftptJOl-rolriol ~' t'" t ~ mm, 8noy Al"(fl' TOMi_1* nA.) Apophth. 300 B _ Aa/lwm _ Ta.. clIJ.NfNW onoy .1x' ..,wf aimw ,.... AWr,r. 300 0 ~ .IX.T. TI..OT. TOii al&.cw TotS7OU lA,.", .f ~ />Gflltt. onoy TCl IaMla 'aXIC.... Laont. Neap. V. I. 46, 18 , iPor ilnoy .JJloecha. 2914 .A. tlr 6noy dTar .1.... (op. 2949 B p.tTCl .ilIIaa Ta. ","fII'OI' ~X .~,... [NQA (wherewith) "'IA... ~ Ta.. ","",,01', when la parapm.. of the oolloquial kov). 808 11 Aa time went on, this convenient eubetitute ('-) gained aeoen dency over 3r, 11, and eventually (ainoe the 16\t1; 606 11) eupplanted it. On the other hand, owing to ita proclitic nature, this "'011 gradually dropped its initial 0 and became simple wou. (Cp. fJ,4 N 1766, ov~" If. 1979. and .a.. n. 530.) In both forme, but particularly in that of nil, it ia mll very common-in fact it ia the real popular rel.tive-and may soon dieplace the now almost obsolete postpoeitive article (606 1t).


.,.a. ''''a a



' ' ' .,tifHlI....


indefinite .,.{~, each component being in1lected separately, viz.

Sing. N. &Tf'lf A. &""11'11 G. oW'- & ,",11 D. rva & 3np PI. N. fliT'''' A. ~CIT'_ G. M .... (& h.)
8lL Jut

809. 2 Omrrp. - . , 1jnp, '(juat) who,' 'which '-is nothing e1se than &r, 0, " strengthened by the enclitic particle '"P annexed to it. Its in1lection therefore is that of ck, 0, ;, viz. &mp, Omp, oTnnp, ete. 810. 3. Oan~, 0,.,." t}n" 'whoever,' consists of ck, 0, ;, and the

&,"1 (lJ " +- +- 4TUOG


i""'104 an",

D. olCJTur, (& fwour,,

,",,,) +- -



& 4Tn




DuI. N. A. """ G. D,---..

Tir hu been replaced by _Or (589), so IIITIf hu made room for 6n&Or or, with dlapJao.d aooent, '-or (615). However, to judge from the JL compoeitiona, 'aTII wu still current as late u the XIVt;ta, thouah in the 88DlI8 of A 3r. Tbe neuter 3,TI, used both u eublltantive and adjective 'whatever: la still univereelly common (cp. Tt, 591), and hu enn led to. 9-B maecu1ine by-form IT.. (u Great Louvre Pap. 236), of which the genitive ITII'Of 'whoeeeoever' still eurviV88 in some dialecte (C,.) and curlowy coincides with the old Doric form """". 811'. In the _ _ WIII7" the interroptive n (or fl'N) often etanclll for woior C593 t), 10 3,TI _ etand for 6..ocOr or ofor whatever 1IOI't.' fWI. Tbe forms 6 6..oior ("a hofOl', 6..ola), 6 "ofor or !rOtOr (Ta ..oia", wrHd) and (6 ofor) 6 of6r or 3-,olor (155 11, 615) are a literal translation of the Bomanic leqwI, iZ ~ (cp. till which). Tbey were introduced by JL ecribee and, being uecciated with the then popular poatpoeitive article (606: xtroV.6n&"'ot, TaXtroV-Ta .-oio.; cp. alao 6 3r, 6 &ror, 615" 1219; 6.Tlr, &.1_, Atwor), found favour among Greek penmen who objected to the
I'J It ahoald be written &ra, but ancient grammarilUlll introduced ',TI-for which modern lCholan often nbetitllte 'rI-to dietingui8h it tzom the oonjlUlOtiOll In that. ' (79).


Digitized by





indeclinable character of &OIl or.oO (608 f.). It is Btill proper to written composition, popular speech always U8ing hew or .00 instead [I). Chron. Hor. ProL 1332 TOYc anoioyc cW ropAiCOITolIS. X. 1440 TA anoiA ft.trrtnl 4831 Ta anoio,. .,a..,ptt.. 5223 Me anoioN IxIC ~VtTiTor. EGeorg. CoDat. Pzo1. ,.a I;;r TA anoiA f1IIp47'G .,~ a.a rr1xov. s69 f. n)r .,AwtltlJf I THN nOIAH a~1I 4av~_..a n)r cilrOKJlCltitlOl. 643 TO anoioN naY .6p.ft nl cWaW Tcl clra~p"0I. 715 7'Cl tlVpJJ&.rra I TA noiA 'tlVr'IJ'ItlOJI. Bella 336 f. A'I,.MvxocAAI,os 'T, ml n'T~ I oi noiOl ~.~OJI. Deltb. 1250 611 'XO,," ,lIl1oVxor I anoioN 'A"4,,T.,A.1I "Po~r cS 411a.. 462 .saw. I TA anoiA I'f7'Cll"lxaair 'I/ciIma-BaohL 49 ri __ TA nOIA '4AICr IIIIIIIVfllI,_d 80 on ever llinoe
818. To similar f01'9ign iDAuence point. tbe hybrid form cS I'aoos the - , ' inasmuch 88 here the article cS ia prohsbly due to the inAUeJlD8 of 6 dTOr, and the meaning _ ' to the Ll.tin idem (MI. 1417).

614. Relative adjectives of qtMJfttity, quality, and age or sUe (corresponding to 582" 601) areQuantity: ~ or ~ 'as much' ; Quality: o~ or ~ 'such as' ; .Age or size: ;AlK~ (or lnrqAlK~) 'as old,' 'as large'all inflected like adjectives of the 2nd declension.
815. Of these relative adjectives, ~l1or is still foil, preserved in N. 'OmScror having been associated with the interrogative cS trdc7ur (134), had to be redoced to WcSlTor, a form which, in the presence of 8.11 identical interrogtlotive, could not bot be droPJiled altogether. Of the two qualitatives oTnr 8.11d Mroior, the former stllllingers in N ~(")')_ (i. e. ,; x o1or, ISSb, 612) 'soch as,' quails, while the latter is still uni versal with the retracted accent 8trOUJr (doe to !SaT"" cp. &ocor) instead of MrIKcSr (IS2. ISS, c), which would coincide with cS ..otcSr i. e. cS troior (602).-'HAU:or 8.11d ~ have na.turally shared the fate of their correlatives (S8S & 602).

818. For ciphers the ancient Greeks used the letters of the alphabet including three more signs (3). These three signs were-I. Yau, F, later shaped ~ and inserted after. with the value of 6. In G-B times it was represented by q, while the symbol ~ came to be used also as a ligature for OT, whence it was termed OT{yp4. 2. KOJ.!lHI, shaped Gand inserted after.". with the value of 90. 3. Rampi, shaped "' and inserted after Cl) with the value of 900. 817. Thus the units are represented bI the letters a to 8, the tens by ,to G (koppa), the hundreds by p to ~ (sampi, 3), 8.11d the thou88.1lds by a. fresh series of letters.


Por .. diI'_t, but

tozoed uplanation, _

AKopaijr, -ATUnl A' 66, ud


Digitized by




------------ ----------_.....




818. When used aa ciphelll, the letters are marked with an accent-like stroke put above on the right (as a fI i etc.) for all numbers up to 999t and beneath to the left for the thousands (aa ,G p :'1, etc.). When two or more eo-ordinate ciphers follow one another, iDItead of marking each one with a aeparate stroke, the last cipher only is conveniently 80 marked. Thu81C1'(for io')-n, pE-!' tforp(y') =163, ~'=895-,OGoICf(=1897. 819. Another system of ciphelll, used in early Attic, appears in old inseriptiODB (sometimes also in MSS when they refer to lines I. It consists of four single normal lines appended to the initial letter of the term8 denoting 5,10,100,1000, and 10,000 respectively, that is il.ltca, HflrOTO., (old spellingforRub8equent'EKaTdJl), XjA,Oa, MUplo&. These symbol8 were placed by and in one another in the following manner:


X 1000 rllll 6666 4 0 9 XX 2000 JlI 6 10 50 III 3 61 JlI6 I" 5 000 II 60 etc. 1111 4 I"X 6000 611 H 12 etc. 100 M 10000 r 5 HH 66 20 200 rl 6 661 21 etc. fH 5 00 fiil50000 666 30 fH66 520 rll 7 rillS 6661 31 etc. fHH 600 XfHHHHJlI6666rll = 1897. XXX fH H JlI = 3650




810. The first four cardinal numbers are declined low8:1 ,,: N. Ii plo. V , A. Oa ,t p.t4" G. b~ p.W.i

D. bl

A.1l thetle forma, leaving 88ide the dative (333), atlll survivein N, BUbjeet, of course, to phonopathic modiflcations. Thus .fr is stlll current in aeveral insular dialecta, sometimes unchanged, 88 in the Jl-N expreasions .a.,lr, .ala (or .u.) flr 'every one' ; sometimes modified to (Cretan) ')'fIr (155It). In oUler respects its regular and generally received form is mr (3311). The neuter'" is naturally amplified to (132 It. 219).-The accuative _ l i n e 160" (5371is stllllUliveraal (in Pontos tll'GP).-The genitive J,.,), a1ao IIUl'Vives. but the form '"ov e (Cretan also ' ' oVr, beside ."oiir) is more oommon.-The feminine is still fully pretlerved 88 oxytone ""G (155, c). N....erthel_ for the genitive ""is a recent and dialectal by-form I"ariir ia 00088ionally heard (579); rarely also ""...w for ...s, (579). The feminine ,.to led to the Jl adverb fl). pha" (as Bova 53, etc.), 'together,' which is still 80 current in South Italian Greek. At the same time another form"tl]r ";6" (diasociation from ,,,pJ4) appears concurrently in JL (N80phianos 83), and this byform still survtves in the contraction at Olloe,' 'therefore,' now current in ineul&r (Cretan ete.) speech.









Digitized by




8a Besides its regular function as a distinct unit 'one,' ft~ ill occasionally used, even by classical writers, without any atreaa or antithesis, as an equivalent of the indefinite pronoun ric 'a, an (589595) Hdt. ... 3 erc I1mw IA'E' TGa.. Th.... 57, :a Aa.tlIal,.-to. +/IOIIfId MiA ,.."
".pl n)ar x6Iptu1. Aeachin. I, 180 ."".,..A84w TU .,.~ oh MEr- Mal IlllJxWOV71l& aal 1l.BU:u7u' TW,OIII dc nptUdJP ..,.1... So 165 " I8:a bl)p dc TOw WONTOw. Xen. MeID. 3, 3 &T/lP 'Y' X~ erc ._ TijlJIlt fir tr6A_ 'Yl-pvrcu.


6:18. In P antiquity this indefinite numeral .r~, which is treated as a proclitic (97, a). met with ever increasing popularity owing to its advantage over Tic of having a separate form for each gender l'rs, ;.,,,.m; cp. 589- 597. 1449b ), and ultimately established itself in popular speech as a kind of indefinite article a, aft; it still remains so in N. Gen. :u, 15 'PP'I{I' Tcl ",BiOI' ilruGTCII MIAC 'AA""r. Polyb. 90 No,.a TOw '~IloEcrr4T_ Efc. Jlatt. 8, 9 "pOfI.ASW Efc "1pt1/IPAT.Vr cWr9i. 18, :a4 dc cl+t'Aln,r ""pE_~. 18,:a8 tip.. NA TOw GWIlotSAoow I1W.N. :u, 19 lllclw MiAN. Jlsrk 14, 47 Efc TOw fIIlI'IlJ"'I-&-"
Luke IS, 26 "poIFlIIIA.f16.I""r NA 1"_ tralllOlll. .Tohn 6, 9 'IJTl ",lJ6.pcor N dill.. Rev. 8. 13 fj_OIIf1I1 iNOC 6.yy4Aov rtfTOp.DolI .~ ,.'flOVparl,paT' A r t - .Tos. Ant. 7, 14, 3 .lIpllJ_.TIll .~ ~ ".sA., .,.".,) MiA 'A/Jff!6.q ToIWopa. Plut. Ant. 5 ~. Il~ ,.... tfN-,6.Ilow eNOc S ..".Movr clIltAf6r. Plut. Cru. 4 ,,,.,..,, NA 1loVAor. AeL Hist. 10, 18 ~ moO nm MiA. Apocr. Acta .Tob. 159 ~JI' 114 T,r MIA _",.,. Epict. 3, :a,10 Efc q.&A&'o+os. JIaL 190, 15 /JIlIJUJIJII'r/r MIAC. Chron. 70, n MiA wap/lWOf ftP'l. 597 dc rMfor. 824. It mU8t be noted, however, that in many, especially predicative (1159) CBBeB, the English indellnit8 article a,l1ft. is indicated, both in ..t and N, by the simple absence of any article (237).



8:15. Like .k are declined its two compounds oll&(\1 [80 accented instead of oMti!1], oMa, oMt,Ja., and ",',,&(\1 [p.,,&i!1], p.~. p.,,&,Ja. no one,' nobody,'-wbioh have moreover a masculine plural. N. ol.&lr oll31" oM. oMlIIft A.. oMI"" . " ol.~ oMm.c G. 01.&..6r -... oMt",or oMI.... D. oM..,l _ oM."" oMt",
8S8. This negative adjective (especially in the form ,..,Iltls) still survivel in N: olIIlEJI'I1S, ,..,IlIJl'llr. The Cretan dialect UBeII by preference p.o1IfIl14...s, where p.otIrJIl~ is a contamination of ,..,~ and ollll (116. 629b).Other N compounds of .lr are _'ds (_,.ir) and aaSEJI'Ilr or IlII8' mar, Cd..fl~ and m,,4rIlr (op. also"u11 .1, [cp. Spanish cada tiRO and French cA_Ill and tnitTl1 .1r, ,.,,~ .1" 621. 665). which are all infi.ected like .ls and rlW respectively. 8:1'7. By SUbstituting otJn and ,./rn for oMi and p:q3J, P writers,

Ai.,.,II''', IJII I~ (read Ilq) tl"OTP4'IfOv Al.,.,.. 0I.,a,. XCli'o, Ilul TOV A Af'JOlHTU'.] 8S8. No feminine rilep.lA or ".",.". has been found as yet. poaaibly because of the di180ulty of pronouncing -ffl'" or -1"'1'" (dilBimilation).

notably those of the Aleundrian school, formed oUN., ,."Bds, These forma. which occur also in Attic inscriptions since 380 B.O., did not enjoy either a very long or a general currency. [Compue Phr7n. 160 Ilul Toii 9 l n1 x,nlfI,,,,,Of n1 01 W' calITcl. oInt


8:19. In case of emphasis, oMt~\1 and p.,,&lr can resume their separate form without elision: olo&.k and p.-q& .k not one,'170

Digitized by



oftener olIt-. or ",qn fJfQr,fllG,,...a; Cretan p.ovrJa'fIr or p.ovrJa. ,_ (626).

(41,'" .ls) 06 or ~,

the particle a... being often inserted here for more stress: o(S &.. p..,,8 a... ~t\1, Cnot a single one' (cp. 598 if.). b So too in N: "'~. (/lQr (or ",~1r), "''13. (/IG, ",,,a. ,...a, and 829


..... For a popular mode of replacing, since Q, oMdr and fl'13dr by "cr lee 1#9. 880. Of the forma 06&ir and ,.., the neuter oNi.. and ~ is still oeoaaionally heard in N as a substantive 'nought,' though .,./l ,.."aw.,w" is the regular dool term for 'nought.' .Aa an adverb, however, oM~ .. ~..) has been in general use through all times with a gradual weakenIng of ita original force 'not at all,' into that of a simple tIOt (06). This attenuation in 10 frequent a word naturally led to procli8i., and procliaia to aphaereaia, i.e. ~.. became ArIIt 061f", then simple aw or rather If" (:n9), a form in univeraaJ. use since B times. For the gradual development of thi8 proceaa lee 1798 f.



Dual N.A. 360 (Uo,) G.D. 8voiv, later 3wiv. D. also 8va{. [I]


88lb The oardinal number for tlllO forma the basis of the dual in Greek. In the nominative and accusative, it has the form aw (for metricall'urposea often written aliot), in the genitive and da.tive auoi.., since the IVt (329 B.O., KMeiaterhanal 124) written 3v.p" beside a_I" (after "pUT'", as CIA ii. 467, 27: aVlI'l trAolo,,-, etc.). On the other hand, aw occurs frequently even m ...4. with the plural as an indeclina.ble word, as: Th. I, 104 ,,&I.. aw ~p&I"; also PI. Legg. 848 A.; Th. 1, 74 atio ~... 7, So aw ~~piiI". 3, IS roir 3w ,u~'m. S,4 JfQulI'l atio, ete. Xeu. .An. i. 2, 23 3tio trAiBpriI", etc. CIA iii. 1443 /"." 3w. See 229rim

882. /Wo survives in N as an indeclinable and chielly oltyt;one word (aN, 135. c): viz. N. &; A. aw, Q ftI' auo.-though ftI' auo.... (579) and aw (for ftj.,. ado, 132b) alao occur, chiellyas 8ubstantives. 883. The frequent occurrence of U. as an indeolinable word, ita dative form awf", &Dd above all ita usual oQD8truotion since the vt a.c., with theplteral both of nouna and verbs (II73) clearly points to the eimultaneoua diaappearanoe of the dual (229).

8M. The inflection of 360 (Uo,) is followed by its synonym


cboth'; G. D. d.p.</xi_a term foreign to popular speech since .4. 885. 3


M. F. PI. N.A. .,.pli\1 G. Tpt1DV D. Tpurl


N. Tplo. ---

886b So atill in N (save in the dative, 119. 232).

888. " If. PL N.A. G. D.


- =
- -

flauapal For nll'lI'- early Attio uaed nw-.


Digitized by




887. In Ionic and P Greek the nominative rffTfTQpn, rftlfTaptJ waa often, under the stress of the accent, reduced to rffTfT.pu rffT',.pa (App. i. IS, b), a form still current in N: rffTfTf~r, commoner rlfTfTf~I~ (after r~is, aV8danr, Glo88. Laod. 211 t_riB), and For the masculine rffTfTfp.1S another M-N form rffTfTfpol (after adjectives in -01, 3'0"C1"I0I, etc. 346. 6381 is sometimes heard. The regular genitive "_ fTapOW is preserved in its A form only (hence r.tltrGpe", never rffTfT.,.). 688. All cardinal numbers from 5 to 199 inclusive, are indeclinable. The round hundreds from 200 upwards are regular adjectives of three endings (-0&, -a, -o.t.).-80 still in N. 689. AA all tens from 20 upwards end in Lawna and thWl coDBiat of lour or more syllables, the post-tonic ending !KOJITII, being too clumsy for such common tel'lllB, WII8 syncopated to (-.'I'TCI) :I'TCI. This abbreviation appears even in Q inscriptions, and is now the only form current in N. (r".uo..,./l) TfilW,TtIo (La Bas-Foucard Voyage ii no. 137, cp. CIL xii. 5399 trieRttlo), (Tfaacapa.o..,...) *T.tltla.pGPra. tla.pirr4, (~KOI'Tt1.) -n;1'Tt1. (GIAacOfi ... 5; 80 too in .Il), now .f"ijI'Tt1o (593); (1E'.O"TtIo) 1EijrTa., (~JlIo"'K_) IJlIo~"",, (~KOI'TtIo) 6-yIoijI'TtIo (80 even in GlAscoli 17), now ~ or

NnlfttG, pmHntG. a:ifttG, ebdomifttG, ogdointG, mminta, eea.tD, in GIOllS. Laod. 211_


'"0;;''''''' (cp. A '"",KOJITII, INtSalOl).-A1eo Iric.aIIf&,

640. In compound numbers consisting of units and tens, two modes of combination are followed in A :-(a) The units may precede or follow the tens with or without the interposition of the copula lCol 'and,' as: rr',," (ICtIol) .Le_, 'five and twenty' or fLe_, (1C01) rrfWf! 'twenty and five.'-(b) The tens may precede without the copula Kat. as: .UcOfTI rrlrr.=2S. This latter mode obtained general popularity in P times, and is now the one exclusively current in N. 64L In a number consisting of whole units and a Aa/f, the half is expreBBed :-(a) through the ordiMl followed by ~IA" as prefix to the noun representing the unit, e.g. 'two minae and a half' TpiY'o" HMlpHicw. '3i (4i. Si) talents' rfrapro" (rrl","o", fIlrO.) HMlr&rro-{b) by connecting ilie half (fp&tl1lr) with the whole by means of aal 'and,' as : 31io !(Ai ~,"fI.,a ,-, rrmf KAi f",fTU rd>.arro". P-B speech follows the latter practice, but departs from A by first conceiving flA'fTUr as a neuter flA'fTU (se. pfpor), then by dropping the connective Kal and uttering the whole complex under one dominant accent, a circumstance which soon led to the encliaia and abbreviation of f",fTU to 11 '1"fTV, as: Sept. Ex. 25, 10 3w mix" Ka& HMicoyc. Dion. H. iL 681, 13 3c:,a.1C0 1C01 HMicoyc C1eomed. 22, 9 &po Kai iiMICY. 63, 20 mG W .Le_,,, ~,dpa&r Kal HMicl. 98, 10 auO 1C0i iiMICY f:OLpar. Diose. I, 6:a r~ic 1C01 iiMICY 'A.lrpar. Plut. iLl}08 A. & B. App. Ii. 315, 95 I'upui3ar lE _1 liMICY nU.a."..,,,. Galen. ii. ~4 p.-N f/ltloS (300,, rftlfT.~IS, rri~ LcOtT" Tp&Grra) ICAi MICOc (401 ), rptir (rlfTfTf~&r, lE) iiMICY, aucl (Tpla, Y'ffTfTfpa, rrf,,", l~, ltlmi. etc.) 'MICY, 3raa 'MICY, a,lCox:r_ 'MICY, ete. 841. In A the two units 8 and 9t when joined to tens, were often expreBBed by way of subtraction of 2 or I from the tens (20, 30. 40 etc.), the nsual formula being avoi" 3l0I'Trr 'wanting two,' i..o~ aiol'fU , wanting one,' that is, 'minus two,' 'minus one,' as: '48 years' auoa. alo,,", rr~ao,,", ITrj, d~inquagiftla anni. '49 years' IPIJs 3irwrca Jrf~_O ITrj. 'with 39 shlpa'puufll fllGr 3fOVcrO&r Y'rrrapUa:o....o. 848. This clumsy circumlooution was hardly proper to popular speech even in A times. AA a matter of course it is unknown to N. 844. Another periphrastic mode of Bubtracting a smaller from & larger quantity was IIOmetimea resorted to by means of the prepoaition



Digitized by


Mitt. . (1619 fF~). Hrlt.9, 33 Tb., 8. 29 _:~2 A. ~. 695 ..r~ :I C,;,r. 9.,24 T'!cr.uapO"o"",lI :rrapil pUJ'"

with ZiCCltRII&ti"ff ouureupuuding to thu

'eucept,' 'save,

convenience thus af!'0~ed met with ~ater ,pop~la~ty d~~g G tlinle#, and eventually DeCliiDlu fii.lIlll18or colloquialism, still very
CO'!lI.l!lOu in N~

~:~: II~;"~:a:: ~=:~M3lrfb~' I:;;Xf;:'; ~ ":::;:O;~f ~~~Th*!


IJtvr. IBtR9. 41, 36 ~o8. ~t. 4. 8: I~U:

3 4

~ J'
7 8 9

t, ;:Z:;'"


SnijI'I3.E:S uP O.*.2IDIBAL l:ittwr"B&. ,la (62 If. 63u) *~{>o-N liveS (63*) IT'Pfi~, IT'pla (635)-N also T'"a for T'pla(rareJy) "4uu~,,fXi (T'iT-) (634 1:), G-l1 T'iUUfpa
**r~, ;".


*iE-N itf 4; *4m-If





, l"I'Ka

*!,,!,ia-N 'wfa (155, a)

,,,.uIt'l or Itl &u1W




l;*~;:\(~~~~z t:~ ~UltI:: Z:z~~:~:]d



1,3 14

13' ,y'

1;I~: ;;::t)(~:la~i*IQ (64 1 :1:: ;31:o


P-JJ Itw ihio.



S.:nr;uap~ (-pa)
.j. alllI'Zl T"



"at ailCa (640 f.)

1'7 , 18


*C' f t"'eu l...,.a-in N

~av"'1I i),iOtTllf

I~i::~t S

in 1r oft",nu 3I'tO{" o


S.iI~'1 (_ 1)
(#50, a; 114)

{~t:d'!::"in11:"'00"oflener 3tJ~

ofttiner 3f~ (150, C; 174)



J"tu4JmlbllUa { 1-~i"a ~""'a-~!! 11 lkl!'lJllllt!4 (K~O, c.) '4.0. bf o..,.tlf fUcOO" (64~)

22 23


S 2lhi" "al fLc"u4 I t.ji,!>u, ~Vo-N fk)(1I~W S 2T'ptl,~ (Tpla) "al

f (fJ(Cff'"


fr-, 'IIOr C~ fvca)



,.." f tfllcLzu,
I ,

"P"~ (up'z,)- in
":r "'"



".imJeo.Ta-M Wf~1ITtl, now Wfll"i/ll'ra (593 639)





60 70




ts)'. hf~~:~f(::e~::'Z;:;;~~4~X:: ~)~f3t: ~~~I.

Purph. Ger. 478,13 ; G~Kpata9f3 (A.D.1I31)(CP B<Tap!lKO-

~bt:~1;::'~ .l::;~::;" (639)


1&1 JJ-B mW Tf<Tf?iIt,,.ora. 173



.r ,,",


80 90
lOO 200

mrlCowa-N ~ and 6yIdna or ~ (639)
1"m,lCowa-N w",;;..,u (639)


300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 IC,OOO 20,000 100,000

lllClJ1'cS_NllraTcS (Ill.) ialGlCcS"&O,, a, a& (638 , N al80 "'.&70' (148) TP&GICcS",O&, a, 0' " NTpudv.fM (150, d) al80.,.paftcrfM (1411) u' lTfT'pGlCcS",m, a, a&" N also .,.fTpaftcrfM (148) ~' , f1l'fllTaw&o" a, a&" N also .fllTGdafM (148) " N also IErurcSafM (148) X, li~aICcStT,o" a, a& *11fTGlCcS",OI, a, a,-NI4mur&t.OI (174),also ~fM (148) at *clICTGlCcS",O', a, a,-N 6x-r-do'aOl (174), also 6~fM (148) ~ 11IGICcS",0I (639)-N w,,~&t&fM, also 1""~fM (1411) ,a lxOua" a, a& ,fJ awXiA,Ol, a, a,-N 3W xwG3tf TPWXo..,O" a~ a&-N .,.por xwG3tr , TfT'pGlC&tTXo..,o,-N .,.ltltlfpt.f (& optr) xwGltr etc. 1I'fllTGlCWXo..,0" a, a& ,f l~wXo..&O" a, a& ,( brrGlCl"Xo..,OI, a, a' " " ", clICTaIC&tTX,AIOI, a, a, " ,8 IIIGIC'''Xo..,o" 0, a& " p.VP'O&, a, a&-N IUu x.W&. " awp."pio" a, a,-N.r.o", x~tr ,le ,p 3tOICWP.Vp&Ol, At a&-N 1-" xwG3tr

,,' yI

Cf' p'


' ,.1



848. The ordinal numerals end in -T'Oi from 1St to 19th (the 2nd, 7th, and 8th excepted), then invariably in~. Hence they are all adjectives of three endings: ', _ , ""I (or 0).
lat fll'pGn-or, 011, 'I 2nd l&mpor, OJO, a 3rd f.,.plTOr, 011, 'I 4th "'f'I"GpTO~ 0., 'I 5th ""/MfTor, 0", 'I 6th llCTor, 0", 'I 7th 1~4opor, 011, 'I 8th oor, 0", 'I 9th '"OTor,o.., 'I loth aflCaTOr, 0., 'I 11th ,"aflCOTor, 0., 'I 12th aatBflCaTor, 011, 'I 13th .,.plTor lCa} ailCaror, OIl, 'I 14th. TfTopTOr IClli 4flClJ1'or 15th ",fp.rrTor lCal aflClJ1'or 16th '",or lCal aflCaTOr 17th ;~aopor 01 a.lCaror 18th &yaoor lCeU aflCaTor 19th lllfJTGr 01 a'lCaTor 20th fllCOa"I"cSr, cSII, ~ :n at frr or "'pWror lCal .LcOa"l"dr 22nd afmpor lCul ,zICOtT'I"cSr 23rd Tpl.,.or 01 ,LcOtTTdr 30th TpiGICOtT'I"dr, cSII, ~

50th 60th 70th 80th 90th looth 200th

300th 400th 500th 600th 700th 800th 900th

1I'fPT'llCCllTt"dr, cS'" ~ f~'1ICOtTTdr, cS'" ~

f~40p.f/lCOtTTdr, cS~ ~ ~O'IICocmSr, dII, ~ 11If"'l1C0".,.cSr, cS'" ~

flClJ'I"OaTdr, cS", ,;

40th ~""a~,cS~,;

loooth 2000th 3000th 4000th 5000th 6000th 7000th 8000th 9000th IO,OOOth :zo,oooth

"'p,_&OtTTdr, cS'" ~ "'ET'palCo",Oa"I"dr, cS., ~ ",fJITa_&O".,.o" cS., ~ f~, dII, ~ (1I'TG_,ocmSr, cS., ~ dICTGlCOtT'OtTTdr, cS., ~ IIIIJICOtT&OtT'I"dr, dII, ~ xiA&OtTTcSr, cS., ~ 4,,,xiA&Oa"I"dr, dII, ~ "'P'''XiA.OtT'I"cSr, cS'" ,; TfT'pGlC&tTxiA,omr, cSII, ~ 1I'fJITGIC,,,x,}.&OtTTdr, cS., .; (~"xlA,OtT'I"dr. dII, ~ "",cw,,xiA,OtT'I"dr, cS., ; clICTQIC,,,xiA&OtTTdr, cS., 'I I_'''X&A&OtTTdr, cS., ~ p.IIp&Oa"I"cSr, cS., ~ a,,,p.up&ocmSr, cS., ,;

41G1C0tTIOtT'I"dr, cS'"


Digitized by



234 (tr21).

84811 P-B formation:


Gr. Urk. Berlin

by the article, aB: .t ~Q, " llcWJ.lIII, "'f'pcana.-On the other hand, a few other ordinals survive aB substantives, viz. IlwTlpa 'Monday.; .,plTfl 'Tuesday'; (for T.Tclpn, 'Wednesday' popular speech uses T.TpGMt (3401); .,..", (i.e. wl",""" *wn-r." w~"! [193. 17+1) 'Thursday'; tIOptJlCotirIJ i.e. TWIlllptJlCIIfI"T4 (BC. "'Jf1T.lca) 'Lent' (see 6471; Wf""JICO~ Pentecoet,' 'Whit Sunday'; ...,~ 'a number of hundred' (cp. 'Ml1'OCITIIr 6601.

12 & 17. 847. Of the ordinal numerals, only .,&Tor 1l'!W'por and TplTor are still preeerved in N, all the remaining being replaced by the cardinals preceded

[tu6sJ tI'ptJIIOtITa., )(p6v0l').

64.71>. Dy cUuimiIation .,..tltlopalt0tn6r becom88 B flaptJItOCM"6r Nomoc. 285 .t 286; Dig. 6. 129; hence -t tloptJltOtl.,.. 'the quadrapllimal fUt,' Lent' (645. 40- 647.) So T.tllI.poItOtlT6. i. represented by M tI.ptJIIOCM"Os (aB F'l'rinoh. 438

IV. lfUMERAL ADVBRBS. 848. Numeral adverbs answering to the question Hmi} many times 'i are formed from cardinals by affixing the ending -cUc'~ = 'times' to all numbers from 4 upwards. In compound numbers only the last part receives the ending -cUc~.-Mark as irregular the first throo numbers. 1 &r~' once' 21 ftIComUc&r &~

.,.p,,' thrice'



rlICtJfTcUa~ 3~

6 iEw 'six times,' etc. 7 flmIIC&r 8 ~ 9 11Ifi,t&~ 10 BrICuW 11 0Br.a1C&r

12 3C1113uu,~ 13 "'puT/CtI&BrrrciIC'~ 14 T'fTfTaptfTICCI&3.lCa/c&r 15 tJ"I'T,ICoc3,w,r 20 ,lICofTalClr

5 tJ'.JlTW,' five times'

'four times


100 IIClITol/1'alC'~ 200 3uucOtl&Git&r 300 'f'p&aICOCTuUc'~ 1000 xoA,u,r 2000 3'fTXoAwlt&r 10,000 ",vpWlClr 20,000 a'fTfWpW.&r

60 70 80 90

TPUUCO.....u&r TffTfTapcucoJmUc&r tr'''"IICOJITU&r iE'I"0".,.alClr ill40l''IICOJITalt&r dy30'l"0JITu&r '"""ICO".,.W

849. So further tro).>.cW, 'many times,' 'often,' fTVXJ'&IC'" frequently,' times,' fTtrGI'&GIClf 'rarely,' 7"OfTWr or 'f'OfTRvrcIIC&r so many times,' &au,r 'aB m&ny times,' as often,' 'whenever.' 860. Being the simplest and most na.turaJ unit of time. day (,;,,~) suggested itself most conveniently for enumera.tions of time &nd thus was closely 888Oci&ted with, both cardinal and ordinal. This frequent associ&tion then gr&dually led to the convenience of dropping the substantive ~",pa (cp. A /Cal' Irrci!1TJlII every d&y'; Sept. Ps. 47. I ~ b.w*pa 'second day,' Mond&y'; so further TpiT'I, Trr&pn" ft',.trTfj, for Tuesd&y, Wednesd&y, Thursd&1.' since G; also IfJ30p'1 'the seventh d&y' of the month, Plut. ri. 1027 B; Luc. PaeudoL 16; Philo i 645. 4t ete.; cp. also 1791), &nd thus birth to the elliptical ezpressions pUJ. alio. 'f'Plir, ete., or trpO.wrJ, bwr'pa, 'f'pi"!. etc., m the sense of 'oDe, two, three timu' or 'first, second. third, time.' This ellipsis seems to have been furthered by the NT (Lake) standing phrase pUJ T&l1I ~"'".". (Cp. pUJ 'f'&I. fTafJfJdT and dtr'
d).~w few

.. 1791.)


Digitized by



Pallad. n 79 0 ... "., 7&.. 41'fpOir. but I u8 D Il7IlfCl' ,Jar trapcl "., 'every other day.' Apophth. 1010 '.GA..1Fi I'f "sa" c) dJJ{Ji.r ''"wr 'one clay.' 328 B Tt .lnl 1'0' Tj &AA, 'the other day.' 185 B "" 'YoUr troM,.",fir 'once.' 420 0 drijAI,.. ,.. "., .l. TO IaIp4T'O.. G6rij1 "poaWlturltu. JKoeoboa 2877 0 &; 29490 ,,, IMf. Leont. Neap. V. J. "''''' IS, 10; 48, 'l; 6; 73. 10; 76. 9; et pa88im (beside ,,, "., 7&.. 12, 6; 54. 7: 83. 17). Tbeoph. 182, 28 "rv ~ 1tIIAt.. "polpxoptJl. Vita Nil. Jun. 45 B ,.... TOU xplwou once a year.'-ELegrand Bibl. ii. p. 23. 145 "'" ""WO wo'iT. TO,MGr wl Uo nl T'ptcr wl IIA.If lBtu. ~ cL\~.1CU' ;and so on down to the present day, as: IToii ...6 'n pAd, IToii T6 '..Cl 3u6 'I told you 80 once, I told you 80 twice.' p&A TOU 4HAov ~w TOii cf>lAov T'jX~ cd n)" GII:~" TOV pApa. 85L Another eqnally poet-cbriatian (T-N) mode of expl"8llling the same notion has been evolved by supplying to the cardinal number the word fap6. (dialectalJy [Crete ete.J also IJoM, 116; cp. ltal. wolttJ) 'turn,' 'time,' naturally used mostly in the plural, as: (DioIIo.l Eupor. 2, 2 nlfT. 411 faptlr Ta" ,,;;.ca. .A.lchem. 318, 17 faptlr ~o. 3220 21 II:GTcl ,,11fT. nl lE ",,,,..u. ib.., .l. riIIu fapcl,. IJ' 4 .". 323, 6 mTcl ." fa"'. 325.234"0.' ni llfa"'. 330, 3"tU foplz", eta., eto.-Theoph. 332. 11 wl'Y1"mu ""o,n, fapi [v. 1.1 wriic11f ToU 'P.",.rIl:OU tlTpooTOii. Nomoo. 46 Uo fa"'. TsatL ebB. 13. sa. Nicet. 4590 24"tu (10. faph). IStaph. 1lI3 f. TltltIGpfU faptlr n)r lI"Ipo.r, .alG fapclr ~ .:",.i _ca 84-. Aldn. 32 7 ".ar fa"" 448,u& t/>OfIG. 851h. This expedientis now the one in univel"ll&l use: ,u&~, an (TPfCr, TltltI.ptc., .11fT. 1rTA.., 1fGA.A.~r, o:JAi'rt., ,,&rn, T6C1'ff, IIcrff) fopIl.



8152. A third substitute for the numeral adverbe, peculiar to Q-JI Greek, is efrected by extending the meaning of the neuter osrdinal (nl) "piirror 'for the:81'11t time' to 'once'; (Ta) 3WT.pGII 'for the second time' to 'twice' i <nl) T'piT'OP 'for the third time' to 'three times' and 10 on. Tbis extension of usage is natural, _ing that what ooeurred for the 18t. 2nd, aM, ,.th, eta. time, must needs have ooeurred once, twice, three, four, ete. times. Conc. Ant. (t 341) 20 adrfpGII ToU bout-air TOii 'Tot/f. Basil. i. :117 B. Cbrys. X. 1:10 . Prodr. 4. 85.-Clu')'I. i. 611 B T,wror riir JIJlJopGaor. Vita Epiph. 28 B; 45 o. JKoeobOl 2865 . Acta Joann. 5. 14; 2 4, 1:1. 35,9; 114. J. Prodr. 5. 64--Basil. iv. 484B rm"",,, . J ,..,.".. 'IJIo,,6k - "ou"",. Cbrys. i. 611 .-JKoeohoa 2915 0 111301'0" '" 3Ar,r riir ItJUpu. -Leont. Neap. V. J. 17, 11 3WT'po.r riir 'lI3opGaor. "'" TpiTOJf cltripXfTG.



8&3. From numeral stems are further formed : MfIltiplicatifIU in (-trl60r) -lfloUr. as: chrlot..-, oiiP, ij, 'aimple,' &tr)ovr 'twofold' (beside occasional ~1CJ'CT6r 'double '), T'p&trloiir 'threefold' (beside occasional Tp'ITIT6r 'treble '), TfTpatrloiir four(old,' tJ't!1'nItrloiir ' fivefold,' etc.-Further trOUatrloiir 'm.anifold,' trOCTatrloiir how

manifold.' (319, 2.)

81540. Contracted adjectives of this olass, coinoiding as they do in most of their cases with the ordinary adjectives in -01, were often identified with them <320 f.), sometimes even by .A writers (cp. IotNf6r, "'''''061, IUrPOf, Kpcaftrof, 'Apxcj,os, woPt/>Vt*T.por, "opfNpOnuTOI, &"A6rtpIw, 6."A6Tfpor, ete. 3n). That the pl'OO8lll of assimilation bad, as early ia G, reached an advanoed or rather :8nal stage in popular speech, may be gathered from the testimony of 1Il0lria 336: Tp'''A.i. TfTpG"Ai "'P'tIWQ/""" .. JIIIIIII&r 'ATT'..ur IJpooX'.' 'EAA.'I"I_&ir. Hence N treats them as ordinarT


Digitized by



adjectives mOCK: IlwAcSr, aurM" .,."nrAM (cp ..t leererM, .,.pcerer6t). For all other N numben upwards, the adjective Ie.Aa, i, added as a crystallized BUftlx : u..Aut, a8.: "'p!Ie.Aor, TfT"a&..Aor (so even Acta Thadd. trfJITclle..Aos, IfG&wAOI, icfmi&...Aor, 6xTliIe...Aor, etc.


85&. A variety of multiplicativea is effected by the ending -trMcr&Or, which answers to the question: ,..ocrClll'A&crlor; 1aow man, times fJ8 tIIuch? al,..Aacrlor' twice as much,' ,.Pl,..).&crlor 'thrice as much,' t'fTPClW'Aacrlor, ""JIT'atrAacrlOr, IEa7rAacrlor, .IICocratrMcr&or, etc. '4. 5, 6, :zo times as much,' etc.-So further ,..oAAatrA&cr&or ' many times as much,' p;up'atrA.1cr&or 'tho118aDda of times as much.' 8&8. For _>.acraor P Greek often uses _Aacrlo"" (neuter _Adcrllll'), G. -01'0', as: 'rp',..Aacrt..", IlUIT'OlIT'atrAacriol'G.
8&7. Neither ...Aderlor nor ....Aacr_llUl'Yives m N. Present speech, like other modem languages, UIIe8 instead a periphrastic expreasion, Buch as W (.,.".;" .,.Ierer.ptll, ,,411T", eta.) ~p.s "A",".pOS' (.AflaT.poS) or ....pcerer/rr.pot (prraAmpos), etc.

8&8. 2. Abstract/_ini"" in ";r (G. aaor 363), as: p.oarh I unit,' awr 'couple,' 'rpad' 'a number of three,' TfTpOr, ""Far (P tr'lIT'ar), IfQr, ifJ80,u,r lie mar, oar lie duar, J"".ar, &mr, l.,,, .lICGr, "'p'curDr (G-B 'rp&alCOmr), TfcrcrapaICoJlT'dr, """"IIe0"""', ilCa'J"Ol'Tcir, xtAcar, pvpc,dr, 'a number of 4. 5,6, 7, 8,9, 10, 11, 12, :zo, 30 ,40. 50, loo, 1000, 10000.' Hence 'rp''' IWpadatr = 30,000868". Of tJo__ aubatantlvea ODly a few aurvivB in N, ohidy aB BPIIOifto t.erma, vi:: ;, po..Gk' UDit' (alChool term), 'Aoyia TpcOaa 'Holy Trinity,' T.T"" (MO. 647) 'Wednesday,' 11J3op4&& 'week,' 3 .aaa 'ten,' 'ICCITOI"I'daa' a hundred' (both .. school termB 0Dly), Xu.uiaa, 'a thoaaand,' ,",pedalS 'an immense number.' For tha rest see 661.
869. In..t the two words XIMl, and """,a, accent the ultima in the geni. tive plural: X&Ala3oW, JIIIpta3&ir.-80 still in N (a54).

880. Besides..os (G. -43os), there are a few numeral substantives with the ending -w (G. oWl), as: I) Tpcnt, T'Tpa1IT'W, .,..,.,,-nl, XIA&ocrnSI, ,.lIpIocrrVt.


880". Th_ fOl"llUl, which eveD in .A occur rarely, are of courae unlmown to N, though IIOIDe 1IOh0lan claim to have diICovered a remnant of them in the Npopular UaTocr",q, and aooordingly writs I) 'ICCITocrnI (647).

eeL The genuine N numerals, which correspond to the ..t feminine IlUbatantivea in ..or (G. -cIaos 658), ended in B-Jlspeech in -Gp'a, now CODtracted to -o.ptcI or (I SE-, c). Thi8 ending is naturally C1U'J'eDt chiefly iD multiples of 5 (that is in 10, 15, 20, 25, etc.), in conjunction with,..a.



a.lCCIptG (or -&6., 155. c) IloI3tnptcl a,-trrCIfItG .broeraptcl ,lalll11ffl'Tllptcl T/HlIVTa"tG



IfflllTGpllo 'ICCITollmptcl 'ICaTO(II)"~".a le_ape, eta.



Digitized by




882. 3. DistributitJes are formed :(I) By prefixing the preposition uW (used as an adverb)


the cardinal number, as: uVv8vo by twos,' oWTPC'$ (oWTpuI) by threes,' rrop,7rf.VT by fives,' O'VV~&KCl by dozens,' O'VVKKal&KCl by sixteens' (written also uW BOO, uW 'J'pc'ir;, etc.). (2) By means of the prepositions clva and KCl'J'&. with the accusative of the cardinal number (J49'1, b. 1589, b), as: clvawlvr 'by fives,' clva UKCl by tens,' KaII Oa singuli one by one,' _ora 8170= ut'",8vo.
Cp. Rev. 4. 8 ~"! I" aWOi" iXO" .Ii'd ".,.Iptrynr lE. Plut. Cat. miD. 68 It.a6' ;"a TOi" ollt.'TOi" every one! Vita SA 9 E IjHpETI p.ot fl1(l 1t.aB' ;,,0. ib. F fill It.of! ''''' (Cp. 666.) 663. For the prepositions ubI' and dMi, N baa substituted partly &d (I SIS), partly jl:OT4 in the modified form _,. (66S. JS9O b).


864. Like IT~" and probably after its analogy, the prepositions d..d and It.aT'', when used in the above distributive sense, came to be treated in P-JI as adverbial prefixes to the nominative (1589b), as: Plot. Aem. 32 d"a 'rllTlTapcr (like Q,,4 f'pEIC); Rev. :11, 21 Ul'd .lr fglTTOr; Hermas aim. 9. 2, 3 d..u 4uo frup6I_. NT Mark 14. 19 (also John 8, 9) .lr glf flr (so too Cedr. ii. 698. 723," Curop. 689; cp. also Leo Tact. 783 flr frap' Efr; Cf. Rev. 4. 8 I" (l1f I" awOi. Ixo" aN """pvyar lE); Rom. J2, S cS! nr or It.a6dr. So Luc. Pseodosoph.9. Cp. also 15ool1. 885. The frequent eltpreeaions Itd' &a, lnIe'LranOll, i/J1o,.Gk, oHO., ".",.a (cp. . . . &pav, _e' 111'1".", ne"TOS, JSS90b). taken in conjunction with etM' ilia, IlfJlf k, ofT, ilia, p./JT' led to a feminine form .oh ,.Ut. -after olo3cpla, pfJ3cpla, om p.Ea, p~T. plo-and thus called into existenoe



eee. 3. By repeating the cardinal numeral twice, as: ;11(1 ."'t, "uu. J!ta", 'rp"r 'rpfir, ete. cp. Antatt. J08, 9 plo" plo" d".,.i /en'r;' ,",{a'" SOf/lott.).ijs
Ep,4,. Aesch. Pers. 981 ,",vpu. ,",vpio = Of'4,",vpuJ.1Jor ; Sept. Gen. 7, 12 lie 15 4ua 4uo. 7,2 ;fr'ro. 1 Par. 24. 6 fIr .Ir. Callin. 60, 33 fIr 01 Porph. Cer. 261 dw;PXff'OI MiA MiA frPOfl'lt.1IIIOUlTo. Apophth. 80 A. ~ 0" MiAN MiAN ITvytCOf'ofjat""" 'r01" d3.).cf>oir. Il3 D 1IIro Ayo VfJITTM It.tU 4w fraEo,..a.,.tn 11T6i.. J 16 A. "'I1Tf'fU,'" BeA." Ayo AYo. So too 120 B Ayo Aio IIT6"". (ubi male 4,,\ 4uo). 368 c 1"'1. Ayo Ayo "'I1TT.,.lt.oi C.u,.or IIT6t.. So ib. D. This mode of indicating distribution has Blnee spread widely, and is now the commonest in Nspeech.

IIn indeclinable adjective x68c (simple 1(Q9' being inadmissible :uS This which is often modified by all8imilation to .mill (after mm 621.636), was mistaken for an independent word, and 80 gradually took the place of .as and fXaf7TOf ' each ' 'every' {Cp. -ni, J 59011).








887. The Greek verb has..4. THuB PEBSONS: First, Second, and Third.-So too in N. B. THREE Nl1JlBEBS: Singular, Dual, and Plural.
8SS. The Dual, however, befr.'n to retreat from the ordinary lallguage early in classical antiqudy. After 420 B. O. it disappears from the ...4. inscriptions, and even the orators show no trace of it from 363 B. c. downwards (229- 631 b. 633; cp. StKeck 57; cp. KMeisterbans' 161 ; HSchmidt 2) 889. O. THREE VOIOES: Active, Passive, and Xiddle.-So still

870. The middle voice of transitive verbs (1466) refen the


Digitized by




action back to the agent or subject, in the sense either of an aceuaative(direetobject), or ofa dative (indirect object), (1467. 1470):

A_ 'I bathe' npl(. 'I procure'




A.OUoI'll' (-A.0.I,", 'l'lIw(11) 'I bathe myself.' fl'oplCOfIG1 (=fI'Opl(.. 1p4VfYj) 'I procure for 'I lend' 3awl(o"," 'I borrow.' [myself.' 87L Both functions of the Kiddle still obtain in N, but the indirect function is much more uncommon than it was in..4.. (147:1. 1478-86.)

87:1. The middle and passive voices have the same form through all tenses save in the Future and Aorillt where each has its separate form.
678. However, in N the two voicell h.'9'e become identiell in the future and IOriR aleo, the paIIi...a ha't'ing obliterated the middle (675. 1478-86).

874. In many caaeB the middle and paaaive (medio-paasive) voice hu an tldifle meaning. In that case it 18 called tkponmt, in particular Middle deponent (}[D) or Pa.uive deponent (PD), according a.a it hu a middle or a pa.aaive form in the future and aorist (999 f.). 876. In N both the middle future and the middle aoriat having become extinct (1478-86), all deponent verbs have ofnecellllity become PD (673). Moreover many of the deponents beine- active in senae have aIao, in the course of P-N, adopted the active VOlce,80 that the group of deponent. appe8ol'll now conliderably reduced. See 1000 & 1482-

876. D. TRIm: .ooDS: IndicatitJe, SubjtmditJe (ConjtmctitJe), and Itllperative,-which are called Fif&ite moods, because they distinguiah persons and numbers. (Cp. 680.)
877. The 'lIllbjunetm of the past,' or ~ ~ (69:1), is con'9'entioaally called ~IIf, a term II1J888IIt8d to the ancient grammarians bY' the circ1UD8bnC8 that at their time this mood IUl'Vived merely u a means of expreasing tIIish (19:14. App. v. 3. lOb). In one single _ , however, the secondary subjunctive is formed from the future stem and in that _ may preserve, for the sake of distinction, the name /tIJure optatiIIf (19351). Buteven here it is rare, and appeara only as a substitute for the future indicative. 878. The future subjunctive and future imperative are formed from the aoriat atem (cp. goB). Owing to this morphologica.l connexion, they are commonly clused under the aorist and termed aoriBt BUbillflctjllfl and ~ impwatiu reapectively. Thia is, however, misleading, lince. from a l~cal and syntactica.l point of view, we cannot well conceive a put subjunctive and put imperative, such moods, owing to the nature of their specia.l case, always referring to the future (cp. 1909-22. 1926). 879. All three (finite) moods are still preserved in N, but the eecondary subjunctive (optative) bu become extinct lince G, ita place ha'9'ing been taken chiefly by the prima.ry subjunctive, partly by the indicative al80. (J923 tr. 1934. 203tr40. App. V.6-13. IS.)

880. E. Two VBBBAL NOUlfS: the Injiflitwe acting 88 a substantive, and the Participle acting AS an adjective.-Theee two verbal representatives are distinguished 88 Ifljiflile moods (676).
88L Both '9'erbal nouns ha'9'8 become extinct in N, only put participles in -"'fIO~ atill surviving (822.2063.2110. App. vi. J3-19, 24-27).

88:1. F. Sa:


Present, Future, Perfect, -Imperfect,

5 2

Aorist, and Pluperfect.

Digitized by




883. Strictly speaking there are or ou~ht to be three groups ofteDseB corresponding to the three divisions of time, viz. three for the present. three for the future, and three for the PaBt, according aB each division is conceived aB merely performed (effected), aB still going on (COIItinued), or aB standing complete. 884. The nine tenses thus distinguishable would be claaaified aB follows:
I. 3.


I. PBJ'.8DT. IrODi,' do': action merely elrected: EleclifNJ ~ _Di (= ellAl ..".), 'am doing' : action going on : DuratifNJ ~ nwol"aa, 'have done': standing complete: completed present or Ptr/t. U.FvTmm.

... _ " . ' shall do' : action merely elrected : ElIIIJtiw FtItvnI 5. ..ouj17. ( - '170,.", ..oc&iP) 'shall be doing': action going on: DvrtJtifNJ NIInI 6. '170,.", _ , , _ , 'shall have done': action standing complete: Future


7. , ..ol'lfla, 'did ': action merely elrected : AorisI 8. ' ..olow, 'was doing': action going on : Impw,ft 9. ' ..(_~a.. 'had done' : action standing complete: PlfqJ#r/ed.

88&. It will be seen that for the etFective and durative present the Greek language developed no separate simpk forma. both functions being expressed by one and the aame representative: ft"n&o; I do' and am doiug,' while the completed p'resent is conventionally called pwfect: ft""'"OC,,1Ca I have done.' Likewise both the etFective and durative future are expreased by one and the aame simple form trOqaCl) 'I shall do' and 'shall be doing'; whereas the completed future is almost always periphrastic: luopnl ft"(ft"OI"Ir~ 'I shall have done.' It is only in the Ca.Be of the pMBifJe future that A haB in many CaBes developed separate simple forma. one for the etFective, another for the durative, and a third for the completed future: ft"pa}(~T'Ol, 'it shall be (then or once) performed' (etFective); ft"pd~fT'ac 'it shall continue to be, or shall be every time, performed' (durative); and ft"(ft"~fT'ac 'it shall have been performed' (future perfect). (1882.) 888. N has evolved in all three voices separate forma, but only for the elrective and durative fuNr, : /Id Ao'!17. 'I shall bathe once' (eft"ective) ; /la Aotlcu I sball be bathing or sball bathe every time' (durative) ;-6d AotNTT'Di 'I ehaU be bathed once' (eft"ective future) ; /la Aotlcu,.", 'I shall be bathed every time,' or ' I ehaU bathe myself every time.' 887. Ancient Greek then actually developed only Biz simpk ten8a, while the remaining three-the durative present, the durative future. and the completed future-were compovnd, in that they were expreased by means of some auxiliary verb (d"" al80 WrdP}(CI), Y&(Y)IIO,"",, T'V')rXal/CI), IxCl), :2106 f.) and the participle of the respective verb. This periphraBtic mode originated chiefly in the need for perspicuity, but partly also in phonopa.thic causes. (Cp. 736 tF. 764- 8~6.) 888. Of the Bix aimple tellB88 referred to, four still survive in N. viz. : the Present, Future, Imperfect, and AoriBt, while the other two, viz. the Perfect and Pluperfect, have made room for periphrastio substitute.. 889. The completed future, which ia commonly called future pwftel (also third future). and corresponds to the Latin Futurum e:ecutllm, is proper to A and AtticiBtic compositioDs only (1881 tF. 1897). Even


Digitized by



here it occurs only iD the pasaive (rarely intransitive) voice, and then nearly alwaya iD the indicative. (Cp. 1869. 1882-5.)
880. OtbenrilB the future perfect ia uauaIly uprel88d by the combination of 'ahall be' with the perfect participle of the I'8llpective '''0"", 'I ahall have done.' eeL The plJrf:' pnel'IIJJy ~ to theLatinplJrftdva~, and the -we to the .-./IIdIm 1IItCoricII... 691L Of the sa simple tenses, the Present, Future, and perfect are
YWb, 88 : _ _



ealled pri7llfJry (or piflCipal), while the Imperfect, Aoriat, and Pluperfect are contradiatinguiahed as ~ or Ai8Ioricol (also past) tenses (1932). The primary tenses serve as a 00aia for the formation of the secondary tenaea.
898. For the formation and copJugation of the verb in N, the preaent, the future, and the perfect participle puaive I8rV8 regularly .. primary ten8M, while all the rest 88rv8 88 88COndary tem. (996, cl) : write,' "rPo4a-<Ba) rp.l'l'CIl, I-tptl1f!G rpAtoIlAl am writteD,' write Irq DAme, ''Ypdfov~-(fIIl) rp.l4!lTw, ~ '"I-II-rpAMMENOC, .1"", "1fJ11P,w,or, 'XOI 'YfJIIPpWr/'.


894. For the sake of convenience, verbs are commonl, cl8oll8ified

into three groups diatiuguiahed by the character of theIr 'stem' or 'theme' (252. 756). According to this (.um-) c1uImaer we have89&. J. &mtmtie (or tJOCalic) ..w, i. e. verba of which the stem character is a 8ODant, aB ).v.. 'lo08e,' ",av.. 'atop,' ",cua.v.. educate,' np4. , honour,' "'0&11 do,' a'1)'d. 'manifest: 898. 2. ConsonGnIGl..w, in particularG. MuIe..w, i e. verbs of whlch the stem character is a mute, aB : Wc.' pursue,),ry. say,' ffpOrr. do,' TplX. 'run,' Tpll/H 'breed: b. Liquid..w, I. e. verba of which the atem character is a liquid, as : f7ft"AA. 'Bend,' ~{IfIt 'flog,' HIM 'distribute,' Jt.pW. 'judge.' 897. The infteetion of the verb, commonly eaIled COfIIjugation, is determined not by the ending of the infinitive, as in modem languages, but by the ending of the first pel'8On of the present indicative (in the active voice). This ending shows two modes of infteetion or conjugation. 898. a. The Common tXlftjugation which ends in .(0) and is accordingly eaIled the fl.ctmjugation. In three tenses, the Present, Imperfect, and Future, it att&ehes the endings to the stem by means of an 0 or., commonly called thematic (sometimes also 'connective') vowel (758), as: 8.pX-O-f'O'. 8.p~ stem 8.px-. 899. b. The M&-COtIjugation which ends in -lA'- It attaches the endings directly to the stem, without a thematic vowel, as: fcma..pG', lcnu-n, stem laTu-.

COMMON OB O-CONJUGATION. I. SOlfABTIC VlIlBBS. A. BARYTONE CONJUGATION. 700. The conjugation of sonantic verbs is either ba.,toM (uncontraeted) or contracted. The barytone conjugation is illustrated by the following paradigm of ".w.., 'stop,' 'suspend.' 181

Digitized by


'10011 Conjugation Table of _~ 'stop,' as typical representative of barytone verbs in -wo






-0-".." -fen






..,.- -11-..",," - ".... -'1"7" .,-Olr -Ol-n






or -f-7'fIHTfJ"





WDii-o". " tnni-0IItTG, '1'




_""". -.-n.
M-nav-a -ar, -m-".... -ICR-T'


-. .....,.


-..... -.""'" ""'



-"11 (I]

f,;j o




....,... -/la.",'



."".... -'1-7"




-11 ..,.'



or -/If-,,.,,a.


ne-nav-Oor, dt-Of -/ldr, "..".a.,.."'-_ -nla. af





-Il-".. .. -"-T'


-Ol-".... -1eO,-n


a. "











tT-o".... -'-Tf

-fl' ...... ...... -o.,..a,"


.. .

-lIr -11 ..,.,.... .










or -G-T."U

O..,.Of traii-a-o", " truu-a-Ovtnl, '1f







-lIIf or -.,ar -0' or-,,"



-d ."" -ul'


-a&-".." -Gl-T'

-.".. or -flail


...v-C-Of, 0..,.0,
../IV-a-u, , lI'all-er-aaa, ",


[I] Aa given above, the lubjunctive of the perfect and pluperfect active il rather rare. The ordinary ..4. form is periphrastio, u in the medio-pa.uive, voice (764), viz~ pr. ncnAY-!l.I.~ It DII ,}, ,..trau"cIT. ~TO" 4TOII, tr __ /l6T.' 11".... 4T. a.,,'-plpr. nmAY-/l." .L,c "", trif'ft'qUcW r",.ol' .'''''lP, ".mllI.6of .... "',,....r.,.... '''JO'''''.


~~~~.~- --~---,-----------~---------------~






.......... ........





_ ..~~f8a

......... -,,-a8.

-".,.41 ......... -.-""41






P4BTIOIPLJ: _u-d-,......r



+,..80 ....,Ih _ " , 0 "'__pa, -0"III"'en. -,..Sa -vlh





...... . .. . .

-E-fl1h -C-fltJ or -c-v8.tTGII "

do. do.
...-ttov-,""POr -pJpo


~ ~





nc-nav- ".POr "



-frO I ~_""" ..... -t"O ....,.



co ~llVtu,.,


-pJa -cri. naU-c:-opa& -1/



~ AorUt CnaV-c-d-"". -.., e ........... .......,.



...................'41 ..-alh -0-1'1


-pi- ""'. ,.-nav-"lPiir.iqr .t., .,.... ........ ,I,p.. -".POa .~. .u,aGII -,,-ra, ncni-_-pal -11 , 8 ~ -,.,.~a&


t-: .

i ~


...s. .............. -v8. -cri

or -v1.tTGll

nav-c-d-"."or +pno.




-JIf a





-d.-Jlf8o -a-crl.

_-0 J -11&.,.0 _ ...................

-ij-rf -fjr


........... -a-al..



-".m, ...u-fT-a-a-811&

a fi







-aO-JlftJa -a_1h -fT"_


-, ........


~ I ~POr 9 -a-IA'nau-IH-crG-p.noor


-0-"'' '



-fld-pno" ~


. . . .I'nW


a. '"

o ~


=AorUt I 1-..w-tJ'I' -tJr,r.... -8" . iI ...,. -6"-".,,-8,,.,.. -8'1-fTo"




or -eM-IWa"OP,



Flit. pnfecl




-d-Jlf8o -.-a8.

......... -o-",a&

wmall-"'_" Jr d -------.,.,... 4- .... -flf.iJ' 'lA'" ~r. la&"

1-8,;'".".. -8.i-"."

t ....w..

-8.l-'1.,.f -/hl-". a-OII -tJ,i.,.. -11.i-...


-IN", -8ii-a-a,

iJlt'Or 'If



-d-,.,...o. -p.4",,)



70L So are further conjugated all sonantic verbs in -let (-al., ...1.). -~tiClol, as : fltvXIClol 'roll' '"",XUCIoI 'hinder' faovX~v. ' serve ' ' 0'61 ' strike' f>'IIClol close' : lx0/Hv. dance '''0'''61' cover with dust' tBOItpv. weep' '{JOVXM 'advise' t~ti. 'loose' tll'&crT'~v. 'believe' /3au&A~u. ' reign' etc. etc.
-v., -avClol, and the very numerous in
701b So further N: /JatT1A1w, 'go dowu,' 'eet,' <#HA. 'treat,''''''''. 'fish,' pu1(lfW, 'depart,' 'gather,' lJ/JaAlwrfW, 'ride,' It"".,.. 'am near,' f1'f/pa3.w, mark,' -YVf'lw, search,' ~fW, plant,' II'''",EW, believe,' X0pOoTffH joke,' 'play,' 1laa1tllA.w, inatruct,' xai3.w, spoil,' ,,,AM' envy,' etc., ete. 702. Since G times verbs in -MI (i.e. -101, -WJ, ..eo.) have undergone hyphaeresis or contraction in the penult (1048), and 80 became lI88OCiat.ed with contracted verb.. (Cp. 857-860.) Thus 1I1.a. """.He" d1.t, N AIlEls ItAI'Elt aAlec IITW. become ni" "IUII;" cLt>.is Afii itAlii aAa ~.i. 70S. When the diphthongs fill and III had 8Nlumed the BOund of IJII or of, and n or if (51 fr.), popular speech began to identify verbs in -cuIoI and -11101 with labial mutes. Hence lX>Pular N treats -a6OJ and -I. as -G/JoJ and -I/JOI respectively (865, I. 8804).



704. I. The accent of the verb, on the whole, is recessive (84b), in that it stands as far back from the end as the' quantity' of the ultima allOWs. However, it can never recede beyond the augment. Thus-".poua-y., "'pouay.n, "'pOuGyf, ".potraydy.".", ",pou9x8'1a-,-but ".pooii.
fO" (not "'pOuJfYO" !).7~ b. So too in N, 88 : A,.,." IArya, IAIyaI'~. (But "'p&I.X- for II'fIOUl;' p . after 752.)

'lOG. The endings -cu. and - of the secondary subjunctive

~ (infin.), mzl&vacu (imprt.), but ~ (secondary 8ubj.~

(20b ),

and the participial ending -a~ count long (197). Hence 11'11&-


2. The penult is accenteda. In all infinitives ending in -MU, as : hlvllCOu.&, Av6rjMu.-For


b. In all infinitives and participles per. middle, as : hlW8czc,

as: AVcnu, mu&1icnu.-For N_ 681. '10'1 3. Participles in ~ and -fl~ are accented on the ultima, 88: MAvIIC~r, Avf),{r.-For N see 681. '108. Neuters and feminines accent the same syllable as their
hlv~.-For N see 681. Co In the infin. .or. active,

respective masculine&, as:


~I', ~, ~-For N

'109. In Greek, conjugation is effected by meana of prefixes, iDfiseB, and suftixes, all added to the atem. The prefixes consist in the augment and reduplication, the infIxes in the tense character and mood vowel, and the auffixes in the person endings.


Digitized by




710. The augment is the prefix indicating the past, and belongs to the indicatitJe of past or secondary tenses only (692). It is either syUabic or ~al, according as the verb to be conjugated begins with a consonant or 8Onant. 71L A. The syllabic augment consists in an l- prefixed to all verbs beginning with a consonant, as: (7lUVw) Z-7IUVOV, Z-7IUVCTCI,
~K(&V, l-7lUvOl':'1v, 1-7lUvu4p:'1V, l~p.'1v,-So still in N (but

cp. 7 1 3).

7l2. Initial p. is usually doubled after the syllabic augment (IOleisterhans' 73 & 134), as,: (pl1mJ) ipp''ItTOV, (pflll) lp,Mov. For the reason see 64 and cp. 51b.
'lU". Kodem editors- often omit thJa doubting ot p in G-B tezta IIpiust hiatorica1 orthOtp'aph;y, Be: A.ota Tho. 70. 10 Ipci..

7l3. The syllabic augment is still normal in N, as: lfrow", nw", n~,l-yI'G'/fa, IypOta/U", harlfTfT", I{JOTa ..lfTfT.. In northern speech, however, when unaccented, it is drop,P*ld like anT other unaccented COl<> ), as: i.,pa.;a, "p.E" but 'miT fTO, 'fr'p'rrIzT fTa, '~, '.,,,oV'Ta, 'trOTiu''T', '{JarO..lfT'T' (030). 714. B. The te~ augment consists in the prefixing of the syllabic augment I to the initial vowel of the verb and the


change consequent on the contraction of the two concurring vowels (156 if.). ThusG. changes to .,,: l."jfI) 'guide' bov " ".,,: v.,7rtJ;1Il 'hope' fjA7rtlov o " "Ill: WAtJ;1Il 'arm' c:m~ov i " " i: lictnVw' supplicate' l"invov ii " " ;j: lIfJptJ;1Il I insult' "vfJp&lov Q& " ,,7J: ~ I disgrace' ~ '" " " 7J: fA 'sing' jOOv G.V" " 7111: G.~t&- I increase' ."uEavov (0&" " .,: olKorlpol 'pity' ~&pOV.)
7l~1I. The origin of the augment la a matter of"f8lUO speculation. the ten. denG7. being to oonnect it with the old Indian augment, which is unitbrmly Cl(op.l.m-...). But when we oonllider that in Homeric Greek the augment is IWl 'nIJ' fluctuating, or rather undeveloped (which me)' be due to the still preponderating fuln_ of the verb-endingll~ we ahall probably be not ver;y far from the trut.h if we a.ume it to be o1oael;y a.ooia, if not identical, with the arehalo fbrm of the lmperfect of fl,.t: or'" (ie. E. EN;,I"..) 'WM.' This pnflull- then retained ita origlnal firm befon all eonlOnanta (the few iDatance. "''Y'II', MA_. 'fWPO"", 'U_, l-w,.,;.., u.,-., ete. are hardl7 _ptiou, 123), while in all other CUM of initial vowel it underwent oon tnIotion on the pnera1prinoiple Bet forth in 156-162: (I + IXor) f1xw, (I +d'JOl') (1+Ibl,w) 4b"or, <'+43011) 13011, (I+dw) ,,3iw. (I+oln,per) or.n,- (later tranIllterated to tllITlflOI'), (I + IJpt/Uor) lJ,HpwII, eta.; then even Cl + h.) V &: ('. k)~. Aa to the few verb-etema beginning with I 0- ""'. their teohnioal (metrical and Ir&JIlD1&tical) 'lengthening' is probably dueto the analog of $he reat (if n~ to App. ii. 9 &: 14). Op. alao m


m. No visible augment ia taken by those verba whioh begin with


Digitized by


'r, - , i-,


ovb ),


32 otflFP'lfla. Xen. HelL I, 4. 14 ol...,ICo,,7'o; o'L""pt, olltol6l"1f1' , ~, om,n, or.,,",u, otXf7'O, etc. (KiihnerBllUIII, ii. 31). Louvre Pap. p. 321 (B.O. 160) otf7'Ol POauerl 247,9 (B.O. 170) otno; 358, 28 (8.0. 170-160) 01'"1-; CIG 954. 2 b olit-rl",I1 2114 d & 1894bol1tol6p'1f1G,ete. See alao4S -The same holds true for initial Ell ( = IV or 41) which since 300 B.o. dieO8rdB the augment lKMeisterhans2 136, 14), as: trpofv~, ete. Sept. Gen. 17, 20 riAVyr,ltG; 2S, 29 & I Mace. 3. 30oMiHtl'1, tIJf,.".,, Ps. 76, 4 ~", 88, 43 E~r. [718 b Cp. Phryn. 131 .a.,ItIII', .,;1tOI6",,_ &cl 7'Oii _l.patlTf& 'pti" dUo DV W 7'OV 01, ota.,..., ollto36I"1_' Kceria 385 . . , . 'A.,..,.aM, "EUIpt..M. -Hdn. H. 789 Irr.Itp47"1f1' OM KOINHN IJcGA.lr7'o. I) cv al.,.,oTfOr '" 7'phmtItM, of011' "X0"",, Oxol"1l1', E~O"",, ',+pG1.II'0I"1., .lIXapell"ril .ilxaPltff'_, .. rns .lIfawlla, Xope".)

Initial 0' also remains, even in..4., but notably in P, without augment, a circumstance which points to its monophthongal pronunciation (44 if.), Ba : Aeseh. Pers. 768 olOlCOtlTp/MI>otw. Soph. Traeh. 268 olrQ/pl.or. Em. Baech.



v-, .v- (717), (714 frequently also those beginning with presume' .r.-COII' (lit., but cp. Ipray' "",6,."..
nBa :


28, b)-dxopru



717. While the syllabic augment, whose abaolute uniformity and sim plicity (it is invariably") bad rendered it 80 familiar to the m-. was from the beginning felt to be the "f8l'1 representative of the pas' (723), and 80 could maintain itself through all times, the temJ!Oral augment laboured under great disadvantages. In the tlrst place It varied in form and 80und according to the initial vowel of the individual verb (714). Then it was not especially distinguishable, either to the ear or to the eye, in the frequent 0888S of initial I', v-, '1', ..., DV', fl', BOOn (since 300 8.0. if not earlier) also in that of tv, aUo, then 1/1' (7IS1f.). Again a number of verbs augmented initial f sometimes to .,. (fi"1rI'O., fi".Co.. ete.), 80metimes to fl- (.lXOII', dNrOll', ete. 719). Finally in some C8II88 either the temporal augment was replaced by tbe syllabic (iclpua, U,."., idA..u, I_a. etc.), or both were resorted to (~3....a,."." .8011).01"1., U,,,.,,,, l&pFaCw, etc.), In consequence of these restrictions in the great majority of 08868 (I, '1, 11, -, DV, El, tv, av, Ill) and tluctuations in those of 01 and 1'1 which intlueneed even.A writers (Kilhner-Blase, ii. JC~aa), popular P llpeech could not but 10116 sight of the temporal augment in the remaining three C8II88 of initial CI-, E', and the rare 111- (o80unded like Q/ and thUII _pad obeervation [l),
(1) However, .. initial 0- appean zepl.arly aqmented to ... in all P-B litaruy compoaiticma and insoriptioDB, despite t.he ideDtity in pronunciation of t.he two vowels at all times, it is arbitrary or rather p8dantio to depart from the traditional orthography, In which all ancIent IOribes weze more qstematlcalJ,y trained than is the _ with acboo1masters in our d&1II (25"). Rence the omission ot the argument in luch 0118811 .. : 8ept. 'tc,.oNYyfi7'O, IJ,.,II"'PfI\ lJ}(fIpillflall. 4"0,,Att"', 1J1f~" poot*P'I", lW"ft1IINx:qfIfJI', UontlfWf , Il47'cpllo(lJl'l., etc. (J'Sturs 124); I Kaoc. _~, 7 ooU.f.,; &+e1AoJl' or ,..,.". (.er:J' fnquently), Acta Petri et Pauli 6, 16 4p1ill'ftlfla; Km. Petri 114, 19 I)Ji'oxAoiin'o ; Acta Andr. 129, 1$ & 178, 18 lJnitllrJ; Acta The. 17,9 IJ,JA-; ..,. 55 /w6p1J117f1A; Acta Thadd. 268, 6 3&ftIOJI' j Acta Philippi 94, 42 7',) 'pttI/AWW; PJooIaY. 3-. 13. I; 1$, I & 2 ~_pl...,. (BR & APH 4y1t); 24, 5 6AalArC- ( r ~.); A.IIta Pilatl A 16, 7 'Ji'6ptJflfll; B 10, 2 4M~f; 11, 5 aupf7'O; 14, 2 IcI,..flO; 16, 16,.._; Parad. Pilati 5 &+el".'; Narr. JOII. 2, 5 'poA~; Acta Xaath. 63, 36 olhnv 'pDJI'o.fla7'f. Call1n. 109t 7 ItIl'I"fVOaotnO. Narr. ... Im. 22"..,.,. Leont. Neap. V. J. 46, 6 (0) 3pJ&'1fTfJI' j Theoph. 734 {De Boor) aWAoflpWor, &PJ&lflpl.or, IJpeflpill'Of, .xv".,,.lror-6'D.d e1aewhen is ~ the more 10 . . we ftIUlarly follow t.he pnctice of WTitinc Q/ (lJ"."..",ptJI',lIxU""",. etc.), and putting the rough breaUIing, though 11'8 know that it __ Iut.rtllT


Digitized by




the more 10 . . . and III were homophonOlJ8 with the syllabic augment I- (723). Hence even IIOI'ibea since G are influenced by the common praotioe and omit all temporal augment (723. 736). Acta 10. 110, la . , . . _ . Doroth. 1741 C 'n/,.Cw. Acta Tho. 23, 30 bntnGFfP. CaUin.68, 18 'G(tor .rG). 80, J4~p1",. 119, IJ 17'0l~11". ,p,np,flHlfII. (Cp. 60, 9 d"BCC'7'O.) CW~1 Prol. 65 (1'VU~) 'ARlI id. ProL 168, 11 &; Mal. 168, JJ ,"",oiiro. Leont. Neap. V. 1.13, 12 fd~nUflfll. 48, 19 (F) GI~I1G7'o. 51, 8 (F) ~4.",. 55. J 7 (C) Ipvfpi4. ChroD. if. ..82, Theoph. 195, 15 (G) fdXJIIIA'"_. 32J,:I d..A.,. .",..Of. 184, 1 &; 325.20 IMfII. 40,31 &; 68, 10 IclrA'II1laCor (cp. 996. 74). 433, 11 dp".,.",bOf; 46, a8.M..... CfII. 300, I &; 303, 30 eto. CGL 405,45 emi agoraaa. ib. 47 emimus IIgOlUIlmen. ib. 49 emerunt agoraaaD. 416,4B aalutari apaaamen (ie. dnua""..). 6~2 IA.CI{Ia umd. 718. Aa a matter of oourae, N tgn_ the _ of temporalaqment (ezoapt iD .. few _ 'PO fr.), .. : J!'Trinch. 15 (1005 A.D.) d-yoptUlp.I"",,; 23 (1029 A.D.) I1-,6pcua, .",...,,.1,,,,; J8a (A.D. 1145) dufGA'I1p1",,; 161 &; 193 (A.D. 1180) d,optUl... ; , . (A..D. 1198) dprin,ufll; 119 CA.D. 1101) ~P.fII; sea.. 87 didPuar; 111 r,o,uaT', eto. (GBatsidakia 6g) ;-and 10 on alDOl. 719. A few verbs beginning with 1- (which however was origiDaJ.l, preceded bl For;, 123,2(9) a.ugment the initial 'to.l- (iDatead ofq-,.



' ' pMaG,



%Ix- 'have'

datra, etc.

.".,... 'entertain' - , . 'permit' &8: .lp, .rp,rOIl,


In".. 'follow' l'ndC.",.. 'work' tu. (and IAdOI) 'draw' 'AUrIlOl'revobe' .n.IWII, n"AUNTOII, 'lS,CoII, .1pyuC&",,1I (beside 9Pr),

'"COI 'aOCUBtom

I".. (aDd

"C.) 'creep'

710. Obeerve that in moet of these verba the aooeat falls on the augment ft-. This coinmdenoe,coupled with other similar cas. frequent in popular speech (.In.., Jao", P .1_, .laa, cp. fj"..Mor) and with the common occurrenoe of 'I- u augment of initial ,. (fjll.Aa".4#x'7'O, fro, 7fl$P'lH, etc.), seems to ha"e led the uneducated to imagine that accented initial " (d. or .1., fj. or ,.) ..... next to the s11labic augment, a characteristic sign of the put. Hence those of the above-mentioned verba which still survive in N not only prelIe"e their aDment temporal augment, u: .1Xa, ~.AG, .1_, .laa, '1lpa, then .","""'" f7'O", fjpX''''', ete., but have at the lI8JI1e time I18rved u a pattern for - 1 other formations. Aocordingl1, besides the now univeraal fj ....G for , _ (i.e.'",o,,) and the 1_ pneral.Af,),G (i.e.IA.7W. due to .tn), 1DllD1 in sular dialects (Chiae, CarpathOl,_tern Crete, ete.) express the a1lllment b1 ,-(+,.,-) whenever it bears the sttellll, as: fj7'potya, fj<l>Cl7G, fjll"fll', fjlrGlMl, 4l'A-, ete. (IO too 44win felt .. simple, 958). but '7'pbrClP.f, 'fG.')'.Tf, ' n"..., i.a".f7", IfIptT., '/lAW.Ttmap... ~ICap.f", ete. (cp. 713)-IlI"fPJIl& (cp. 4-cpra fr