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The views expressed in this paper/presentation are the views of the author
and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian
Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments
they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in
this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use.
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Complex interactions between central and local: community-based research in Thailand
Complex interactions between
central and local:
community-based research in
Thailand
Complex interactions between central and local: community-based research in Thailand Fuller, Boyd Poocharoen, Ora-orn

Fuller, Boyd Poocharoen, Ora-orn

Summary

Brazil/India: Central supplies public participation opportunities, then needs to create demand for it

Community-based research (CBR): generating new solutions for local issues, including water management.

new solutions for local issues, including water management. Central – local: Central supports local : supporting

Central – local:

Central supports local: supporting community-based research Central resists local: engineers resist locally generated design.

resists local : engineers resist locally generated design. Why central resistance? Challenges include: different

Why central resistance? Challenges include: different perspectives and cultures; professional responsibility and pride; uncertainty

different perspectives and cultures; professional responsibility and pride; uncertainty Joint fact-finding as solution?

Joint fact-finding as solution?

Thailand: promoting CBR
Thailand: promoting CBR

Thailand Research Fund supporting CBR for water management and other projects

Money for CBR, but not implementation Communities supported by Node Coordinators

implementation Communities supported by Node Coordinators Royal Irrigation Department (RID) starting to do the same

Royal Irrigation Department (RID) starting to do the same

implementation Communities supported by Node Coordinators Royal Irrigation Department (RID) starting to do the same
TRF & Prak Nam Daeng
TRF & Prak Nam Daeng

Water flow and quality changed by new upstream dams and industries (1980’s)

RID builds dam to help, but causes 20 year conflict instead!

2000: Local leader learns about CBR, gets TRF help

instead! 2000: Local leader learns about CBR, gets TRF help Initial community scepticism Innovative consultation and

Initial community scepticism Innovative consultation and consensus building, develops new dam design

gets TRF help Initial community scepticism Innovative consultation and consensus building, develops new dam design

Saline water area

Fresh water area
Fresh water
area
Rice paddies, orchards, fish ponds
Rice paddies,
orchards, fish ponds
Saline water area Fresh water area Rice paddies, orchards, fish ponds Shrimp farms
Saline water area Fresh water area Rice paddies, orchards, fish ponds Shrimp farms

Shrimp farms

Community-Based Research

Community-Based Research
New dam design
New dam design
Central helps local
Central helps local

TRF provides:

Funds for community-based research Technical assistance and capacity building, including direct support of Node Coordinators

Community prepares proposal for CBR

direct support of Node Coordinators Community prepares proposal for CBR Prak Nam Daeng took 2 years
direct support of Node Coordinators Community prepares proposal for CBR Prak Nam Daeng took 2 years

Prak Nam Daeng took 2 years to develop proposal

direct support of Node Coordinators Community prepares proposal for CBR Prak Nam Daeng took 2 years
Central resists local
Central resists local

Experts at District and National level resist new design

Royal Irrigation Dept (RID) pushed politically to listen Listen, then modify design problems Finally (3 rd try), get the dam right.

problems Finally (3 r d try), get the dam right. Community still feels that RID not

Community still feels that RID not listening

Parties arguing over copyright to dam design.

d try), get the dam right. Community still feels that RID not listening Parties arguing over

Why resist?

Different perspectives and cultures

Experts: “general” places – e.g. river valley dam Local: “local” places, with less regional view

Professional responsibility and pride

places, with less regional view Professional responsibility and pride Uncertainty: What do we do when locals

Uncertainty:

What do we do when locals lead?

places, with less regional view Professional responsibility and pride Uncertainty: What do we do when locals
RID: engineers alter design and build
RID: engineers alter design and build

RID: engineers alter design and build

RID: engineers alter design and build
RID: engineers alter design and build

Solutions?

Expand community-based research into joint fact-finding (JFF)

JFF = Stakeholders (government and non- government) seek knowledge together

(government and non- government) seek knowledge together Define research questions Agree on who will do study

Define research questions Agree on who will do study and how they will do it Etc…

seek knowledge together Define research questions Agree on who will do study and how they will

Summary

Community-based research as reform

Central-local interactions:

Central supporting local problem solving Central resisting local problem solving

Central resistance? Challenges include:

problem solving Central resistance? Challenges include: Different perspectives and cultures Professional
problem solving Central resistance? Challenges include: Different perspectives and cultures Professional

Different perspectives and cultures Professional responsibility and pride Uncertainty

Possible solution: joint fact-finding?