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THONG TIN DI ONG CHNG I: TONG QUAN VE HE THONG GSM


I. LCH S PHAT TRIEN CUA HE THONG THONG TIN DI ONG GSM: ien thoai di ong ra i t nhng nam 1920, khi o ien thoai di ong c s dung nh la cac phng tien thong tin gia cac n v canh sat My. Dch vu ien thoai di ong mai en au nam 1960 cac dang s dung c va khi o no ch la cac sa oi thch ng cua cac he thong ieu van. Cuoi nhng nam 1980 ngi ta nhan thay rang cac he thong to ong tng t khong the ap ng c nhu cau ngay cang tang vao the ky sau neu nh khong loai bo c cac han che co hu cua he thong nay: (1) phan bo tan so rat han che, dung lng thap; (2) tieng on kho chu va nhieu xay ra khi may di ong chuyen dch trong moi trng fadinh a tia; (3) khong ap ng c cac dch vu mihap dan oi vi khach hang; (4) khong cho phep giam ang ke gia thanh cua thiet b di ong va c s ha tang; (5) khong am bao tnh bao mat cua cac cuoc goi; (6) khong tng thch gia cac he thong khac nhau, lam cho thue bao khong the s dung c may di ong cua mnh nc khac. Giai phap duy nhat e loai bo nhng han che tren la phai chuyen sang s dung ky thuat thong tin so cho thong tin di ong cung vi cac ky thuat a truy nhap mi. He thong thong tin di ong s dung ky thuat a truy nhap phan chia theo thi gian (TDMA) au tien tren the gii c ra i Chau Au va co tren goi la GSM . Ban au he thong nay c goi la nhom ac trach di ong (Group Special Mobile) theo ten goi cua mot nhom c CEPT( Conference Of European Postal And Telecommunications Administrations Hoi ngh cac c quan quan ly vien thong vabu chnh Chau Au) c ra e nghien cu tieu chuan. Sau o e tien cho viec thng mai hoa GSM c goi la he thong thong tin di ong toan cau (GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications). GSM c phat trien t nam 1982 khi cac nc Bac Au gi e ngh en CEPT e quy nh mot dch vu vien thong chung chau Au bang tan 900MHz. Nam 1985 he thong so c quyet nh s dung va thang 5 nam 1986 giai phap TDMA bang hep c chon la. Viet Nam he thong thong tin di ong so GSM c a vao t nam 1993, hien nay ang c cong ty VNPT (VMS, GPC), VIETTEL, SPT, EVN khai thac rat hieu qua.

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II. MANG GSM:

VOICE CIRCUITS

MOBILE UNIT

SWICHES AND PROCESSOR

MOBILE TELEPHONE SWITING OFFICE DEDICATED VOICE GRADE CIRCUITS

DATA LINK

VOICE LINK

DA

TA L

IN

CELL SITE

CELL #1

CELL #2

Cau truc mot mang te bao n gian gom co: 1.Tram di ong MS: Mobile Station La mot thiet b oc lap, lam nhiem vu ket noi vi cac thiet b ben ngoai nh may tnh, Fax. MS bao gom thiet b di ong ME (Mobile Equipment) va Module nhan dang thue bao SIM ( Subcriber Identity Module). 2. Phan he tram goc BSS: Base Station Subsystem BSS noi vi MS thong qua giao dien vo tuyen va cung noi en NSS. BSS bao gom tong ai thu phat tram goc BTS (Base Transceiver Station) va bo ieu khien tram goc BSC (Base Station Controller). Mot BSC ieu khien nhieu BTS. Mot bo phan TRAU (Transcoder/Rate Adaption Unit) thc hien ma hoa va giai ma ong thi ieu chnh toc o cho viec truyen so lieu.

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He thong GSM s dung mo hnh OSI (Open System Interconnection). Co 3 giao dien pho bien trong mo hnh OSI: giao dien vo tuyen gia MS va BTS, giao dien A gia MSC va BSC va giao dien A-bis gia BTS va BSC.

MS
B T S B T S B T S GIAO DIE N VO TUYE N

BSS

MSC BSC
GIAO DIE A N

MSC

GIAO DIE ABIS N

Hnh 1.3 BSS = BTS + BSC va cac giao dien. 3. Phan he chuyen mach NSS: Network and Switching Subsystem NSS trong GSM la mot mang thong minh. NSS quan ly giao dien gia ngi s dung mang GSM vi ngi s dung mang vien thong khac, no bao gom: y Trung tam chuyen mach dch vu di ong MSC (Mobile Service Switching Centre): Co nhiem vu thiet lap cuoc goi en va t thue bao di ong. Mot MSC ieu khien nhieu BSC. y Chc nang tng tac mang IWF (InterWorking Function): la cong giao tiep gia ngi dung mang GSM vi cac mang ngoai y Thanh ghi nh v thng tru HLR (Home Location Register): cha tat ca cac thong tin ve thue bao, va cac thong tin lien quan en v tr hien hanh Thng tin di ng Page 3

ITC cua thue bao, nhng khong chnh xac. HLR co trung tam nhan thc AUC (Authentication Centre) va thanh ghi nhan dang thiet b EIR (Equipment Identity Register). y Thanh ghi nh v tam tru VLR (Visitor Location Register): Noi en mot hoac nhieu MSC, lu tr cac thong tin hien hanh e cap nhat cho MSC, nh v tr thue bao hien hanh (chnh xac hn trong HLR). y MSC cong (GMSC): e thiet lap cuoc goi, cuoc goi c nh tuyen en GMSC, GMSC se tm ung so thue bao HLR cha so thue bao c goi. GMSC co giao tiep vi mang ngoai. Ngoai ra trong mang GSM con co phan he van hanh OSS (Operation SubSystem). Co 3 vung trong OSS : (1) Chc nang van hanh mang va duy tr, (2) Quan ly thue bao, bao gom ca viec lap phieu va tnh cc, (3) Quan ly thiet b vo tuyen.
Subscription management and charging

NSS

Network operation and maintenance

NSS
Mobile equipment management

ME SIM

MS

Hnh 1.4 To chc cua OSS. III. MO HNH LP CUA GSM: He thong GSM s dung mo hnh OSI (Open System Interconnection) bao gom 5 lp: Truyen dan TX (Transmission), Quan ly tai nguyen vo tuyen RR (Radio Resource management), Quan ly di ong MM (Mobility Management), Quan ly giao tiep CM (Communication Management), Van hanh, bao dng va duy tr OAM (Operation,Administration and Maintenance). Lp TX thiet lap mot ket noi gia MS va BTS. Lp RR bao gom cac giao thc quan ly giao tiep qua giao dien vo tuyen va cung cap mot ng truyen on nh gia MS va BSC. Lp MM quan ly d lieu thue bao va cac hoat ong xac thc . Lp CM co cac chc nang sau : (1) Thiet lap duy tr va giai phong cuoc goi. (2) Quan ly cac dch vu bo sung. Cho phep ngi dung co mot so ieu khien cuoc goi cua ho trong mang. (3) Dch vu ban tin ngan SMS (Short Message Service). Lien quan en cac dch vu ban tin ngan iem ti iem. Mot trung tam dch vu ban tin ngan co the ket noi nhieu mang GSM. Thng tin di ng Page 4

ITC Hnh 1.5 Mo hnh lp cua GSM.

Operator

User

OAM CM MM RR Transmission
IV. TRUYEN DAN VO TUYEN: 1.Truyen dan tn hieu thoai: Mot tn hieu thoai tng t 4-KHz c chuyen oi sang tn hieu so 64kbps, sau o no c giam xuong con 13kbps trc khi ieu che. ay dung toc o 13kbps thay cho 64kbps e phu hp vi kenh bang hep 13kbps. Ma hoa tieng noi thng dung hai cach sau: j Kch thch xung eu RPF (Regular Pulse Excitation): phat xung nhieu e mo phong cho tieng noi. j Ma hoa d oan tuyen tnh LPC (Linear Prediction Coding): Phat dang song tieng noi bang cach dung bo loc vi he so nhan la 8 c phat vi mot khung tieng noi 20ms, dung 260 bit e bieu dien mot khung 20ms. Co hai cach truyen dan tn heu thoai trong GSM, o la lien tuc va khong lien tuc. 2.Truyen d lieu: Toc o truyen d lieu cao nhat cua GSM la 9600bps va co hai che o truyen khac nhau la trong suot va khong trong suot. Che o trong suot van hanh theo c che sa sai. Co ba toc o d lieu ap dung cho che o nay la 2400, 4800 va 9600 bps. Sau khi them cac thong tin bo tr th toc o tr thanh 3.6 , 6 va 12 kbps. Che o khong trong suot van hanh theo c che t truyen lai ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request). D lieu c truyen lai khi no khong c xac nhan au cuoi. Vi che o khong trong suot toc o truyen la 12kbps cho kenh toan toc va 6kbps cho kenh ban toc, loi truyen dan giam, tuy nhien do s dung c che truyen lai nen hieu suat s dung ng truyen khong cao. V. CAC LOAI KENH: 1.Cau truc kenh: Thng tin di ng Page 5

ITC Dch vu cho phep ngi dung co bon che o truyen dan vo tuyen, ba cho truyen d lieu va mot cho thoai. Che o truyen dan vo tuyen dung kenh vat ly. 2. Kenh vat ly: Co ba loai kenh vat ly, cung c goi la kenh lu lng : j TCH/F (Full rate ): kenh toan toc. Truyen dan tn hieu thoai toc o 13kbps hoac ba toc o d lieu 12, 6 va 3.6kbps. j TCH/H( Half rate): kenh ban toc. Truyen dan ma tn hieu thoai toc o 7kbps hoac hai toc o d lieu la 6 va 3.6kbps. j TCH/8 (One-eight rate): kenh toc o 1/8. Dung cho kenh bao hieu, kenh chung va kenh d lieu toc o thap. Kenh vat ly c to chc theo quan iem truyen dan. oi vi TDMA GSM, kenh vat ly la mot khe thi gian mot song mang vo tuyen c ch nh: Dai tan so: 890 915MHz cho ng len (t MS en BTS). 935 960MHz cho ng xuong (t BTS en MS). Dai thong tan cua kenh vat ly la 200KHz. Dai tan bao ve bien rong 20KHz. GSM 900 co 124 dai thong tan bat au t tan so 890.2MHz. Moi dai thong tan kenh la mot TDMA co 8 khe thi gian. Moi khe keo dai 577Qs, moi khung la 4.62ms. Khung ng len tre ba khe so vi khung ng xuong. Nh vay ma MS co the s dung mot khe thi gian co cung th t ng len hoac ng xuong e truyen tn hieu song cong. 3.Kenh logic: a. Kenh chung ng xuong: y Kenh hieu chnh tan so FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel): lap lai moi 51x8 chu ky cum, dung e nhan dang tan so hieu chnh. y Kenh ong bo SCH (Synchronization Channel): mang thong tin ong bo khung cho MS va nhan dang BTS. y Kenh ieu khien quang ba BCCH ( Broadcast Control Channel): c phat quang ba mot cach eu an trong moi cell va c thu bi cac MS trang thai ngh. y Kenh cho phep tm goi va truy cap PAGCH (Paging and Access Grant Channel): dung e thu cuoc goi en tai MS. y Kenh quang ba cuoc goi CBCH (Call Broadcast Channel): Moi cell phat quang ba mot bang tin ngan, lap lai moi 2s, t mang en MS trang thai ngh. MS tm cum FCCH, sau o tm mot cum SCH tren cung mot tan so e at c s ong bo . Tiep theo, MS thu BCCH tren nhieu khe thi gian va chon mot cell rieng trang thai ngh. b. Kenh chung ng len: Kenh chung ng len duy nhat la kenh truy cap ngau nhien RACH ( Random Access Channel). RACH cho phep MS chon e truy xuat cuoc goi. Co hai toc o RACH/F (vi toan toc), va RACH/H (vi ban toc ). c. Kenh bao hieu: Tat ca cac kenh bao hieu la mot trong nhng kenh vat ly, va ten cua kenh c da tren chc nang logic cua no. Thng tin di ng Page 6

ITC y Kenh ieu khien ket noi cham SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channel): la mot TCH toc o thap dung cho bao hieu ho tr va cac thu tuc khong khan cap ma chnh la chuyen giao cuoc goi gia cac cell. No dung vi toc o 1/8. y Kenh ieu khien ket noi nhanh FACCH ( Fast Associated Control Channel): Dung cho viec thiet lap cell, nhan thc thue bao va yeu cau chuyen giao cuoc goi gia cac cell. y Kenh ieu khien oc lap SDCCH (Stand alone Dedicated Control Channel): Hoat ong vi toc o thap, dung kenh TCH/8. Phuc vu cho viec cap nhat va qua trnh thiet lap cuoc goi khi mot TCH c ch nh. Khe vo tuyen c phan phoi en ngi s dung chi khi cuoc goi a c thiet lap xong. Co hai che o la danh rieng va roi. Viec hoat ong che o nao la phu thuoc vao ng len hay ng xuong. Trong thuat ng GSM, ng xuong la tn hieu phat ra t tram goc en MS va ngc lai cho tn hieu ng len. y Kenh thoai/ d lieu: moi khe thi gian cua kenh thoai cha 260 bits cho moi khoi. Toan bo khoi co 316 bits. Moi khe thi gian kenh d lieu cha 120 hoac 240 bits cho moi khoi. y Che o kenh: bi v s qu gia cua pho tan so, nen khong co mot ngi dung nao c cap mot kenh danh rieng. y Che o danh rieng: dung TCH trong suot cuoc goi c thiet lap va dung SACCH e cap nhat v tr che o danh rieng. TCH va SACCH la cac kenh danh rieng cho ca ng len va ng xuong. y Che o ngh: trong luc khong co cuoc goi, th nam kenh ng xuong trang thai roi: FCCH, SCH, BCCH c phat quang ba mot cach eu an; PAGCH va CBCH gi mot ban tin moi 2s. Trong suot che o ngh, MS lang nghe cac kenh ng xuong, va dung SDCCH e ghi nhan mot s lien ket v tr vi mot tram goc tng ng trong mang. VI. PHNG PHAP A TRUY NHAP: GSM la s ket hp cua FDMA va TDMA. Tong so kenh trong FDMA la 124, va moi kenh rong 200KHz. ng len s dung khoang tan so 935 960MHz va ng xuong s dung khoang tan so 890 915MHz. TDMA dung moi kenh la 200KHz, mot khung co tam khe thi gian, mot khung keo dai trong 4.615ms. 1. Phng phap FDMA. FDMA la gan cac kenh en tng ngi rieng re. Cac kenh nay c gan da tren cac yeu cau ma ngi s dung can. Trong suot thi gian cuoc goi tien hanh, khong co mot user nao dung chung bang tan so o. FDMA co nhng ac iem sau: y Kenh FDMA ch phuc vu duy nhat mot thue bao tai mot thi iem. y Neu mot kenh FDMA khong c dung, th no trang thai ngh va khong c dung bi cac user khac e tang kha nang cua he thong. y Sau khi a gan mot kenh thoai, tram goc va MS thu va phat mot cach lien tuc va ong thi. Thng tin di ng Page 7

ITC

Code

Time

Hnh 1.6 Cach gan bang tan so cua FDMA. y Bang thong cua kenh FDMA la tng oi nho (khoang 30KHz) khi moi kenh phuc vu duy nhat mot song mang. FDMA thng c ap dung cho he thong bang hep. y Thi gian cua k hieu la ln so vi thi gian tre trung bnh. V vay giao thoa k t ISI thap va khong can s dung Equalizer. y He thong FDMA khong phc tap nh TDMA. y FDMA la phng phap truyen dan lien tuc, nen cac bits can cho muc ch nh tuyen la t hn TDMA. y FDMA can mot cau truc loc RF chat che giam thieu giao thoa kenh ke. Tong so kenh co the hoat ong ong thi trong mot he thong FDMA la: Btot  2 B guard (1.1) N ! Bc Btot: Tong so pho c phan phoi. Bguard: Bang bao ve tai canh cua cac kenh . Bc: Bang thong cua moi kenh. 2. Phng phap TDMA: He thong TDMA chia pho vo tuyen ra cac khe thi gian (Time slot) va moi khe ch cho phep ngi s dung c phat hoac thu. Nh trong hnh 1.7, moi user chiem mot khe thi gian c lap lai mot cach chu ky, mot kenh c xem nh la mot khe thi gian ma no lap lai moi khung. Mot khung co N khe thi gian. Khong nh he thong FDMA, he thong TDMA truyen dan d lieu khong lien tuc va ch s dung cho d lieu so va ieu che so. Viec truyen dan t cac user khac nhau c ket hp lai thanh mot khung lap lai nh hnh 1.8

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Channel N

Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3

Frequency

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Ti

Ti

Hnh 1.7 Phng phap phan chia kenh trong TDMA. Mot khung bao gom nhieu khe thi gian. Moi khung co bit m au, bit thong tin va bit ket thuc. Trong TDMA bit m au cha thong tin ve a ch va ong bo ma ca tram goc va MS dung e nhan dang. Cac ac iem cua TDMA: y TDMA chia mot tan so song mang n cho mot user. So khe thi gian trong moi khung phu thuoc vao nhieu he so nh ky thuat ieu che, bang thong y Truyen dan d lieu he thong TDMA la khong lien tuc nhng dien ra theo cum. y Qua trnh x l chuyen giao cuoc goi gia cac cell la n gian, MS co the lang nghe t cac tram goc khac trong suot thi gian ngh. y TDMA dung cac khe thi gian khac nhau cho phat va thu, v vay truyen song cong c yeu cau. y Viec can bang thch ng luon can thiet trong he thong TDMA, bi v toc o truyen dan trong TDMA ln hn so vi FDMA. y Trong TDMA thi gian bao ve nen c toi thieu. y Qua trnh ong bo khung oi hoi rat chat che. Tong so kenh trong he thong TDMA: m ( Btot  2 B guard ) (1.2) N ! Bc m: la so user cc ai trong mot kenh vo tuyen.

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l l

Fr

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k t Pr l I f r ti

T ss T il its

l t

l t

l t

l t

Tr il its

c its

I f r

ti

its

Hnh 1.8 Cau truc khung cua TDMA. 3. Hang so thi gian tre gia ng len va ng xuong: Viec anh so cac khe cua cac khe ng len la lay khe thi gian ng xuong bang cach lam tre ba khe. Trong trng hp nay, MS se khong phat va thu ong thi bi v hai khe nay la khac nhau ve vat ly. Tre truyen dan khi MS xa tram goc. 4.Cac loai khe thi gian khac: Moi cell cung cap mot xung clock chuan cho cac khe thi gian. Moi khe thi gian c anh so TN (Time Slot Number) ma no c biet bi tram goc va MS. TN c lap lai mot cach chu ky. 5. Cum va chuoi hng dan: TDMA, tn hieu c phat dang cum. Chu k cua cum mang bien o tn hieu phat bat au t gia tr 0 cho en gia tr chuan cua no. Mot goi bits c phat bi tn hieu ieu che. Sau o bien o giam ve 0. Cum nay dien ra tai MS phat hoac tai BTS neu cum ke khong c phat. Trong mot cum co cac bit uoi va cum hng dan. Cac bits uoi gom co ba bits tai iem bat au va ket thuc cua moi cum, no nham cung cap thi gian bao ve. Chuoi hng dan la chuoi c biet may thu, no hng dan cho bo Equalizer. Co cac loai cum sau ay: (1). Cum bnh thng dung trong TCH Flag Flag 3 Tail 57 Information 1 26 Training sequence 1 57 Information 3 Tail

(2). Cum truy xuat dung RACH hng ng len. Flag 7 Tail 41 Training sequence 1 35 Information 3 Tail

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ITC (3). Cum F va S. Cum F c dung FCCH va co nh dang n gian. Tat ca co 148 bits zero, a ra mot dang song thuan sine. 5 cum S trong moi 51x8 chu ky BP c dung SCH. Mot cum S nh sau: Flag Flag 3 38 1 64 1 38 3 Tail Information Training sequence Information Tail VII. THU TUC VAN HANH CUA MANG: Thu tuc van hanh cua he thong c chia ra bon phan va mot thu tuc handoff. 1. MS khong khi ong: Khi mot thue bao khong trang thai goi, no se quet 21 kenh thiet lap tren tong so 416 kenh. Sau o no chon mot kenh manh nhat va khoa kenh nay. Sau 60s qua trnh t nh v c lap lai. 2. Cuoc goi khi ong t MS: Thue bao bam so can goi, kiem tra xem so can goi co ung hay khong, bam nut send. Mot yeu cau cho dch vu c gi bang cach chon mot kenh thiet lap at c t qua trnh t nh v. Tram goc thu tn hieu nay, va no chon mot hng Anten toi u cho kenh thoai dung. Tai thi iem nay, tram goc cung ong thi mot yeu cau en trung tam chuyem mach di ong MTSO ( Mobile Telephone Switching Office) vi mot toc o d lieu cao. MTSO chon mot kenh thoai thch hp cho cuoc goi, va tram goc thong qua nh hng Anten e ket noi vi MS. 3. Cuoc goi khi ong t mang: Thue bao A muon goi cho thue bao B, no se quay so cua thue bao B. Trung tam vung se nhan dang so nay va gi thang en MTSO. en lc MTSO se gi mot ban tin tm goi da tren so thue bao nay en cac tram goc va tai ay tien hanh giai thuat tm kiem. Moi tram goc phat mot ban tin tm goi tren kenh thiet lap cua no. MS nhan dang c so nay tren mot kenh thiet lap manh nhat , khoa o va ap ng ve tram goc. MS theo cac lenh e c danh rieng kenh thoai va cuoc goi a san sang. 4. Ket thuc cuoc goi: Khi MS tat may phat, mot tn hieu ac biet (tn hieu n tone) c phat en cac tram goc va hai ben cung giai phong cuoc goi. MS tiep tuc kiem tra tm goi thong qua kenh thiet lap manh nhat. 5. Thu tuc handoff: Trong luc cuoc goi dien ra, hai thue bao cung tren mot kenh thoai. Khi mot MS di chuyen ra khoi vung phu song cua tram goc cha no th tn hieu thu tr nen yeu. e cuoc goi khong b ngat, tram goc hien hanh se yeu cau mot thu tuc chuyen giao cuoc goi en mot kenh tan so mi mot tram goc mi ma khong gay ra ngat cuoc goi hoac bat au mot cuoc goi mi. VIII. QUAN LY VO TUYEN: 1. Quan ly tai nguyen vo tuyen RR (Radio Resoucre management): Trong mang vo tuyen, kenh vo tuyen c phan phoi cho viec thiet lap, chuyen giao va giai phong cuoc goi tren mot nh hng cuoc goi. Co Thng tin di ng Page 11

ITC ba chc nang quan ly la nh v, chuyen giao va di ong. Viec thc hien chc nang RR yeu cau mot so giao thc gia MS va mang. a.Giao thc ng truyen: Viec trao oi thong tin bao hieu phai c gi va hieu bi moi thiet b ho tr bao hieu. Hau het cac chc nang trao oi thong tin c phan phoi en cac thiet b khac nhau. Co ba loai giao thc e cung cap cho viec trao oi thong tin. y Giao thc ng truyen vo tuyen RLP (Radio Link Protocol) ac trng trong GSM la LAPDm. y LAPD la giao thc ng truyen thch ng vi kenh D cua ISDN. y Phan chuyen ban tin MTP (Message Transfer Part) la giao thc dung cho mang bao hieu so 7. Toc o ban tin bao hieu cua giao thc ng truyen vo tuyen la 22.8kbps. Toc o ban tin bao hieu cac giao thc ng truyen khac la 64kbps. b. Giao dien lien ket vi giao thc ng truyen: Giao dien MS BTS BTS BSC BSC MSC MSC/VLR/HLR mang SS7 MSC MSC ( bao hieu lien quan ti cuoc goi) BSC chuyen tiep ( bao hieu lien quan ti cuoc goi) MSC MSC Giao LAPDm LAPD MTP( Giao thc SS7) MTP( Giao thc SS7) TUP( Telephone User Part) ISUP ( ISDN User Part) BSS MAP (MAP/B) MAP (Mobility Application Part)

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MAP/F MS MSC (B) VLR MAP/I HLR MAP/D MAP/E MAP/G MAP/C MAP/C EIR

VLR (B) MAP/H

GMSC

MSC

SMS - gateway Hnh 1.9 Cac giao thc t MAP/C en MAP/I 2. Quan l di ong MM: Mobility Manegement Cac tn hieu khong lien quan en cuoc goi tng ng vi giao thc trong MSC ma no khac so vi MSC hoac HLR khac va c nhom lai thanh MAP. Chung ta co thephan biet chung bang MAP/X, ay X co the la B, C, D hoac E. MAP/B: giao thc gia BSC va MSC chuyen tiep. MAP/C: giao thc gia GMSC va mot HLR. MAP/D: giao thc gia MSC/HLR khac va HLR. MAP/E: giao thc gia cac MSC. Ngi dung he thong Cellular yeu cau quan l di ong cho cac hoat ong cap nhat v tr, chuyen giao va di ong. Mot hoat ong chuyen giao xay ra khi mot kenh thoai thay oi khi mot MS i vao mot cell khac trong luc cuoc goi ang dien ra. Di ong la kha nang khi ong cuoc goi trong he thong mang nay va phan phoi no en he thong cac mang khac bang cach dung MM va quan l cap nhat v tr. a. Quan l cap nhat v tr: Thue bao luon c lien ket vi mang di ong mat at PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) thng tru cua no. Khi di chuyen no se lien ket vi mang PLMN tam tru. Chung ta co the nhan dang cuoc goi t PLMN tam tru t v tr cua MS. Trong qua trnh x l chon la PLMN, MM thng tm cell trong PLMN thng tru. Neu khong co dch vu hien hanh, user co the chon che o t ong (tm kiem mang ) hoac che o thao tac bang tay (tm kiem user) e tm c PLMN phu hp. Trong trng hp dch vu gii han, MM tiep tuc Thng tin di ng Page 13

ITC kiem tra ch 30 song mang manh nhat. Dch vu gii han luon quan tam en vung phu song tai bien gii cua cac quoc gia lan can. b. Chon la cell: Viec chon la cell tot nhat t 1 MS phu thuoc vao 3 yeu to. (1) Mc o thu cua tn hieu thu tai MS. (2) Cong suat phat cc ai cua MS. (3) Hai he so p1 va p2 ac trng cua cell. ay la chuan C1. C1 = A Max(B,0) A = Trung bnh mc thu p1 B = p2 cong suat RF ln nhat cua MS P1 = mot gia tr gia 110 va 48dBm P2 = mot gia tr gia 13 va 43dBm Ca hai gia tr p1 va p2 c phat quang ba t cac cell. Cong suat ln nhat cua MS = 29 en 43dBm. Thuat giai chon cell: y Mot SIM phai c chen vao y C1 ln nhat c chon bang cach at c C1 t cell tng ng ; C1 phai ln hn 0. y Tat ca cac cell phai khong can tr dch vu. c. Hoat ong nhan thc: Hoat ong nhan thc bao ve mang chong lai s truy xuat bat hp phap. Giai oan 1: Mot ma so nhan dang thue bao ca nhan PIN (Personnal Identification Number ) bao ve SIM. PIN c kiem tra bi SIM tai cho, sau o SIM khong bao gi c gi ra ng truyen vo tuyen.

Hnh 1.10 Qua trnh tnh toan nhan thc. Giai oan 2: Mang GSM tien hanh mot cuoc kiem tra bang cach gi mot so ngau nhien RAND. Mot so RAND 128 bits c gi t mang en MS va no tron vi he so bao mat cua MS la KI, thong qua mot giai thuat x l la A3, no a ra mot SRES(Signed Result). Dai 32 bits. Sau o SRES c gi en mang t MS e chng thc. d. Ma hoa: Thng tin di ng Page 14

ITC

Ma hoa e chong lai viec nghe len. MS dung RAND thu c t mang va tron vi KI thong qua mot giai thuat khac la A8 va phat ra Kc (64 bits). Chuoi mat ma c phat ra t Kc. So khung va Kc di chuyen en giai thuat mat ma A5 va phat ra S2 (114 bits), chung c a vao cong EX-OR ma au vao la chuoi bits kiem tra 114 bits va chuoi mat ma S2 nh hnh 1.11. e. Hoat ong nhan thc thue bao hoat ong bao mat: SIM (pha MS) va AUC ( pha mang) la ni cha khoa KI cua thue bao. Khoa KI khong bao gi c phat ra khong gian. Ca hai eu tnh toan A3 va A8. 3. Quan ly giao tiep CM: Communication Management Lp CM cung cap cac dch vu vien thong nh thoai, fax va d lieu cho ngi s dung thong qua lp RR va MM nh trnh bay trong hnh 1.12 Ngi dung GSM bao gom may goi va may b goi. Chc nang quan l cua CM la ieu khien cuoc goi, quan l dch vu va dch vu ban tin ngan.

a. ieu khien cuoc goi CC: Call Control CC quan ly hau het cac dch vu hung mach ( nh thoai, d lieu) thong qua MSC/VLR, GMSC, IWF va HLR. Chc nang cua CC la thiet lap, duy tr va giai phong cuoc goi. e thiet lap cuoc goi, so cua MS phai c gan. MS/ISDN la so ISDN cua MS. So di ong MS (MSRN) la so nh Thng tin di ng Page 15

ITC tuyen, mot so khac co the cho phep thue bao GMS hoac nhan dang thue bao quoc te IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) va cung cap bi MS e truy xuat vao mang quoc te. b. Chuyen giao: Handoff hay Handover Thuat giai chuyen giao cua GSM khong c xay dng thanh mot chuan. o la ac trng cua chuyen giao ho tr di ong MAHO (Mobile Assistance Handover). MS quet cac song mang vo tuyen theo ch dan cua BTS. No theo doi cac khe thi gian, cac khe nay khong c gan e no thu tn hieu. Trong thng hp nay, theo yeu cau cua BTS, cng o tn hieu cua mot song mang vo tuyen ac trng c o trong mot khung thi gian, so o o c gi thang ve BTS e ho tr qua trnh x ly chuyen giao. Qua trnh c goi la MAHO. MSC dung hai thong tin e quyet nh cho viec chuyen giao. Hai thong tin nay la: (1) Cng o ma MS thu c tai cac BTS lan can. (2) Cng o tn hieu ma BTS thu c tai MS. c. Quan ly cac dch vu bo sung SSM: Supplementary Service Management CC cung cap cac dch vu bo sung nh ch cuoc goi, nh hng cuoc goi, va tra li t ong. SSM la dch vu quan ly iem en iem. Mot trung tam dch vu SSM (SSM SC ) co the noi vi nhieu mang GSM. SSM bao gom hai chc nang: (1) Ket thuc t ong ban tin ngan; (2) Khi ong t ong ban tin ngan. 4. Quan ly mang NM: Network Management Mot trung tam MS giam sat cac hoat ong sau: (1) Quan ly va giam sat thue bao; (2) Lap phieu va tnh cc ; (3) Duy tr; (4) Giam sat hoat ong cua thue bao e cung cap ma nhan dang cho ME vi so nhan dang thiet b di ong quoc te IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity). (5) Trong mang quan ly vien thong GSM (TMN), tat ca cac may van hanh va duy tr tao thanh mot mang ma chung c ket noi en tat ca cac may ieu khien lu lng. GSM Q3 la mot giao thc quan ly mang cho chc nang van hanh he thong va may ieu khien lu lng. IX. QUY HOACH CELL: X. NHIEU TRONG HE THONG: 1. Nhieu ngoai: Nhieu ngoai la loai nhieu ben ngoai cac thiet b va mach ien. Co ba loai nhieu ngoai : Nhieu kh quyen, nhieu ben ngoai trai at va nhieu nhan tao. a. Nhieu kh quyen. Nhieu kh quyen la at tnh ien t nhien cua kh quyen trai at. Nhieu kh quyen thng c goi la nhieu tnh ien va anh hng cua no la xuat hien tieng lao xao thng nghe cac loa khi khong co tn hieu. Tnh ien thng dang ap ng xung ma s phan tan nang lng trai Thng tin di ng Page 16

ITC rong tren tan so cua no. Bien o nang lng t le nghch vi tan so cua no.

(a)

(b)

Hnh 1.13 Anh hng cua nhieu len tn hieu. (a) Tn hieu khong nhieu. (b) Tn hieu co nhieu. b. Nhieu ngoai trai at: Nhieu ngoai trai at bao gom cac tn hieu ien bat au t ben ngoai bau kh quyen cua trai at. No c chia lam hai loai la nhieu mat tri va nhieu vu tru. y Nhieu mat tri: c phat ra t sc nong cua mat tri. y Nhieu vu tru: la nguon nhieu c phan phoi mot cach lien tuc qua day ngan ha, cng o nhieu tng oi nho. c. Nhieu nhan tao: La loai nhieu sinh ra do hoat ong cua con ngi. No co cng o manh trong vung thanh th va cong nghiep, nen co luc c goi la nhieu cong nghiep. 2. Nhieu noi: La loai giao thoa ien ma c phat ra t ben trong mot thiet b hoac mach ien. a. Nhieu nhiet: Sinh ra do s di chuyen nhanh va ngau nhien cua electron ben trong vat dan do s di chuyen nhiet. S chuyen ong cua electron tang len khi nhiet o tang. Cong suat nhieu nhiet: N = KTB (1.11) -23 0 K: hang so Boltzmann (1.38.10 J/ K) B: bang thong T: nhiet o tuyet oi (0K) b. Nhieu shot: Gay ra bi en mot cach ngau nhien cua song mang tai phan t au ra cua thiet b ien t nh la diode, FET, BJT. c. Nhieu thi gian vt:

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ITC Mot so thay oi cua chuoi song mang khi chung i t au vao en au ra cua mot thiet b sinh ra mot dang tn hieu khong hp le, bien thien ngau nhien goi la nhieu thi gian vt. 3. ien ap nhieu: Mo hnh tng ng cho nguon nhieu ien tr:

RI : la ien tr noi. RN : la ien tr tai. VN : la nguon ien ap nhieu. V Khi RN = RI, ien ap V R ! N , khi o cong suat nhieu tren tai R la: 2
VN 2 2 VN N ! KTB ! ! R 4R 2 V N ! 4 RKTB
2

(1.12) (1.13)

V N ! 4 RKTB (1.14) 4. Meo hai: Meo hai la khi cac hai khong mong muon cua mot tn hieu c sinh ra khi cho tn hieu goc i qua mot bo khuech ai phi tuyen. Meo hai tong cong c tnh: V higher %THD ! .100 (1.14) V fundemental

%THD : meo hai tong cong phan tram. Vhigher ! V22  V32  ...  Vn2 Vfundemental = ien ap hieu dung cua hai bac mot. 5. Meo qua ieu che: Meo qua ieu che sinh ra cac tn hieu ma tan so la tong hoac hieu cua cac tan so cua cac tn hieu goc au vao khi chung c tron vao mot thiet b phi tuyen. Tan so tong va hieu goi la tch cheo (Cross Product): Cross Product = mf1 s nf2 (1.15) f1, f2 la cac tan so c ban . n,m la cac so nguyen dng t 1 en vo cung. 6. Ty so cong suat tn hieu tren nhieu: La ty so mc cong suat tn hieu tren mc cong suat nhieu. P S ! S (1.16) N PN PS : cong suat tn hieu (W). Thng tin di ng Page 18

ITC PN : cong suat nhieu (W). S : c tnh bang dB th N P S (dB) ! 10 log S PN N Neu tnh S/N qua ien ap th : V S (dB) ! 20 log S VN N

(1.17)

(1.18)

VS : ien ap tn hieu (V). VN : ien ap nhieu (V). 7. Noise figure va Noise factor: Noise factor (F) va Noise figure (NF) la he so dat trng dung e cho thay ty so tn hieu tren nhieu suy giam bao nhieu khi no i qua mot mach S S hoac mot day mach. Noise factor la ty le cua va : N IN N OUT Input _ signal  to  noise _ ratio F! (1.19) Output _ signal  to  noise _ ratio Noise figure la Noise factor bieu dien dB: NF = 10logF (1.20) y Noise factor va Noise figure cua mach ghep casecaded: Fn  1 F2  1 F3  1 .... FT ! F1 (1.21) A1 A1 A2 A1 ...An 1 FT : Noise factor tong. F1: Noise factor cua mach 1. Fn : Noise factor cua mach n. A1 : o li cua mach 1. An : o li cua mach n. Va Noise figure tong cua mach c tnh. NFT(dB) = 10logFT. (1.22).

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ITC

CHNG II: KY THUAT IEU CHE SO TRONG MANG IEN THOAI DI ONG
I. KY THUAT IEU CHE BPSK: 1.ieu che BPSK: Tn hieu ieu che BPSK co bien o khong oi va pha thay oi theo hai gia tr nh phan au vao la 0 va 1. Song mang hnh sine: SC = AC.cos(2TfCt) (2.1) Gia s ban au pha bang 0. Chuoi d lieu nh phan au vao la d(t), bieu dien di dang RNZ vi bit 1 la +1V va bit 0 la 1V. Tn hieu ieu che BPSK la: 2 Eb . cos( 2TfC t ) (d(t) = 1) (2.2) S BPSK (t ) ! Tb hoac : 2 Eb . cos( 2Tf t  T ) (d(t) = 0) (2.3) S BPSK (t ) ! Tb vi Tb: la chu ky bit. 1 Eb ! A2 Tb : la nang lng cua mot bit. 2 T (2.2) va (2.3), ta ket hp lai tng ng dang cua cua tn hieu BPSK la: 2 Eb . cos( 2Tf t ) (2.4) S BPSK (t ) ! d (t ) Tb d(t)

Cos(2TfCt) Hnh 2.1 S o ieu che BPSK 2.Pho va bang thong cua tn hieu BPSK: Tn hieu BPSK co the bieu dien di dang hnh bao phc: (2.5) Vi gBPSK(t) la hnh bao phc cua tn hieu c cho bi: Thng tin di ng Page 20

SBPSK(t) = Re_gBPSK(t).exp(j2TfCt)a

SBPSK(t)

ITC

g BPSK (t ) !
la:

2 Eb .d (t ) Tb
2

(2.6)

Mat o pho cong suat PSD (Power Spectral Density) cua hnh bao phc

sinTfTb Pg BPSK ( f ) ! 2E0 TfT b

(2.7)

PSD cua tn hieu BPSK c tnh bang cach dch PSD cua hnh bao phc len tan so song mang tng ng: 2 2 E b sin T ( f  f C )Tb sin T ( f  f C )Tb  PBPSK ( f ) ! (2.8) 2 T ( f  f C )Tb T ( f  f C )Tb Bang thong cua tn hieu BPSK c xap x khi no cha 90% nang lng cua tn hieu: 1.6 BW } 1.6 Rb ! (2.9) Tb o th xac suat loi bit trong ieu che BPSK vi moi trng nhieu

Pe

Eb N0

( dB )

trang. 3.Thu tn hieu BPSK: Tn hieu BPSK tai may thu: Thng tin di ng Page 21

ITC
2 Eb . cos( 2Tf t  U ) Tb

U : la o lech pha cua tn hieu tng ng vi thi gian tre trong kenh truyen, no phu thuoc vao khoang cach gia may phat va may thu va o dch pha sinhra do bo khuech ai at trc bo giai ieu che cua may thu. Yeu cau may thu la phai khoi phuc lai ung chuoi d lieu d(t). Ky thuat giai ieu che ket hp hay ong bo BPSK oi hoi phai co s ong bo ro rang ve pha va tan so cua song mang tao ra tai may thu. S o khoi cua mot may thu BPSK c trnh bay nh hnh 2.2: Tn hieu BPSK sau khi i qua mach bnh phng la: 2Eb 2 Eb 1 d (t ). 1  cos 2(2Tf t  U ) (2.11) . cos 2 ( 2Tf  U ) ! d (t ) Tb Tb 2 Sau khi i qua mach loc bang thong va chia hai th tn hieu tai au ra cua khoi phuc song mang la: Cos(2TfCt + U)
m(t)cos(2TfCt + U) Cos2(2TfCt + U) Square law device Bandpass Filter 2fC Cos(4TfCt + U) Frequency Divider f/2 m(t)cos(2TfCt + U)

m(t)cos2(2TfCt + U) Demodulated signal m(t)

Integrate and Dump circuit

Bit Synchronizer

= cos(2TfC + U) (2.12) Tn hieu SC va BPSK c a en bo nhan va tn hieu au ra cua bo nhan la: 2Eb 2Eb 1 1 cos 2Tf C t  U d (t ). . . cos 2Tf C t  U !! d (t ). .  cos 2 2Tf C t  U (2.13) Tb Tb 2 2 Tn hieu (2.13) c vao mach tch phan va xa, sau o se i vao mach quyet nh. ien ap au ra cua mach tch phan:

SC

Hnh 2.2 S o may thu BPSK

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S BPSK (t ) ! d (t )

(2.10)

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ITC
2Eb Tb 2Eb 1 dt  d kTb Tb 2 1 cos 2 2Tf c t  U dt k 1 Tb 2

v( kTb ) ! d kTb ! d kTb

kTb k 1 Tb

kTb

2Eb Tb

(2.14)

Nh vay chung ta a khoi phuc lai c chuoi d lieu d(t). 4. Bieu dien hnh hoc cua tn hieu BPSK: Chon mot tn hieu la c s la trc chuan: 2 . cos 2Tf c t u1 ( t ) ! Tb Ta co : S BPSK (t ) ! E b .d t u1 t Khoang cach gia hai tn hieu : d ! 2 E b  Eb 0

(2.15)

(2.16)

Eb

Hnh 2.3 Khoang cach gia hai tn hieu BPSK Xac suat loi trong BPSK: 2 Eb 1 Pe ! erfc (2.17) N 2 0 Vi Eb la nang lng cua bit . N0 mat o xac suat nhieu trang. II. KY THUAT IEU CHE QPSK: 1.Nguyen ly ieu che va pho cua QPSK: Tn hieu ieu che QPSK co dang: 2ES S QPSK (t ) ! cos 2Tf c t  i  1 T , 0 e t e TS , i = 1,2,3,4 (2.24) 2 TS Chuoi nh phan au vao m(t) co dang NRZ vi Tb = 1/Rb. 2 TS ! 2Tb ! ; ES = 2Eb Rb Bien oi lng giac cua (2.24), ta co: 2ES 2E S . cos i  1 T cos 2Tf c t  . sin i  1 T sin 2Tf c t (2.25) S QPSK t ! 2 2 T T

at

Q1 t ! Q 2 t !

2 cos 2Tf c t TS 2 sin 2Tf c t TS E S . cos i  1 T

(2.26) (2.27)
1

PSK

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t !

A (t ) 

E S . sin i  1 T

(t )

(2.28) Page 23

ITC Pho cua QPSK tng t nh pho cua BPSK, nhng ay Eb va Tb c thay the bang ES va TS: 2 2 E S sin T f  f c S sin T f  f c S T T  P PSK f ! 2 T f  f c S T f  f c S T T (2.29) 2 sin 2T f  f sin 2T f  f 2 c Tb c Tb  ! E b 2T f  f 2T f  f c Tb c Tb Xac suat loi trong QPSK: 2 Eb (2.30) Pe,QPSK ! Q N 0 Qua (2.30) va (2.17), ta thay xac suat loi cua BPSK va QPSK la nh nhau. Tuy nhien, vi QPSK th hieu suat bang thong gap 2 lan BPSK. Bang thong cua QPSK xap x bang Rb. o th xac suat loi bit trong ieu che QPSK vi moi trng nhieu trang 2. Ky thuat ieu che va giai ieu che QPSK:

S o ieu che QPSK: LPF Rb/2 Thng tin di ng Serial to


Rb(m(t)) parallel converter Input data Local oscillator 900

Pe

Eb N0

( dB )

Page 24 7
BPF

QPSK

ITC

Hnh 2.6 S o may phat QPSK Tn hieu m(t) sau khi i qua bo Serial to parallel converter se tao ra hai dong bit mI(t) ( cung pha vi m(t) ) va mQ(t) ( lech pha 900 ). Hai tn hieu nay c ieu che oc lap qua bo ieu che can bang nh tn hieu BPSK. Sau o hai tn hieu nay c lay tong e c tn hieu QPSK nh trong bieu thc (2.28). Bo loc BPF at tai au ra cua cua bo ieu che e gii han pho cong suat cua tn hieu QPSK, tranh gay ra nhieu cho cac kenh lan can. S o khoi cua bo giai ieu che QPSK. Hnh 2.7 S o khoi cua may thu QPSK.
LPF Decision Circ i t

900 LPF

Bo loc BPF at trc may thu co nhiem vu loai bo nhieu ngoai bang va giam giao thoa kenh ke. Tn hieu tai au ra cua bo loc c chia lam hai phan, hai phan nay c a vao hai bo giai ieu che ket hp. au ra cua hai bo giai ieu che ket hp ( mot cung pha va mot lech pha 900 ) c a vao mach quyet nh va sau o ta c hai chuoi d lieu nh phan. Hai chuoi nay c don kenh e c d lieu mong muon. III. KY THUAT FSK: 1.Nguyen ly ieu che FSK: Trong FSK, tn hieu tn hieu song mang co bien o khong oi, tan so thay oi theo hai gia tr nh phan au vao la 0 hoac 1 ( tng ng la tan so thap va cao ). Tn hieu FSK co dang :

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Decisi i rc i t

% "$

PF

" !

" 

Received Si l

r rier Rec ver i rc i t

Symbol Timi Recovery Circ i t

"

" ! !

l ti l exer

Recovery Si nal



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ITC
2Eb cos 2Tf c  d (t ) 2T(f t Tb

S FSK t !

(2.31)

ay d(t) la chuoi d lieu nh phan au vao: d(t) = s1. 2T(f : la o lech tan so so vi tan so song mang chuan 2Tfc. Goi tan so cao la fH = fc + (f va tan so thap fL = fc - (f. Khi o tn hieu FSK co the c bieu dien : 2 Eb . cos?2T f c  (f t A 0 e t e Tb , ( mc 1 ) S FSK (t ) ! (2.32) Tb
S FSK (t ) ! 2 Eb . cos?2T f c  (f t A 0 e t e Tb , ( mc 0 ) Tb

(2.33)

2. ieu che FSK: Goi PH(t) va PL(t) la hai gia tr ien ap co quan he vi d(t) nh bang sau: d(t) +1V -1V Khi o:
2 Eb 2Eb .PH cos?2T f c  (f t A .PL cos?2T f c  (f t A (2.34) Tb Tb T (2.34), ta thay tn hieu SFSK(t) la tong cua hai tn hieu ieu che ASK vi tan so song mang la ( fc + (f ) va ( fc - (f ) va hai chuoi nh phan au vao la PH va PL. S o ieu che FSK: PH(t) S FSK (t ) !

PH(t) +1V 0V

PL(t) 0V +1V

2Eb cos?2T f c  (f t A Tb

7 SFSK(t)
2Eb cos?2T f c  (f t A Tb

PL(t) Hnh 2.8 S o ieu che FSK 3.Pho va bang thong cua tn hieu FSK: Theo bieu thc (2.34), th pho cua tn hieu FSK la tong cua pho cua hai tn hieu ASK tai hai tan so song mang la fc + (f va fc - (f. Pho cua tn hieu FSK nh hnh 2.9. Bang thong cua tn hieu FSK c tnh theo cong thc Carson: Thng tin di ng Page 26

ITC BT = 2(f + 2B Vi B la bang thong cua tn hieu dai nen. Neu chon (f = Rb, va ta cung co B = Rb GFSK(f) (2.35)

fb fb fLHnh 2.9 - Pho cua tn hieu FSK fH BT = 4Rb (2.36) la bang thong toi u cua tn FSK. 4. Thu tn hieu FSK: Tn hieu FSK co the thu bang phng phap ket hp va khong ket hp. a. Tach song tn hieu FSK ket hp: May thu FSK ket hp bao gom hai bo tng quan, chung c cung cap tn hieu chuan ket hp tai may thu. Ngo ra cua hai mach tng quan c a vao mach so sanh va c so sanh vi ngng. Neu o lech tn hieu ln hn ngng th ngo ra mc 1 va ngc lai th m c 0.

Cos2Tfct

dt
Decision Circuit Output

7
Received signal

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dt

Page 27

ITC

Hnh 2.10 S o may thu FSK ket hp. Xac suat loi trong FSK: Eb Pe, FSK ! ercf N 0 b. May thu FSK khong ket hp: S o khoi may thu FSK khong ket hp:
Matched Filter at fH Envelope Detector

(2.37)

7
Received Signal Matched Filter at fL Envelope Detector

Decision Circuit

Output

Hnh 2.11 S o khoi may thu FSK khong ket hp. May thu bao gom hai bo loc cong hng va theo sau la hai bo tach song hnh bao. Hai bo loc cong hng tai hai tan so la fH = fc + (f va fL = fc (f. Ngo ra cua mach tach song hnh bao c lay mau tai t =kTb, vi k la so nguyen, va gia tr nay c so sanh va a en mach quyet nh e lay mc tn hieu ra tng ng. Xac suat loi trong FSK khong ket hp: E 1 (2.38) Pe, FSK , NC ! exp  b 2N 2 0

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ITC

CHNG III: MOI TRNG TRUYEN DAN SUY HAO NG TRUYEN


I. TONG QUAN VE NG TRUYEN VO TUYEN: Hau het cac he thong vo tuyen te bao van hanh vung thanh th nen khong co ng truyen trc tiep (line of sight) gia may phat va may thu, ma ay s hien dien cua cac cau truc cao tang a sinh ra hien tng mat mac do nhieu xa. Bi do cac song phan xa t nhieu oi tng khac nhau, song i theo cac ng co o dai khac nhau nen s tac ong cua cac song nay tai mot v tr nao o se gay ra hien tng Fading nhieu ng tai mot v tr nao o. e d oan cng o tn hieu thu tai mot khoang cach nao o so vi may phat, ngi ta dung cac mo hnh truyen dan. Mo hnh dung e d oan cng o tn hieu trung bnh vi mot khoang cach may phat may thu bat ky e c lng vung phu song vo tuyen cua mot may phat la mo hnh large scale. Ngc lai, e cho thay s thang gian cua tn hieu thu mot khoang cach ngan ( khoang vai bc song P) th ta dung mo hnh small scale. II. MO HNH TRUYEN DAN TRONG KHONG GIAN T DO: Mo hnh truyen dan trong khong gian t do dung e d oan cng o tn hieu khi ton tai duy nhat mot ng truyen line of sight gia may phat va may thu ( nh trong he thong ve tinh, Viba). Cong suat tai mot iem bat ky tren ng truyen song la ham cua khoang cach. Cong suat thu tai Anten may thu cach Anten phat mot khoang cach d th tuan theo phng trnh Friss: (3.1) ( 4T ) 2 d 2 L ay: Pt : cong suat may phat. Gt : o li Anten phat Gr : o li Anten thu. L : he so mat mac he thong o li cua Anten quan he vi goc m hieu dung Ae cua no : 4TA (3.2) G ! 2e P va bc song P c tnh : c P! (3.3) f c : van toc anh sang f : tan so song mang Suy hao truyen dan (PL) la s khac nhau ( c o dB) gia cong suat phat va thu: Thng tin di ng Page 29
Pr ( d ) ! Pt .Gt G r .P2

ITC (3.4) PL: la suy hao truyen dan ( path loss) Neu o li cua cac Anten c gia s la 1, th: P (3.5) PL (dB ) ! 10 log (4T ) 2 Cong thc Friss ch hp le khi trng la vung xa. Khoang cach df t Anten may phat thoa man trng vung xa la: 2D 2 df ! (3.6a) P df >> D (3.6b) df >> P (3.6c) D: la ng knh ln nhat cua Anten phat Nh vay, mo hnh truyen dan trong khong gian t do la moi trng ly tng trong he thong thong tin. No phu hp vi cac he thong ve tinh va Viba khi ton tai ng truyen trc tiep line of sight. III. SUY HAO NG TRUYEN: thong tin vo tuyen iem en iem do anten at cao, nen suy hao ng truyen ty le nghch vi bnh phng khoang cach R gia anten thu va phat (R2). thong tin di ong anten MS gan mat at (khoang 1.5 m) nen suy hao ty le vi luy tha n khoang cach R gia anten thu va phat (Rn), trong o n>2. e tnh cac suy hao ng truyen ngi ta lap cac mo hnh truyen song khac nhau. Do at iem truyen song khong on nh, nen cac mo hnh nay eu mang tnh thc nghiem. Suy hao ng truyen trong moi trng vo tuyen di ong la do anh hng cua cau truc a l va s hien dien cua cac oi tng tan xa doc theo ng truyen song. Cac cau truc phc tap cua be mat a l va cac oi tng tan xa gay ra cac hien tng phan xa phan chieu ( Specular reflection), phan xa lan truyen (diffuse Reflection), va nhieu xa ( diffraction). 1. Phan xa phan chieu: Phan xa phan chieu xay ra khi song vo tuyen gap mot be mat bang phang ma khoang cach gia hai tram thu phat ln hn rat nhieu so vi bc song cua tn hieu vo tuyen. ay la loai phan xa tuan theo nh luat Snell, nh trong hnh 3.2 ay song ti t Anten se b phan xa tai Q. Tuy nhien, co the xem nh song phan xa nay c phat ra t Anten ao T, oi xng vi T qua be mat. PL(dB) ! 10 log
2

G Gr P2 Pt ! 10 log t 2 2 (4T ) d Pr

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T Base station antenna

U Q

Hnh 3.2 2. Phan xa lan truyen: Phan xa lan truyen xay ra khi song vo tuyen gap mot be mat gho ghe ma s gho ghe cua be mat nay tng ng vi bc song cua tn hieu bc xa. Phan xa lan truyen khong tuan theo nh luat Snell. No b tan xa nang lng va gay ra cac hng song phan xa khac nhau. Cng o cua song vo tuyen phan xa lan truyen th yeu hn phan xa phan chieu v nang lng cua no b tan xa qua be mat phan xa. 3. Nhieu xa: Nhieu xa xay ra khi tren ng truyen song gia may phat va may thu co s hien dien cua cac oi tng tan xa ( nh oi nui, toa nha cao tang). S suy hao tn hieu phu thuoc vao cau truc nam tren hoac gan ng truyen line of sight. Viec d oan suy hao ng truyen giup ch rat nhieu trong viec hieu biet anh hng cua hien tng nhieu ng cua tn hieu vo tuyen. Tuy nhien, s anh hng nay rat phc tap cho viec tnh toan. au tien, chung ta phai tien hanh o ac cac trang thai tnh, va t cac so nay ta tien hanh phan tch lai cac trng hp khac nhau. No c phan tch va anh gia tren c s l thuyet trng ien t. IV. D OAN SUY HAO NG TRUYEN: 1. D oan suy hao ng truyen qua a hnh bang phang: Khi tn hieu song vo tuyen c truyen qua a hnh co be mat bang phang (khoang cach gia may phat va may thu la u ln so vi bc song tn hieu) th hien tng phan xa phan chieu xay ra va ch co mot song phan xa en may thu, nh hnh 3.3.

T' Hnh 3.2 - nh ng SnellSnell p nh Ap dung A duluat luat

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Hnh Hnh 3.3truc betru be hngh hg e sog ta xa 3.3 cau - Ca mat anh t a en song phan xa. n u c ma n n n n . Nh a biet phan trc, phan xa phan chieu th tuan theo nh luat Snell, ay tch cua he so khuc xa N1 vi cosine cua goc ti U la mot hang so: N1 = cosU = const (3.17) y He so phan xa: Ty so cua song en vi song phan xa ( lien ket vi no) goi la he so phan xa, k hieu la a. e tnh he so phan xa ta dung cong thc Fressnel cho song phan cc doc va phan cc ngang. Song phan cc ngang la song phan xa t cac toa nha cao tang. Song phan cc doc la song phan xa t mat at. Ta co he so phan xa cho trng hp phan cc ngang va doc theo cong thc Fressnel: ah e
av e
 jU h

sin U 1  (I c  cos 2 U 1 ) 2 ! sin U 1  (I c  cos 2 U 1 ) 2


! I c sin U  (I c  cos 2 U 1 ) I c sin U 1  (I c  cos U 1 )
2 1 1 2 2

(ngang) (doc)

(3.18) (3.19)

 jU v

ay Ic = Ir j60WP Ir :hang so ty le cua he so ien moi Ic W :o dan ien cua moi trng. Goc U c minh hoa trong hnh 3.4

Hi
U

Hr

U U

U U

Ht

Hnh 3.4 Quan he gia song phan cc doc va phancc ngang. gi n a n c c n Hnh 3.5 - uan he sog ha c do va ha cc ngang. (a) Phan cc ngang (a) Pha c ngang. n c (b) Pha c do . cc doc n c c (b) Phan oi vi mat at trong moi trng vo tuyen di ong, th Ir rat ln va goc U1 thng nho hn 1 Rad. Khi song ti la phan cc doc th : Thng tin di ng

'

'

a=a h

Hi

a =av

Hr r
U

Ht

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ITC av } -1 (3.21) Khi song ti la phan cc ngang th : ah } -1 (3.22) Trong ca hai trng hp tren gia tr cua hang so ien moi la khong anh hng en gia tr cua av va ah. Hnh 3.5 minh hoa mot tnh huong tieu bieu cho moi trng song vo tuyen l tng. Be mat a l bang phang, ch co mot toa nha phan xa song phat. Tn hieu thu tai MS c tnh nh sau: E r ! E i (1  e  jF(d  a h e  jF(d ) (3.23) ay (d1 va (d2 la o lech ng truyen dan: (d1 = d1 d (3.24a) (d2 = d2 d (3.24b) V goc ti U rat nho nen phng trnh (3.23) c viet lai:  jZ ( X E r ! Ei (1  e  a h e  jZ(X ) (3.25)
1 2 1 2

(d i c Vi c la van toc anh sang. 2. D oan suy hao ng truyen qua a hnh gho ghe: Hnh 3.5 Phan xa trong moi trng vo tuyen di ong l tng.

ay (X i !

Gro Di rec und t av ed ref l ec ted ave d 1 U 


r Ir > 1

Scatterer reflected ave d2 U

e co the Phaoan at tnh cua tn hieunqua og hnh gho ghe, ta Hnh .6 - dn xatrong motr g vo i n tuye di a ly g n t n phai nh ngha tieu chuan e xac nh mc o gho ghe o. a. Xac nh tieu chuan: e xac nh mc o gho ghe cua be mat ta dung tieu chuan Rayleigh. Xet hnh 3.6. Hai tia ti cham vao be mat vi mc o loi lom khac nhau. Goc cua tia ti va phan xa la U, o lech ng truyen la : (d = 2HsinU (3.26)

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ITC Ray 2 Wa e front Ray 1 Ray 1 (d/2


U U

Ray 2

Hnh 3.6 Mo hnh be mat gho ghe vi tieu chuan Rayleigh Hnh 3.7 - Mo hnh be t gho ma ghe va o lech pha cua hai tia: tieu chua Rayleigh i n 2T 4TH (N ! F ( d ! .(d ! sin U (3.27) P P Khi (] rat nho, co ngha la s khac nhau trong o cao cua be mat phan xa la rat nho va be mat c xem nhu la bang phang. Trong trng hp ngc lai, co the xem (] } T va ket qua la hai tn hieu phan xa vi cung he so phan xa ai co the c bieu dien: aiej] + aiej(] + (]) = aI aI = 0 (3.28) Tieu chuan Rayleigh cho viec xac nh mot be mat gho ghe la: (] > T/2 (3.29) Thay (] > T/2 vao (3.27), ta c : P HR ! (3.30) 8 sin U va tieu chuan cho s gho ghe la: H > HR. b. Trng tan xa: Truyen dan qua mot be mat gn song c minh hoa trong hnh 3.7. Trng tan xa Es ti tai iem Ps theo hng Anten may thu co the c tnh bang tch phan Helmholtz. Gia s trng tan xa ch co thanh phan theo truc x va z, thanh phan theo truc y bang 0, d1 la khoang cach t Q en P. Theo tch phan Helmholtz, trng tan xa thu tai iem P qua be mat gn song c bieu dien bi z = S(x) la : 1 xE x] E S (P) ! S E xn  ] xn dS 4T (3.31) L y  y2 x] xE ! 1 L E xn  ] xn dx 4T
2 1

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d0 J S(x) h1
>> 10P

d'

(x,z)

To oint P d1 x

Hnh .8 -

Hnh 3.7 Anh hng truyen dan qua be mat gn song.

h hg truye da ua be t g sog. n n n n ma n n

e  jFd ] ! Vi d1 Va n la vector phap tuyen V d1 >> P, nen ta co moi quan he Fd 1 ! Fd 0  F d d J . cos (3.32) d0 : la khoang cach ng trc tiep gia BTS va MS. d :la khoang cach t BTS en Q. xE E :la song en va la vi phan chuan cua S. xn iem P c gia s la v tr cua MS. Khi phng phap tch phan Helmholtz cua phng trnh (3.31) c dung e tnh trng tan xa tai iem thu qua be mat gho ghe, ieu can thiet ay la phai tnh toan be mat S(x). S(x) co the tnh bang phng phap xap x hoac phan bo chuan. Vi phng phap xap x. Ta gia s at tnh cua be mat S(x) la ngau nhien, ban knh cho loi c xem la ln hn rat nhieu so vi bc song ti. Khi o trng ES c tnh : d E S ! (1  ae jF ( d  d1  d 0 ) ) E (3.33) a : la he so phang xa cua be mat bang phang Khi o trng HS la : d H S ! (1  ae jF ( d  d1  d 0 ) ) H (3.34) c. Be mat gho ghe la mot ham cua khoang cach: Cho chieu cao cua Anten tram goc la hI, khoang cach gia MS va BTS la d, goc en la U th : h  h2 U ! 1 (3.35) d P ma HR ! 8 sin U

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W ave fro nt to the mo bil e


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z Base station antenna

ITC Khi U nho th P Pd (3.36) ! ! kd 8U 8(h1  h2 ) P (3.37) Vi k ! 8(h1  h2 ) Nh vay HR la mot ham cua khoang cach d. V. CAC HE SO CUA KENH VO TUYEN HIEU NG DOPPLER: 1. Hieu ng Doppler: MS thu tn hieu khi ang chuyen ong, ngoai tn hieu song mang co tan so tan so fc c thu, th lai co them mot tn hieu co tan so khac c thu, ma tan so nay phu thuoc vao van toc cua MS, tan so o c goi tan so Doppler. No c sinh ra t hieu ng Doppler. Gia s MS ang di chuyen vi van toc v la hang so, doc theo oan ng co chieu dai la d gia hai iem X va Y. Trong thi gian nay, no ang thu mot tn hieu t nguon S, nh minh hoa trong hnh 3.8. Hieu ng i cua song t S ti X va t S ti Y la : (d = d.cosU = v.(t.cosU (3.38) Trong o: (t la thi gian MS i t X en Y. U c gia s la goc hp bi song ti tai X va Y vi mat ng ( gia s U la nh nhau tai X va Y). HR }

Base station antenna


Re fle cte d

Di re ct

ave

h1

av e

h2 d
Hnh 3.8 Mo hnh truyen song qua be mat bang phang. hnh truye sog ua n n Hnh .9 o lech pha cua tn hieu -thu: o be t n n 2T(l 2Tv(t ma bag hag (J ! ! . cos U (3.39) P P Tan so Doppler: 1 (J v fd ! . ! cos U (3.40) 2T (t P Phng trnh (3.40) cho thay moi quan he gia tan so Doppler vi van toc MS va goc en cua song ti so vi mat ng. No cung cho thay rang, neu MS di chuyen theo hng en cua song ti th fd > 0 (U < 900), con neu MS di chuyen theo hng ngc lai th fd < 0 (U > 900). Thng tin di ng Page 36

ITC 2. He so phan tan Doppler: Phan tan thi gian cua kenh nhieu ng bang rong hau het c nh lng bi tre qua trung bnh ( X ) va phan tan tre hieu dung (WX) cua chung. Ta co X vaWX c nh ngha nh sau: a k2X k P(X k )X k X ! k ! k (3.41) 2 P (X k ) ak
k k

WX ! X

 X

(3.42)
P k k2 X X !
k 2 P Xk k

va ay
2 2 ak X k

X2 !

a
k

2 k

(3.43)

Gia tr cua X , X 2 va WX phu thuoc vao cach chon ngng nhieu dung e x ly P(X). Ngng nhieu dung e phan biet thanh phan nhieu ng va nhieu nhiet. 3. Bang thong ket hp: Bang thong ket hp Bc c nh ngha la so o thong ke cua day tan so cua cac kenh c xem la bang phang. Hay noi cach khac, bang thong ket hp la day tan so ma trong o co hai thanh phan tan so co kha nang tng quan manh nhat ve bien o. Neu co hai tn hieu ieu hoa ma khoang cach tan so ln hn Bc th c xem nh la hai kenh hoan toan khac nhau. Neu bang thong ket hp c xem nh la bang thong ma tng quan tan so tren 0.9 th ta co the xap x: 1 Bc } (3.44) 50W X Vi WX la phan tan tre c nh ngha phan tren. Con neu ham tng quan tan so la tren 0.5 th: 1 Bc } (3.45) 5W X 4. Phan tan Doppler va thi gian ket hp: Phan tan Doppler va thi gian ket hp la he so mo ta at tnh bien thien theo thi gian cua kenh truyen. Phan tan Doppler BD la so o cua s m rong pho gay ra bi s thay oi thi gian cua kenh truyen. Va c nh ngha la day tan so ma qua o pho Doppler thu la khong zero. Khi mot tn hieu thuan sine c phat vi tan so fc, th pho cua tn hieu thu (con goi la pho Doppler) se co cac thanh phan thay oi t fc - fd en fc + fd. ay fd la tan so Doppler. Neu bang thong cua tn hieu dai nen la ln hn BD, th anh hng cau phan tan Doppler c bo qua tai may thu. Tong so pho m rong phu thuoc vao fd, ma fd la ham cua van tocMS va goc gia hng di chuyen cua MS va song tan xa. Ta co: BD = fm (3.46) Thng tin di ng Page 37

ITC Vi fm la tan so Doppler ln nhat. Thi gian ket hp dung e at trng cho s phan tan tan so cua kenh truyen trong mien thi gian. Thi gian ket hp TC la nghch ao cua BD: 1 1 (3.47) TC ! ! BD fm Thi gian ket hp la khoang thi gian ma hai tn hieu thu co kha nang tng quan ve bien o manh. Neu thi gian ket hp c nh ngha la thi gian ma ham tng quan tren 0.5 th: 9 TC ! (3.48) 16Tf m VI. CAC LOAI FADING: 1. Tong quat ve Fading nhieu ng : Fading nhieu ng la mot hien tng thng xuyen xay ra trong moi trng vo tuyen di ong, va v vay no luon c quan tam trong luc thiet ke he thong. Tn hieu song mang vo tuyen co the c bieu dien theo cac dang sau: s0(t) = a0exp[j([0t + J0)] (3.49) s0(t) = Re_a0exp[j([0t + J0)]a (3.50) s0(t) = a0cos([0t + J0) (3.51) Ba phng trnh tren c dung phan tch tn hieu song mang s0(t) phat t mot tram goc, a0 la bien o va J0 la pha. Ca hai c xem nh la hang so, f0 la tan so song mang. Hien tng Fading nhieu ng thng xay ra ba dang: (1) MS va cac vat tan xa xung quanh eu ng yen; (2) MS ng yen va cac vat tan xa xung quanh chuyen ong hay ngc lai; (3) MS va cac vat tan xa xung quanh eu chuyen ong; a. Trng hp th nhat: Tat ca cac tn hieu phan xa en MS mot cach oc lap, ieu o c minh hoa trong hnh 3.9. Tn hieu thu tai MS la tong cua N tn hieu phan xa: S (t ) ! ai s 0 (t  X i )
i !1 N

(3.52)

Tong thi gian truyen dan th i the c tnh bang phng trnh: Xi = X + (XI (3.53) (XI:la thi gian tre tng oi cua thanh phan th i. X c nh ngha: 1 N (3.54) X ! X i N i !1

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Hnh 3.9 Hien tng nhieu ng. He so ai trong (3.54) la he so suy hao truyen dan cua thanh phan th i, no co the la mot gia tr phc. Ta co s0(t - Xi) la : s 0 (t  X i ) ! a 0 exp?j 0 t  X i  J 0 A [ (3.55) [ ! a 0 exp?j 0 t  J 0  j[ 0X i A Thay (3.55) vao (3.52) ta co: s (t ) ! x(t  X ). exp?j[ 0 t  X  jJ 0 A (3.56) Vi x(t) la hnh bao cua tn hieu thu s(t): N x(t ) ! a 0 a i exp  j[ 0 (X i (3.57) i !1 Theo phng trnh (3.57) th x(t) la thanh phan oc lap vi thi gian. V the hnh bao cua tn hieu thu s(t) khong thay oi trong trng hp MS va cac vat tan xa gan ng yen. b. MS ng yen va cac vat xung quanh di chuyen hay ngc lai: Thi gian tre Xi va he so suy hao ai la khac nhau tng ng vi thanh phan th i. Tn hieu thu s(t) trong trng hp nay la: s(t) = x(t)exp(jJ0)exp(j2Tf0t) (3.58) vi at x(t ) ! a 0 a i (t ). exp[ j 2Tf 0X i (t )]
i !1 N N

(3.59) (3.60) (3.61) Page 39

R ! ai (t ). cos[ 2Tf 0X i (t )] S ! ai (t ) sin[ 2Tf 0X i (t )]


i !1 i !1 N

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ITC Luc o: x(t) = a0[R jS] =A(t)exp(-j](t)) (3.62) ay bien o va pha cua x(t)la cac bien phu thuoc thi gian.
2 A(t ) ! a 0 R02  S 0

(3.63)

S (3.64) R Hnh 3.10 Tn hieu thu khi Ms chuyen ong. (a) Hieu ng Doppler. (b) Fading do song ng. Trong trng hp nay, ta co the gia s rang MS ang di ong th co ba tnh huong xay ra : (1) Khong co cac vat tan xa; (2) Ch co mot vat tan xa; (3) Co nhieu vat tan xa; xung quanh MS. Ta co the gia s rang MS ang di chuyen theo hng dng cua truc x vi mot van toc v la hang so va thu mot tn hieu co mot goc en tng ng vi truc x nh minh hoa trong hnh 3.10. Tn hieu thu trong khi MS di chuyen: s (t ) ! a 0 exp[ j ([ 0 t  J 0  Fvt . cos U )] (3.65) 2T Trong o F ! , P la bc song. P

va

] (t ) ! arctg

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ITC
v . cos U la tan so phat sinh do hieu ng Doppler (se P

fd !

c khao sat sau) e hieu ro anh hng cua hien tng nhieu ng, ieu can thiet phai hieu khai niem song ng ap dung tn hieu vo tuyen. Neu tn hieu en t mot hng va c phan xa hoan toan theo hng ngc lai nh hnh 3.10b, th tn hieu thu tai MS ang di chuyen vi van toc v c tnh (gia s U = 0): s (t ) ! a 0 exp[ j ([ 0 t  J 0  Fvt )]  a 0 exp[ j ([ 0 t  J 0  Fvt  [ 0X )] (3.66) [X [ !  j 2a 0 sin Fvt  0 . exp j [ 0 t  J 0  0 2 2 X la thi gian ma song i ti vat tan xa va tr ve tai ng t = 0. Hnh bao cua phng trnh (3.66) la song ng, no co the c xem nh la hien tng Fading n gian. Trong trng hp tach song bang luat bnh phng th hnh bao cua (3.66) la
[X 2 x 2 (t ) ! 4a 0 sin 2 Fvt  0 2

(3.67)

2 A 1 ! 2 a 0 ?  cos 2 Fvt  [ 0X 2v . Tan so Dopplr ay la f d ! P c. Ca MS va cac vat tan xa xung quanh eu chuyen ong: ay la mot trng hp kha phc tap, tn hieu thu tai MS thng khong c tot, bi v tn hieu thu la tong cua cac tn hieu phan xa vi cac goc Ui khac nhau. Tn hieu thu trong trng hp nay la:

s (t ) ! a 0 a i exp?j [ 0 t  J 0  Fvt cosU i  J i A ! At exp j] t exp?j [ 0  J 0 A .


2 2 N N Vi At ! a 0 a i cos] i  a 0 ai sin ] i i !1 i !1 1 2 i !1

(3.68)

(3.69)

] t ! arctg

a a
i !1 i !1 N

sin ] i

(3.70)
cos] i

(3.71) ] i ! J i  Fvt . cos U i Xet trng hp co hai song en vi cung bien o song A, pha la U1 va U2 th tn hieu thu s(t) la va

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s (t ) ! A.e j 2Tft e  Fx cosU1  e  Fx. cos U 2 ! 2 A.e j 2Tft .e
 jFx (cos U 1  cos U 2 ) / 2


(3.72)

Fx Fx . cos . cos U 1  cos U 2 2 2

(3.73) v ! 2T cos U 1  cos U 2 t 2P Tan so Fading c tm v fd ! cos U 1  cos U 2 (3.74) 2P Cong thc (3.74) la tong quat cho tan so Fading. 2. Fading bang phang: Neu bang thong cua kenh vo tuyen co o li hang so va ap ng pha tuyen tnh, ma bang thong nay ln hn bang thong tn hieu phat th tn hieu thu se b Fading bang phang. Fading bang phang, cau truc nhieu ng cua kenh nh la at tnh pho cua tn hieu phat la khong oi tai may thu. Tuy nhien, cng o tn hieu thu thay oi theo thi gian bi do s thang gian trong o li kenh gay ra do hieu ng nhieu ng. at tnh cua kenh Fading bang phang c minh hoa trong hnh 3.11. Co the thay t hnh 3.11 rang, neu o li kenh thay oi theo thi gian th co mot s thay oi cua bien o dien ra tn hieu thu. Theo thi gian, tn hieu thu r(t) se khac nhau theo cac o li, nhng pho cua tn hieu th khong oi. Trong kenh Fading bang phang, nghch ao bang thong cua tn hieu phat th ln hn phan tan tre cua kenh, va hb(t,X) co the xap x nh khong co tre qua. Kenh Fading bang phang c xem nh la kenh thay oi bien o va oi luc cung c xem nh la kenh bang hep v bang thong cua tn hieu nho hn bang thong cua kenh. Mot tn hieu b Fading bang phang khi:

Vi x = vt va vt Fx Fx cos U 1  cos U 2 . cos U 1  . cos U 2 ! 2T 2 2 2P

s(t) s(t) Ts S(f) f t

h(t,X) h(t,X) X t

r(t) r(t) t X<< Ts Ts + X

H(f) f

R(f) f

fc fc fc Hnh 3.113.12 - a tnh Fading bang phang.g phag. kenh kenh fading ba Hnh ac tnhc n n
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ITC BS << BC (3.75) Va TS >> WX (3.76) 1 Trong o BS ! la bang thong cua tn hieu. TS BC va WX la bang thong ket hp va phan tan tre cua kenh. 3. Fading chon loc tan so: Neu mot kenh vo tuyen co bang thong co o li hang so va ap ng pha tuyen tnh, ma no nho hn bang thong cua tn hieu phat th kenh tao nen Fading chon loc tan so tren tn hieu thu. Vi ieu kien nay, ap ng xung cua kenh co mot phan tan tre nhieu ng ln hn nghch ao bang thong cua tn hieu phat. Khi ieu nay xay ra, tn thu bao gom nhng phien ban cua dang song phat ma no b suy hao va tre theo thi gian va v vay tn hieu b meo. Fading chon loc tan so la do s phan tan thi gian cua k t phat theo kenh truyen. V vay kenh xay ra giao thoa k t (ISI). Theo quan iem trong mien tan so, mot vai thanh phan tan so pho tn hieu thu co o li ln hn cac thanh phan khac.

s(t) s(t) t Ts S(f) f fc

h(t,X) h(t,X) X H(f) f fc t

r(t) r(t) t X<< Ts Ts + X R(f) fc f

Kenh Fading chon loc tan so th kho mo ta hn kenh Fading bang n n Hnh 3.13 - a tnh kenh fading bag phag. c phang. V moi tn hieu thanh phan phai c mo hnh va kenh phai c e cap nh la mot bo loc tuyen tnh. Hnh 3.12 minh hoa at tnh cua Fading chon loc tan so. Vi Fading chon loc tan so, pho S(f) cua tn hieu phat co mot bang thong ln hn bang thong ket hp BC cua kenh truyen. Theo quan iem trong mien tan so, at tnh cua kenh la chon loc tan so, ma o li th khac nhau vi cac thanh phan tan so khac nhau. Kenh Fading chon loc tan so con goi la kenh bang rong, v bang thong cua tm hieu s(t) th ln hn bang thong cua ap ng xung. Hnh 3.12 ac tnh kenh Fading chon loc tan so. Mot tn hieu b Fading chon loc tan so neu: BS > BC (3.77) Va TS < WX (3.78) Fading bang phang va Fading chon loc tan so la loai Fading xay ra do phan tan thi gian tre nhieu ng. Thng tin di ng Page 43

ITC 4.Fading nhanh: Fading nhanh xay ra khi ap ng xung cua kenh thay oi nhanh nhanh hn chu ky k t cua tn hieu phat. ieu nay gay ra s phan tan tan so do s phan tan Doppler, t o gay ra meo tn hieu. Theo quan iem trong mien tan so, meo tn hieu do Fading nhanh tang len vi s tang len cua phan tan Doppler tng oi vi bang thong tn hieu phat. Nh vay, mot tn hieu b Fading nhanh neu: TS > TC (3.79) Va BS < BD (3.80) Khi mot kenh c ch ro la Fading nhanh hay Fading cham, th no khong c ch ro la Fading bang phang hay Fading chon loc tan so. Fading nhanh xay ra do s thay oi toc o cua kenh do chuyen ong. Trong trng hp Fading bang phang, chung ta co the xap x ap ng xung la cac ham delta. V vay, trong trng hp nay, kenh Fading nhanh la kenh bien o cua ham delta thay oi nhanh hn toc o cua tn hieu dai nen phat. Trong trng hp Fading chon loc tan so, kenh Fading nhanh co bien o, pha va thi gian tre cua mot so thanh phan nhieu ng thay oi nhanh hn toc o tn hieu phat. Trong thc te, Fading nhanh ch dien ra vi toc o d lieu thap. 5. Fading cham:
Symbol Period of Transmitting Symbol

Ts
Flat Slow Fading WX Frequency Selective Slow Fading Frequency Selective Fast Fading Flat Fast Fading

Transmitted Baseband Signal Bandwidth

Bs

Tc Transmitted Symbol Period (a)


Frequency Selective Fast Fading Frequency Selective Slow Fading Flat Slow Fading

Ts

Bc
Flat Fast Fading

(b) Bang thong tn hieu dai nen. Fading cham dien ra khi s thay oi ap ng xung cua kenh cham hn toc o cua tn hieu dai nen phat. Trong trng hp nay, kenh c xem nh Thng tin di ng Page 44

Bd Bs Transmitted Baseband Signal Bandwidth (b) Hnh .14 - a tra ca Fading la ham cua: c ha a Hnh 3.13 Ma tran cacnloailoai Fading la m cu: (a) Chu ky t ky ; (a) Chu k k t; (b) Bag thog tn hie dane n n u i n
1 0

ITC la tnh qua mot vai chu ky cua bang thong nghch ao. Theo quan iem trong mien tan so, phan tan Doppler cua kenh nho hn bang thong cua tn hieu dai nen. V vay, mot tn hieu b Fading cham khi: TS << TC (3.81) Va BS >> BD ( 3.82) Ta thay ro rang rang van toc cua MS ( hay van toc cua cac oi tng trong kenh truyen ) va toc o cua tn hieu dai nen quyet nh tn hieu b Fading nhanh hay cham. Fading nhanh va Fading cham la loai Fading xay ra do s phan tan Doppler. 6. Cac bien phap chong fadinh: e chong fadinh ngi ta s dung cac bien phap sau ay: y Ma hoa kenh chong loi ket hp vi an xem tn hieu y S dung nhieu song mang (MC:multi Carrier) y Phan tap y Can bang thch ng y Trai pho y May thu RAKE ( thong tin di ong CDMA) Hai dang ma hoa kenh chong loi c s dung thong tin di ong: y Ma phat hien loi: ma khoi tuyen tnh y Ma sa loi: ma xoan hoac ma turbo Ky thuat phat nhieu song mang MC c ap dung cho cac he thong thong tin di ong CDMA the he ba. ly thuat nay luong so sau trai pho c chia thanh 3 luong c a len ieu che 3 song mang vi 3 tan so khac nhau. Cac nghien cu cho thay che o phat MC khong nhng cho phep chong fadinh ma con chong ca nhieu. Ky thuat phan tap a c s dung t lau trong thong tin vo tuyen e chong fadinh. Ton tai cac phng phap phan tap sau ay cac he thong truyen dan viba so: y Phan tap khong gian y Phan tap tan so y Phan tap phan cc y Phan tap thi gian Phan tap khong gian la dang phan tap c s dung pho bien nhat trong he thong thong tin di ong. Cac he thong thong tin di ong CDMA va TDMA s dung FDD ( ghep song cong phan chia theo tan so) ch cho phep s dung phan tap khong gian thu (Receiving Diversity) BTS. Cac he thong thong tin di ong s dung TDD ( ghep song cong phan chia theo thi gian) va CDMA cho phep s dung ca phan tap khong gian thu lan phan tap khong gian phat (Transmitting Diversity). ay la mot u iem ln v phan tap khong gian thu ch ap dung cho BTS ma khong the ap dung cho MS. Phan tap khong gian phat se ap dung cho MS. thong tin di ong co the xem nhay tan GSM va MC CDMA la mot dang cua phan tap tan so.

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ITC

CHNG IV: KHAO SAT CAC LOAI GIAO THOA TRONG HE THONG GSM
I. ANH HNG CUA GIAO THOA: Trong he thong ien thoai di ong te bao, van e giao thoa luon c quan tam trong luc thiet ke. Co nhieu loai giao thoa: giao thoa ong kenh, giao thoa kenh ke, giao thoa au gan au xa, giao thoa k tTrong o giao thoa ong kenh va giao thoa kenh ke la quan trong nhat. Mot oi tng c e cap au tien trong he thong vo tuyen di ong thng mai hoac quan oi la van e s dung tan so, ieu nay dan en s hien dien cua cac kenh cung tan so trong mot he thong va no lam xay ra hien tng giao thoa ong kenh. Mat khac trong he thong GSM s dung phng phap truy cap FDMA va TDMA, nen khoang cach gia cac kenh tan so ke nhau phai c toi thieu e toi u pho. Tuy nhien, ieu nay lam cho cac kenh ke nhau co anh hng qua lai gay ra giao thoa kenh ke. Trong phan nay, chung ta se khao sat at tnh cua cac loai giao thoa anh hng len he thong GSM. II. GIAO THOA ONG KENH: 1. He so giam giao thoa ong kenh: Nh a gii thieu trong chng I, khoang cach s dung lai tan so cua cac cell trong he thong GSM la D: D ! 3k R (4.1) Trong o k la mau s dung lai tan so, tuan theo phng trnh: k = i2 + ij + j2 i,j N. R la ban knh cell ( xem nh cac cell co ban knh bang nhau) Viec s dung lai cac kenh tan so giong nhau cac cell khac nhau b gii han bi giao thoa ong kenh gia cac cell va van e giao thoa ong kenh tr thanh van e chnh. Bay gi, chung ta phai tm khoang cach s dung lai tan so ma co the toi thieu c giao thoa ong kenh. He so giam giao thoa ong kenh q c nh ngha : D q ! ! 3k (4.2) R Khi q tang giao thoa ong kenh se giam. Trong khi o, khoang cach D la ham cua KI va C/I. D = f(KI, C/I) (4.3) KI la so cell giao thoa ong kenh. C/I la ty so song mang tren giao thoa may thu. C C (4.4) ! K I Ik
I

k !1

Gia s rang bo qua cac loai nhieu khac, he thong ch b anh hng bi giao thoa th: Thng tin di ng Page 46

ITC C ! I R K

D
k !1

KI

(4.5)
K k

K la o doc ng suy hao, trong moi trng vo tuyen gia s K = 4, va KI = 6 (cau truc hnh luc giac). Khi o ta co: 1 1 C (4.6) ! K ! K K I K Dk R qk k !1 k !1 D Vi q ! k la he so giam giao thoa ong kenh cua cell th k. R 2. Tn hieu thu khi co giao thoa ong kenh: Gia s tn hieu can thu la s(t) va tn hieu giao thoa la i(t) th ta co quan he sau : s (t ) ! exp j ([ c t  J (t )) (4.7) i (t ) ! r exp j ([ c t  J (t )  J 0 ) (4.8) Vi J(t) va Ji(t) la thanh phan ieu che pha cua tn hieu can thu va tn hieu giao. r la ty so bien o cua tn hieu giao thoa va tn hieu can thu. Tn hieu trc bo giai ieu che la tong cua hai tn hieu nay: vc (t ) ! s (t )  i(t )
I I

! exp j ? c t  J (t ) A?  exp j i (t )  J (t )  J 0 [ J .1 A

(4.9)

at e x ! 1  r exp j? i (t )  J (t )  J 0 A J Va x ! x r  jH (t ) Nh vay ta co: x ! ln_  r exp j? i (t )  J (t )  J 0 A 1 J a T (4.11) va (4.12), ta suy ra : H (t ) ! Im ln_  r exp j? i (t )  J (t )  J 0 A 1 J a Ta co bieu thc gan ung: g k 1 1 ln(1  y ) !  1 .y k k k !1 Khi o (4.13) tr thanh : g k 1 1 .r k `. exp jk i (t )  J (t )  J 0 H (t ) ! Im  1 J k k !1
g

! exp j ? c t  J (t ) A?R (t ). exp jH (t )A [ .

(4.10) (4.11) (4.12) (4.13) (4.14)

(4.15) 1 k .r . sin k ? i (t )  J (t )  J 0 A J !  1 k k !1 Nh vay tn hieu thu tai may thu sau khi i qua bo gii han v d ! A. exp j? c t  J (t )  H (t ) A [ (4.16) Vi A la bien o hang so.
k 1

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ITC 3. Giao thoa ong kenh trong moi trng khong Fading: e tnh pho cua H(t) trong moi trng khong Fading, can thiet phai biet c tng quan trung bnh cua goc pha ngau nhien J0 t phng trnh (4.15). Gia s J0 co phan phoi chuan, oc lap va co gia tr t 0 en 2T, th ham tng quan cua H(t) la : 1 T RH (t ) ! lim E H (t ).H (t  X J .dX T p g 2T T
0

1 g r 2k ! 2 2 k !1 k

1 T lim T T cos k ?J i t  H  J t  X  J i (t )  J (t ) Adt T pg

(4.17)

1 g r 2k ! 2 exp? R(k (0)  R(k (X )A 2 k !1 k J Vi R(k(t) la ham phng sai cua k ? i (t )  J (t ) A ( k ! k ? i (t )  J (t ) A J Mat o pho cong suat S(k(t) co the c mo ta:
R ( k ( 0) S (k (t ) ! 0

(4.18)

ni khac

(4.19)

Va ham phng sai R(k(X) cua (k c cho bi : g sin 2TWX (4.20) R(k (X ) ! S (k ( f )e jWX df ! R (k (0). g 2TWX Ham cua phng trnh (4.19) va (4.20) c ve trong hnh 4.1 Pho tan so SH(f) cua H(t) c viet: S H ( f ) ! R (X ) exp  j 2TfX dX
g H g

1 r 2k ! 2 S vk ( f ) 2 k !1 k Trong o:
S vk ( f ) ! exp? R (k (0)  R (k (X ) Aexp  j 2TfX dX 
g g

(4.21)

(4.22)

Spectral density Rad2/Hz R( ( D )


k

1.0 0.8 0.4 R ( k ( 0) Thng tin di ng 0.2 0 -0.2 T 2T


R ( k (X )

2W

0.6 -W W Frequency,Hz Page 48

ITC

Hnh 4.1 Mat o pho cong suat va ham phng sai cua (k. Thay (4.20) vao (4.22), taco: sin p 1 S vk ( f ) ! (4.23) exp  R(k (0)1  p exp  jPp dp 2Tw f va p ! 2TwX Vi P ! w Phng trnh (4.23) rat kho giai bang phng phap giai tch. V vay, can co mot cach khac e tm gan ung. Gia s rang J(t) va JI(t) la oc lap va co pho la hnh ch nhat vi hai bien la w va +w Hz, th pho cua SJ(f) c bieu dien: J2 S J ( f ) ! 2w 0
f ew

He so ieu che bnh phng trung bnh J2 c nh ngha:

a df J 2 ! E _ 2 t ! S J f J
g

Ham t tng quan cua J(t) la : sin 2TwX RJ ! J 2 X 2TwX Tng t ta co pho cua SJI(f) la: Rad2/Hz f e w i J S Ji ( f ) ! 2 w 0 va ta cung co : Ni khac
J ! E J t !
i 2

RJi ! J i . X

Khi o ta tnh c :

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Rad2/ Hz

(4.24)

(4.25) (4.26)

(4.27)

A S
g

Ji

f df

(4.28) (4.29)

sin 2TwX 2TwX

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ITC R(k (0) ! lim


T pg

1 2T

T

k 2 J 2 (t )  J i dt

! k 2 RJ (0)  RJ ! k 2 J 2  J i

(4.30)

1 10-1
W sH ( f ) r2

J = JI = 2.55 r2 = 0.9 r2 = 0.5 r2 = 0.1 r2 = 0.01 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

10-2 10-3 10 10
-4

-5

10-6

Hnh 4.2 Mat o pho cua giao thoaf/W nen trong moi trng khong dai fading. Thay (4.30) vao (4.23) va sau o thay vao (4.21), ta se co SH(f) la mot ham cua r2, J2 va J i2 , vi J = JI = 2.55 va cac mc r2 khac nhau c ve trong hnh 4.2. Nh vay, gia tr cua SH(f) giam khi hoac f giam hoac r giam. 4. Giao thoa ong kenh trong moi trng Fading Rayleigh: Ty so giao thoa tren song mang tai IF la: i 2 (t ) (4.31) r2 ! 2 s (t ) Vi hai tn hieu s(t) va r(t) eu b Rayleigh Fading. Ham mat o xac suat pr(x) c bieu dien nh sau: + pr ! (4.32) 1  +x 2 va + c nh ngha: g 1 r (4.33) ! E 2 ! r 2 p r ( x) dx 0 + + la CIR trung bnh . Cong suat giao thoa ong kenh E[I] tai mc nhieu nen. E ?I A! E ?2 wS H ( 0) A E ?N S A (4.34) vi :
2 2

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ITC
2 E ? wS H (0) A ! !

1 0

p r 2 ( x) 2 wS H +x (1  +x)
2

3 2T (J  J
2 i

dx 

J 2  J i (1  +x) 2 2 +

dx (4.35)

2 1 J  Ji 1 . ln  +  1 !  1  + i 2  + 1 2T J 2  J i + NS phng trnh (4.34) la cong suat cua tn hieu nhieu do Fading ns(t) c bieu dien : n s (t ) ! J (t )  E (J (t )) (4.36)

Vi J(t) la tn hieu au ra dai nen: E(J(t)) la tn hieu au ra co Fading. 1 +J (t ) r2 <1 J (t ) p r ( x ) dx ! 0 1 + E (J (t )) ! J (t ) p r ( x ) dx ! r2 >1 g J (t ) J (t ) 1 p r ( x ) dx ! 1  +


2 2 2

(4.37)

Thay (4.37) vao (4.36), ta co:

<  + J rt 1 1 n s (t ) ! J (t )  E t ! J + t >  + J r2 1 1 Gia tr trung bnh cua ns2 (t ) la :


4
2

(4.38)

1 2 1 r2 < 1 J t ! J2 1 2 1  + 2  + 2 N S ! n s (t ) ! (4.39) r2 > 1 +2 +2 2 J t ! .J 2 2 2 1 1  +  + Cong suat trung bnh E[NS]: 2 2 1 g g + J + + J2 + E ?N S A ! p r ( x) N S dx ! dx  dx ! J2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 1 1  + 1  +x 1  + 1  +x 1  +


2

(4.40) Nh vay ta co cong suat trung bnh cua giao thoa la: 2 2 3 1 J  Ji + 1 J2  E?I A !  ln(1  t )  2 2 2 1  + 2  +  + 1 2T J  J i + 1 Cong suat tn hieu au ra trung bnh: 1 +2 +2 E J 2 ! J t p r ( x ) dx ! J2 ! J2 2 2 0 1  + 1  +

(4.41)

? A

(4.42)

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ITC Nh vay: EJ2 ! J ? A E? A!


2

+2

E?I A

1  +

J2 (4.43)

(4.44) 2  +  + 1 1 Chung ta co the giam giao thoa ong kenh cach tang so mau s dung tan so k. Tuy nhien, khi o hieu suat s dung pho khong cao. Mot bien phap thng thc hien la thiet ke cac Anten ang hng. ieu nay lam giam ro ret hien tng giao thoa ong kenh. III. GIAO THOA KENH KE: Mo hnh dung e tnh giao thoa ong kenh c n rong e ap dung cho giao thoa kenh ke. Giao thoa kenh ke c chia ra la giao kenh ke trong bang va giao thoa kenh ke ngoai bang. Dang giao thoa trong bang khi trung tam cua bang thong tn hieu giao thoa ri vao trong bang thong tn hieu can thu. Ngc lai vi dang giao thoa bang ngoai. Do anh hng ln cua dang giao thoa bang trong, nen chung ta ch tap trung vao dang nay, v vay ch xet trng hp r < 1. Khi o tn hieu can thu s(t) = expj[[ct + J(t)] (4.45) va tn hieu giao thoa kenh ke: i (t ) ! r exp j? c  [ a  J i (t )  J 0 A [ t (4.46) ay f = fc + fa la tan so giao thoa kenh ke. Cung nh phan trc ta co pha giao thoa H(t) la : g k 1 1 k (4.47) r sin k ? c t  J i t  J t  J 0 A H t !  1 [ k k !1 oi vi giao thoa kenh ke, ta cung chia ra hai loai moi trng khac nhau la khong co Fading va co Fading. 1. Giao thoa kenh ke trong moi trng khong co Fading: Trong moi trng khong Fading, gia s r2 la hang so va J0 la hieu pha gia s(t) va i(t) co phan bo chuan va oc lap. Ham tng quan RH(X) cua H(t) la 1 T RH (X ) ! lim  T E ?H (t )  H t  X A T p g 2T (4.48) 1 g r 2k X ! 2 exp? R(k (0)  R(k Acos [ cX  2 k !1 k va mat o pho cong suat SH(f) cua H(t) la :
2

Trong o Q !

1 1 1 Q ln  +  2 2 1 + 2T J  J i +

 J i2

J2

S H ! RH exp j  2TfX X dx
g

1 r 2k ?S vk f  kf a  S vk f  kf a A 4 k !1 k 2
g

(4.49)

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ITC
sin p 1 g g exp  R(k 0 1  p exp  jPp dp 2Tw

vi

S vk f !

(4.49)

f va p = 2TwX w Ty so tn hieu tren giao thoa (SIR) dai nen la : J2 (r2 < 1) (4.50) SIR ! 2 wS H 0 2. Giao thoa kenh ke trong moi trng Fading: Trong moi trng vo tuyen di ong, tn hieu can thu va tn hieu giao thoa kenh ke co the tng quan tng phan do s suy giam cua chung. Xac suat ton tai r2 u Er1, vi r1, r2 la hnh bao cua tn hieu can thu va giao thoa. r r Xac suat nay c tnh vi ( E 12 ! E 22 ! 2W 2 )

trong o: P !

p r2 u Er1 ! dr1 p r1 , r2 dr2


0
Er1 g g Vr r 2  r 2 r r2 dr ! dr1 r1.r2 exp  12 2 I 0 1 2 0 Er1 1 1  V r 2 2  V r

(4.51)

1 1  2 2

1E 2 1  E  4V E
2 2 r 2

Trong o Vr la he so tng quan gia r1 va r2. Ham mat o xac suat pr(y) cua r = r2/r1 co the c tnh : d r2 (4.52) p " E p r y !  dE r1 y !E at R ! G .r , ma G la o li cong suat tai au ra cua mach loc trung tan, luc o: 1 p R ( x ) ! p r ( y ). 2 yG y ! x
2

1  V r 1 
!

x G
3

thoa.

2 2 x x G 1   4 V r G G Vi Vr c tnh : 1 (4.54) Vr ! 2 1  ([ (2 ([ Vi f ! la hieu pha cua tan so gia tn hieu thu va tn hieu giao 2T

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(4.53)

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ITC ( la phan tan tre Cong suat giao thoa : E ?I A ! E ? wS H 0 A E ?N S A 2 Trong o:  V r 1  x 1 1 G E ? wS 0 A ! 2 .


H

(4.55)

2 x x G 1   4 V r G G

2T J  J i

3
2

.dx
(4.56)

2 2 x x G 1   4 V r G G ay ch tnh cho trng hp J 2  J i2 " 2.35 . Cong suat tn hieu au ra co Fading la:

 V r 1  x 1 G
3

J 2  J i2 dx . 2

E t ! J (t ). p R 2 ( x ) dx ! J (t ) p R 2 dx ! J
0

dx 3 x x 2 G 1   4 V r G G V ch ap dung cho giao thoa bang trong nen r < 1. Tn hieu nhieu au ra: n s t ! J t  E t J
0

! J t

 V r 1  1

x G

(4.57)

(4.58)

Vi E(J(t)) a c tnh tren. 1  V r 1  x 1 G 1  N S (t ) ! J t . dx 3 0 2 x x G 1   4 V r G G 1  V r 1  x 1 2 G ma N S ! n s2 (t ) ! 1  .J 3 0 2 x x G 1   4 V r G G T (4.60) ta tnh c E ?N S A !

(4.59)

(4.60)

p R 2 x N S .dx

(4.61)

Thay (4.61) va (4.56) vao (4.55) ta co E[I]. Thng tin di ng Page 54

ITC T o ta tnh c SIR :

E J (4.62) E?I A Van e giao thoa kenh ke co the giam khi chung ta co mot phng phap an nh tan so e bao am cho khoang cach gia cac kenh ke nhau la ro rang. Ngoai ra, con co the ap dung bo loc bang thong co o li cao tai may thu. IV. GIAO THOA AU GAN - AU XA: Giao thoa au gan au xa xay ra khi khoang cach gia may thu MS va BTS cua no th xa hn khoang cach gia no va mot BTS khac. Hoac trong trng hp giao thoa au gan au xa xay ra tai BTS th co hai MS, nhng chung thuoc hai BTS khac nhau va BTS gan nhat cung thu tn hieu khi chung phat ong thi. ay, ta xet trng hp th nhat. Goi d1 la khoang cach t MS en BTS cua no, d2 la khoang cach t MS en BTS khac co cung kenh tan so ma no ang s dung. Nh vay, hien tng giao thoa au gan au xa xay ra khi d1 > d2. Hieu cong suat gay ra do ng suy hao gia v tr cua may thu va hai hng cua v tr may phat c goi la ty so giao thoa au gan au x, va c nh ngha: path _ loss _ d 1 Near end to far end Ratio = (4.63) path _ loss _ d 2 e co the tnh xap x c ty so giao thoa au gan au xa mot cach nhanh nhat ( dB ) ta dung o doc suy hao la 40dB/decade vi mot moi trng vo tuyen tieu bieu, th ta co: Near end to far end ratio = 40log(distance Ratio) (4.64) V. GIAO THOA KY T: Neu mot he thong truyen dan so la tuyen tnh va khong meo qua cac tan so, th he thong phai co mot bang thong vo han. Tuy nhien, trong thc te, mot he thong so luon co mot bang thong gii han va mot lng meo tan so. Trong mot he thong khong meo, mot chuoi xung c ban s(t) la khong b bien dang theo ap ng tan so. Nh vay, x(t) bieu dien mot chuoi xung: N k (4.65) x (t ) ! a k s t  R k !1 R la toc o bit. ak = s1. Khi s(t) la khong meo, viec tang toc o bit cua tn hieu co the at c bang cach giam o rong xung va tang so xung phat trong mot khoang thi gian. Tuy vay, vi he thong thc te co mot bang thong gii han va lng meo tan so se gay ra s phan tan cua cac xung rieng biet va chong trap, o goi la giao thoa ky t ( ISI). Mot nguyen nhan khac gay ra ISI la do toc o bit cua tn hieu va tan so phat b anh hng cua phan tan thi gian tre do moi trng vo tuyen ((). Phan tan tre b gii han bi gii han bang thong, vas phan xa tn SIR ! Thng tin di ng Page 55

ITC hieu nhieu ng en tai Anten may thu tai cac thi iem khac nhau. Khi toc o bit cua tn hieu 1/R >> ( th phan tan tre co the bo qua va ay la xem nh khong co ISI. e giam hien tng ISI, ta co the dung ky thuat lay dang xung, bo Equalizer hoac mach ma hoa so ac biet.

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ITC

CHNG V: CAC PHNG PHAP CAI THIEN NG TRUYEN VO TUYEN


I. KY THUAT CAN BANG: Giao thoa ky t (ISI) sinh ra do hieu ng nhieu ng trong mot kenh phan tap thi gian bang thong hu han, va lam meo tn hieu, sinh ra loi bit tai may thu. ISI c xem la mot tr ngai chnh cho cac kenh vo tuyen khi truyen toc o cao. Can bang la mot ky thuat chong lai ISI. dang tong quat, can bang co the c mo ta nh mot ky thuat x ly tn hieu e giam ISI. cac kenh vo tuyen, nhieu bo can bang thch ng (Adaptive Equalizer) co the c dung e loai bo nhieu. Trong kenh Fading, s thay oi thi gian la ngau nhien, nhiem vu cua bo can bang la ieu chnh ac tnh thay oi thi gian cua kenh vo tuyen, v vay c goi la bo can bang thch ng. Mo hnh tong quat cua bo can bang thch ng bao gom hng dan va ieu chnh. au tien, mot chuoi hng dan c phat t may phat en bo can bang cua may thu theo mot khoang thi gian at trc. Chuoi hng dan la mot tn hieu nh phan gia ngau nhien hoac mot mau bits hng dan. Sau chuoi hng dan nay, d lieu (no co the hoac khong co the cha bit ma hoa) c gi, va bo can bang thch ng tai may thu dung mot giai thuat e anh gia va c lng cac he so loc e bu cho kenh. Chuoi hng dan c tnh toan lam sao cho phep mot bo can bang tai may thu phai a ra nhng he so loc trong trng hp xau nhat cua kenh, sao cho khi chuoi hng dan ket thuc th cac he so loc gan bang vi gia tr toi u cua d lieu can thu. Khi d lieu c thu, giai thuat thch ng cua bo can bang se ieu chnh s thay oi cua kenh. Va nh the, bo can bang luon thay oi mot cach lien tuc ac tnh thi gian bo loc cua no. Pham vi thi gian trong mot bo can bang la mot ham cua giai thuat can bang, cau truc bo can bang va toc o thay oi thi gian cua kenh vo tuyen nhieu ng. Bo can bang yeu cau cac chuoi hng dan phai c lap lai e at c muc ch loai bo ISI, va thng trong cac he thong thong tin so, d lieu phai c chia ra tng khoi ngan e phat. He thong vo tuyen TDMA rat thch hp vi ky thuat can bang. Hnh 5.1 trnh bay s o khoi cua mot he thong thong tin vi bo can bang thch ng tai may thu.

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ITC

riginal baseband Message x(t)

f(t) = a g xung tog cog cu ma pha p n n n a y t, keh vo n tuye nhie g va n RF/IF ma thu. n u n pha y Modulator Transmitter

Equivalent oise nb (t)

y(t)

Equalizer heq (t) d(t)


v

Decision Maker

Reconstructed Message Data d(t)

_
e(t)

Hnh 5.1 S o khoi cua mot he thong n gian co s dung bo can bang tai may thu. Neu x(t) la tn hieu tin tc nguyen thuy, va f(t) la ap ng xung dai nen phc tong cong cua may phat, kenh va phan RF/IF cua may thu, th tn hieu thu c bi bo can bang la: y (t ) ! x(t )  f  (t )  n b (t ) (5.1) * f (t) la lien hiep phc cua f(t). nb(t) la nhieu dai nen tai au vao cua bo can bang. Neu ap ng xung cua bo can bang la heq(t), th au ra cua no la: d (t ) ! x (t )  f * (t )  heq (t )  nb (t )  heq (t ) (5.2) ! x(t )  g (t )  n b (t ) heq (t ) Trong o, g(t) la ap ng xung cua may phat, kenh, phan RF/IF cua may thu va bo can bang. ap ng xung dai nen phc cua bo can bang loc ngang la heq (t ) ! c n H (t  nT ) (5.3)
n

Trong o cn la cac he so loc phc cua bo can bang. Tn hieu tai au ra cua bo can bang c mong i la x(t). Gia s nb(t) = 0, th d (t ) ! x (t ) , trong (5.2) th g(t) phai la: g (t ) ! f  (t )  heq (t ) ! H (t ) (5.4) Trong mien tan so (5.4) tr thanh: H eq ( f ) F  (  f ) ! 1 (5.5) ay Heq(f) va F(f) la bien oi Fourier cua heq(t) va f(t). Thng tin di ng Page 58

Detector Matched Filter

IF Stage

Radio channel

RF Receiver Front nd f(t)

ITC Neu kenh la chon loc tan so, bo can bang se nang cao cac thanh phan tan so co bien o nho va suy hao manh tai pho tan so thu e a ra mot ap ng tan so thu ngang nhau va bang phang va co pha tuyen tnh.5 II. GII THIEU VE KY THUAT CAN BANG:
Equalizer

Linear

Types

onlinear

DFE

ML Symbol Detector

MLSE

Transversal

Lattice

Transversal

Lattice

Transversal Chennal Est.

LMS Gradient RLS Zero Forcing Gradient RLS RLS LMS Fast RLS RLS Sq. Root RLS Fast RLS Sq.Root RLS Algorithms

LMS RLS Fast RLS Sq. Root RLS

Hnh 5.2 Qua trnh chia lp cua bo can bang. Ky thuat can bang c chia lam hai loai: tuyen tnh va khong tuyen tnh. S phan loai nay c quyet nh t viec au ra cua bo can bang co c hoi tiep ve au vao hay khong. Tn hieu tng t d (t ) c x ly bang mach quyet nh may thu. Mach quyet nh lay gia tr cua bit d lieu ang thu va a en mach gi hoac lay ngng e quyet nh gia tr cua d(t). Neu d(t) khong c dung e hoi tiep, th qua trnh can bang c goi la tuyen tnh. Neu d(t) c hoi tiep th qua trnh can bang goi la khong tuyen tnh. Co nhieu cau truc bo loc c dung e thc hien bo can bang tuyen tnh va khong tuyen tnh. Them vao o, moi cau truc co nhieu giai thuat e ieu chnh bo can bang. Hnh 5.2, trnh bay mot qua trnh phan loai tong quat cua cac ky thuat can bang theo cac loai, cac cau truc va cac giai thuat c dung. Cau truc bo can bang pho bien nhat la bo can bang ngang tuyen tnh (Linear Transversal Equalizer LTE). Mot bo loc ngang tuyen tnh c tao nen bi cac tang cua ng tre, vi moi tang lam tre mot chu ky ky t (TS), nh trong hnh 5.3. Thng tin di ng Page 59

ITC Hnh 5.3 Cau truc bo can bang ngang tuyen tnh c ban.
Delay elements y(t) + nb(t) clock with period X Taps TS TS TS TS

Gia s, moi thanh phan Delay co o li la 1, va thi gian tre la TS, th ham truyen cua bo can bang ngang tuyen tnh la exp(-j[TS) hay z-1. Mot LTE n gian dung ch cac tang tao tre (khong co hoi tiep), th ham truyen cua no co dang la a thc cua z-1. Bo loc nay co nhieu zero nhng ch co mot cc tai z = 0, no c goi la bo loc ap ng xung hu han (FIR) hoac mot cach n gian la bo loc ngang. Neu mot bot bo can bang va co tang ti va tang hoi tiep th ham truyen cua no la mot ham phan so cua z-1, no c goi la bo loc ap ng xung vo han (IIR) vi nhieu cc va zero.

Feedback taps

b1

b2

b3

b4

y(t)

TS

TS

TS

TS

d1

d2

d3

d4

Feedforward taps

Hnh 5.4, trnh bay mot bo loc cac tang cua ng tre vi ca ng ti va ng hoi tiep. III. KY THUAT PHAN TAP: Thng tin di ng Page 60

d(t)

ITC Phan tap la mot ky thuat rat manh c s dung trong cac may thu thong tin, no gop phan cai thien chat lng ng truyen vi mot chi ph thap. Khong nh ky thuat can bang phai can mot mao au hng dan (chuoi hng dan). Qua trnh phan tap c s dung mot cach rong rai va rat thc te ma chi ph phat sinh thap. Phan tap li dung ac tnh ngau nhien cua ng truyen vo tuyen bang cach tm ra cac ng tn hieu oc lap vi he thong. Phan tap ch s dung may thu. Khai niem phan tap c giai thch nh sau: Neu mot ng truyen vo tuyen b suy hao manh, con cac ng khac co mot tn hieu manh. Nh vay phan tap la chon mot trong cac tn hieu nay hoac chon ong thi va SNR trung bnh tai may thu c cai thien, thong thng t 20 30dB. Trong moi trng Fading ty le nho (Small Scale Fading) th s thang gian bien o xay ra sau va nhanh khi di ong di chuyen qua mot khoang cach ch vai bc song. Loai nay b gay ra bi nhieu tia phan xa t cac vat xung quanh di ong. e giam s suy giam sau ta dung ky thuat phan tap vi mo, ma co the li dung s thay oi mot cach nhanh chong cua tn hieu. Fading ty le ln (Large Scale Fading) b gay ra bi s chong trap do s a dang cua be mat a ly va ac tnh cac vat xung quanh. Trong ieu kien chong trap manh, cng o tn hieu thu tai di ong b suy giam manh. e tranh tnh trang nay ta chon cac tram goc sao cho no t chong trap vi cac tram goc khac. Nh vay co the cai thien c SNR trung bnh tai may thu. ay goi la phan tap v mo. Phan tap v mo c dung rat nhieu may thu tram goc. Bang cach dung cac Anten tram goc co s phan tap ro rang trong khong gian va tram goc cung co the cai thien chat lng ng truyen ngc lai bang cach chon Anten vi cng o manh nhat t di ong. IV. CAC KY THUAT PHAN TAP: 1. Phan tap khong gian: Phan tap khong gian con goi la phan tap Anten, la mot dang phan tap pho bien trong he thong thong tin di ong. Trong he thong nay, ng truyen trc tiep gia may phat va may thu kho ton tai va s ton tai cua cac vat tan xa xung quanh di ong c xem nh la mot tn hieu Fading Rayleigh. Mo hnh a ra e thu cac tn hieu nay t cac Anten oc lap tren di ong se co hnh bao khong tng quan vi s cach ly cua cac Anten bc song hoac dai hn. Khai niem phan tap khong gian Anten cung c dung trong luc thiet ke tram goc. Tai tram goc, nhieu Anten thu c dung cho viec thu phan tap. 2. Phan tap phan cc: Tai tram goc, phan tap khong gian t c e cap trong thc te hn tai di ong, bi v khong gian Anten ln hn goc en cua trng. Them vao o, s phan tap phan cc chi ph thap hn so vi phan tap khong gian. Ch can co hai nhanh phan tap, no a cho phep cac thanh phan Anten c hoat ong tot. 3. Phan tap tan so:

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ITC Phan tap tan so la phat nhieu kenh thong tin tren mot song mang. Loai nay thng c ap dung trong ng Line Of Sight cua Viba (Microwave). 4. Phan tap thi gian: Phan tap thi gian la phat thong tin mot cach lap lai tai cac khoang thi gian ln hn thi gian ket hp cua kenh, sao cho cac qua trnh lap lai nay cua tn hieu se c thu vi cac ieu kien Fading oc lap. V. C BAN VE MA HOA KENH: Ma hoa kenh e bao ve d lieu so t loi bang cach a them cac bits tha trong d lieu phat. Ma kenh c dung e kiem tra loi goi la ma kiem tra loi, con ma dung e kiem tra va sa loi goi la ma sa loi. Cong thc dung lng kenh cua Shannon c ap dung trong kenh nhieu trang la: P S ! B log 2 1  C ! B log 2 1  (5.6) N0B N Trong o: C la dung lng kenh. B la bang thong truyen dan (Hz). P la cong suat tn hieu thu (W). N0 mat o cong suat nhieu n bien (W/Hz). Cong suat thu c tai may thu: P = EbRb (5.7) Eb: nang lng bit trung bnh. Rb : toc o bit truyen dan. Phng trnh (5.6) co the c chuan hoa: E R C (5.8) ! log og 1  b b B N0B
C la hieu suat bang thong. B Muc ch c ban cua ky thuat kiem tra va sa loi la them cac bits tha vao d lieu e cai thien chat lng ng truyen. Cac bits nay lam tang so bit cua d lieu cha ieu che va v vay lam tang bang thong yeu cau cho mot toc o d lieu nguon. ieu nay lam giam hieu suat bang thong cua ng truyen ieu kien SNR cao, nhng cho BER tot vi gia tr SNR thap. Bo ma hoa kenh ma hoa d lieu thong tin nguon ra mot chuoi ma khac e phat len kenh truyen. Co hai loai ma phat hien sai va sa sai c ban la: ma khoi (Block code) va ma chap (Convolutional code). VI. CAC MA HOA KENH THNG DUNG: 1. Ma khoi: Ma khoi la ma sa sai truyen thang (Forward Error Correction FEC), no cho phep mot so bits loi c sa sai ma khong can truyen lai. Ma khoi co the c dung e cai thien chat lng ng truyen khi cac phng phap khac khong hieu qua. Trong ma khoi, cac parity bits c them vao khoi bit thong tin e tao nen cac t ma khac hoac khoi ma. bo ma hoa khoi, k bits thong tin

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ITC c ma hoa ra thanh n bits. Tong cac bits (n k) c cong vao cac bits thong tin vi muc ch phat hien sai va sa sai. Ma khoi c xem la mot ma (n,k), va ty le ma c nh ngha Rc = k/n va bang toc o thong tin chia cho toc o kenh cha ieu che. 2. Ma chap: Ma chap la khac c ban so vi ma khoi. Thay cho cac chuoi thong tin ma khoi c chia ra cac khoi rieng le va ma hoa la mot chuoi bits thong tin c sap xep thanh mot chuoi lien tuc tai au ra cua bo ma hoa. Vi cung mot o phc tap th o li ma hoa cua ma chap ln hn ma khoi. Mot ma khoi c sinh ra bang cach cho chuoi thong tin i qua cac thanh ghi dch trang thai hu han. Thanh ghi dch nay cha N(k bits) tang va phat ra m ham ai so tuyen tnh da tren viec phat ra cac a thc, ieu nay c minh hoa trong hnh 5.5. D lieu ngo vao c dch vao va theo thanh ghi dch k bits tai moi thi iem. So bits au ra vi moi chuoi d lieu ngo vao k bits la n bits. Ty le ma Rc =k/n. He so N c goi la chieu dai bat buoc va cho thay so bits d lieu ngo vao phu thuoc vao ngo ra hien hanh. No quyet nh the manh va o phc tap cua ma.
N Stages k Data bits 1 k 1 k 1 k

+
1

+
2 Encoded Sequence

+
n

Hnh 5.5 S o khoi tong quat cua bo ma hoa chap.

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PHAN 2: KHAO SAT VE WAVELETS CHNG I: GII THIEU VE WAVELETS


I. OI NET VE S PHAT TRIEN CUA WAVELET: 1.Trc nam 1930: Trc nam 1930, ly thuyet phan tch tn hieu c bat au vi ly thuyet phan tch tan so cua Fourier (1807) ma chung ta thng goi la phan tch Fourier. Ong phat bieu rang moi ham f(x) tuan hoan chu ky 2T eu co the c bieu dien bang tong

a0  ak coskx  bk sin kx
k !1

Cac he so a0, ak, va bk c tnh theo cac tch phan


0

1 ! 2T

2T

f ( x)dx,
0

1 ! T

2T

f ( x) c
0

s(kx) dx,

1 ! T

2T

f ( x) si
0

(kx) dx

Tong tren c goi la chuoi Fourier. Sau nam 1807, qua qua trnh nghien cu ban chat cua cac ham, s hoi tu cua chuoi Fourier, va cac he trc giao, cac nha toan hoc dan dan chuyen y tng phan tch tan so sang phan tch ty le. Co ngha la, phan tch f(x) bang cach tao cac cau truc toan hoc thay oi theo ty le. Tao mot ham, dch ham o mot lng nao o, va thay oi ty le cua no. Cau truc nay c ap dung trong xap x tn hieu. Lay cau truc c s, dch no, va thay oi ty le no mot lan na. Ap dung c s nay cho tn hieu tren e co mot xap x mi. Nh vay, loai phan tch ty le nay t nhay hn oi vi nhieu bi v no tnh toan thay oi trung bnh cua tn hieu cac ty le khac nhau. Wavelets au tien la Haar wavelet (1909) 2.Nhng nam 1930: Nhieu nhom khac nhau oc lap nghien cu cach bieu dien cac ham dung cac ham c s co ty le thay oi (scale-varying basic function). Cac nha khoa hoc thay rang cac ham c s Haar co nhieu u iem hn so vi cac ham c s Fourier 3.Nhng nam 1960 en 1980: Guido Weiss va Ranald R. Coifman nghien cu cac phan t c ban nhat cua mot khong gian ham, c goi la cac atom, nham muc ch tm cac atom cho mot ham chung va tm cac luat ket hp cho phep xay dng tat ca cac phan t cua khong gian ham dung cac atom nay. Nam 1980, Grossman va Morlet nh ngha wavelets trong vat ly lng t. Thng tin di ng Page 64

ITC 4.Nhng nam au thap nien 1980: Nam 1985, Stephene Mallat ap dung wavelets trong x ly so tn hieu. Ong ta phat hien mot so lien he gia cac mach loc gng hai kenh (quadrature mirror filter), cac thuat toan hnh thap, va cac c s wavelets trc giao. Maeyer wavelet c cong bo. Ingrid Daubechies s dung ket qua nghien cu cua Maeyer e xay dng cac ham c s trc giao ma hien nay ang c s dung nhieu trong cac ng dung wavelets. Phan tch Fourier va phan tch wavelet co lien he chat che vi nhau. Do o, e tm hieu wavelets mot cach de dang, trc het chung ta se xem lai mot so kien thc tong quat, nh tnh ve phan tch Fourier. II. GII THIEU VE WAVELET VA HE THONG KHAI TRIEN WAVELET: 1. Khai trien hoac bien oi Wavelet: Mot tn hieu hoac mot ham f(t) co the c phan tch, mo ta hoac x ly neu no c bieu dien nh la mot phan tch tuyen tnh bi:

f (t ) ! al] l t
l

(1.1)

Trong o: l la mot he so nguyen al la cac he so khai trien (co gia tr thc) ]l(t) la tap cac gia tr thc cua t, c goi la tap khai trien. Neu khai trien (1.1) la duy nhat, th o goi la c s. Neu c s nay la trc giao, co ngha la :

] k t ,] l t ! ] k t l t ! 0 ] dt
th he so co the c tnh bi tch trong:

k{l

(1.2)

(1.3) Neu c s la ~ khong trc giao, th mot tap c s kep ] k t , ton tai, bang cach dung (1.3) vi c s kep ta se c he so mong muon. 2. He so WAVELET: Tap khai trien Wavelet la khong duy nhat. Co rat nhieu loai he thong Wavelet khac nhau c dung rat hieu qua nhng chung eu co ba ac tnh sau: (1) Mot he thong Wavelet la mot tap cac khoi e xay dng hoac bieu dien mot tn hieu hoac mot ham. No la mot tap khai trien hai chieu (thng la mot c s) vi vai lp cua tn hieu mot chieu (hoac cao hn). Noi cach khac, neu mot tap Wavelet c cho bi ]j,k(t) vi cac ch so j,k = 1,2, mot khai trien tuyen tnh la f t ! a j , k] j , k t vi cac tap he so
k k k
k j

t ]

t ]

t dt

aj,k. (2) Khai trien Wavelet cho biet thong tin ve v tr thi gian tan so cua tn hieu. ieu nay co ngha rang hau het nang lng cua tn hieu c bieu dien ro rang bi mot vai he so khai trien aj,k. (3) Viec tnh toan cac he so khai trien co the thc hien mot cach hieu qua. Nhieu phep bien oi Wavelet co the tnh vi O(N) cong viec. Thng tin di ng Page 65

ITC ieu o co ngha rang so phep nhan va phep cong tang tuyen tnh vi chieu dai cua tn hieu. 3. Cac at tnh bo xung cua he thong Wavelet: Co ba at tnh bo xung cua he thong Wavelet: (1) Hau het cac he thong Wavelet thuoc the he th nhat c a ra t mot ham ty le hoac Wavelet n bang mot ty le hoac mot phep dch n gian: ac tnh hai chieu nay at c t ham Wavelet (oi luc goi la Wavelet me) ](t) bang cach:

] j , k t ! 2 2 ] 2 j t  k
j

j,k Z

(1.4)

He so 2 2 duy tr mot s oc lap chuan hang so cua thang j. k bieu dien v tr ve thi gian hoac khong gian va j bieu dien v tr ve tan so hoac ty le. (2) Tat ca cac he thong Wavelet hu dung eu thoa man ieu kien a phan giai. Co ngha rang, neu mot tap cac tn hieu co the c bieu dien bi tong cac ham N(t k), th mot tap hp ln hn (bao gom ca tn hieu goc) co the c bieu dien bi tong cua cac ham N(2t k). (3) Cac he so co o phan giai thap co the c tnh t cac he so co o phan giai cao bang mot giai thuat cau truc cay goi la dai loc. ieu nay cho phep viec tnh toan rat hieu qua cac he so khai trien (c goi la bien oi Wavelet ri rac) va quan he gia bien oi Wavelet vi cac phan trc o trong x ly tn hieu so. Phan tch Wavelet phu hp vi ca tn hieu qua o. Phan tch Fourier thch hp cho tn hieu tuan hoan hoac cac tn hieu ma ac tnh cua no khong oi theo thi gian. Vi phan tch Wavelet, no cho phep mot khai trien Wavelet cua mot s kien qua o e c mo hnh bang cac he so. ay la mot the manh trong viec ap dung khai trien Wavelet trong phan tch tn hieu. III. CAC CONG CU CUA MOT HE THONG WAVELET: 1. Khong gian tn hieu: Mot khong gian ham la mot khong gian vector tuyen tnh (hu hng hoac vo hng) ma cac vector la cac ham, cac vo hng la cac so thc (oi luc la so phc), phep nhan vo hng va phep cong vector th tng t nh trong (1.1). Tch trong cua hai vector f(t) va g(t) la mot vo hng, no c nh ngha: (1.5) a ! f (t ), g (t ) ! f * (t ).g (t )dt Vi pham vi cua tch phan phu thuoc vao lp tn hieu ang khao sat. Tch trong nay nh ngha mot chuan hoac chieu dai cua vector va c nh ngha nh sau:
f ! f, f

(1.6)

No la khai quat n gian ve tnh chat hnh hoc c nh ngha trong khong gian Euclice ba chieu. Hai tn hieu (hoac vector) khong Zero c goi la trc giao neu tch trong cua chung la Zero. Mot khong gian con ac biet quan trong trong x ly tn hieu la L2(R). ay la khong gian cua tat ca cac ham f(t) vi nh ngha tch phan cua bnh Thng tin di ng Page 66

ITC phng module cua ham. L bieu th cho tch phan Lebesque; 2 bieu th tch phan bnh phng Module cua ham; R cho biet bien t cua tch phan la bien thc. Vi mot ham g(t) la mot phan t cua khong gian o se c ky hieu la g L2(R) hoac mot cach n gian:g L2. Cho mot khong gian vector tn hieu S, neu f(t) S co the c bieu dien, f (t ) ! a k N k (t ) , th cac ham Nk(t) la mot tap khai trien cua khong gian
k

S. Neu bieu dien la duy nhat, th tap ham Nk(t) goi la c s. Ngc lai, mot khong gian vector tn hieu co the bat au vi tap khai trien hoac c s va nh ngha khong gian S nh la mot tap cua tat ca cac ham ma co the bieu dien : f (t ) ! a k N k (t ) . ay c goi la tap sinh cua c s.
k

2. Ham ty le: e dung c y tng ve a phan giai, chung ta se bat au bang cach nh ngha ham ty le va sau o nh ngha Wavelet. Tap cac ham ty le la ham ty le c s c dch i mot so nguyen lan: (1.7) Khong gian con cua L (R) c sinh bi cac ham nay c nh
2

N k t ! N t  k

ngha:

V 0! Span_ k t (1.8) N a
Vi k (-g, +g), co ngha la : f t !

a N t , mot so f(t) V .
k k 0 k

T ham ty le c s, chung ta thay oi ty le va dung phep dch se cho ra mot ham hai chieu:

N j , k t ! 2 2 N 2 j t  k
Tap sinh cua no thong qua k la:
k

(1.9)

N V j ! span N k 2 j t ! span_ j , k t a (1.10)


k

_ a

Vi k Z. Nh vay, vi f(t) Vj , th no co the c bieu dien:

f t ! a k N 2 j t  k
k

(1.11)

Vi j > 0, th tap sinh co the la ln hn khi Nj,k(t) la hep hn va c dch cac bc nho hn. V vay co the bieu dien chi tiet hn. Ngc lai, j < 0, Nj,k(t) la rong hn va c dch cac bc ln hn. y Phan tch a phan giai: Chung ta dien ta yeu cau c ban cua phan tch a phan giai bang cach thiet lap hang loat cac khong gian con: V-2 V-1 V0 V1 V2 L2 (1.12) hoac Vj Vj+1, vi j Z (1.13) 2 va V-g =_0a, Vg = L (1.14)

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ITC Khong gian cha cac tn hieu co o phan giai cao se cha cac tn hieu co o phan giai thap. Bi v viec nh ngha cua Vj cac khong gian nay thoa man ieu kien ty le: (1.15) ieu nay bao am cac thanh phan trong mot khong gian nay la mot phien ban ty le cua cac thanh phan trong mot khong gian ke tiep. Moi quan he nay cua khong gian con c minh hoa trong hnh 1.1: Mot tap sinh cua N(2jt k) c ky hieu la Vj nh trong (1.12) va (1.15), minh hoa trong hnh 1.1 th N(t) Vj, co ngha la N(t) V0 va N(t) V1, khong gian nay c sinh bi ham N(2t). Nh vay N(t) co the c bieu dien qua ham N(2t):

f t V j f 2t V j 1

N t ! h n 2N 2t  n ,
n

nZ

(1.16)

R3 R2 R1 R0

Hnh 1.1 Tap cac khong gian vector c sinh bi ham ty le. h(n) la chuoi so ham ty le co gia tr thc hoac phc, 2 ton tai chuan cua ham ty le. Phng trnh e qui nay la c ban cua ly thuyet ham ty le va trong mot so trng hp, no tng t nh phng trnh vi phan he so h(n) va nghiem N(t) co the ton tai, khong ton tai hoac duy nhat. Tuy theo quan iem co the goi phng trnh bang cac ten khac nhau nh phng trnh chon loc, phng trnh a phan giai ( MRA ) hoac phng trnh gian. 3. Ham Wavelet: Cac ac tnh quan trong cua tn hieu la co the mo ta hoac so hoa. Trong o khong dung Nj,k(t) va viec tang j e tang kch thc cua cac khong gian sinh con bi ham ty le, thay vao o ta nh ngha mot tap khac ]j,k(t). No c goi la ham Wavelet. Co nhieu thuan li e thiet lap cac ham ty le va Wavelet trc giao. Cac ham c ban trc giao cho phep viec tnh toan cac he so mot cach n gian va dung nh ly Parseval e chia nang lng cua tn hieu trong mien bien oi Wavelet. Bu trc giao cua Vj trong Vj+1 c nh ngha la Wj. Luc o tat ca cac thanh phan cua Vj th trc giao vi cac thanh phan cua Wj, chung ta co : Thng tin di ng Page 68

ITC

N j , k t ,] j ,l t ! N j , k t ,] j ,l t ! 0 dt

(1.17)

vi j,k,l Z. Neu ta bat au tai Vj ( j = 0 ) th t (1.12) ta co the viet lai: V0 V1 V2 L2 (1.18) Chung ta nh ngha khong gian con sinh cua Wavelet:

V1 ! V0 W0
Luc o m rong ra ta co : Mot cach tong quat:

(1.19)

V2 ! V1 W1 ! V0 W0 W1 (1.20)
(1.21) Trong o V0 la khong gian au tien. Hnh 1.2 minh hoa tap cac khong gian ham ty le Vj vi cac ty le j khac nhau va cac khong gian Wavelet ri rac khac nhau hoac cac bu trc giao. Ty le cua cac khong gian con au tien c chon mot cach tuy, va co the chon tai mot o phan giai cao j = 10:

L2 ! V0 W0 W1 -

L2 ! V10 W10 W11 hoac tai mot o phan giai thap j = -5:

(1.22) (1.23)

L2 ! V 5 W 5 W 4 hoac tham ch tai j = -g, khi o :

L2 ! - V 2 W1 W0 W1 W2 - (1.24)
Mot cach khac e mo ta quan he cua V0 vi khong gian Wavelet: Wg - W 1! V0 (1.25)

w2 B w1 B w0 B R0

R3 R2 R1 R0

w2

w1

w0

R0

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Hnh 1.2 Khong gian ham ty le va vector Wavelet. Mot lan na ta thay ty le cua khong gian ty le co the chon mot cach tuy y. Trong thc te, no luon c chon e bieu dien chi tiet tho nhat cua mot tn hieu. Ham Wavelet co the c nh ngha t ham Wavelet N(2t):

] t ! h1 n 2N 2t  n , .
n

nZ

(1.26)

Vi h1(n) la he so Wavelet. h1(n) co the c tnh t he so h(n) nh sau:

h1 n !  1 h  n 1
n

(1.27)

hoac vi h(n) hu han va chan th


n

(1.28) T ham Wavelet me (1.26), ta co mot lp cac ham Wavelet khai trien dang: (1.29) Trong o 2 la ty le cua t (j co ty le la log2), 2-jk la phep dch
j

h1 n !  1 h N  1  n
j

] j , k t ! 2 2 ] 2 j t  k

trong t, va 2 2 ton tai chuan L2 cua Wavelet tai cac ty le khac nhau. Mot ham g(t) L2 (R) co the c xay dng thong qua cac ham Nk(t) va ]j,k(t) theo bieu thc sau:

g t ! c k k t  d j , k j ,k t N ]
g j !0 g

(1.30)

Trong khai trien (1.30), tong au tien bieu dien mot o phan giai thap hay thong tin tho cua g(t). Vi viec tang j tong th 2, mot ham co o phan giai cao c cong vao va v vay mc o chi tiet tang len. Cac he so c(k) va d(j,k) trong (1.30) c tnh nh sau:

c k ! c 0 k ! g t , N k t ! g t k t dt N

(1.31)

va

(1.32) ieu quan trong iem nay la phai nhan biet moi quan he gia phan ty le va phan Wavelet trong khai trien (1.30). IV. BIEN OI WAVELET RI RAC VA NH LY PARSEVAL: 1. Bien oi Wavelet ri rac: Nh phan trc ta a co : L2 !Vj0 Wj0 Wj01 (1.33) Theo (1.30), tn hieu g(t) c bieu dien bang ham ty le va Wavelet:

d j k ! d j.k ! g t j ,k t ! g t j ,k t dt ] ]

g t ! c j0 k j0 , k k  d j k j , k t N ]
k k j ! j0

(1.34)

Trong o: Thng tin di ng Page 70

ITC

] t ! 2 N t  k s va g t ! c k 2 N t  k  d . 2
N j0 ,k t ! 2
j ,k
j0 2

N 2 0t k
j

j0

j0

j0

2 j k

] 2jt k

j ! j0

(1.35) Trong o j0 c chon mot cach tuy y. Viec chon j0 thiet lap mot ty le tho nhat ma khong gian cua no c sinh bi N j ,k t . Phan con lai cua L2(R) c sinh bi Wavelet, no cha cac chi tiet phan giai cao hn cua tn hieu. Cac he so trong khai trien Wavelet c goi la bien oi Wavelet ri rac (DWT) cua tn hieu g(t). Neu he thong Wavelet la trc giao, cac he so nay c tnh bi tch trong:
0

c j t ! g t , N j , k t ! g t j , k t dt N

(1.36) (1.37)

DWT tng t nh vi chuoi Fourier, nhng trong nhieu trng hp no linh ong va ay u hn. Cung nh chuoi Fourier, no co the bieu dien cac tn hieu tuan hoan mot cach hieu qua. Tuy nhien, oi vi cac tn hieu qua o, khong tuan hoan, no co the c dung mot cach trc tiep vi ket qua hoan hao. 2. nh ly Parseval: Neu ham ty le va Wavelet co dang c s trc chuan, th nh ly Parseval se cho thay moi quan he gia nang lng tn hieu g(t) vi cac thanh phan va cac he so Wavelet cua no. Vi mot khai trien Wavelet tong quat trong (1.34), nh ly Pareval la:

d j t ! g t , N j , k t ! g t j , k t dt ]

g t dt !
2

l ! g

c t  d j k
2 j ! 0 k ! g

(1.38)

vi nang lng trong mien khai trien c chia thanh nhieu phan trong mien thi gian bi k va mien ty le bi j. V. DAI LOC VA PHEP BIEN OI WAVELET RI RAC: 1. Phan tch T ty le tinh en ty le tho: e lam viec mot cach trc tiep vi cac he so bien oi Wavelet, chung ta a ra moi quan he gia cac he so khai trien tai mot mc ty le thap dang cua mc ty le cao. Chung ta bat au vi phng trnh e qui c ban sau:

N t ! h n 2N 2t  n
n

(1.39)

va gia s la nghiem ton tai duy nhat, chung ta dung ty le va dch bien thi gian e c : Thng tin di ng Page 71

ITC

N 2 j t  k ! h( n) 2N 2 2 j t  k  n ! h n 2N 2 j 1 t  2k  n
n n

(1.40) at m = 2k + n, ta co :

N 2 j t  k ! h m  2k 2N 2 j 1 t  m
m

(1.41)

neu ta k hieu Vj la :

V j ! Span2 2 N 2 j t  k k
j

(1.42)
2

th

f t V j 1 f t ! c j 1 k 2
A
k

j 1

N 2 j 1 t  k (1.43)

c bieu dien tai ty ke j + 1, ma o phan giai thap hn, Wavelet can thiet cho chi tiet cua tn hieu. Chung ta co :

f t ! c j k 2 2 N j t  k  d j k 2 2 ] j t  k (1.44) . 2 2
j j k k

Neu Nj,k(t) va ]j,k(t) la trc chuan hoac khung kn, cac he so ty le mc j c tm bi tch trong:

c j k ! f t ,] j ,k t ! f t 2 2 N 2 j t  k dt
c j (k ) ! h m  2k f (t )2
m 2

(1.45)

Bang cach s dung (1.41) va oi v tr cua tong va tch phan, ta co the viet lai: j 1

N 2 j 1 t  k dt

(1.46)

Ta nhan thay bieu thc tch phan la cj + 1(m) nen:

c j k ! h m  2k c j 1 m .
m

(1.47)

Tng t ta cung co he so Wavelet:


m

d j k ! h1 m  2k c j 1 m

(1.48)

y Qua trnh loc va lay mau giam: Theo nguyen tat cua x ly tn hieu so, viec loc mot chuoi so au vao bang cach chap no vi mot chuoi khac (la he so loc hay ap ng xung). Vi mot chuoi au vao x(n) va he so loc la h(n), th chuoi au ra la:

y n ! h k x n  k (1.49)
k !0

N 1

Neu he so loc N la hu han, th bo loc c goi la bo loc ap ng xung hu han (FIR Finite Impulse Response). Con neu N la vo han, th bo loc c goi la bo loc ap ng xung khong gii han (IIP Infinite Impulse Thng tin di ng Page 72

ITC Response). Van e thiet ke la chon h(n) e uc cac muc ch loai bo nhieu hay cach ly tn hieu. Trong cac bo loc so a toc, co s gia s moi quan he gia he so nguyen cua tn hieu va thi gian. Thng th chuoi so c xem mot cach n gian la mau khong gian cua ham thi gian. Hai mach lam viec c ban trong bo loc a toc la bo lay mau giam (down sampler) va bo lay mau tang (up sampler). Bo lay mau giam bien mot tn x(n) au vao thanh mot tn hieu au ra y(n) = x(2n). No c ky hieu: x(n) x(2n)

2
Hnh 1.3 Bo lay mau giam. qua trnh lay mau giam, ro rang mot na thong tin au vao b loai bo. Neu tn hieu nguyen thuy co bang thong gii han (mot na he so Fourier la zero) th khong co s mat mac thong tin do qua trnh lay mau giam. Phng trnh (1.47) va (1.48) la bieu thc tnh he so ty le va Wavelet tai cac mc ty le khac nhau co the at c bang cach chap cac he so ty le tai ty le j vi he so ao thi gian h(-n) va h1(-n) th qua trnh lay mau giam cho ra he so khai trien tai mc ke j 1. Viec thc hien phng trnh (1.47) va (1.48) c minh hoa trong hnh 1.4.

dj h1(-n) cj+1

cj h0(-n) 2 Hnh 1.4 - Dai phan tch hai bang tch hai bang. ay h0(n) = h(n) la he so ham ty le. Qua trnh tach, loc, lay mau giam co the c lap lai theo cac he so ty le e co cau truc ty le hai tang nh trong hnh 1.5.

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ITC Qua trnh lap lai theo cac he so ty le goi la qua trnh lap lai cua cac dai loc. Theo o ta co cau truc ty le 3 tang nh trong hnh 1.6.

h1(-n)

dj

cj + 1 h1(-n) h0(-n) 2 cj h0(-n)

dj - 1

cj

-1

Hnh 1.5 Cau truc cay phan tch 2 bang 2 tan

Hnh 1.6 Cau truc cay phan tch 2 bang 3 tan.


h1(-n) 2 W2

V3 h1(-n) h0(-n) 2 V2 h0(-n)

W1 2 W0

h1(-n) 2 V1

h0(-n)

V0

ap ng tan so cua bo loc so la bien oi Fourier ri rac thi gian cua ap ng xung h(n) cua no. Nh vay, H([) la ap ng tan so cua bo loc th :

H ! [

n ! g

h n .e

j[n

(1.50)

o ln cua H([) la ty so gia au ra va au vao cua bo loc vi mot chu ky lay tai tan so [ (rad/s) nao o. Con goc pha cua H([) la o lech pha cua au ra va au vao.

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ITC Tang th nhat cua dai chia pho cua cj + 1(k) thanh hai bang: mot thong thap va mot thong cao, ket qua ta c he so ty le va Wavelet cj(k) va dj(k). tang th hai, qua trnh chia lai c tiep tuc thc hien, va ta lai c hai bang : mot thong thap va mot thong cao khac. Tang th nhat chia pho ra lam hai phan bang nhau, tang th hai lai chia pho cua phan thap ra lam haiCuoi cung ta co mot tap bang thong c minh hoa trong hnh 1.7. Vi mot tn hieu thc te co bang thong hu han, se co mot ty le gii han tren j = J, ma cac he so Wavelet tren no, dj(k), c bo qua. Bat au tai mot o phan giai cao cua tn hieu dang cac he so ty le cJ, cau truc cay phan tch tnh DWT xuong en mot o phan giai thap j = J0, nh vay co tat ca la J J0 tang. Vi f(t) Vj, th no c tnh nh sau:
, [

V0

W0

W1

W2

[ T T T

f t ! c J k J , k t ! c J 1 k J 1, k t  d J 1 k J 1, k t N N ]
k k k

Hnh 1.7 Bang tan so cho cau truc kenh phan tch

(1.51)

f t ! c J  2 k J  2,k t  N
k k
J !1

j ! J 2

] d k
J 1

J !1

J 1, k

t
(1.53)

(1.52)

f t ! c0 k J 0 , k t  d J 1 k J 1, k t N ]
k k j! J0

2. Tong hp - T ty le tho en ty le tinh: Cong viec ay la tm bieu thc e xay dng cac he so ty le tinh cua tn hieu qua cac he so ty le va Wavelet mot o phan giai tho. Khao sat mot tn hieu vi khong gian ham ty le j + 1, f(t) Vj+1. Ham nay co the c viet lai di dang ham ty le (khong co Wavelet):

f t ! c j 1 k 2
k
j

j 1

N 2 j 1 t  k
j

(1.54)

dang ty le ke (yeu cau co Wavelet) la:

f t ! c j k 2 2 N 2 j t  k  d j k 2 2 ] 2 j t  k (1.55)
k k

Mat khac ta lai co:

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ITC

2 2 N 2 j t  k ! h n 2
n j

j 1

N 2 j 1 t  2k  n
2

va

2 ] 2 t  k ! h1 n 2
2 j n

j 1

N 2 j 1 t  2k  n

f t !

c j k h n 2
k n k n

( j 1)

N 2 j 1 t  2k  n 
2

 d j k h1 n 2
taco :

j 1

N 2 j 1 t  2k  n

(1.56)

So sanh (1.54) va (1.56), trong o N 2

j 1

t  2k  n ! N 2 j 1 t  k d ,

c j 1 k ! c j m h k  2m  d j m h1 k  2m (1.57)
m m

y Qua trnh loc va lay mau tang: Vi viec tong hp dai loc, au tien bat au bang qua trnh lay mau tang, sau o la qua trnh loc. ieu o co ngha rang, tn hieu au vao cua bo loc se c chen them cac zero vao gia, hay: y(2n) = x(n) va y(2n + 1) = 0 (1.58) Trong o tn hieu au vao c trai ra vi chieu dai gap oi tn hieu nguyen thuy, va cac zero c chen vao. Ro rang qua trnh lay mau tang khong lam mat thong tin. Tr lai phng trnh (1.57), phng trnh nay c tnh bang qua trnh lay mau tang chuoi ty le cj(k), co ngha la gap oi chieu dai cua cj(k) bang cach chen them cac zero, sau o tch chap no vi cac he so ty le h(n). Qua trnh nay c thc hien tng t nh oi vi he so Wavelet, ket qua nay c cong lai e c he so ham ty le mc j + 1. Cau truc nay c minh hoa trong hnh 1.8, vi g0(n) = h(n) va g1(n) = h1(n).
dj 2 g1(n)

+
B
cj 2 g (n)

cj+1

Hnh 1.8 Dai tong hp hai bang. VI . GOI WAVELET: 1. Phan tch goi Wavelet ay u: e a ra mot he thong c s ma no cho phep phan tch o phan giai cao hn tai cac tan so cao, chung ta se lap lai qua trnh tach va lay mau giam tren nhanh Wavelet thong cao cua cau truc giai thuat Mallat ra cac Thng tin di ng Page 76

ITC nhanh ty le thong thap. Qua trnh cung c lap lai tren nhanh thong thap. ay la qua trnh a c xet en phan dai loc. Neu chung ta tach tat ca cac bang thong thap va cao tai tat ca cac tang, ket qua la c cau truc dai loc cay nh phan ay u trong hnh 1.9. ay la mot cau truc cay ay u thc hien 0(NlogN) pheo tnh va ket qua co mot o phan giai tan so hoan hao. Thc te, cau truc cua no giong nh cau truc giai thuat FFT. ay cac ch so di bieu th khong gian tn hieu. Ch so di au tien la ty le j cua khong gian nh minh hoa trong hnh 1.10. Cac ch so di theo sau la 0 hoac 1, phu thuoc vao ng i qua dai loc cua khong gian ty le hay Wavelet. Neu 0 cho biet khong gian i qua bo loc thong thap, va mot 1 cho biet khong gian i qua bo loc thong cao.

h1

2 w2
C

R

Hnh 1.9 Cay nh phan ay u vi bien oi goi Wavelet ba tang. 2.He thong goi Wavelet thch ng: Thong thng chung ta quan tam en au ra cua moi kenh, hoac bang bien oi Wavelet va ieu nay khong gay ra mot he thong c ban d. Tuy nhien, neu chung ta quan tam en cac tn hieu tai au ra cua moi bang va tai moi tang hoac ty le tc thi, luc o chung ta co so au ra nhieu hn so au vao va ro rang co mot he thong d. T tat ca cac au ra nay, chung ta co the chon mot tap con oc lap lam mot c s. Viec nay co the thc hien mot cach thch ng, phu thuoc vao ac tnh cua tn hieu theo mot so tieu chuan toi u.

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2 R

h1

w R 21

h1

2 w1

h1 h

2 2

w11 w1

CC

2 w2

w2

h1

w2 1

h1

2 w21

h1 h

2 2

w211 w21

ITC

w211 w0 w210 w11 R0 w10 w200

R3 R2 R1

w201
Hnh 1.10 Phan tch khong gian vector vi he thong goi Wavelet ay u M = 2

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ITC

CHNG II: C S TOAN HOC CHO PHAN TCH TN HIEU


I. GII THIEU: Trong chng nay chung ta se gii thieu chi tiet cac c s e phan tch tn hieu. Cac c s o bao gom: Khong gian Hilbert, ai so tuyen tnh, ly thuyet Fourier, x ly tn hieu lien tuc va ri rac da tren phep bien oi Laplace va bien oi Z. II. KHONG GIAN HILBERT: Cac khong gian hu hng c nghien cu trong ai so tuyen tnh thng lien quan en cac vector hu hng trong C hoac R. Cac khong gian nay c k hieu tng ng la Cn hoac Rn. 1. nh ngha cac khong gian vector va tch trong: a. Khong gian vector: Mot khong gian vector E qua trng so thc R hoac phc C, la mot tap vector E, tng ng vi phep cong va phep nhan vo hng. Cho x,y E; E,F C hoac R thoa man cac ieu kien sau: (a) Giao hoan : x + y = y + x; (b) Ket hp : (x + y) +z = x + (y + z) (EF)x = E(Fx) (c) Phan phoi : E(x + y) = Ex + Ey (E + F) = Ex + Fy (d) Trung hoa cong: 0 E : x  0 ! x, x E (e) oi cong: x E ,   x E : x   x ! 0 . (f) Trung hoa nhan: 1 E : 1.x ! x, x E. x, y E la mot tap hp hoac chuoi gom n phan t c nh ngha: x  y ! x1 , x 2 ,-  y1 , y 2 , - ! x1  y1 , x 2  y 2 , - (2.1) Ex ! E x1 , x 2 ,- ! x1 ,Ex1 ,- E (2.2) b. Khong gian con va tap sinh: Mot tap M c goi la khong gian con cua E neu: (a) x, y M th x  y M (b) x M , E C hoac R th Ex M y Tap sinh (Span): Cho S E , tap sinh cua S la mot khong gian con cua E bao gom tat ca cac to hp tuyen tnh cua cac vector trong S, v du cac khong gian hu hng: (2.3) Span_ a! E i x i E 1 C / R , xi S S i !1 c. oc lap tuyen tnh va phu thuoc tuyen tnh: Thng tin di ng

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ITC Cac vector x1, x2xn c goi la oc lap tuyen tnh neu:

E x
i i !1

!0

(2.4)

la ung neu E i ! 0, i . Ngc lai, cac vector la phu thuoc tuyen tnh. Neu co vo han cac vector x1, x2 chung la oc lap tuyen tnh neu vi k Z, th x1, x2 xk la oc lap tuyen tnh. Mot tap hp con _ 1 , - x n a cua khong gian vector E c goi la c s x cua E khi: E ! Span_ 1 , - x n a x (2.5) va x1, x2, xn la oc lap tuyen tnh. Luc o chung ta goi E co n chieu. d. Tch trong: Mot tch trong tren khong gian vector E ( qua C hoac R ) la mot gia tr phc , , nh ngha tren ExE vi cac tnh chat sau: (a) x  y, z ! x, z  y , z (b) x, Ey ! E x, y (c) x, y


! y, x

(d) x, x u 0 va x, x ! 0 x ! 0 Tch trong la tuyen tnh. Chu y: Ta chon viec nh ngha tch trong bang cach lay lien hiep phc cua vector au tien. V du, xet tch trong cua cac ham thuoc R va Z nh sau:
g

f ,g !

x, y ! x !

n ! g

x
x, x

g g

f t g t dt
 

(2.6a) (2.6b) (2.7)

( n) y ( n)

Chuan cua vector c nh ngha t tch trong: Khoang cach gia hai vector x va y la hieu chuan cua chung: x  y e. Cac tnh chat: y Bat ang thc Cauchy Schwarz: x, y e x y (2.8) Dau bang xay ra khi va ch khi x = Ey. y Bat ang thc tam giac: x y e x y Dau bang xay ra khi va ch khi x = Ey. y Luat song song: 2 2 2 2 x y  x y ! x  y

(2.9)

(2.10) Page 80

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ITC f. Trc giao va trc chuan: Cho x, y E, chung c goi la trc giao neu va ch neu: x, y ! 0

(2.11)

Luc o ta k hieu la x B y. Chung thoa man nh ly Pythagor: 2 2 2 x y ! x  y (2.12) Mot vector x c goi la trc giao vi tap vector S ! _y i a neu:
x, y i ! 0, y

(2.13)

K hieu x BS. Tong quat: Cho hai khong gian con S1,S2,chung c goi la trc giao, neu tat ca cac vector cua S1 la trc giao vi tat ca cac vector cua S2. K hieu S1 B S2. Mot tap vector _ 1 , x 2 ,- ac goi la trc giao neu xi B xj, khi i { j . x Neu cac vector c chuan hoa e co chuan la 1, th chung ta co he thong trc chuan, va chung thoa man ieu kien: xi , x j ! H i  j (2.14) Cac vector trong mot he thong trc chuan la oc lap tuyen tnh. Mot he thong trc chuan trong mot khong gian vector E la mot c s trc chuan neu no sinh ra E. 2. Khong gian tch trong ay u: a. Khong gian tch trong ay u: Mot khong gian vector c trang b mot tch trong c goi la khong gian tch trong ay u. Mot chuoi cac vector _ n atrong E c goi la hoi tu en x trong x E neu x n  x p 0 khi n p g . Mot chuoi _ n ac goi la chuoi Cauchy neu x n  x m p 0 khi x
n, m p g .

Neu moi chuoi Cauchy thuoc E hoi tu en mot vector thuoc E, th E c goi la ay u. b.Khong gian Hilbert: Mot khong gian tch trong ay u goi la khong gian Hilbert. Chung ta quan tam en khong gian Hilbert co the chia c, bi v mot khong gian Hilbert cha mot c s trc chuan em c neu va ch neu no la chia c. Chu y, mot khong gian con ong cua mot khong gian Hilbert chia c la chia c. Nh vay no cung cha cac c s trc chuan em c. Cho mot khong gian Hilbert E va mot khong gian con S, bu trc giao cua S k hieu SB la _ E xBS a x . Gia s S la mot tap hp ong, nh vay no cha tat ca cac chuoi vector gii han.

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ITC Cho cac vector y E , ton tai duy nhat v S , va cung ton tai duy nhat wBS B sao cho y ! v  w . Chung ta co the viet: (2.15) E ! S SB E la tong trc tiep cua khong gian con va bu trc giao cua no. c.Cac v du ve khong gian Hilbert: y Khong gian thc /phc: Khong gian phc Cn la tap tat ca n phan t x = (x1, xn) vi xi la hu han trong C. Tch trong c nh ngha la: x, y ! xi . y i
i !1 n

(2.16)

va chuan la : x !

x, x !

x
i! 0

2 i

(2.17)

Cung tng t nh oi vi khong gian thc Rn, nhng chu y ay khong s dung gia tr lien hiep phc cua vector. y Khong gian cac chuoi bnh phng kha cong: Trong qua trnh x ly tn hieu ri rac thi gian, chung ta se lam viec vi chuoi x(n) co tong bnh phng hu han (hay nang lng hu han). Mot cach tong quat, x(n) la mot chuoi gia tr phc va n Z. Xet chuoi x(n) L2(R). Tch trong c nh ngha : x, y ! va chuan la :
x ! x, x !
n ! g

x n y n


(2.18)

x n
nZ

(2.19)
g.

Nh vay L2(R) la mot khong gian cua tat ca cac chuoi co x

y Khong gian cac chuoi bnh phng kha tch: Mot ham f(t) c nh ngha tren R c goi la khong gian 2 Hilbert L2(R) neu f t la kha tch, o la :
tR

f t

dt

(2.20)

Tch trong:
f ,g !

f
tR

(t ) g (t ) dt

(2.21)

va chuan la : f ! f, f !
tR

f (t ) dt

(2.22)

ay la khong gian vo hng. 3. C s trc chuan: Trong phan nay chung ta a ra phng phap ai so tuyen tnh e trc giao hoa mot c s bat ky. a. Phng phap trc giao hoa Grand Smchidt: Thng tin di ng Page 82

ITC Cho mot tap cac veetor oc lap tuyen tnh _ i a E , chung ta co x the xay dng mot tap trc chuan _y i a vi cung tap sinh nh sau: at
y1 ! x1 x1

(2.23) (2.24)

Tap e qui: y k !
k 1 i !1

x k  vk x k  vk k = 2,3,

Trong o v k ! y i , xi yi

(2.25)

Luc o _y i a la mot c s trc chuan cua E. b. Bat ang thc Bessel: Neu chung ta co mot he thong vector trc chuan _ i a E th y E x eu thoa man bat ang thc Bessel:
y
2

u xk y
k

(2.26)

Neu ta co mot he thong trc chuan ay u trong E, th ta co mot c s trc chuan trong E, va quan he Bessel tr thanh ang thc, c goi la ang thc Parseval. c. C s trc chuan: x Mot tap vector S ! _ i a c goi la c s trc chuan khi co hai ieu kien sau:  Tat ca cac vector trong S la trc chuan.  No la ay u. Ngha la moi vector bat ky cua khong gian eu co the bieu dien thanh mot to hp tuyen tnh cua cac vector thuoc S. Noi mot cach khac, mot he thong trc chuan _ i a c goi la x mot c s trc chuan cua E neu vi moi y E th : y ! E k xk (2.27) Trong khong gian hu hng ( Rn,Cn), co mot tap trc chuan kch thc n la u e co mot c s trc chuan. Tuy nhien, ieu nay cha han a ung trong khong gian vo hng. nh ly sau ay cho phep chung ta kiem tra mot he thong trc chuan co phai la c s hay khong. nh ly: Cho mot he thong trc chuan _ 1 , x 2 , - x n a E , cac ieu kien sau x la tng ng : x (a) Tap cac vector _ 1 , x 2 , - x n a la mot tap c s. (b) Neu xi , y ! 0 vi i = 1, th y = 0.
k

_xi a la tru mat trong E, o la moi vector trong E la mot gii han cua chuoi vector trong tap sinh _ i a . x
(c) Tap sinh (d) Vi moi y E : Thng tin di ng Page 83

ITC
2

! xi , y
i

(2.28)

ay la phng trnh Parseval. (e) Vi y1 , y 2 E th : y y , y y ! x i , y1


i


xi y 2

(2.29)

ay la phng trnh Parseval tong quat. d. Hnh chieu trc giao va xap x bnh phng toi thieu: Thong thng mot vector cua khong gian Hilbert E phai c xap x bi mot vector trong mot khong gian con S ong. Ta gia s rang E la x chia c, v vay S cha mot c s trc chuan _ 1 , x 2 , - a, th hnh chieu trc giao cua y E p S c cho bi: y ! xi , y xi (2.30)
i

Chu y, sai phan d ! y  y thoa man d B S. Trong trng hp dBy th : y ! y  d (2.31) ieu nay c minh hoa trong hnh 2.1. Mot tnh chat quan trong cua qua trnh xap x la kha nang bnh phng toi thieu tot nhat: min y  x (2.32) vi x S, c cho bi x ! E i xi , trong o
i 2 2 2

E i ! xi , y

(2.33)

la he so Fourier.

x3 y d x2 y x1 Thng tin di ng Page 84

ITC

Hnh 2.1 Hnh chieu trc giao len khong gian con. Ghi chu: y R3 va y la hnh chieu cua no len tap sinh _x1 , x2 a va y  y la trc giao vi _ 1 , x 2 a x k Goi y la xap x tot nhat cua y tren khong gian con sinh bi _x1 , x 2 - x k a va cac he so _ 1 ,E 2 ,- ,E k a, trong o E i ! xi , y , th xap x y k 1 E c cho bi: y k 1 ! y k  x k 1 , y x k 1 (2.34) 4. C s tong quat: Trong khi c s trc chuan la rat tien li, th trong trng hp tong quat c s khong trc giao va ong trc giao th cung quan trong khong kem. x x Mot he thong _ i , ~i a tao nen mot cap c s ong trc giao cua khong gian Hilbert E neu va ch neu : (a) i, j Z : xi , ~ j ! H i  j x (2.35) ~ ~ (b) Ton tai cac hang so dng A,B, A, B sao cho y E th
Ay ~ A y
2

e xk , y
k

eB y ~ eB y

(2.36) (2.37)

x e ~k , y
k

So sanh cac bat phng trnh tren vi (2.29) trong trng hp trc chuan. C s thoa man (2.36) va (2.37) c goi la c s Riesz. Luc o cong thc khai trien tn hieu la : y ! x k , y ~k ! ~k , y x k (2.38) x x
k k

nh l trnh bay phan tren cung tng cho trng hp ong trc giao va chung ta co moi quan he Parseval:  2 (2.39) y ! x ,y ~,y x

i 

y1 , y 2 ! xi , y1
i

~,y ! xi 2 ~i , y1 x
i

xi , y 2

(2.40)

5. Cac khai trien ay u: phan trc, chung ta a e cap en khai trien tn hieu da tren c s, o la cac vector dung e khai trien la oc lap tuyen tnh. Tuy nhien, cung co the bieu dien mot tn hieu di dang to hp tuyen tnh cua cac tap vector ay u khong oc lap tuyen tnh. Tap cac vector ay u goi la mot khung. Mot tap ham _ k a thuoc khong gian Hilbert H c goi la mot x khung neu ton tai hai hang so A > 0, B < g, sao cho y H :
Ay
2

e xk , y
k

eB y

(2.41)

A,B goi la gii han khung. Khi dau bang xay ra ta goi la khung kn. Vi mot khung kn ta co:

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ITC

xk , y

!Ay

(2.42)

va tn hieu c khai trien nh sau: y ! A 1 x k , y x k (2.43)


k

Cong thc (2.43) tng t nh cong thc khai trien trong trng hp trc chuan ( A = 1). Mot cach tong quat, mot khung khong tao nen mot c s trc chuan. Neu A = B = 1 va x k ! 1 th _ k a la mot c s trc chuan. x III. CAC THANH PHAN CUA AI SO TUYEN TNH: 1. nh ngha va tnh chat: a. nh ngha: Xet he cac phng trnh: A11 x1  .  A1n x n ! y1
/.

(2.44)

Am1 x1  .  Am1 x1 ! y m He tren co the c viet lai mot cach ngan gon: Ax = y (2.45) Trong o A la ma tran ch nhat ( m hang , n cot): A1m A11 . . (2.46) A! / / A Amn m1 . . Ma tran mx1 goi la ma tran cot. Ma tran 1xn goi la ma tran hang. Ma tran mxn ( m = n) goi la ma tran vuong. Ma tran 1x1 goi la mot vo hng. Mot vector hang co the c viet la vT , trong o T la k hieu chuyen v ( thay oi v tr gia hang va cot ). Neu cac phan t ma tran la so phc th ta dung chuyen v Hermit, k hieu la *. Ma tran 0 la ma tran cha tat ca cac phan t 0. Ma tran trung hoa I co Aij = 1, con cac ni khac bang 0. Ma tran nay co khi goi la ma tran ng cheo. Ma tran phan ng cheo J co cac thanh phan tren ng cheo la 0, con cac ni khac la 1. Ma tran tam giac tren (hay di) la mot ma tran vuong vi tat ca cac thanh phan di (hay tren) ng cheo chnh la 0. b. Cac phep toan tren ma tran: Cho hai ma tran A, B cung kch thc, chung ta nh ngha phep cong va tr: A1n  B1n A11  B11 . . AB ! / / (2.47a) A B . . Amn  Bmn m1 m1

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ITC
A1n  B1n A11  B11 . . AB ! / / (2.47b) A B . . Amn  Bmn m1 m1 Cho ma tran A co kch thc mxn , va ma tran B co kch thc nxp, ma tran C goi la tch cua A va B la

C ij ! Aik Bkj
k !1

(2.48)

Phep nhan ma tran khong co tnh giao hoan, tc la AB { BA. Ch co (AB)T = BT.AT. c. Tch trong va tch ngoai: Tch trong cua hai vector cot tren Rn la T v1 , v 2 ! v1 .v 2 (2.49a) n con tren C th (2.49b) v1 , v 2 ! v1 .v 2 n m Tch ngoai cua hai vector cot tren R va R la : T (2.50) v1 , v 2 ! v1 .v 2 d. nh thc cua ma tran: Cho ma tran vuong A(nxn), nh thc cua A c tnh: det A ! A ij  1
i !1 n i j

det ij M

(2.51)

Trong o Mij la ma tran con c sinh ra bang cach bo i hang i va cot j trong A. Mot ma tran vuong A goi la ky d khi det(A) = 0. Tch cua hai ma tran la khong ky d neu ca hai ma tran la khong ky d. e. Cac tnh chat lien quan en nh thc cua ma tran: y Neu C = AB th det(C) = det(A)det(B). y Neu ma tran B la ma tran A hoan oi hai hang / cot th det(B) = det(A). y Det(AT) = det(A). y Cho mot ma tran vuong A(nxn) th: det(cA) = cndet(A) c la mot vo hng. y nh thc cua ma tran tam giac hay ng cheo bang tch cua cac thanh phan tren ng cheo chnh. f. Hang cua ma tran (Rank): Hang cua ma tran la kch thc cua ma tran con khong ky d ln nhat cua no. Trong mot ma tran mxn, hang cua cot bang hang cua hang, so cot oc lap tuyen tnh bang so hang oc lap tuyen tnh. Mot ma tran nxn khong ky d co hang la n. Ta cung co : Rank ( AB) e min?Rank ( A), Rank ( B)A (2.52) g. Ma tran nghch ao: Thng tin di ng Page 87

ITC Cho mot ma tran vuong A, khong ky d, ma tran A-1 c goi la ma tran nghch ao cua A va no c tnh: Adjugate( A) A 1 ! (2.53) det( A) Trong o Adjugate(A) la ma tran phu hp cua A. Adjugate( A) ij !  1 i j det( M ij ) (2.54) -1 -1 vi ma tran vuong A th A.A = A A =I. Cho ma tran ch nhat A(mxn), ma tran L(nxm) c goi la nghch ao trai neu LA = I. Ma tran R(nxm) c goi la nghch ao phai neu AR = I. Cac nghch ao nay co the la khong duy nhat va tham ch khong ton tai. Neu ma tran A la vuong va co hang ay u, th nghch ao trai bang nghch ao phai va co the tnh bang cong thc (2.53). 2. He phng trnh tuyen tnh: Xet phng trnh Ax = y, he cac phng trnh nay co the co nghiem duy nhat neu A la khong ky d, va nghiem cua no la x = A-1y. Tuy nhien, viec tnh nghiem trc tiep nh vay rat t c thc hien ma chung ta thng dung phng phap kh Gauss. Tch Ax tao thanh mot to hp tuyen tnh cac cot cua A va vi cac thanh phan cua x. Neu y thuoc mot khong gian cot cua A, hay con goi la tam cua A, th he co nghiem. Neu cac cot la oc lap tuyen tnh th nghiem la duy nhat, ngc lai co vo so nghiem. 3. Gia tr rieng va vector rieng: a thc ac tnh cua ma tran A la D(x) =det(xI A). nghiem cua a thc nay goi la gia tr rieng Pi. Vector p { 0 thoa : Ap = Pp (2.55) c goi la vector rieng tng ng vi cac gia tr rieng P. Neu mot ma tran co kch thc nxn, co n vector oc lap tuyen tnh, th no co the c cheo hoa va c viet: A = T0T-1 (2.56) Trong o 0 la ma tran ng cheo cha cac gia tr rieng cua A doc theo ng cheo va T la ma tran co cac vector rieng la cot. Neu mot ma tran A la oi xng hoac oi xng Hermit (trng hp gia tr phc A* = A) th tat ca cac gia tr rieng la thc va cac vector rieng la trc giao. Chon cac vector rieng la cot cua ma tran U, sau khi chuan hoa chung co chuan la 1 sao cho U*.U = I, nh vay chung ta co the viet mot ma tran oi xng Hermit la : A = U0U* (2.57) Vector rieng la quan trong trong viec nghieng cu cac toan t tuyen tnh. Gia s rang ma tran A co tap cac vector rieng oc lap tuyen tnh,

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ITC vector x co the c viet bang mot to hp tuyen tnh cua cac vector rieng x ! E i vi th :
i

Ax ! A E i vi ! E i Av i ! E i P i v i i i i

(2.58)

4. Cac ma tran ac biet: a. Ma tran Unitar: Ma tran ch nhat U(nxn), vi m e n, c goi la ma tran Unitar neu:
Ux ! x , x C n

(2.59)

(2.60) Ux, Uy ! x, y , x, y C n hay Ma tran Unitar co module cua gia tr rieng la n v, va tap cac vector rieng la trc giao. b. Ma tran vong: Ma tran vong la ma tran ma dong sau co c bang cach xoay vong (phai) cua dong trc, no co dang: C 0 C1 . C n 1 C n 1 C 0 . C n  2 C ! (2.61) / / C C2 . C0 1 c. Ma tran Toeplitz: Ma tran Toeplitz la ma tran co phan t (i,j) ch phu thuoc vao gia tr i j va cac gia tr doc theo ng cheo la hang so, no co dang: t1 t2 . t n 1 t0 t0 t1 . t n 2 t 1 (2.62) T ! / / t t  n 2 t n 3 . t0  n 1 d. Ma tran DFT: Ma tran DFT co kch thc nxn la ma tran co thanh phan ( i,j) la can bac n n v la: Wnik ! e  i 2Tlk / n (2.63) Ma tran DFT cheo hoa ma tran vong, co ngha la cot va hang cua no la cac vector rieng cua ma tran vong. e. Ma tran xac nh dng: Ma tran A c goi la xac nh dng neu tat ca cac gia tr rieng cua no la ln hn 0, luc o ta co: (2.64) x { 0 th x T Ax " 0 Vi mot ma tran xac nh dng A, ton tai mot ma tran khong ky d sao cho : A ! W TW (2.65) W c xem la can bac hai cua A. Thng tin di ng Page 89

ITC f. Ma tran a thc: Ma tran a thc la ma tran co cac phan t la a thc, no co dang: / ! H i xi (2.66) i i . di x Hang cua ma tran a thc la rat kho xac nh. IV . LY THUYET FOURIER VA QUA TRNH LAY MAU: Ly thuyet Fourier la mot cong cu quan trong trong viec nghieng cu va x ly cac tnh hieu ri rac va lien tuc. Trong phan nay chung ta se nghieng cu chi tiet ve ly thuyet bien oi va chuoi Fourier. Ngoai ra, chung ta cung tm hieu qua trnh lay mau, ay la qua trnh thiet lap moi lien ket viec x ly gia tn hieu lien tuc va ri rac. 1. Bien oi Fourier: a. Cap bien oi Fourier: Cho mot ham f(t) kha tch tuyet oi, bien oi Fourier cua no c nh ngha: .
i i

ai x i H x ! / c xi i

a x

F [ !

g

f t e

 j[t

dt ! e i[t , f t

(2.67)

No c goi la cong thc phan tch Fourier. Bien oi Fourier ngc la: g 1 (2.68) f t ! F [ e j[t d[ 2T  g ay goi la cong thc phan tch Fourier. Gia s rang bien oi Fourier va Fourier ngc cua no ton tai, ta k hieu: f t ! F [ (2.69) la mot cap bien oi Fourier. b. Cac tnh chat cua bien oi Fourier: y Tuyen tnh : Cho f(t) va g(t) co bien oi Fourier la F([) va G([) va E,F C hoac R th : Ef t  Fg t m EF [  FG [ (2.70) y oi xng: Neu F([) la bien oi Fourier cua f(t) th F [ m 2Tf  [ (2.71) y Dch : Neu trong mien thi gian neu f(t) b dch i mot oan la t0 th trong mien tan so bien oi Fourier cua no c nhan vi mot he so pha: (2.72) f t  t 0 m e  j[t Ngc lai, neu trong mien tan so se nhan mot he so pha trong mien thi gian:
0

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ITC
e j[ 0 t f (t ) m F [  [ 0

(2.73)

y Ty le: Mot ty le trong mien thi gian se sinh ra mot ty le nghch trong mien tan so: 1 [ f at m F (2.74) a a y Vi phan/ tch phan: x n f t n (2.75) m j[ F [ n xt t F [ (2.76) g X dX m j[ oi vi vi phan trong mien tan so th x n F [ n  jt f t m (2.77) x[ n y Moment : Goi mn la moment th n cua F(t):
g

mn !

g

t f t dt ,
n
g

n = 1,2

(2.78)

y Tch chap: Tch chap cua hai ham F(t) va g(t) c nh ngha :
h t !
g

f X g t  X dX

(2.79)

K hieu h(t) = F(t)g(t) = g(t)*F(t). Goi F([) va G([) la bien oi Fourier cua F(t) va g(t) th F(t)*g(t) mF([)G([) (2.80) S dung tnh chat oi ngau, ta co: 1 f t g t m F [  G [ (2.81) 2T ay goi la nh ly ieu che cua bien oi Fourier. c. Cong thc Parseval: Bien oi Fourier la mot bien oi trc giao, no thoa man ieu kien bao toan nang lng theo cong thc Parseval. Cong thc bien oi Parseval cho bien oi Fourier: g g 1  (2.82) f  (t )g (t ) dt ! g gF ([ )G [ d[ 2T   Khi g(t) = F(t) th: g g 1 2 2 (2.83) f t dt ! g g F [ d[ 2T   2. Chuoi Fourier: Cho ham tuan hoan F(t) vi chu ky T: F(t+T) = F(t) (2.82) Thng tin di ng Page 91

ITC No co the c bieu dien la mot to hp tuyen tnh cua cac so mu phc vi tan so n[0, trong o [0 = 2T/T. Khai trien chuoi Fourier cua F(t) f t !
k ! g

F k e
T
T

jk[ 0 t

(2.83)
 jk[ 0 t

1 vi F k ! T

f t e
2

dt

(2.84)

3. Ham Dirac va tong Poisson: a. nh ngha ham Dirac: Ham Dirac H(t) c nh ngha:
g g g g

H (t )dt ! 1
0

(2.85) (2.86)

hay

g

f (t  t

)H (t ) dt !

g

f (t )H (t  t

) dt ! f (t 0 )

b. Tnh chat cua ham Dirac: y Tch chap: F(t) * H(t t0) = F(t t0) F(t). H(t) = F(0). H(t) y Bien oi Fourier cua ham Dirac: H t  t 0 m e  j[t
0

(2.87) (2.88) (2.89) (2.90)

e m 2TH [  [ 0 va c. Cong thc tong Poisson: Cho khong gian ham Dirac vi T > 0, k hieu ST(t) la
j[ 0 t

S T t !
g

n ! g

H t  nT
f t  nT
g

(2.91)

vi ham F(t), ta khai trien no qua ST(t):


g

f S T t  X dX ! X

(2.92)

n ! g

Goi T la chu ky cua ham F(t), gia s F(t) la mot ham bang phang va giam nhanh sao cho vung hoi tu cua chuoi (2.91) en F0(t). Ta co the khai trien F0(t) thanh mot chuoi Fourier hoi tu: T g 1 2 f 0 t ! f (X )e  j 2TkX / T dX e j 2Tkt / T (2.92) n ! g T T 2 He so Fourier trong cong thc tren c tnh :
T

T

f 0 (X )e  j 2TkX / T dX !

2Tk f X e  j 2TkX / T dX ! F T (2.93) n ! g 2 n 1 T


2

2 n 1 T

Khi o cong thc tong Poisson c cho bi: g 1 g 2Tk f (t  nT ) ! T k F T e j 2Tkt / T ! g n ! g Thng tin di ng

(2.94) Page 92

ITC S dung cong thc tong Poisson tren, ta co bien oi Fourier cua ST(t) la 2T g 2Tk (2.95) H ([  T ) T n! g 4. Qua trnh lay mau: a. Qua trnh lay mau: Qua trnh lay mau la het sc quan trong trong x ly tn hieu ri rac thi gian. Goi fT(t) la phien ban mau cua f(t), ta co: ST ! [ f T (t ) ! f (t ).S T (t ) !
n ! g

f (nT ).H (t  nT )

(2.96)

Bien oi Fourier cua FT(t) la: 1 g 2T 1 g 2T FT [ ! F [  H [  k (2.97) ! F [  k T k ! g T T n! g T 2T , no la ban sao cua F([) FT([) la mot ham tuan hoan vi chu ky T 2T tai moi so nguyen lan cua . T Lay bien oi Fourier trc tiep t (2.97), ta co: FT [ ! f nt e  jnT[
n ! g
g

(2.98)

b. nh ly lay mau. Neu F(t) la lien tuc va bang thong hu han en [m, th no co the c nh ngha duy nhat bi mau lay tai 2[m. Tan so lay mau nho nhat e co the khoi phuc lai F(t) la [S = 2[m. Khi o: f t ! f nT sin cT t  nT
n ! g
g

(2.99)

Trong o: sin cT t !

sin Tt Tt

(2.100)

T 5. Bien oi Fourier ri rac thi gian: a. nh ngha: a Cho chuoi _f n nZ , th bien oi Fourier ri rac thi gian cua no la: F e j[ !

f n e
n ! g

 j[n

(2.101)

no tuan hoan vi chu ky 2T. Bien oi Fourier ngc cua no la: 1 T i[ f n ! e j[n (2.102) T F e d[ 2T ieu kien can e chuoi (2.101) hoi tu la f(n) kha cong tuyet oi. Thng tin di ng Page 93

ITC Neu f(n) co c bang cach lay mau mot ham thi gian lien tuc tai cac khoang cach nT th : F(n) = F(nT) (2.103) Khi o bien oi Fourier ri rac thi gian cua no quan he vi bien oi Fourier cua f(t). Goi Fc([) la bien oi Fourier cua mau f(t), luc o : g 1 g 2T (2.104) FT [ ! f nT e  jnT[ ! FC [  k . T k ! g T n ! g Trong (2.101) thay [ bi [T th F e j[ T !

f nT e
n ! g

 jn[T

(2.105)

Dung (2.104), ta co : 1 g 2T j[T (2.106) ! FC [  k Fe T n! g T b. Tnh chat: y Tch chap: Cho hai chuoi F(n), g(n) va bien oi Fourier ri rac thi gian cua no la j[ F(e ) va G(ej[) th

f ( n)  g ( n) !

l ! g

f n  l g l !

l ! g

G f n .g n  l m F e e
j[ j[

(2.107)

y ang thc Parseval: T g 1 f  n g n ! F  j[ j[ [ e Ge d (2.108) 2T  n ! g T Khi F(n) = g(n) th: T g 2 1 2 (2.109) f n ! 2T F e j[ d[ n ! g T 6. Chuoi Fourier ri rac thi gian: Neu mot chuoi ri rac thi gian tuan hoan chu ky N, f(n) = f(n + lN), l Z, th chuoi Fourier ri rac thi gian cua no la : F k ! f n N , k Z W nk
n !0 N 1

(2.110)

1 N 1 (2.111) F k WN nk , n Z N k !0 Vi WN la can bac N n v. V. X LY TN HIEU : Trong phan nay, chung ta e cap en viec x ly tn hieu lien tuc va ri rac thi gian. Hai phep bien oi c s dung cho x ly tn hieu la bien oi Laplace va bien oi Z. 1. X l tn hieu lien tuc: X ly tn hieu la da tren nen tang cua ly thuyet Fourier theo cac giai thuat. a. Bien oi Laplace: va f n ! Thng tin di ng Page 94

ITC Bien oi Fourier trong mat phang phc:


F s !
g g

f t e

 st

dt

(2.112)

Trong o: s ! W  j[ F(s) goi la bien oi Laplace cua f(t). ieu nay tng ng vi bien oi Fourier cua f(t)e-Wt. Bien oi (2.112) ch hoi tu trong mot vung hoi tu (ROC) nao o. b. Cac tnh chat cua ROC: ROC la mot vung doc theo truc ng cua mat phang phc. Neu truc j[ cha ROC th bien oi Fourier la hoi tu. Neu bien oi Laplace co dang phan so, th ROC khong the cha mot so iem cc. Neu mot tn hieu la ben phai (bang 0 khi t < T0) hoac ben trai (bang 0 khi t > T1) th ROC cung ben phai hoac ben trai tng ng vi truc doc. Bien oi Laplace vi cac ROC khac nhau th tng ng vi cac tn hieu trong mien thi gian khac nhau. c. Bien oi Laplace ngc: W  jg 1 st (2.113) f t ! F s e dt 2Tj W  jg W c chon ben trong ROC. K hieu cua cap bien oi Laplace: f t m F s (2.114) d. He thong bat bien thi gian tuyen tnh: Tch chap: cho f(t) va g(t) co bien oi Laplace ngc tng ng la F(s) va G(s) th: f(t)*g(t) m F(s)G(s) (2.115) Vi ROC cha ROC cua F(s) va G(s). Tch phan cua bien oi Laplace: xf t m sF s (2.116) xt Co ROC cha ROC cua F(s). Phng trnh vi phan he so hang so tuyen tnh co the c mo ta bang mot bien oi Laplace, goi la ham truyen H(s). Phng trnh vi phan bat bien theo thi gian, tuyen tnh c cho bi: N x k y k M x k x (k ) (2.117) ak ! bk xt k k !0 xt k k !0 Sau khi lay bien oi Laplace, ta co:
Y s ! H s ! X s

b s
k

a
k!0

k!0 M

(2.118)
k

Chung ta co the xem au vao va au ra co quan he vi nhau qua mot bo loc co ap ng xung la h(n), vi h(n) la bien oi Laplace ngc cua H(s). Thng tin di ng Page 95

ITC e lay bien oi Laplace ngc nay, chung ta dung mot ROC ac trng. Thong thng chung ta tm nghiem nhan qua. 2. X ly tn hieu ri rac: Cung nh bien oi Laplace la mot dang tong quat cua bien oi Fourier, th bien oi Z cung c xem la mot dang bien oi Fourier ri rac thi gian. Trong phan nay, chung ta se nghieng cu phng trnh vi phan va bo loc thi gian ri rac. a. Bien oi Z: Bien oi Z cua mot ham F(n) c nh ngha : F z !
n ! g

f n z

n

(2.119)

Vi Z C. Tren ng tron n v z ! e j[ th F(Z) la bien oi Fourier ri rac thi gian. Vi z ! Ve j[ th F(Z) la bien oi Fourier ri rac cua chuoi f(n).Vn. Tng t nh bien oi Laplace, bien oi Z co mot vung hoi tu tng ng, o la vung tren mat phang Z ma F(Z) hoi tu. Bien oi Fourier ri rac thi gian hoi tu tuyet oi khi ROC cha vong tron n v. Vong tron n v trong mat phang Z tng ng la truc j[ trong mat phang S. Bien oi Z co cac ROC khac nhau se cho cac tn hieu khac nhau trong mien thi gian. Trong ROC, cap bien oi tng ng la f(n) m F(Z), Z ROC (2.120) Khi bien oi Z co dang phan so, bien oi ngc cua no tot nhat la nen phan tch tong cua cac phan so rieng le (co bien oi Z ngc de lay), sau o lay bien oi ngc cua tng phan so nay. b. Tch chap, phng trnh vi phan va bo loc ri rac: Tch chap: cho f(n) va g(n) co bien oi Z tngng la F(Z) va G(Z) th: f(n)*g(n) m F(Z)G(Z) (2.121) Vi ROC cha ROC cua F(Z) va G(Z). Tch chap vi bo loc ao thi gian co the c dien ta nh mot tch trong: ~ ~ f n ! x n h n  k ! x k h (k  n) ! x k , h k  n (2.122)
~ Vi h n ! h  n : la ao thi gian. V bien oi Z cua ap ng xung H(n 1) la Z-1, v vay Z-1 goi la mot Delay, va no c dung e k hieu la s o khoi cua Delay. Cho x(n) co bien oi Z la X(Z), th bien oi cua x(n k) la : x(n k) m z-nX(Z) (2.123) Phng trnh vi phan he so hang, tuyen tnh co the phan tch bang bien oi Z, Gia s no c cho di dang:
k k

a y n  k ! b x n  k
k k k !0 k !0

(2.124) Page 96

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ITC Lay bien oi Z hai ve va dung tnh chat tre, ta co ham truyen la ty so cua au vao va au ra ( dang bien oi Z):
Y z H z ! ! X z

b a
k !0 k !0 N

z k

(2.125)
k

k

Nh vay, au ra va au vao co quan he bi tch chap vi bo loc thi gian ri rac co ap ng xung la h(n), vi h(n) la bien oi Z ngc cua H(Z). ROC phu thuoc vao chung ta muon lay nghiem la nhan qua hay khong nhan qua. Mot chuoi goi la nhan qua khi x(n) = 0, vi n < 0. He thong la on nh neu va ch neu ROC cha vong tron n v. Mot he thong co ham truyen la phan so on nh neu va ch neu cac cc trong ng tron n v.

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ITC

CHNG III: KHAI TRIEN CHUOI DUNG WAVELETS


I. NH NGHA: 1. Khai trien chuoi cua cac tn hieu ri rac: Cho tap hp cac chuoi trc giao _ k ( n)a z , mot tn hieu bat ky N k x(n) L2 ( R) co the c viet : x( n) !
k ! g

(m), x (m) N k (m)

(3.1)
k

Trong o N k (m), x(m) !

m ! g

( m) x( m)

Bay gi chung ta tm tap cac ham thi gian lien tuc c chuan hoa _ k (t )a sao cho vi f (t ) l 2 ( R) co the bieu dien : N f (t ) !
k ! g

(u ), f (u ) N k (t )
g

(3.2)

* Trong o N k (u ), f (u ) ! N k (u ) f (u ) du
g

Nh vay, f(t) co the c viet di dang tong cua cac hnh chieu trc giao cua no len tap vector c s N k (t ) ieu kien trc chuan cua tap c s la : N k (u ), f (u ) ! H ( k  l )

_ k (t )a la ay u. N
Khai trien chuoi c biet thong dung nhat la chuoi Fourier . Trong o, mot ham tuan hoan f(t+nT)=f(t) co the c viet nh mot to hp tuyen tnh cua cac sine va cosine hoac so mu phc : f (t ) !
k ! g

F ( k )e

j ( 2Tkt ) / T

(3.3)

F(k) la he so Fourier no c tnh : T /2 1  j ( 2Tkt ) / T F (k ) ! f (t ) dt e T T / 2 o la bien oi Fourier cua xap x co chu ky tai nguyen lan [ o ! 2T / T . De dang thay rang tap cac ham so e j ( 2Tkt ) / T k z , t ? T / 2, T / 2 A la mot tap trc giao, hay la : ! TH ( k  l ) e j ( 2Tkt ) / T , e j ( 2Tlt ) / T

?T / 2 ,T / 2 A

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ITC Mot khai trien chuoi tieu bieu khac la cua cac tn hieu co bang thong hu han . [ Cho tn hieu x(t) co X ([ ) =0 vi [ " s th tan so mau cua x(t) va 2 xs(t) co c bang cach nhan x(t) vi xung Dirac tai nguyen lan cua T. x s (t ) !
n ! g

x(nT )H (t  nT )

(3.4)

Lay bien oi Fourier cua xs(t) vi chu ky [s ta co : 1 X s ([ ) ! X ([  k[ s ) (3.5) T T (3.5) ta thay rang bien oi Fourier cua x(t) va xs(t) tren oan  [ s , [ s co quan he vi nhau , X([)=TX ([) ( [ [ s ). x 2 2 2 e khoi phuc lai tn hieu X([), chung ta phai lay ca so tn hieu mau Xs([) hoac la X([) = G( [)Xs([), trong o G([) la ham ca so :
T G [ ! 0

[s

Ni khac

Bien oi Fourier ngc cua no :

g ( t ) ! SinC

(t ) !

Sin (T t / T ) Tt / T

(3.6)

goi la ham Sinc. Tng ng trong mien thi gian, chung ta chap ham mau xs(t) vi ham ca so g(t) e c tn hieu nguyen thuy x(t): x(t ) ! x s (t ) * g (t ) !
n ! g

x(nT )SinC

(t  nT )

(3.7)

Tap ham _ SinCT (t  nT )a Z la mot tap trc giao v: n SinC T (t  mT ), SinC T (t  nT ) ! TH m  n Mot tn hieu x(t) bang thong hu han, qua trnh x ly mau tai nT co 1 x( nT ) ! SinC T (u  nT ), x(u ) (3.8) the c viet : T Khi o (3.7) c viet lai : 1 g x(t ) ! SinCT (u  nT ), x (u ) SinCT (t  nT ) (3.9) T n ! g Neu mot tn hieu khong co bang thong hu han, (3.9) bieu dien mot hnh chieu trc giao len bang thong cua tn hieu bang thong hu han tren  [ s ,[ s , 2 2 2. o phan giai thi gian va tan so: Thng tin di ng Page 99

ITC Trong cac phan trc, chung ta ch xet mot khong gian tn hieu gii han tn hieu tuan hoan va bang thong gii han. Trong phan nay, chung ta se xet en cac tn hieu tong quat hn. Luc o, cac ham c s phai co cac khai trien dang ong va t suy giam trong mien thi gian . Chung ta xay dng cac khai trien chuoi da tren Wavelet. Nhng trc het ta can a ra cac ac tnh can thiet cua cac ham c s. (a) ac tnh n gian. (b) Tnh nh v trong mien thi gian va tan so, o la s suy giam thch ng trong ca hai mien . (c) Bat bien. (d) Bang phang (Lien tuc, kha nang sai phan). (e) Tnh chat Moment(moment=0). Tuy nhien mot so yeu cau tren co the la mau thuan lan nhau va tuy theo cac ng dung ma ta chon cac yeu cau nao cho tieu bieu. Khi phan tch mot tn hieu tai cac o phan giai khac nhau, th Fourier co ien khong ap ng c. at en mot o phan giai nao o, khong nhng quan trong trong cac ng dung (x ly tn hieu va nen anh), ma con lai mot ly thuyet hieu qua e xay dng va phan tch cac c s Wavelet thay cho c s Fourier. e thoa man mot so yeu cau tren, au tien chung ta quan tam en cac phng phap ho tr phan tch Fourier sao cho cac ac tnh tn hieu cuc bo mien thi gian co the nhan biet c trong mien bien oi lien quan en y tng nay, ta s dung hai phep bien oi Fourier la bien oi Fourier thi gian ngan va bien oi Fourier tng oan. y Bien oi Fourier Thi gian ngan (e cap chi tiet phan sau) : vi mot tn hieu co chieu dai bat ky, chung ta chon mot ham ca so co o rong co nh la T, sau o trt ca so nay tren suot chieu dai cua tn hieu. Lay bien oi Fourier cua no, ta co bien oi Fourier thi gian ngan. y Bien oi Fourier tng oan :Vi mot tn hieu co chieu dai bat ky, chung ta chia tn hieu ra cac oan co chieu dai T va khai trien cac oan nay thanh dang chuoi Fourier. Chu y, tai bien gia cac oan cua khai trien la khong chnh xac vi qua trnh chu ky hoa khong lien tuc. Tuy nhien cac sai so nay khong ang ke va phng phap n gian la dung khai trien trc giao ma co ca hai ch so : mot ch so cho tan so va mot cho thi gian . Ta khai trien x(t) nh sau :

x (t ) !

n ! g n ! g

m ,n

(u ), x(u ) N m ,n (t )

(3.10)

Trong o :

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ITC 1 j 2T ( u  mT ) / T T e N m , n (u ) ! 0 He so 1 T lam cho c s co chuan la 1.

u ?mT  T / 2, mT  T / 2A
Ni khac

( m  1) T ) va v vay 2 x(t )  x (t ) ! 0 . (3.10) goi la chuoi Fourier tng oan. Khai Trien (3.10) la hp le cho cac ham bat ky. Thay cho khai trien phan tch bien oi Fourier, ta co mot khai trien tong kep (double-sum), tap ham c s la trc chuan va ay u. Theo cach nay, tnh nh v thi gian la at c va ngay ca oi vi tan so (tuy nhien khong c tot). dang o phan giai thi gian tan so. Ta co Tilling ch nhat cua mien thi gian va tan so, o la tieu bieu cua bien oi Fourier thi gian ngan. Kch thc cua oan T c chon mot cach tuy y, nen gay ra mot so kho khan. Viec xay dng x(t ) co cac iem ky d ngay ca khi x(t) la lien tuc, va bien oi cua x(t) co the co nhieu thanh phan tan so cao ngay ca khi x(t) la tuan hoan n gian. V vay khai trien se hoi tu cham en ham. Hay noi cach khac, neu chung ta muon xap x mot ham tn hieu vi mot chuoi th chat lng cua xap x se phu thuoc vao viec chon T. ac biet, s hoi tu tai cac iem khong lien tuc la kho at c do hien tng Gibbs. Cuoi cung, mot s dch cua tn hieu co the gay ra cac he so bien oi khac nhau va bien oi bat bien thi gian. 3. Khai trien Haar: Chung ta tm hieu khai trien Haar v no la mot v du gian ve khai trien Wavelet, no cha tat ca cac thanh phan e xay dng Wavelet. Thay cho ca so co chieu dai co nh T, la ca so co kch thc thay oi c. Van e bat bien thi gian la khong at c. Haar Wavelet hoac ham c s mau co support hu han trong mien thi gian va suy giam 1/[ trong mien tan so. Haar Wavelet c nh ngha:

Khai trien x(t ) ! x(t ) ( Ngoai tr tai t !

1 ] t !  1 0

0et< <te1 ni khac

(3.11)

Tat ca cac ham c s at c bang cach co gian va dch ] (t ) :

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ITC Hnh 3.1 Ham ty le va Wavelet Haar.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) (a) Ham ty le N(t). (b) Bien o cuabien oi Fourier * [ (c) Wvavelet ](t) (d) Bien o cua bien oi Fourier = [

] m , n (t ) ! 2  m / 2 ] ( 2  m t  n )

m, n Z
m

(3.12)

m la he so t le , ] m, n co chieu dai 2 . n la he so dch. 2-m/2 la he so chuan hoa e ] m, n (t ) ! 1 Haar Wavelet c cho trong hnh 3.1 Cac ham c s (3.12) la trc giao. That vay, tai mot t le nao o ] m, n (t )

va ] m ,n (t ) khong co mot
'

support chung. Ngay ca khi co support chung, th ham c s dai hn la hang so tren support cua c s ngan hn. Do o tch trong vi tr trung bnh cua ham ngan hn la bang 0, hay :
] m ,n (t ),] m' , n ' (t ) ! H ( m  m ' )H ( n  n ' )

u iem cua cac ham c s la chung nh v tot trong mien thi gian. Khi m p g , chung net trong mien thi gian v chieu dai tien ve 0. Tuy nhien, s nh v trong mien tan so la khong tot v bien oi Fourier cua (3.11) suy Thng tin di ng Page 102

ITC giam 1 / [ khi [ p g . Cac ham c s khong bang phang, tham ch khong lien tuc. Mot ac tnh c ban cua cac loai khai trien Wavelet la chung khai trien qua tong kep (double-sum) . Trong o, mot tong dch va tong kia cho ty le, co s anh oi gia o phan giai thi gian va tan so. Cac ham c s dai (m ln va dng) la net tan so (tng ng mat mac o phan giai trong mien thi gian). Cac ham c s ngan (vi n ln) la net trong mien thi gian nh ly 4.1: ] Tap ham _ m, n (t )a , nZ , vi ](t) va]m,n(t) cho trong (3.11) va (3.12) la m mot c s trc chuan cho L2(R). y Chng minh : Chung ta xet cac ham la hang so tren oan n2  m , ( n  1) 2  m va chung co support hu han tren  2 m ,2 m . Bang cach chon mo va m1 u ln, mot ham bat ky co the xap x vi mot ham so trong L2(R) . Goi ham hang so tng oan f (  m )

Ham Indicator c a ra tren oan n 2  m , ( n  1) 2  m ay goi la ham t le trong trng hp Haar.


o

A la :

m 2 2 ] m , n (t ) ! 0
o

n 2  mo e t e ( n  1) 2  m0

(3.13)

Ni khac

f (  mo ) (t ) co the c viet thanh mot to hp tuyen tnh cac ham Indicator (3.13) N 1 (  mo ) f (t ) ! f n(  mo )N  mo ,n (t ) (3.14) n!  N Trong o N ! 2 mo  m , f n(  mo ) ! 2 (  mo / 2 ) f (  mo ) ( n 2  mo )

Bc tiep theo : Kiem chng tren hai oan 2 n2  m , ( 2 n  1) 2  m va ( 2 n  1) 2  m , ( 2 n  2) 2  m . Ham nay qua hai giai oan o t (3.14) la: f 2(n m )N  m , 2 n (t )  f 2(nm )N  m , 2 n 1 (t ) (3.15) 1 Tuy nhien co the bieu dien ham tren bang trung bnh (average) cong vi sai cong vi sai phan (difference) can thiet. Gia tr trung bnh : f 2(n m )  f 2(nm ) 1 2N  m 1, n (t ) 2 va sai phan bieu dien qua Haar Wavelet : f 2(n m )  f 2(nm ) 1 2N  m 1, n (t ) 2
o o

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ITC Chu y, ay ta dung ham Wavelet va ty le co o dai gap oi support cua no t n 2  m 1 , ( n  1) 2  m 1 ! 2 n2  m , ( 2n  2) 2  m va cung chu y

A ?

he so v 2 m
o

2 bi v ]  m

 1, n

(t ) va N  mo 1, n (t ) co o cao la 2( mo 1) / 2 ! 2 mo / 2 2 thay

/2

nh chung ta bat au . Bay gi goi 1 f n(  m 1) ! f 2(n m )  f 2(nm ) 1 2 1 ( f 2(n m )  f 2(nm ) va d n m 1) ! 1 2 ( Chung ta co the viet (3.15) thanh f n(  m 1)N  m 1, n (t )  d n  m 1)]  m 1, n (t ) Ap dung bieu thc tren vi hai oan tren toan ham, cuoi cung chung ta c : ( f t (  m ) ! f N  m1 1) (t )  d (  m 1) (t ) 
o

f
n!  N 2

N 1 2

(  mo 1) n

N m

1,n

(t ) 

d
n!  N 2

N 1 2

(  mo 1) n

] m

o 1, n

(t )

Cac phan tch trung bnh va sai phan la rieng biet. e co c f (  m  2) (t ) , ta cong them mot so to hp tuyen tnh cua ]  m  2 , n (t ) .
o o

Qua trnh nay cung c lap lai tren ham f (  m 1) (t ) Lap lai qua trnh tren cho en khi trung bnh qua cac oan co chieu dai 2m, v vay :
o

(  mo )

(t ) ! f
1

(  m1 )

(t ) 

m !  m o 1 n !  2 m 1  m

m1

2 m1  m 1

(m) n

] m ,n (t )
o

(3.16)

Ham f ( m ) (t ) la bang trung bnh cua f (  m ) (t ) qua cac oan  2 m ,0 va 0,2 m / 2 tng ng . Xet en na phai, no bang f o( m ) t 0 en 2 m , co chuan la
1 1

f o( m ) 2 m
o

/2

. Ham nay co the phan tch ra bang trung bnh tren oan 0,2 m 1
1

cong vi ham Haar. Ham trung bnh mi co chuan (m ) m / 2 fo 2 ! f o( m ) 2 ( m 1) / 2 . Lap lai M lan th chuan cua ham trung bnh 2 f (m ) 2m / 2 ! f o( m ) 2 ( m  M ) / 2 . Tng t nh oi vi oan trai, va giam theo o 2M / 2 v vay ta co f ( m ) co the xap x:

(  mo )

(t ) !

m1  M

I M ! f 1( m )  f o( m ) 2 ( m  M ) / 2 : la sai so xap x .
1 1 1

m !  mo 1 n ! 2 m1  m

2 m1  m 1

(m) n

] m ,n (t )  I M

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ITC Sai so xap x I M co the chon mot cach tuy y khi f n( m ) , n = -1,0 la
1

gii han va M co the co chon ln mot cach tuy y. Cung vi viec chon mo va m1 ln mot cach tuy y, a chng minh rang mot so ham trong L2(R) co the bieu dien bang mot to hp tuyen tnh cua Haar Wavelet. C s cho viec chng minh tren la phan tch mot ham ra mot xap x tho (trung bnh) va mot chi tiet (sai phan) . Khi chuan cua phien ban tho dan ti 0 th ty le tien en vo cung , nh vay mot ham so trong L2(R) co the bieu dien thanh mot day cac chi tiet a phan giai. Ta tm hieu mot so ac tnh cua trng hp Haar. au tien nh ngha khong gian Vm cua cac ham hang so tng oan co chieu dai 2m . Trong o Vm+1 cha Vm, c s trc giao cua Vm la N m va cac ham cua no dch i mot so nguyen lan 2m . Goi Wm la bu trc giao cuaVm trong Vm+1 . C s trc giao cua Wm la ] m va cac ham dch cua no i mot so nguyen lan 2m . Chng minh tren da vao viec phan tch Vm thanh Vm 1 va Wm 1 va qua
o o o

trnh nay c lap lai tren cac khong gian sau o. II. KHAI NIEM VA PHAN TCH A PHAN GIAI : Trong phan nay, ta phan tch tn hieu ra cac thanh phan da tren day xap x. Mot tn hieu se c xap x tho cong vi cac chi tiet. Trong o khong gian con tho va khong gian con chi tiet la trc giao vi nhau. Noi cach khac, tn hieu chi tiet la hieu cua phien ban tho va phien ban tinh cua tn hieu . Bang cach ap dung mot cach e quy cac day xap x, chung ta se thay khong gian cac tn hieu au vao L2(R) co the c sinh ra bi cac khong gian cua day xap x tai tat ca cac o phan giai. Khi o phan giai chi tiet tien en vo cung th sai so xap x tien en 0. o phan giai c a ra bi Mallat va Meyer, no khong ch la c s cho Wavelet ma con la cong cu toan hoc rat manh e lien ket Wavelet va phan tch bang con tn hieu. 1. nh ngha mang tnh nguyen tat cua phan tch a phan giai: nh ngha : Mot phan tch a phan tch a phan giai bao gom mot chuoi cua khoi cac khong gian con ong. ...V2 V1 Vo V1 V 2 ... Sao cho :


(a) ay u hp : (b) ay u giao :

mZ

7V

! L2 ( R )

(3.17) (3.18) (3.19) (3.20)

mZ

+V

!_a 0

(c) Bat bien ty le : f (t ) Vm f ( 2 m t ) Vo (d) Bat bien dch f (t ) Vo f (t  n ) Vo , n Z (e) Ton tai N g Vo sao cho : Thng tin di ng

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ITC

_ (t  n) n za N

(3.21)

la mot c s trc chuan Vo. Chu y : (a) Neu ky hieu projV ( f (t )) la hnh chieu trc giao cua f(t) len Vm th (3.17) c bieu dien : lim projVm f (t ) ! f (t )
m

npg

(b) Y tng phan tch a phan giai lien he mat thiet vi (3.20), v tat ca cac khong gian ch la cac ban c nh ty le cua khong gian chnh V0. (c) Ham trong (3.21) la ham ty le. (d) Dung cong thc Poisson, tnh trc giao cua ho _ (t  naZ nh trong N n (3.21) la tng ng trong mien bien oi Fourier sau:
k ! g

J [  2kT

!1
nZ

(3.22)

(f) Tap ham 2 1 N 2 m t  n

ala mot tap c s cua V .


m

(g) Tnh trc giao cua N(t) la khong can thiet, v mot c s bat ky co the c trc giao hoa. V du: nh ngha Vm la khong gian cua cac ham hang so tng oan co chieu dai 2m va nh ngha N(t) la ham Indicator cua oan n v. Luc o, ta thay rang Haar Wavelet thoa man nguyen tac cua a phan giai. Theo tap cac khong gian va tnh chat ty le, chung ta thay rang ham ty le N(t) thoa man phng trnh hai ty le. Khi V0 V1, N(t) V0 N(t) V1. V vay no co the c viet thanh mot to hp tuyen tnh cua cac ham c s la mot c s trc chuan t V1. Tuy nhien, chung ta biet rang 2N 2t  n

nZ

cua V1, th N(t) co the c viet N t ! 2 g 0 n 2t  n N


n ! g
g

(3.23)

Trong o g 0 n ! 1 va g 0 n ! 2 N 2t  n , N t . Lay bien oi Fourier hai ve, ta co:


* [ ! N t e  j[ t dt ! ! 2 g 0 n
n ! g
g g

n ! g
 j[ t

g n N 2t  n e
0 2
 j[n

 j[t

1 N t e 2
j[

e
j[

dt

! !

1 2 1

n ! g

g n e
0

2 n

N t e

2 t

(3.24)
dt

Trong o G0 e j[ ! g 0 n e  j[n
nZ

j[ [ G 0 e 2 * 2 2

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ITC Nh vay, ham N(t) ac trng cho mot phan tch a phan giai. No tuan hoan vi chu ky 2T va co the xem nh la mot bien oi Fourier ri rac cua mot bo loc ri rac thi gian. Cuoi cung la s bao toan moi lien he gia thi gian ri rac va lien tuc, no cho phep chung ta xay dng cac c s Wavelet lien tuc bat au t cac bo loc ri rac lap lai. No cung cho phep tnh toan cac khai trien Wavelet thi gian lien tuc dung cac giai thuat thi gian ri rac. Mot tnh chat quan trong cua G e j[ . la :
G 0 j[  G 0 j [ T e e
2

!2
2

(3.25)

Chng minh: S dung (3.22) cho 2[:


k ! g

* 2[  2kT

!1

(3.26)

Thay (3.24) vao (3.26), ta co: 2 1 2 1 ! G0 e j [  kT * [  kT ! 2 k

! ! !

1 G0 e j [  2 kT 2 k

* [  2kT  G e
2 2 0 k 2

j [  ( 2 k 1)T 2

* [  (2k  1)T
2

1 G e j[ 2 0

* [  2kT
2 k

1 G e j [ T 2 0

* [  (2k  1)T
2 k

1 G e j[ 2 0

 G0 e j [ T

G0 e j[

 G0 e j [ T

!2

2. Xay dng Wavelet: Chung ta a trnh bay mot phan tch a phan giai c ac trng bi mot ham tuan hoan, chu ky 2TG0(ej[), vi mot so tnh chat. Nguyen tat (3.17) (3.21) bao am ton tai mot c s cho khong gian xap x Vm. S quan trong trong phan tch a phan giai c nhan mang trong nh l sau. nh l: Vi bat ky mot khong gian thoa man (3.17) (3.21) th ton tai mot c s trc chuan cho L2(R):
] m, n t ! 2
m

] 2  m t  n , m, n Z

] a Sao cho _ m, n t m , nZ la mot c s trc chuan cho Wm. Trong o Wm la

bu trc giao cua Vm trong Vm + 1. Chng minh: e chng minh nh l, chung ta can co mot so nh ngha: Goi Wm la bu trc giao cua Vm trong Vm + 1. Vm + 1 = Vm Wm. Bang cach lap lai qua trnh tren, cuoi cung ta co:

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ITC L2 R ! Wm
mZ

(3.27)

Do tnh chat ty le cua khong gian Vm trong (3.19), nen cung ton tai mot tnh chat ty le cho khong gian Wm: f t ! Wm f m t W0 2 (3.28) T cac ieu kien tren, chung ta xay dng mot Wavelet N(t) W0, sao cho ](t-n), n Z la mot c s trc chuan cho W0. Neu chung ta co mot Wavelet ](t), th bang tnh chat (3.28), ]m,n(t), n Z la mot c s trc chuan cho Wm. Cung vi cac tnh chat ay u hp/giao, th ta thay rang ]m,n(t), n Z la mot c s trc chuan cho L2(R). Nh vay, nh l a c chng minh. Chung ta xay dng mot Wavelet ](t), sao cho ] W0 V1. ] t ! 2 g1 n 2t  n N (3.29)
nZ

Lay bien oi Fourier hai ve, ta co : 1 j[ [ [ = ! G1 e 2 * (3.30) 2 2 j[ Trong o G1 e 2 la ham tuan hoan 2T t L2([ 0, 2T]). V ](t) W0 nen ](t) B V0, suy ra : N t  k ,] t ! 0, k Dien ta trong mien Fourier:  j[k = [ .* [ e d[ ! 0 hoac tng ng:
2T

e
0 l

j[k

d[ =  2Tl * [  2Tl ! 0 [
l

Nh vay co ngha rang: = [  2Tl *  [  2Tl ! 0

(3.31)

Thay (3.24) va (3.30) vao (3.31), ong thi chia tong qua l thanh hai tong qua l le va l chan. [ [ 1 j  2 lT j  2l T [ [ G1 e 2 * 2  2lT G0 e 2 *  2  2lT  2 l
[ [ 1 j  ( 2 l 1)T [  j  ( 2l 1)T  [ *  (2l  1)T G0 e 2 *  (2l  1)T ! 0 G1 e 2 2 2 2 l [ Tuy nhien, ham G0 va G1 thuan hoan 2T, va thay ; ! , ta co: 2 2 2 j;  j; j ( ; T )  j ( ; T ) G1 e Go e * ;  2lT G1 e Go e * ;  (2l  1)T ! 0

Theo (3.22), th: G1 j; o j;  G1 j (; T ) o j ( ; T ) ! 0 e G e e G e Thng tin di ng Page 108

ITC
  V G 0 j[ va G 0 j ([ T ) khong tien en zero cung luc, nen ta phai e e

co:

Trong o P e j[ la tuan hoan 2T, va: P e j[  P e j ([ T ) ! 0 Chung ta co the chon: P e j[ ! e  j[ , e at :  G1 j[ ! e  j[ G o j [ T e e Tng ng trong mien thi gian: n g 1 n !  1 g 0  n  1 Cuoi cung, ta co Wavelet la: [ 1  j[ 2  j 2 1 [ e * e G0 = !  [ 2 2 2 ] t ! 2  1 g 0  n  1 2t  n N

G1 j[ ! P j[ o j [ T e e G e

(3.33)

(3.34a) (3.34b)

nZ

3. V du ve phan tch a phan giai: a. Trng hp Haar: Goi Vm la la khong gian cua cac ham hang so qua oan [ n.2 m , n  1 2 m ) , khi o: f
m

Lay trung bnh qua hai oan lien tiep tao nen ham f

nay la hang so tren oan [ n.2 m 1 , n  1 2 m 1 ) , ro rang Vm 1 Vm. Qua trnh lay trung bnh thc chat la lay hnh chieu trc giao cua f(m) Vm len Vm 1, khi o sai phan d(m 1) = f(m) - f(m 1)m la trc giao vi Vm 1 (tch trong cua d(m 1) vi mot so ham t Vm 1 la bang 0). Mot cach khac, d(m 1) Wm 1 trc giao vi Vm 1. Khong gian con Wm 1 c sinh ra bang cach dch ]m 1,n(t) . d m1 Wm 1 d m1 !
n ! g

Ham sai phan lai la hnh chieu trc giao cua f(m) len Wm 1. Chung ta a biet mot ham f(m) co the c viet la mot trung bnh cong vi mot ham sai phan: (3.35) f m t ! f m 1 t  d m1 t Vay, Wm 1 la bu trc giao cua Vm 1 trong Vm, nen: Vm ! Vm 1 W m1 (3.35) co the c viet lai: f m t ! r ojV f m t  r ojW f m t
m 1

Tiep tuc qua tnh tren (phan tch Vm 1 thanh Vm 2 Wm 2 ), cuoi cung ta co: Thng tin di ng Page 109

t Vm

n ! g

f N t
m n m,n

m 1

Vm 1 , ham

m 1 n

] m 1,n t

m 1

ITC Vm = Wm 1 Wm 2 Khi cac ham hang so tng oan la tru mat trong L2(R), kch thc cac bc dan ti 0 th thoa man (3.17) hay (3.27) va nh vay dang Haar Wavelet la c s cho L2(R). Bay gi ta xay dng Haar Wavelet t cac ky thuat a dung phan trc. C s cho V0 la _ t  n , n Z vi: N a

e tm G0(ej[), ta viet: N(t) = N(2t) + N(2t 1) V vay : * ! [ 1 1 e 2 1 2


 j[

T o G0 e j[ ! Khi o:

e 1
 j[

2 1 j[ [ Nh vay ta co c : = ! G1 e 2 * [ 2 2 Cuoi cung ta co : ] t ! N 2t  N 2t  1 Hoac


1 ] t !  1 0

G1 e j[ ! e  j[ G0 e j [ T ! e  j[

Ham Wavelet, ham ty le va bien oi Fourier cua no cho nhu trong hnh 3.1. b. Trng hp sinc: e a ra cac sinc Wavelet, ta bat au vi tap cac khong gian. Thay cho cac ham hang so tng oan, ta e cap en cac ham bang thong hu han. Goi V0 la khong gian cac ham bang thong hu han tren [ -T,T ] (chnh xac la V0 ch cha cac ham cos(Tt), khong cha cac ham sin(Tt)). V1 la khong gian cac ham bang thong hu han tren [ -2T, 2T ]. W0 la khong gian cac ham bang thong hu han tren [ -2T, -T ] [ T, 2T ] (W0 ch cha sin(Tt), khong cha cos(Tt)). V vay: Thng tin di ng Page 110

F
2

1 N t ! 0

0ete1 ni khac

[ * 2

1  e j [ T 2

1  e  j[

0et< et<1 Ni khac

ITC V1 = V0 W0 V0 trc giao vi W0 va chung cung sinh ra cung mot khong gian V1. Ro rang, mot hnh chieu cua mot ham f(1) t V1 len V0 se la mot xap x thong thap f(0), trong khi o sai phan d(0) = f(1) f(0) se ton tai trong W0. Lap lai qua trnh phan tch tren, ta co : V1 ! Wm
m!0
g

Qua trnh tren c minh hoa trong hnh 3.2. Hnh 3.2 Phan tch V0 ra thanh bang bac bo .

V-1 V0 V1

W-1

W0

T 2T T 2 ay goi la phan tch bat bo cua V1. No cung c goi la mot bo loc Q hang, bi v moi bang cha moi bang thong tng oi hang so. Ro rang mot c s trc giao cho V0 cho bi: sin Tt N t ! Tt la ham ty le cho trng hp sinc va khong gian cac ham bang thong hu han tren [ -T, T ]. Nh vay g0(n) co the c bieu dien: n 1 sin T 2 g 0 n ! (3.36) 2 Tn 2 Khi o : G0(ej[) la bo loc thong thap l tng. G1(ej[) c tnh:

2 -T/2 e [ e T/2 G0 e ! j[ T T  2 khac 0 e ni[  T , 2 2 , T G1 e ! 0 Ni khac


j[

G1(ej[) la mot bo loc thong cao l tng vi mot o dch pha. g1(n) c tnh: g1(n) = (-1)ng0(-n +1) (3.37) Thng tin di ng Page 111


j[

A? A

ITC N Ta c ] t ! 2  1 g 0 n 2t  n  1 .
n 1 n

Ta co the xay dng Wavelet mot cach trc tiep bang cach lay bien oi Fourier ngc ham Indicator tren cac oan [ -2T, -T ] [ T, 2T ]: t T 2T sin 2Tt sin Tt sin T 2 1 1 3Tt (3.38)  ! . cos ] t ! e j[t d[  e j[t d[ ! 2 T 2Tt Tt 2T  2 2T T 2 T t 2 Ham nay trc giao vi cac ham dch nguyen lan cua no hay ] t ,] t  n ! H n .

e ket hp vi nh ngha cua W0, chung ta can dch ](t) i va do o ] t  n  1 , n Z la mot c s trc giao cho W0. Wavelet c s bay gi 2 la: m ] m, n t ! 2 2 ] 2  m t  n  1 , m, n Z 2 Trong o ] m, n t , n Z la mot c s cho cac ham co support tren

? 2

 m 1

T ,2  m T 2  m T ,2  m 1 T .

A ?

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ITC

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Hnh 3.3 Ham ty le va Wavelet trong trng hp sinc. (a) Ham ty le N(t). (b) Bien o cuabien oi Fourier * [ (c) Wvavelet ](t) (d) Bien o cua bien oi Fourier = [ V m co the ln mot cach tuy y (dng hoac am), nen ta co mot c s cho cac ham trong L2(R). Ham Wavelet, ham ty le va ham bien oi Fourier sinc Wavelet c trnh bay trong hnh 3.3. III. CHUOI WAVELET VA CAC TNH CHAT CUA NO: 1. nh ngha va cac tnh chat: a. nh ngha: Gia mot phan tch a phan giai c nh ngha bi cac nguyen tat t (3.17) (3.21) va Wavelet me ](t) cho trong (3.29), th mot ham f L2(R) co the c bieu dien: ] f t ! F m, n m ,n t (3.39)
m , nZ

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ITC
g

Trong o F m, n ! ] m , n t , f t ! ] m ,n t f t dt
g

(3.40)

Chung ta gia s mot Wavelet la thc (oi khi mot lien hiep phc la can thiet). Phng trnh (3.39) la cong thc phan tch. Phng trnh (3.40) la cong thc tong hp. b. Cac tnh chat: y Tuyen tnh: Gia s rang toan t T c nh ngha: a T _f t ! F m, n ! ] m, n t , f t Vi a, b R th: T ?af t  bg t A! aT ?f t A bT ?g t A y Dch : Neu tn hieu va he so bien oi cua no c k hieu la f(t) va F(m,n) th tn hieu f(t - X), X = 2mk, k Z se co F(m,n 2-mX), m e m la he so bien oi cua no, o la: f t  2 m k m F m d  2 m  md ,n k Vi k Z, m e m. Do o, neu mot tn hieu co mot khai trien ty le hu han

f t ! la :

nZ m ! g

] F m, n t
m,n M
2

M2

Th tn hieu nay se co tnh dch yeu tng ng c dch i 2


f t  2 2 k m F m, n  2 2 k vi - g e m e M2. y Ty le: Neu tn hieu f(t) co he so bien oi Wavelet la F(m,n) th:

k , o

M m

f 2  k t m 2 2 F m  k , n , k Z y ang thc Pareval: Ho Wavelet trc chuan ] m, n (t ) thoa man


k

_ a
2

m ,nZ

] m, n t

! f

f L2(R).

y Lay mau oi va Tiling thi gian - tan so: Khi e cap mot khai trien chuoi, ieu quan trong la xac nh v tr cac ham c s trong mien thi gian tan so. Qua trnh lay mau mien thi gian, tai ty le m, c thc hien vi chu ky 2m, luc o ]m,n(t) = ]m,0(t 2mn). dang ty le, so mu cua 2 thng c e cap. Khi tan so la ao cua ty le th ta thay neu Wavelet tap trung quanh [0 th =m,n([) tap trung quanh

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ITC [0

m . ieu nay sinh ra mot qua trnh lay mau oi cua mien thi gian - tan 2 so c trnh bay trong hnh 3.4.

Scale m m=2

m=1

m=0

Shift n

m = -2

m = -2

Hnh 3.4 Lay mau oi cua mien thi gian tan so cua khai trien chuoi Wavelet. Chu y ay s dung truc theo thang logarith, con neu thang la tuyen tnh ta co Tiling thi gian tan so nh trong hnh 3.5.

t
Hnh 3.5 Tiling cua mien thi gian tan so. y nh v: + nh v thi gian: gia s rang chung ta quan tam en tn hieu xung quanh t = t0. Cau hoi at ra: gia tr nao cua F(m,n) se mang mot thong tin ve tn hieu f(t) tai t0, hay la vung li (m,n) nao se cho thong tin ve f(t0). Gia s mot Wavelet ](t) co support mot cach chat che tren oan [ -n1 , n2 ]. Do o ]m,0(t) la support tren [ -n12m , n22m ] va ]m,n(t) la support tren [ (n1+n)2m , (n2+n)2m ]. V vay, tai ty le m, he so Wavelet vi ch so n thoa man: Thng tin di ng Page 115

ITC

n  n  2
1

e t 0 e n2  n 2 m

se c am bao. ieu nay co the c viet lai: 2  m t 0  n2 e n e 2  m t 0  n1 Hnh (3.6a) cho thay vung nay tren li (m,n). Cau hoi ngc lai: cho mot iem F(m0,n0) trong khai trien chuoi Wavelet, vung nao cua tn hieu phan bo en no? T support cua ]m,n(t), theo o f(t) vi t thoa man:  n1  n0 2 m e t 0 e n2  n0 2 m bao am F(m0,n0).
0 0

+ nh v tan so: Bien oi Fourier cua ] m, n t ! 2 2


m 2

m

] 2  m t  n la

= 2m [ e  j2

, ta co the viet F(m,n) bang cach dung cong thc Parseval:


g g

m 1 m2 F m, n ! ] m, n t f t dt ! [ e 2 F =  m [ j 2 n[ d[ 2 2T g g Gia s mot Wavelet ](t) bien mat trong mien Fourier ben ngoai vung [ [ [ [min , [max ]. Tai ty le m, support cua =m,n([) se la min , max . V vay, mot m 2m 2 thanh phan tan so tai [0 bao am chuoi Wavelet tai ty le m neu: [ min [ e [ e max m 2 2m

Scale m m=2

Scale m m=2

m=1

m=1

t0-n1
m=0 m = -1

t0

t0 + n2
Shift n

m=0

Shift n

m = -1

m = -2

m = -2

(a)

(b)

Hnh 3.6 (a) Vung cua he so F(m,n) se b tac ong bi gia tr cua ham tai t0. (b) Vung tac ong cua thanh phan Fourier F([0) ieu nay c minh hoa trong hnh 3.6b. Ngc lai, cho mot ty le m0, tat ca cac tan

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ITC
[ min 2m [ max 2m

so cua tn hieu nam gia

va

se bao am cho cac khai trien tai

ty le o. 2. Cac tnh chat cua ham ty le: a. Phng trnh hai ty le: Ham ty le co the c xay dng t chnh no. Tr lai nh ngha mang tnh nguyen tat cua a phan giai, ham ty le N(t) V0. Tuy nhien V0 V1 N(t) V1. Ta biet rang, N(t - n) la mot c s trc chuan cua V0, do o 2N 2t  n la mot c s trc chuan cua V1. ieu nay co ngha rang mot so ham t V0 (bao gom ca N(t)) co the c bieu dien thanh mot to hp tuyen tnh cua cac ham c s t V1, o la N(2t - n). T ieu nay ta co phng trnh hai ty le: N t ! 2 g 0 n 2t  n N (3.41) Tng t oi vi Wavelet ] t W0 V1 th: ] t ! 2 g 1 n 2t  n N
n n

(3.42)

Hai quan he nay co the c bieu dien trong mien Fourier:  jn[ 1 [ [ [ * ! [ (3.43) g 0 n e 2 * 2 ! M 0 2 * 2 2 n  jn[ 1 [ [ [ (3.44) = [ ! g1 n e 2 * 2 ! M 1 2 * 2 2 n Phng trnh hai ty le cung co the dung la iem bat au e xay dng mot phan tch a phan giai. Trong o, thay cho nh ngha mang tnh nguyen tat cua mot a phan giai, chung ta cho N(t) nh (3.41) vi

g n
0 n

g va 0

A e *  2Tn e B [
2 n
m

g . Luc o, nh ngha Vm la

mot khong gian con ong c sinh bi 2 2 N 2  m t  n . b. Tnh chat moment: Tr lai bo loc thong thap g0(n) trong phan dai loc, no co t nhat mot zero tai [ = T, va v vay g1(n) co t nhat mot zero tai [ = 0. Khi *([) = 1, th no keo theo ]([) co t nhat mot zero tai [ = 0, do o:
g

g

] t dt ! = 0 ! 0

ieu nay luon c mong i khi ](t) la mot ham bang thong. Mot cach tong quat, neu G0(ej[) vi mot zero bac N tai [ = T th Wavelet =([) co mot zero bac N tai [ = 0. Dung nh l moment cua bien oi Fourier, ta co nh sau:
g

g

t ] t dt ! 0
n

n = 0, , N 1. Page 117

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ITC ieu o co ngha N moment au tien cua Wavelet la zero. 3. Tnh toan chuoi Wavelet va giai thuat Mallat: Mot ac iem noi bac cua khai trien Wavelet la da tren nen tang cau truc a phan giai e a ra mot giai thuat ri rac thi gian hieu qua, bang cach thc hien mot dai loc, giai thuat nay c a ra bi Mallat va c goi la giai thuat Mallat. Cho ham f(t) V0 va f 0 t ! N t  n , f t , n Z , luc o:
f t !

n ! g

f n N t  n
0

(3.45)

Gia s rang cac nguyen tat cua phan tch a phan giai van gi. Viec khao sat hnh chieu cua f(t) len V-1 va W-1, chung ta dung va N(t) va ](t) thoa man cac phng trnh hai ty le. Hnh chieu au tien cua f(t) len V-1 la:
f
1

n !

t N  n , f t 2 2

(3.46)

N Bi v N t ! 2 g 0 k 2t  k , nen:
k

t N  n ! g 0 k t  2n  k N 2 2 k Khi o (3.46) tr thanh: f 1 n ! g 0 k N t  2n  k , f t


k

(3.47)

va dung (3.45): f 1 n ! g 0 k f 0 t N t  2n  k , N t  l
k l

(3.48)

Bi v tnh trc giao cua N(t) vi cac dch nguyen lan cua no, tch trong phng trnh tren th bang H(l 2n k). Do o ch tai l = 2n k th tong th hai ton tai. Bang cach thay oi bien so, chung ta co the viet lai (3.48): f 1 n ! g 0 k  2n f 0 k (3.49) Cac he so cua hnh chieu len V-1 at c bang cach loc f(0) vi ~ g 0 n va lay mau giam 2. e tnh hnh chieu len W-1, chung ta dung ] t ! 2 g 1 k 2t  k . N Goi d(-1)(n) la he so hnh chieu len W-1 hoac: 1 t d 1 n ! ]  n , f t 2 2 Dung phng trnh hai ty le cho ](t) hay khai trien cho f(t) trong (3.45), ta tnh c d(-1)(n):
k k

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ITC d 1 n ! g 1 k f
k l

l N t  2n  k , N t  l

! g1 k f
k l

l H l  2n  k
~ l ! g1 2n  l f 0 l
l

! g1 l  2n f
l

~ Trong o g1 n ! g 1  n . ~ Cac he so cua hnh chieu len W-1 co c bang cach loc f(0) vi g1 va lay mau giam 2. Tng t hnh chieu cua V-2 va W-2 co the at c bang cach loc f(-1) va lay mau giam 2. Nh vay hnh chieu len Wm, m = -1,-2, at c bang cach loc m +1 ~ ~ vi g 0 n , sau o la lay mau giam 2, ket thuc qua trnh loc bi g 1 n va cung lay mau giam 2. Giai thuat thi gian ri rac nay c goi la giai thuat Mallat va c thc hien e khai trien chuoi Wavelet, c minh hoa trong hnh 3.6. IV. BIEN OI WAVELET LIEN TUC: 1. Phan tch va tong hp: Cho ham Wavelet me ] t L2 R , chung ta co the co tap ham Wavelet

] a ,b t !

t b ] a a

(3.49)

a, b R (a { 0) va chuan ] a,b t ! ] t Gia s Wavelet thoa man ieu kien cho phep 2 g = [ C] ! d[ g [ g Trong o =([) la bien oi Fourier cua ](t). Bien oi Fourier cua ](t) tai [ = 0 la 0.
g g

(3.50)

] t dt ! = 0 ! 0
g g

Pho cua ](t) giam tan so cao, Wavelet co ac tnh thong qua. Bay gi ta chuan hoa Wavelet sao cho no co nang lng la n v:
1 2 ] t ! ] t dt ! g = [ d[ ! 1 2T  g Bien oi Wavelet lien tuc cua ham f(t) L2(R) c nh ngha:
2 2
 CWT f a , b ! ] a ,b t f t dt ! ] a ,b t , f t g g

(3.51)

Ham f(t) co the c khoi phuc lai t bien oi cua no bi cong thc khoi phuc goi la ac trng phan giai: Thng tin di ng Page 119

ITC Cho bien oi Wavelet lien tuc CWTf(a,b) cua ham f(t) L2(R), ham f(t) co the khoi phuc lai bang cach: 1 f t ! C]
g g

 g g

dadb ] CWT a, b t a
f a ,b 2

(3.52)

ay ta ch xay dng lai ham f(t) L2(R). Mot cach tong quat, cong thc phan tch/tong hp lien quan en hai Wavelet:]1(t) cho phan tch; ]2(t) cho tong hp. Neu ca hai Wavelet thoa man: g ] 1 [ ] 2 [ d[ g g [  Th : f t !
g

1 C]
1 ,] 2

g g

 g g

1a ,b

, f ] 2 a ,b

dadb a2

(3.53)

Trong o C]

1 ,] 2

g

] 1 ] 2 [ [ [

d[

2. Tnh chat: y Tuyen tnh: Tuyen tnh CWT chnh la tuyen tnh cua tch trong. y Dch: Neu f(t) co CWT la CWTf(a,b) th f d ! f t  bdco CWT cho bi: t CWT f da , b ! CWT f a , b  b d (3.54) y Ty le: Neu f(t) co CWTf(a,b) la bien oi Wavelet lien tuc cua no, th t 1 f t co bien oi: f d ! s s a b (3.55) CWT f da, b ! CWT f , s s y Bao toan nang lng: Cho f(t) L2(R) va bien oi Wavelet cua no la CWTf(a,b) th ta co: g g g 2 dadb 1 2 f t dt ! (3.56) g gg CWT f a, b a 2 C]  

Cho hai ham f(t) va g(t) co bien oi Wavelet la CWTf(a,b) va CWTg(a,b) th: 1 g f t g t dt ! C] 
 g g g

 g g

dadb CWT a, b CWT a, b a


 f

(3.57)

V. BIEN OI FOURIER THI GIAN NGAN: Thng tin di ng Page 120

ITC 1. nh ngha: e at c mot bien oi Fourier cuc bo, chung ta co the nh ngha mot bien oi Fourier ca so. Tn hieu au vao c nhan vi mot ham ca so [(t - X) va sau o lay bien oi Fourier cua no. Ket qua la mot bien oi hai ch so STFTf([,X) c cho bi:
STFT f [, X ! [  t  X f t e  j[t dt
g g

(3.58)

Khi o ta the bieu dien di dang tch trong: STFT f [ ,X ! g [ ,X t f t Vi g [ ,X t ! [ t  X e j[t Moi ham thanh phan trong khai trien co cung o phan giai thi gian va tan so, mot cach n gian la mot s nh v khac nhau mien thi gian tan so. 2. Tnh chat: Cac ham dung trong khai trien STFT co c bang cach dch va ieu che ham ca so [(t): g [ ,X t ! e j[t [ t  X (3.59) Cho [ t ! 1 va gia s no la kha tch tuyet oi. f(t) co the c khoi phuc lai trong L2(R) bang tch phan kep
1 (3.60) f t ! STFT f [ , X g [ ,X t d[dX 2T   g g STFT cung co tnh chat bao toan nang lng theo nh e sau: nh e: cho f(t) L2(R) va bien oi Fourier thi gian ngan cua no la STFTf([,X) th: f t
2
g g

1 ! 2T

g g

 g g

STFT [ ,X
f

d[dX

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ITC

CHNG IV: CAC NG DUNG CUA WAVELET


I. NG DUNG WAVELET CHO X L TN HIEU: e x l tn hieu trong mien tan so, ta lay bien oi Fourier (hoac chuoi Fourier hoac DFT) cua tn hieu, nhan mot so he so Fourier vi 0, sau o lay bien oi Fourier ngc. ieu nay co the loai bo mot so thanh phan cua tn hieu, trong khi cac thanh phan khac khong oi. Van e cung c x l tng t nh oi vi bien oi trong mien Wavelet. S o khoi cho viec x l tn hieu trong mien bien oi Wavelet c cho trong hnh 4.1: X DWT Processor Inverse DWT X

Linear

Linear or nonlinear

Linear

Hnh 4.1 Bo x l tn hieu bang phep bien oi. Qua trnh x l tn hieu da tren Wavelet tuyen tnh co s o khoi nh hnh 4.1, no thc hien nhan DWT vi mot so hang so (co the la 0). Neu cac tn hieu khong mong muon hoac nhieu co the c cach ly vi tn hieu mong muon trong mien bien oi Wavelet, th chung co the b loai bo bang cach nhan vi cac zero, sau qua trnh nay ta lay bien oi DWT ngc e c tn hieu ban au. II. S DUNG WAVELET TRIET NHIEU: Gia s mot tn hieu co chieu dai hu han vi nhieu cong: y i ! xi  Ini , i ! 1, - N (4.1) Trong o ni la nhieu trang, co trung bnh la zero. I : o lech chuan. Muc ch cua chung ta la tai tao lai tn hieu x t tn hieu thu c y. Goi W la ma tran bien oi Wavelet (kha ao) DWT, th bieu thc (4.1) c viet mien bien oi: Y = X + N hoac Yi = Xi + Ni (4.2) Cac ch cai hoa bieu th bien trong mien bien oi vi Y = Wy. Ma tran bien oi nghch ao ton tai: W-1W = I (4.3) la xap x cua X da tren s bao toan cua Y. Goi X Ma tran hnh chieu tuyen tnh ng cheo: Thng tin di ng Page 122

ITC
( ! diag , - H N H i _ ,1a i ! 1, - N H , 0 , (4.4) Ta tnh c: x ! W 1 X ! X 1 (Y ! W 1 (Wy (4.5) Sai so xai x: 2 2 2 R X , X ! E x  x ! E W 1 X  X ! E X  X (4.6) Phng trnh (4.6) co c la do tnh trc giao cua W. Cac he so toi u cua ( la H i ! 1 X " I , nh vay cac gia tr Y tng ng

vi cac thanh phan cua X ln hn I c gi , tat ca cac thanh phan khac bang 0. Sai so l tng: Rid X , X ! min X 2 , I 2
n !1

(4.7)

Sai so l tng khong the at c trong thc te. Gia thuat cho triet nhieu bang Wavelet gom ba bc: (1) Chon mot Wavelet, chon mot mc N. tnh phan tch Wavelet: Y = Wy (4.8) (2) Chon mc e lay ngng trong mien bien oi Wavelet theo hai phng phap lay ngng cng hoac lay ngng mem: y Ngng cng: , Y u t Y X ! Tn Y , t ! (4.9) 0 , Y t y Ngng mem: Sign . Y Y  t , Y u t (4.10) X ! Ts .t ! Y 0, Y t (3) Tai tao: x ! W 1 X Tai tao lai tn hieu da tren he so xap x cap N va cac he so chi tiet t 1 z N. S o giai thuat cho y tng tren:

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ITC
Start

Chon loai Wavelet, mc N,bien oi Wavelet tn hieu au vao

M =1

N
MeN

Chon ngng

Loai bo nhng he so chi tiet be hn ngng

Lay bien oi Wavelet ngc

End

IV. NEN D LIEU: 1. Gii thieu: Chung ta biet rang so bit trung bnh can thiet e bieu dien cac quan he cua bien ngau nhien ri rac oc lap X la Entropy cua no H(X). Neu phan phoi p(X) c biet, ta co the dung ma Huffman hoac cac phng phap ma hoa so hoc e toi u. Cac bien ngau nhien lien tuc yeu cau mot so vo han cac bits e bieu dien, v vay qua trnh lng t la can thiet cho cac bieu dien hu han thc te. Tuy nhien ieu nay gay ra nhieu lng t. Muc ch ay la phai co ty le meo nho nhat e d lieu khong b sai. Van e nen, ma hoa dang song, ma hoa bang con a c nghien cu nhieu. ay ta ch tap trung vao viec nen d lieu dung Wavelet, hay tong quat hn la ma hoa bien oi. V vay ch tap trung vao cac d lieu toc o bit thap. 2. Bo ma hoa bien oi mau: Cau truc ba tang cua bo bien oi mau c cho trong hnh 4.2. Bc th nhat la bien oi tn hieu. Vi mot tn hieu f(t) co chieu dai N, ta khai trien no thong qua mot tap ham c s trc giao: Thng tin di ng Page 124

ITC f n ! ci] i n Trong o ci ! f n ,] i n Transform Quantize Entropy Code


1 N

(4.11)

Hnh 4.2 Bo ma hoa bien oi mau. ay ta dung bo lng t vo hng chuan Q nh hnh 4.3, vi o rong dung cho nen d lieu dung Wavelet la: ci ! Q c i (4.12) Bc lng t c k hieu la T. Sai so bnh phng do qua trnh lng t: c  c ! c  c Vi I ! _ : c T a i .
2 i i 2 i i !1 iI i I i N i

2  ci

(4.13)

ci

cj

Hnh 4.3 Bo lng t vo hng chuan. Khi dang bien oi la trc giao, no giong nh loi tai tao. Goi M la so cac he so co bien o ln hn T ( cac he so co ngha). Gia s rang T u nho, sao cho cac he so co ngha la phan bo chuan vi moi lng t. Dang th hai cua bieu thc loi co the c viet: 2 ci  ci 2 ! M T (4.14) 12 i I Vi dang th nhat, chung ta can co nh l xap x tieu chuan ma no quan he vi chuan lp cua cac he so:

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ITC N p f p ! ci i !1 1 1 nh l: cho P ! " th: p 2


1

(4.15)

2 p

(4.16) 2P  1 nh l co the c tong quat hoa cho khong gian co vo han chieu g . nh l nay cho thay dang th nhat cua bieu thc loi giam nhanh e
i I

2 i

2 p

M 1 2 P

khi cac he so co ngha tang cao. Toc o bit cua cac giai thuat nen mau co the c chia lam hai phan. Phan th nhat, ta can cho biet s ton tai cua cac he so co ngha. V du, chung ta co the dung 1 cho he so co ngha, va 0 cho ch so khong co ngha. Ta can tat ca N cac Indicator nay. Phan th hai, ta can bieu dien gia tr cua cac he so co ngha. Ta ch can M gia tr. Bi v phan bo cua cac gia tr va cac Indicators la khong biet trc nen ma Entropy thch ng c dung ay. Tap turng nang lng la mot tnh chat quan trong cua ma bien oi toc o bit thap. Gia s kch thc cua bc lay mau la T, chung ta co hai tap c s e sinh ra cac he so co ngha. Phan bo cac Indicator co ngha la khong bang phang, v vay yeu cau t bits e ma hoa. Wavelet co tnh chat tap trung nang lng tot hn bien oi Fourier vi tn hieu khong lien tuc. V vay, s dung Wavelet cho nen d lieu la rat hieu qua. Giai thuat cho viec nen d lieu cung co ba bc nh x l tn hieu: (1) Phan tch. (2) Lay ngng cac he so chi tiet. Vi moi mc t 1 z N, mot ngng c chon va ngng cng c ap dung cho he so chi tiet. (3) Tai tao. iem khac nhau gia giai thuat nen tn hieu vi triet nhieu la bc hai. Co hai kha nang nen co the at c. au tien bao gom viec lay khai trien Wavelet cua tn hieu va gi cac he so gia tr tuyet oi ln nhat. Trong trng hp nay, chung ta co the thiet lap mot ngng cuc bo, thc hien nen, hoac mot qua trnh tai tao chuan bnh phng tng oi. V vay ch cac he so n c chon. Kha nang th hai la viec ap dung viec lay ngng phu thuoc mc mot cach trc quan. 3. Cai tien giai thuat nen tren c s Wavelet: Giai thuat mau tren lam viec rat tot, nhng co the c cai tien them. Nhng y tng cua viec cai tien nh sau: y Cac he so khong co ngha thng c nhom lai vi nhau. y Viec chon la c s la rat quan trong. Cac phng phap a c phat trien e chon la thch ng c s cho tn hieu. Thng tin di ng Page 126

ITC y Ma run length ac biet co the c dung e sap xep ra cac ma co ngha va gia tr. Cac phng phap ma lng t tien tien (nh lng t vector, lng t d oan) co the c dung thay the cho lng t vo hng n gian. y Phng phap da tren thong ke nh phan lp, mo hnh hoa, xap x va d oan cung a ra ket qua tot. y Thay cho viec dung cac bc lng t mot cach co nh, ta co the nh ngha lai qua trnh lng t bang cach dung kch thc bc nho hn. y Bien oi Wavelet co the thay the bang mot bien oi Wavelet integer to integer, qua trnh lng t la khong can thiet, va qua trnh nen la khong co mat mac.

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