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THE CHRISTMAS PRESENT OF PEACE

By Spyros K. Tsitsigkos "Glory to God in highest heaven, and on earth his peace" (Luk. 2, 14)1.

Since 1986, when UNO established the "international year of peace", it has passed one decade, but peace has not been achieved on our bleeding earth2. Besides, whenever peace had held for a short while (only 268 years), this was not the point of the true peace but a "period of deception" (A. Bierce). On the contrary, (ecological) ruins, (nuclear or conventional) arms (Pax Atomica), personal, social and national disputes, conflicts, international politico-economic rivalries, wars, killings, terrorism, murders, fascism, dictatorships, social-economic exclusions (debarring), suicides, constraints, hates, (national-religious) fanaticism with victims chiefly the feeble (weak) and the powerless people (women and children), are being almost daily heard by the mass media. International declarations (USA 1953), congresses3, conferences, treaties (8000), agreements, slogans4, movements (Friedensbewegung)5, pacific ideals (Olympic spirit) and clubs, milestones (world day of peace: 17 November), marches, prayers, services (benedictions, vigils)6, articles7, meditations and institutes ended in talks (pacific-exploitation), just as the language "Cosmoranto" of UNESCO8. Notwithstanding, the God of peace has made His appearance 2000 years ago! It seems that people either did not understand the presence of God in the world or do not want His peace, having preferred the earthlymaterial possessions. For this reason they seek the peace else [para-religions, drugs, alcohol, sex, adultery, homosexuality, para-sciences (Neo-Gnosticism), avarice, politics, occupational-therapy, consumerism, psychoanalysis, sports, hobbies, etc.]. Nevertheless, the soul is unable to satisfy itself by Caesar (authority), Mammon (wealth) and the Temptations of power, pleasure ("make love and not war") and glory, as the richest kings of the world (Buddha, Midas, Croesus and Solomon)9 affirm it, at any rate. The Nativity fits chronologically in with the beginning of peace on Earth. So, the prophet Isaiah waited "the Prince of peace"10. The New Testament preaches the pro-typed by the Prophets Gospel of peace11. Personal Man-god Lord identifies himself to Peace12. Evangelist Luke portrays the figure of the peaceful king in his Gospel13, that will be read in all churches at Christmas. The "beyond our utmost understanding"14 peace of God is the present, that Christ made mankind, as in form like a dove the presence of the

third person of the Holy Trinity (Holy Spirit), who appeared (Epiphany) during the baptism of Jesus, evidenced it15. From time to time several theo-logians (e.g. Hesiodus), historians (e.g. Herodotus)16, literary men (Aeschylus, Tolstoy17, T. S. Eliot18, N. Vrettakos) and philosophers (Plato19, Aristotle20, Neoplatonists, Cicero, Seneca, J. Bentham, Clausewitz, Marx, Engels, Berdiaeff)21 treated this problem of war and peace22; again in the passage of history many scenarios and plans [Christian humanists (e.g. Erasmus), Crusaders of the Middle Ages, Frenchmen (J-J. Rousseau) and Germans (I. Kant) thinkers of the Enlightenment, Rosicrucians, Hebrews, Marxists23 and so on] were hatched for the securing of the world peace24. According to the Holy Scriptures and the sacred Tradition (Ignatius25, Synesius26, Cyprian27, Origenes, Clement of Alexandria28, G. Athanasius29, G. Basil30, Paul of Emmesa31, Eusebius of Caesarea32, Gregory Nazianzen33, Gregory the Senior34, Clement of Rome35, Augustine, Jeremy36, Theodore of Mopsuestia37, Theodoret of Cyrus38, John Chrysostom39, Severian of Gabala40, Isidorus of Pelusio41, Gregory of Nyssa42, Isaac the Syrian43, Cyril of Alexandria44, Ammonius the Senior, Gregory the Palamas45, Maximus the Confessor46, G. Photius47), the lapse of man from God produces a disagreement with himself, his neighbour and Nature. Therefore, the "inward peace"48 causes the outward one: "if anyone does not revel in the (inward) peace, even if he finds his outward peace, though none enemy hurls upon himself, he will more miserable than all of have been warred by the universe"49, John Chrysostom notes. The Orthodox peace is totally different from Humanism, Idealism, philosophical values or Religions ("Pax Dei"); it did not concern with certain "objective" (ontologied) "orthodoxy" (Byzantine Orthodoxism). By what Church says neither (ideological, philosophical, international, political, scientific, religious) mundane definition of the peace (Pax Britanica or Sovietica or military, economic, civil peace) can possibly be nor an enacted one (from above) "Pax Ecclesiae" can. The "theology of peace"50 looks on the peace "ecclesiastically", i.e. in a balance between individual and collective element51. Peace is chiefly ensured by the church agreement upon the common Faith, so that the same Faith52 can join people socially and internationally (ecumenically)53, on condition that this common Faith has transfigured the people from "wild beast" into "lambs" according to the pattern of Christ54. According to Judaic-Christian tradition (shalom), the divine peace (< eiro = join), as an inner possession, chiefly consists in the reconciliation between God and man55, in this way being related to the whole psycho-spiritual and natural-physiological [Gregory of Nyssa determines peace by the harmony of Creation56: ecological peace of man with Nature (prosperity and happiness)] mood of man, viz. being identified with his salvation (integration,

restoration, fulfilment)57. Hence peace must be combined with justice58 and freedom59, just as with all virtues. The Patriarchies Abraham and Jacob60, the Prophets Moses and David (whose the name means "the law of Spirit, that gives birth to peace", according to Maximus the Confessor)61, the treated paralytic of Capernaum62, Pharisee jurist Gamaliel63 and protomartyr Stephen64 are Biblical examples of this peace. On the other hand the Christian peace involves the love, the concord, the consensus, the friendship, the meekness (docility), the humiliation, the condescension, the philanthropy, the sympathy, the equanimity-intrepidity (blessedness)65, non wrath (non anger, non rage), tameness, sweetness (mildness, delicacy, gentleness, amiability, leniency, forbearance-tolerance), mutual help, union of hearts and in general a non aggressive attitude on "neighbour"66, according to pattern of Lord67. The main traits of Christian are the blandness (placidity) and the unselfish love68. Among all virtues the lenience proves mainly that we are men, being differed from the beasts and equated with Angels69. The non pacifier70 sells out the element the most important of his Christian characteristic, as the concord of Christians and their peaceful co-existence are the proof that they are genuine disciples of Lord of peace, Jesus Christ71. By the Fathers of Church the love is likened to myrrhholy oil (redolence-aroma) and the "dew of Hermon" (relaxation), because the lover sheds joy and pleasure in his fellow-men72. The inter-personal love leads to the outward (social) peace73, or inversely, if there is true peace in a society, the inward peace (delight) will be ensured personally74. As the inward discord (of the soul) is due to the lapse of the human "Ego" from the society of the "We", the opposite of "peace" is not the "war" but the selfishness (egoism)75. The love for everybody (God, Spiritual Father, brothers Christians and enemies) results in the peace into soul, as one body ("the peaceful race" of Christ, according to Clement of Alexandria) is created in the Church76. The spiritual love, though it is tyrannical (jealous)77 because of exclusive dedication that it requires, assuages the lovers psychically by putting away every sorrow and grief (affliction). This wavering (ambivalence) paradox of the lover relationship is likened by the Fathers to the flame and simultaneously the dew of furnace of Babylon78. So long as someone shows love, he can show even tolerance. How it is possible that anyone is lenient and tolerant, if he is peevish or if he plays a part as "general District Attorney", who, though he is not competent or obligated by his place, blames and condemns everybody and anything?79 Consequently Apostle Paul's commandment is "Be forbearing with one another and charitable" (putting up with one another's failings in the spirit of love)80. The peaceful and gentle man, like the pool of Siloam81, not only secures his own equanimity but also treats the other men's passions by becoming the medium (catalyst) to relax their every mania82. Furthermore, the demanding the tolerance on behalf of God and non tolerance towards his fellow-man would appear to be inconsistent for a Christian! In addition, from

the standpoint of utilitarianism (pragmatically) the ecclesiastical peace profits, since it is impossible for whomever to be entire "self-contained" and not to be in need for helping of his "neighbour" as for something83. The collective (social) peace may be divided into "good" (in God's 84 and "bad" (in way of the Tower of Babel) one85. way) Above all the Judaic-Christian peace deals with psychosomatic health. By the prayer of peace Ann's sterility is treated86 and various wounds as well87. By saying "Go in peace" Jesus grants health in a woman who had suffered from haemorrhages88. Thus, peace is primarily concerned with rational hierarchy (justice) all the parts of soul89, as the existence of (psychic) quietness (tranquillity)90, of serenity91 and of peace of mind92 betrays mental health93. It's about one inner harmony (relaxation)94 and deliverance-cashiering (dismissal) from the passions95 (envy, avarice96, anger, rage and pleasure); "never it is possible to be at peace an acquisitive with another acquisitive" (John Chrysostom). Gentleness rests our souls, causing "the state of Divine Reign"97. By giving the peace, Christ forgives repentant sinner's sins98, assuaging her guilt feelings. Because of this, whoever commends his soul to God he is able to sleep quietly (peacefully)99. Nowadays and Medicine exceedingly venerated the human life is in nurture of the spirit of Peace pay100, while Apollonius (5th c) was among all Christians writers the prime mover of this project101. Peace, as fruit of the Holy Spirit102, is a Divine Gift, but like all the Gifts it is not a permanent and stagnant condition; it comes or is removed in view of the faithful' frame of mind (view)103. As a result, peace simply is not a Divine gift; it is a vision (Jeru-salem = view of peace), a prayer, a demand, a struggle and a fight of Church, too 104. So, a man-god co-operation is imperative for achievement of peace105. Christians are obliged to pursue peace in every possible way106. Prophets107, Christ, Apostles and clergymen continually wish the peace of world108. Church (with inter-religious and inter-church dialogue)109, Polity (with various pacifying programs), Science (with education110 and the policy), Art (with show love and non-violence films), Society and Family ought to commit in this aim at a peaceful 21st century. All the same, the organic (mystagogic and active) church-going remains the most important "remedy" for peace. Whenever I am mentioned in Church, particularly in the sacrament of Eucharist, I see it personally and collectively. For Christianism peace is an internal (personal) and an external (social) matter of man; an interdependence exists between these two kinds. Intrapsychic peace is achieved with interpersonal peace socially (Holy Communion); also external-social peace is achieved with interior pacification (sanctification) of every believer111. This happens because of the peculiar nature of Church. In other words, we can see a narrow dependence between theory and practise in the following form: the right theory (orthodox Faith)

leads to the right ("good disagreement"= knife) practice, and this leads to the good internal and external peace (love) by turn112. Conversely, a false theory (heresy) leads to the false practice (bad disagreement), and this leads to the bad internal and external (ex-communication) peace (collective egoism) by turn113. How can orthodox Church be instrumental in the achievement of peace? Orthodox Church honours 9 Saints', venerable men's and martyrs' memory by the name Peace: "Peace hath her victories" (J. Milton)! Peace is identified with itself definition of Church114, as it composes the connection between Divine and human love. To achieve the inner peace man has to be reconciled with God. This reconciliation-bargain (New Testament) was achieved by the Incarnation in the hypostasis of man-god Jesus Christ115; it rests with us to accept it. Christ did not take out war from our planet, but he donated a paschal peace to us. The Christ's Body, the Church, that transgresses the racial, class and sexist discrimination116, constitutes the space, the sign and the spring of peace among people on Earth, because it is the fund of Spirit, i.e. God's Grace. Only if all the world becomes one Church (of Christ), peace will be achieved. Correspondingly, only the world recognition of Christ's mastery from all the universe on His Second Coming will restore the definitive and world peace117. Until Christ does not come for the second time on Earth, the world peace remains a future commodity. Specially, the church (temple) pre-eminently is the place of peace. This altar (of Gideon), on which the Eucharist of peace is celebrated, is named "Lord's peace"118. The word peace is heard 44 times every Sunday in Mass (of orthodox Church)119, where the unity of faith expresses itself in the common (Holy) Goblet. We commonly pray for peace to everybody as soon as we go into church120. Priest, Christ's type, who had donated His peace to Apostles, gives the blessing of peace, as prerequisite and consequence of Holy Communion is the collective (ecclesiastical) love-fraternisation of the faithful (comp. the kiss of the ritual peace)121. In Church, as body of Christ, it is demanded harmonious collaboration and love of members, and no simple neutrality or lack of hostilities. Apostle Paul for the faithful likes (looks for) not only pacifying or loving one another but also joining among them as one psyche122. Peace is resulting of (Christian) education (treatment)123; Church preaches "si vis pacem para pacem" instead of "si vis pacem para bellum". The sermon of peace composed and composes the main doctrine of catechism Schools and of Ecumenical Synods124. The prophetic (of Micah) plough (namely the Divine preaching: study, learning and knowledge) must till (prepare) soil (heart) to sprout the plant of peace (Christ)125. If the children of today, who are victims of wars, of chauvinism, of racism, of hunger (starvation), and of violence, come of age, what peace will they exert? The Christian doctrine about the "in the image of God" ensures the (divine) humanity in man126. Accordingly, peace is the upshot of a change (repentance) in our-

selves; i.e. first man has to find his identity (the "in the image of God") to acquire God's peace later. Because of that, the value and the freedom of human person is onto-fundamentally recognised only by Church, as it preaches the truth, the reciprocity, the inter-complementary disposal of one at another, the love, the dignity and the respect of man's rights127. Equally, the Trinitarian God of Christians is Love128; No-one creature lives without the love of God, much less His (true-born) children ("sons of God")129. Whoever recognises that Christ was crucified to redeem us from our sins130, he will feel peace with God, and the victor of death, Jesus, will grant the fruits of His Spirit, that are the peace, the freedom131 and the joy, namely the repose of his soul132. Afterwards, Church particularly is a field in that virtues (e.g. faith, hope and love) are cultivated133. The acquirement of virtues, with focal point love, is this that abolishes the enmity134, pacifies the souls135 and leads to placidity136. Peace of mind (comfort) is attained by our free slavery to Lord's light yoke; this matter is achieved by the imitation Man-god's of life. Our choice of Lord's load is the most interest-right, because, given that we are always obliged to choose because of the being inherent of freedom in our human nature, the choice of our Lord's light yoke is in our interest and benefits us. On the contrary, the choice of the heaviest load of sin oppresses us and it finally shatters us. Placidity is mainly fruit of the (heart) prayer (with faith, fervour and mystic invocation to name of Jesus Christ)137. For the Sobered (Hermits), the "peace of thoughts" composes the fifth step (level) in the spiritual Scale of Divine ascent - anabasis (perfection)138. Into the prayer we must continually and with tears contemplate our sins (Nicetas Stethatos); a mourning soul is unable to be angered139. When now we try and succeed in no angering now we do not cogitate mischief (we are not beset by sly thoughts) against our "neighbour", we rescue our placidity140. However it may even external reasons (natural, social, financial or political) lead man to "placidity". When various dangers exist, then the peevish and the irritable men present a change for the humbleness and the placidity141. In other words we see that even achieved placidity owing to pedagogical fear is acceptable theologically. The woman, with the Virgin Mary's model, the mother and the queen (mistress) of Peace, is by far able to contribute in the moral-social work of peace. Risen Lord while addressed the peace to men, to women he addressed the joy142. The man finds in the woman as archetype the mate of dialogue and of love143. This relationship is the first-fundamental witness of peace and of love. As a consequence Apostle Paul puts the relationship between Christ and Church on the marital model. Specially, the Christian family must be understood as house of peace, since the child (of peace: Emmanuel) and the spouses-parents [the father like Abe-ssalom (= father of peace) and the mother like Bethlehem (= mother of universe - Virgin Mary, according to John Chrysostom)] are symbols of Solomon (= peaceable man) and Shulam-

mite (= peaceable woman), who pro-type the Bride Christ and His Bridegroom Church respectively144. Orthodox mother is able to become the best pedagogue of peace, implanting the god-loving, the equality of two sexes, the love, the certainty, the sense of law, the self-respect, self-estimation and the trust in the minds of the children. Finally, Church, as "treasurer of Grace", "spiritual house" and "holy priesthood"145, in another way (psychological), having the loving-motherly "spirit", is able to transform every believer's dispositions, by offering mental peacefulness146. Foremost, Church emphasises on faith-trust in God147, and that no one temptation can vanquish our spiritual forces-oppositions148. Because of this, no one agony-anguish must be warranted into Church149, since anything is delegated to Him150. Afterward, into Church the thought must be oriented towards God (godcentrally) of peace. When we thank and glorify God for everything (in appearance good or evil), we bring peace to ourselves. If we are in our prayer confessed to God how we feel (our fears, guilt and desires), we will be comforted (consoled), too.

G. L l o y d, Prime Minister of England, had stated for this diction: "There is not more important statement than the message of Angels". 2 See F. N i t t i, Europe without peace, (in Greek), Athens 1922, G. C h r i s t o p o u l o s, The problem of European peace, (in Greek), Athens 1935, N. S k i a d a r e s i s, The on earth peace, (in Greek), Athens 1984, P. L e l o u c h e, "The lectures about disarmament as theatre of war of propaganda" (in Greek), in TO VIMA 3/2/1985, p. 11, N. S t e f a n i s, "The nostalgia of peace" (in Greek), in CHRISTIANIKH 3/7/1986, pp. 6-7. P. P a n t a z o p o u l o s, "Peaceloving ...futilities" (in Greek), in DIDAHI 40 (1986) 43-44, I. C a r t e r, The missing peace: finding emotional balance, Chicago: Moody 1987. 3 See A. A l i v i z a t o u, The contemporary peaceful leanigs and the congresses of Stockholm (in Greek), Athens 1928. 4 See the known motto of BBC: "Nation shall speak peace unto nation". 5 See A. N i k o l a i d i, "Movements of peace" (in Greek), in KOINONIA 2 (1985) 215270. 6 See A i m i l i a n o u Kalavrias, "The Eirinika of Divine Service" (in Greek), in ECCLESIA 15/7/1966, No 14 f., C a s a r o l i, Appeal of peace (in Greek), in Provlimata 22 (1977) 5-12, II Vatikan Synod, The preservation of peace, Greek trans., in Provlimata 22 (1977) 13-20. 7 See A. M e s s i n e o, "La promozione della pace nel mondo contemporaneo", Civit Cattolica 2802 (1967) 527-538, "The defence of peace in the contemporary world" (in Greek), in Provlimata 22 (1977) 49-62. 8 See D. R a s k, The invisible exploration of Peace, (in Greek), Thessalonica 1966. 9 Eccl. 1, 1-2. 26. 10 Is. 9, 5, Zech. 9, 9. 11 Nah. 2, 1, Luk. 2, 14. 10, 5-6, Act. 10, 36, Eph. 6, 15. 12 Mic. 5, 4, Eph. 2, 14-22. Com. N. K a v a s i l a, About the in Christ life, (in Greek), 6, MPG 150, 676. 13 Luk. 2, 14. 14 Philip. 4, 7. 15 Luk. 3, 21-22. 16 See E. K o s t i, "The history of peace" (in Greek), in BRADYNI 9/3/1986, pp. 14-15. 17 Before the "War and peace", I s i d o r u s of Pelusio had written the "Peace or war" (Epist. Book IV, 36). 18 Murder in the Church, Greek trans. G. Sefere. 19 Laws 628 d-e. Com. "Hellenic Institute of International Cases" C h e s t e r D. Pugsl ey, Athens 1933, The idea of League of Nations according to Greeks, (in Greek), Athens 1928. 20 Policies 1333 a, 35-36. 21 Com. H. S a n d u h l e r, "The philosophy in view of the duty of Peace", in SCIENCE-THINKING (in Greek), 21. 22 Com. N. B r e t t a k o u, Two men talk about the peace of world, (in Greek), Piraeus 1920, Arch. J e r o m e, Agapismus, (in Greek), Athens, D. Ph. M e n o u d, La paix chretienne, Verbum Caro, Neuchatel 1952, M. B r i k a, Peace, (in Greek), Thessalonica 1965, . R e v e s, The anatomy of peace (in Greek), Thessalonica 1966, J. G u i t t o n, "The peace and the war", in Greek trans. K. D. Speliotakopoulou, in AKTINES 41 (1978) 1-8, E. O i k o n o m o u, Questions about peace (in Greek), Athens 1982, A. G i a n n o u l a t o u, "A brief meditation about peace" (Congress of Nairoby 1984), (in Greek), in PANTA TA ETHNI 3 (1984) 13, D. Bo nho e f fer , "Peace, a courage" (in Greek), in CHRISTIANIKI 5/6/1986. 23 Com. V. B u k o f s k y, Peace and Soviet Union (in Greek), in EPIKENTRA 31 (1983) 28-40.

Com. K. R a p t o p o u l o u, The problem of world peace, (in Greek), Athens 1955, D. H. C h a i d e m e n a k i, Gospels of joy. Solution of the world problem of peace (in Greek), Halki 1959. 25 To the Eph., L(ibrary) G(reek) F(athers) C(hurch) W(riters) 2, 266. 26 MPG 66, 1100 A. 27 Epist. 7, 8, ANCL 8, 32. 28 Mattress-makers (Stromateis) 4, 26, MPG 7, 1373 a, LGFCW 8, 105, 7. 29 LGFCW 30, 117, 26. 30 Canon 13, Ethica, Terms 49, 50, 75, 1, 19, Terms in epitome, answer 215, That God is not responsible for evils, Homilies in Psalm 28, 29, 33, 45, 59, Letters 69, 70, 97, 114, 203, 219, 250, MPG 29, 31, 32, LGFCW 55, 231, 1. 31 About peace, MPG 77, 1444 C. 32 About peace that had been prevailed to us by God, LGFCW 20, 80. 33 Speech II apologetic about priesthood, Pacific Speeches I-III, About the good order in the lectures, Inaugural (speech) in the 150 Bishops' presence, Historical epics about myself, 1158, Dogmatic poems 37, Epistles 77, 249, LGFCW 59, 21, Speech 22, 1, MPG 35, 1132: "peace friend, the sweet both thing and name...peace friend, my short essay and smartening". 34 Life of Gregory the Theologian, LGFCW, 58, 215-239. 35 LGFCW 1, 43, 24. 36 Annocation of Matthew, SC 242, 107. 37 To the Pomans 8, MPG 66, 821 a. 38 To the Isaiah the Prophet, MPG 81, 237 C, 82, 457 B. 39 To the Psalm 4, Of Matthew 15, 35, Of John 82, Of Acts 37, To I Corinth. 1, 37, To II Corinth. 2, 30, To Ephes. 9, 24, To Philip. 14, To Coloss. 8, To I Tim. 2, 7, To Hebr. 14, MPG 53, 5. Com. D. A e r a k i, "The Three Prelates about peace" (in Greek), in LIGHT IN THE PEOPLE'S WALK, 1986, pp. 22-24. 40 Speech about peace, in: A. P a p a d o p o u l o u - K e r a m e o s, Analecta of Jerusalem gleaning (in Greek), Petroupoli, vol. 1 (1891), vol. 2 (1894). 41 Epistle iii, 246 and iv, 36, MPG 78, 264 C, 480 A. 42 Speech VII of the Blessed are the peacemakers..., Canon 5, MPG 44. 43 MPG 86, 812-888. 44 Of prophet Micah, IV, 39, MPG 71, 700 C. 45About the peace to one another, MPG 151, Homilies forty one 6. 46 Mystagogy 12, About peace and war, MPG 91, 905 C. 47 MPG 101, 264 A, 636 A. 48 Com. F. J. S h e e n, Peace of soull, Universe Books, London 1958, Way to inner peace, Crest Books, N. York 1959, H. E. F o s d i c k, "Inner peace and how to find it", in READER' DIGEST, July 1963, p. 110. 49 Of Psalm 4, 25 C, MPG 55. 50 Com. L. C o n b l i n, Theologie de la paix, Paris 1960, S. A g o u r i d i, Elements for one theology of peace (in Greek), Athens 1980, "And on earth peace" (in Greek), in CHRISTIANIKI 18/12/1986, pp. 6-7, L F i l i, Law of peace according to the Jesus Christ's doctrine, (in Greek), Athens 1982, A. T h e o d o r o p o u l o u, "What is the on earth peace of angelic hymn in Bethlehem", in KOINONIA 27 (1984) 449-452, A. T h e o d o r o u, "Peace", in R(eligious) E(thical) E(ncyclopaedia), vol. 5, pp. 440-444, "Drawing of memorandum for the targets of World year of peace" (in Greek), in ECCLESIA 1984, vol. 3-5, G. P a p a j a n a k i, "The meaning of peace in the I Letter of Clement of Rome to the Corinthians", (in Greek), in ECCLESIA 62 (1985) 308309, 334-337, G. P y r o u n a k i, "The God's peace", (in Greek), in PROVLIMATA, JulySeptember 1985, p. 421.

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Com. L. K o s k i n a, "The peace according to John Chrysostom" (in Greek), in ANESYCHIES 24 (1986) 14, K. M. F o u s k a, Peace - Speech and struggle of Three Prelates, (in Greek), Athens 1987. 52 J o h n C h r y s., Of John 82, 2. 53 Romans 8, 6. Com. A. F y t r a k i, "Christianism and the world peace" (in Greek), in ECCLESIA 23 (1946) 63-66. 54 J o h n C h r y s., Homily that had said to the church in Paul's name, 1. Com. Is. 65, 25. 55 Romans 5, 1, Colos. 1, 20. 56 LGFCW 59, 18-19. 57 Deut. 23, 6, Psalm 72, 3, 7. 147, 14, Is. 48, 18. 55, 12, Romans 15. 58 Com. V. Y o u l t s i, "The peace and the justice as virtues-values of ethical, spiritual and cultural transformations", in Values and Civilization (in Greek), Athens 1991, pp. 85-101. God Peace (Eireni) was supposed to (god) Zeus' and Themis' (Justice) daughter in ancient Greece. 59 Com. P. S p a a k, For peace and justice, (in Greek trans.), Athens 1959. 60 J o h n C h r y s., Of Genes. 67, 1. 61 J o h n C h r y s., Of Psalm 44, 169 C. 131, 374 B-375 A. See Numb. 12, 3. Com. O. A. M a t t h a i a k i, "The Prophets' of Israel ideas about peace" (in Greek), in ECCLESIA 1/11/1982, No. 21, p. 464 f., M a x i m u s the C o n f e s s o r, About Theology of chapters second hundred, LIII (in Greek), in FILOKALIA (= love of beauty), vol. II, p. 79. 62 J o h n C h r y s., Of Matthew 29, 344 B-C. Com. Matth. 9, 1-8. 63 J o h n C h r y s., Of Acts 14, 2, MPG 60. 64 J o h n C h r y s., Of Acts 15, 3, MPG 60. 65 Sapientia 3, 1. 66 J o h n C h r y s., Of gathering in old church, 4, PG 51, 83, Catech. 7, 32, Speeches against Judaeans 3, 1. Com. Eph. 2, 14, Hebr. 12, 14. 67 J o h n C h r y s., Catech. 1, 30-32, 29. Com. Matth. 11, 28-29. 68 J o h n C h r y s., About Incomprehensible 1. 69 J o h n C h r y s., Of John 61, 1. 70 Com. Matth. 5, 9: "Blessed are the peacemakers; they shall be called God's children". 71 J o h n C h r y s., Of John 82, 2, MPG 59, 444, Of Psalm 119, 333 C-D. Com. Matth. 10, 16. 72 J o h n C h r y s., Of Psalm 132, 380 C-D. 73 J o h n C h r y s., Of youngster widow 3. 74 J o h n C h r y s., Of holy Pentecost 2, 3, Of Matth. 79, 764. Com. I Cor. 13, 4-5. 75 Com. L. K o s k i n a, ibid, p. 14. 76 J o h n C h r y s., Of Colos. 8, 2, PG 62, Of Eph. 11, MPG 62, 85. 77 J o h n C h r y s., About penance 1, MPG 49, 279 D. 78 J o h n C h r y s., Of Philip. 2, MPG 62. 79 J o h n C h r y s., Of Ephes. 9, 2, MPG 62, 72. 80 Ephes. 4, 2. 81 J o h n C h r y s., Of Is. 8, 91 D. Com. Is. 8, 6. 82 J o h n C h r y s., Of John 42, 1. 83 J o h n C h r y s., That the reading of the Scriptures is useful, MPG 51, 83, Of Eph. 9, 3. 84 J o h n C h r y s., Against Judaeans 3, 6, 749D 750, MPG 48, 870. 85 J o h n C h r y s., Of Matth. 35, 1, 7, 397 BC, Speeches against Judaeans 3, 6. 86 I Book of Kings 1, 17. 87 Jer. 6, 14, Is. 57, 18. 88 Luk. 8, 48. 89 J o h n C h r y s., Of I Cor. 37, MPG 61, 318, N i c e t a s S t e t h a t o s, Second hundred of Natural chapters, L, FILOKALIA, vol. III, p. 310. Com. J. L. L i e b m a n, Peace of Mind,

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N. York 1946, C. J u n g, "Analytical Psychology and Weltanschauung", in: The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche, p. 693, "The Swiss Line in the European Spectrum", in: Civilization in Transition, p. 911. 90 Com. III Book of Kings 19, 12. 91 J o h n C h r y s., Of John 3, MPG 59, 39. Com. Metrop. P. P a p a g e o r g i o u, "Quiet day" (in Greek), in ECCLESIA, vol. VII, 1929, pp. 125-126, F. J. S h e e n, Peace of Soul, London 1958, Way to inner peace, N. York 1959. 92 See Ammoniou, Pieces of annotations of the Gospel according to John, MPG 85, 1492 D. 93 See G. G r a t s e a, "Message of peace" (in Greek), in ANESYCHIES 19 (1984) 3, A. A. A s p i o t i, "The peace when the whole man lives" (in Greek), in AKTINES 47 (1984) 1-5, C. J u n g, Analytische Psychologie und Weltanschauung, p. 70, I. L. T r i a n t i, "The peace as antidote to anguish" (in Greek), in ANAGENNESIS, Heraclio (Crete), p. 33-55. 94 See E. F r o m m, The dogma of Christ, p. 225. 95 See P l u t a r c h, About stoical contrarieties, 1049, 32 b, M a r k H e r m i t, About the spiritual law 193: "Peace is the deliverance from passions". 96 J o h n C h r y s., Of Psalm 4, 12, 31 BC. 97 J o h n C h r y s., About penance 4, 4. See Matth. 11, 29. Com. E u a g r i o u, FILOKALIA, vol. I, p. 51, M a x i m o s, FILOKALIA, vol. II, p. 11, lxxx. 98 Luk. 7, 50. 99 Psalm 4, 9, Is. 26, 3. 100 See 17th Medical Congress of Italy. 101 P a l l a d i o u, Lausaiki History, For sicks, 13, 1-2. 102 Gal. 5, 22, Romans 14, 17. 103 J o h n C h r y s., When he returned from the previous exile, 428 B, Of Matth. 32, 373. Com. "Your 'if' is the only peace-maker; much virtue in 'if'" (W. Shakespeare). 104 J o h n C h r y s., Of Philip. 14, 3, MPG 62. See Matth. 5, 19. Com. G. M e l e t i, "The battle for peace" (in Greek), in AKTINES 48 (1985) 167-172, Metr. E i r i n a i o u, "The church in the struggle of peace" (in Greek), in CHRISTIANIKI 6/11/86. 105 See K. M o u r a t i d i, Theology as man-god function, (in Greek), Athens 1976. 106 J o h n C h r y s., Of Matth. 32, 373. 107 See T. M a t t h a i a k i, "The Prophets' of Israel ideas about peace, (in Greek), N. Zion 1982, 1985. 108 J o h n C h r y s., Of Matth. 32, 373. Com. Is. 52, 7, Nahum 2, 1, John 14, 27, Romans 10, 15. 109 See D. B a l a n o u, The necessity of co-operation of Churches, (in Greek), Athens 1932. 110 See "Education for peace in Balkans" (in Greek), in F(ederation) F(unctionaries) S(econdary) E(ducation) 650 (1996) 18. 111 J o h n C h r y s., About penance 6, 5. Com. Hebr. 12, 14. 112 J o h n C h r y s., About penance 7, 5. 113 J o h n C h r y s., Of Matth. 35, 397. Com. Gen. 18, 1, III Book of Kings 20, 1, Matth. 10, 12. 34, Luk. 2, 14, Acts 23, 6-7. 114 J o h n C h r y s., Of Gal. 1, 4. 115 See S. A g o u r i d i, The teaching about reconciliation of New Testament according to orthodox tradition, (in Greek), offprint from ECCLESIA, in Athens 1964. 116 Gal. 3, 28, Col. 3, 11. 117 See N. L o u v a r i, Idea and religious motives of the eternal peace, (in Greek), Athens 1934. 118 Iudices 6, 24. 119 Com. A. F y t r a k i, The ideal of peace in the orthodox Worship, Mytilene 1937. 120 J o h n C h r y s., Of Matth. 32, 373. 121 J o h n C h r y s., Of Saver's native day.

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J o h n C h r y s., Of Eph. 9, MPG 62, 72-73. See H. S c h n e i d e r, La paix, tache pedagogique 30, 326-336, Malone, Belgique 1975, I. M a r k a n t o n i, Education of peace, (in Greek), Athens 1977, D. V a k a r o u, "The contribution of Church in the International Education for peace" (in Greek), in GREGORY THE PALAMAS 730 (1989) 833-844. 124 Com. J. H a s t i n g s, The doctrine of peace, Edinburgh 1922. 125 Ezekiel 34, 29. Com. J o h n C h r y s., Of Psalm 4, 25 C, MPG 55, 57. 126 See D(ictionary) B(iblical) T(heology), p. 323. Com. M a x i m u s the Co nfesso r , About Theology of chapters third hundred, xxviii, FILOKALIA, vol. II, p. 96, E. F r o m m, You shall be as Gods, pp. 138-141. 127 See N. L o s s k y, "The rights of man in the light of Gospel" (in Greek), in ECCLESIA 63 (1986) 82-86. 128 I of John 4, 8. 129 Matth. 5, 9. 130 Psalm 103, 12, I of Peter 2, 24, I Cor. 6, 11. 131 I Cor. 6, 11. 132 Is. 57, 21, Matth. 11, 28-29. 133 J o h n C h r y s., Of saint martyrs Vernikin and Prosdokin, 5. 134 J o h n C h r y s., About penance 6, 1. 135 J o h n C h r y s., Of Psalm 4, MPG 55, 57, Of Eph. 9, 3, MPG 62. 136 J o h n C h r y s., Of I Tim. 17, 2, MPG 62. 137 J o h n C h r y s., About penance 4, 4, K a l l i s t o s and Ignati us Xantho po ul o i , About who that prefered to live quietly, viii, in FILOKALIA, vol. IV, p. 202. 138 T h e o f a n e s Monk, FILOKALIA, vol. II, p. 316. 139 J o h n C h r y s., Of John 60, 4. 140 J o h n C h r y s., Of Acts 17, 4, MPG 60. 141 J o h n C h r y s., About penance 4, 2. 142 Matth. 28, 9, Luk. 24, 36, John 20, 19. 143 Gen. 2, 23. 144 Song of Songs 6, 13. 145 See I of Peter 2, 5. 146 J o h n C h r y s., Of Eph. 9, 3, MPG 62, 73. 147 Is. 26, 3. 148 I Cor. 10, 13. 149 Philip. 4, 6-7. 150 I of Peter 5, 7.
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