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Grade 2 Science Instruction Unit Guide Standard 4: Chemistry Standard 5: Physics

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

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Table of Contents Standard 4: Chemistry Standard 5: Physics Topic


Maryland State Curriculum for Science Skills and Processes Maryland State Curriculum for Science Alignment Vertical Content Map Planning Guide Instructional Support for Science Objectives Word Cards and Vocabulary Sort Careers in Chemistry and Physics Concept Attainment for Balance and Motion Literature To Support Chemistry and Physics netTrekker Directions Websites To Support Chemistry and Physics Formative Assessments Unit 2 Assessment and Key
WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

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3-6 4-12 13-17 18-32 33-75 76-93 94 95-104 105-113 114-118 119-121 122-131 132-144

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

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Maryland State Curriculum for Science


WCPS 2010-2011 Physics Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

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Standard 1.0 Skills and Processes Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science. A. CONSTRUCTING KNOWLEDGE 1. Raise questions about the world around them and be willing to seek answers to some of them by making careful observations and trying things out. a. Describe what can be learned about things by just observing those things carefully and adding information by sometimes doing something to the things and noting what happens. b. Seek information through reading, observation, exploration, and investigations. c. Use tools such as thermometers, magnifiers, rulers, or balances to extend their senses and gather data. d. Explain that when a science investigation is done the way it was done before, we expect to get a very similar result. e. Participate in multiple experiences to verify that science investigations generally work the same way in different places. f. Suggest things that you could do to find answers to questions raised by observing objects and/or phenomena (events such as, water disappearing from the classroom aquarium or a pet's water bowl). g. Use whole numbers and simple, everyday fractions in ordering, counting, identifying, measuring, and describing things and experiences.

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

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WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

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Standard 1.0 Skills and Processes Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science. B. APPLYING EVIDENCE AND REASONING 1. People are more likely to believe your ideas if you can give good reasons for them. a. Provide reasons for accepting or rejecting ideas examined. b. Develop reasonable explanations for observations made, investigations completed, and information gained by sharing ideas and listening to others' ideas. c. Explain why it is important to make some fresh observations when people give different descriptions of the same thing. C. COMMUNICATING SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION 1. Ask, "How do you know?" in appropriate situations and attempt reasonable answers when others ask them the same question. a. Describe things as accurately as possible and compare observations with those of others. b. Describe and compare things in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, and motion. c. Draw pictures that correctly portray at least some features of the thing being described and sequence events (seasons, seed growth). d. Have opportunities to work with a team, share findings with others, and recognize that all team members should reach their own conclusions about what the findings mean. e. Recognize that everybody can do science and invent things and ideas.
WCPS 2010-2011 Physics Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

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WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

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Standard 1.0 Skills and Processes Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science.

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

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D. TECHNOLOGY 1. Design and make things with simple tools and a variety of materials. a. Make something out of paper, cardboard, wood, plastic, metal, or existing objects that can actually be used to perform a task. b. Recognize that tools are used to do things better or more easily and to do some things that could not otherwise be done at all. c. Assemble, describe, take apart and reassemble constructions using interlocking blocks, erector sets and the like. d. Recognize that some kinds of materials are better than others for making any particular thing, for example, materials that are better in some ways (such as stronger and cheaper) may be worse in other ways (such as heavier and harder to cut). e. Explain that sometimes it is not possible to make or do everything that is designed. 2. Practice identifying the parts of things and how one part connects to and affects another. a. Investigate a variety of objects to identify that most things are made of parts b. Explain that something may not work if some of its parts are missing. c. Explain that when parts are put together, they can do things that they couldn't do by themselves. 3. Examine a variety of physical models and describe what they teach about the real things they are meant to resemble. a. Explain that a model of something is different from the real thing but can be used to learn something about the real thing. b. Realize that one way to describe something is to say how it is like something else.

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

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WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

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Maryland State Curriculum for Science


Standard 4.0 Chemistry Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the composition, structure, and interactions of matter in order to support the predictability of structure and energy transformations. A. STRUCTURE OF MATTER 1. Cite evidence from investigations that most things are made of parts. a. Examine a variety of objects, such as toys, objects made from Legos or Tinker Toys to identify and describe the parts from which they are made. b. Take objects apart and rearrange the parts to identify and describe the ways the parts work together. c. Ask and seek answers to "What if" questions about the changes made to the objects and how they affect the way objects work, for example, if a part were left out of the object would it make a difference in how the object works? Science Correlation Other Correlations

All Investigations for Balance and Motion

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Standard 4.0 Chemistry Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the composition, structure, and interactions of matter in order to support the predictability of structure and energy transformations. B. CONSERVATION OF MATTER 1. Provide evidence from investigations that things can be done to materials to change some of their properties. a. Based on evidence from investigations describe that materials, such as clay are not changed by certain actions, such as reshaping or breaking into pieces. b. Ask and seek answers to questions about what happened to the materials if other things were done to them, such as being placed in a freezer, heated, etc.

Science Correlation

Other Correlations

See Lesson Seeds

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Standard 5.0 Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. B. THERMODYNAMICS 1. Identify and describe ways in which heat can be produced. a. Recognize that things that give off light also give off heat. b. Describe methods of producing heat. Burning Friction between surfaces Electricity in wires C. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 1. Identify and describe the sources and uses of electricity in daily life. a. Identify sources of electricity. Electrical outlets Batteries

Science Correlation

Other Correlations

See Lesson Seeds

See Lesson Seeds

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 14 b. Identify the devices that use electricity to produce light, heat, and sound. (Students should be cautioned not to experiment with sources of electricity without adult supervision.)

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Grade 3
Standard 5.0 Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. A. MECHANICS 1. Cite evidence from observations to describe the motion of an object using position and speed. a. Describe the position of an object by locating it relative to another object or to its background. b. Using information from multiple trials, compare the speeds (faster or slower) of objects that travel the same distance in different amounts of time. c. Using information from multiple trials, compare the distances that objects moving at different speeds travel in the same amount of time. 2. Explain that changes in the ways objects move are caused by forces. a. Observe and describe the way an object's motion changes in a variety of situations (rolling a ball, bouncing a ball, dropping a yo-yo, winding up a toy, etc.) and identify what may have caused the change. b. Describe changes in the motion of objects as they move WCPS 2010-2011 Physics Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5: Investigation 3 Parts 1-3 Investigation 3 Parts 1-3 Science Correlation Other Correlations

Investigation 3 Parts 1-3

Investigation 2 Part 3 Investigation 3 Parts 1--3 Investigation 3 Parts 1-3

across different textured surfaces and suggest possible causes for the change. c. Observe and describe that objects fall to the ground unless something holds them up (gravity).

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 16 Investigation 1 Parts 1-3 Investigation 3 Parts 1-3

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Standard 6.0 Environmental Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective. A. NATURAL RESOURCES AND HUMAN NEEDS 1. Recognize and explain how Earth's natural resources from the natural environment are used to meet human needs. a. Describe natural resources as something from the natural environment that is used to meet one's needs. b. Identify water, air, soil, minerals, animals, and plants as basic natural resources. c. Explain that food, fuels, and fibers are produced from basic natural resources. d. Identify ways that humans use Earth's natural resources to meet their needs. e. Explain that some natural resources are limited and need to be used wisely.

Science Correlations

Other Correlations

HM Themes 1-6

Consider fostering a classroom environment that continuously cares for the environment. Be sure to include discussion about how human actions can harm or help the environment.

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Standard 6.0 Environmental Science Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective. B. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 1. Recognize and describe that the activities of individuals or groups of individuals can affect the environment. a. Identify and describe that individual and group actions, such as turning off lights, conserving water, recycling, picking up litter, or joining an organization can extend the natural resources of the environment. b. Identify and describe that individual and group actions, such as leaving lights on, wasting water, or throwing away recyclables, can limit the natural resources of the environment.

Science Correlations

Other Correlations

HM Themes 1-6

Consider fostering a classroom environment that continuously cares for the environment. Be sure to include discussion about how human actions can harm or help the environment.

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

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WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

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Vertical Content Map for Chemistry and Physics


Grade 1 Grade 2 Grades 3 Standard 4: Chemistry Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the composition, structure, and interactions of matter in order to support the predictability of structure and energy transformations. A. STRUCTURE OF MATTER 1. Cite evidence from investigations that most things are made of parts. a. Examine a variety of objects, such as toys, objects made from Legos or Tinker Toys to identify and describe the parts from which they are made. b. Take objects apart and rearrange the parts to identify and describe the ways the parts work together. c. Ask and seek answers to "What if" questions about the changes made to the objects and how they affect the way objects work, for example, if a part were left out of the object would it make a difference in how the object works? A. STRUCTURE OF MATTER 1. Identify ways to classify objects using supporting evidence from investigations of observable properties. a. Classify objects based on their observable properties. b. Provide reasons for placing the objects into groups. c. Compare classifications with those of others.

None Provided by MSDE

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

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Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Standard 4: Chemistry Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the composition, structure, and interactions of matter in order to support the predictability of structure and energy transformations. B. CONSERVATION OF MATTER 1. Provide evidence from investigations that things can be done to materials to change some of their properties. a. Based on evidence from investigations describe that materials, such as clay are not changed by certain actions, such as reshaping or breaking into pieces. b. Ask and seek answers to questions about what happened to the materials if other things were done to them, such as being placed in a freezer, heated, etc. None Provided by MSDE

None Provided by MSDE

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Grade 1

Grade 2

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 22 Grades 3

Standard 5: Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. A. MECHANICS 1. Cite evidence from observations to describe the motion of an object using position and speed. a. Describe the position of an object by locating it relative to another object or to its background. b. Using information from multiple trials, compare the speeds (faster or slower) of objects that travel the same distance in different amounts of time. c. Using information from multiple trials, compare the distances that objects moving at different speeds travel in the same amount of time.

None Provided By MSDE

None Provided By MSDE

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 23 Grade 1 Grade 2 Grades 3

Standard 5: Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. B. THERMODYNAMICS B. THERMODYNAMICS 1. Identify and describe ways in which heat can be produced. None Provided by MSDE a. Recognize that things that give off light also give off heat. b. Describe methods of producing heat. Burning Friction between surfaces Electricity in wires 1. Recognize and describe that heat is transferred between objects that are at different temperatures. a. Recognize and describe that the temperature of an object increases when heat is added and decreases when heat is removed. b. Recognize and describe that heat will flow between object at different temperatures until they reach the same temperature.

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

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WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 25 Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3

Standard 5: Physics Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur. C. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 3. Describe the effect magnets have on a variety of objects. a. Classify materials based on their behavior in the presence of a magnet. b. Describe how the magnet affects the behavior of objects within each group. C. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 1. Identify and describe the sources and uses of electricity in daily life. a. Identify sources of electricity. Electrical outlets Batteries None Provided by MSDE

b. Identify the devices that use electricity to produce light, heat, and sound. (Students should be cautioned not to experiment with sources of electricity without adult supervision.) D. WAVE INTERACTIONS 2. Identify and describe the relationship between a sound and the vibrations that produce it. a. Based on observations of objects that produce sound, relate vibration to the back and forth motion of parts of the object.

None Provided by MSDE

None Provided by MSDE

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

b. Pose questions concerning the relationship between loudness or pitch Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry an object. and the vibration of and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 26

Standard 4: Chemistry Standard 5: Physics Planning Guide


Time State Curriculu m Objective s 4.A.1.a-c Lesson Overview Vocabular y Formative Assessment Extensions and Modifications

Session 1

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 1 Part 1 Trick Crayfish Guiding the Investigation 1. Steps 1-10 Wrapping Up Part 1 2. Steps 11-12

crayfish balance clothespins counterweig ht

Focus Question How many ways can a shape be balanced? Something is balanced when it stays in a position on its own without being held there. The clothes pins (counterweights) should go low on the crayfish to make it balance.

Be sure to address the objective below during this lesson 3.5.A.2.c Observe and describe that objects fall to the ground unless something holds them up (gravity). Guiding Questions Describe how the parts are made and how they work together. What would happen if _____ was left out? Would it still work?

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

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Office of Elementary Education P a g e 27 Time State Curriculu m Objective s 4.A.1.a-c Lesson Overview Vocabular y Formative Assessment Extensions and Modifications

Session 2

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 1 Part 2 Triangle and Arch Guiding the Investigation 1. Steps 1-7 2. Closure: Have the students discuss with a partner what they have observed so far about balance.

stable arch triangle balance point

Focus Question How can counterweights help us balance other shapes? You can tell something is in a stable position if the counterweights are below the balance point.

Be sure to address the objective below during this lesson 3.5.A.2.c Observe and describe that objects fall to the ground unless something holds them up (gravity). Guiding Questions Describe how the parts are made and how they work together. What would happen if _____ was left out? Would it still work?

Session 3

4.A.1.a-c

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 1 Part 2 Triangle and Arch Guiding the Investigation

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

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WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

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Office of Elementary Education P a g e 29 Time State Curriculu m Objective s 4.A.1.a-c Lesson Overview Vocabular y Formative Assessment Extensions and Modifications

Session 4

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 1 Part 3 The Pencil Trick Guiding the Investigation 1. Steps 1-12 Wrapping Up Part 3 2. Steps 13-14

wire

Focus Question How can a pencil be balanced on its point? The trick to balancing anything is add counterweights below the balance point.

Be sure to address the objective below during this lesson 3.5.A.2.c Observe and describe that objects fall to the ground unless something holds them up (gravity). Guiding Questions Describe how the parts are made and how they work together. What would happen if _____ was left out? Would it still work?

Session 5

4.A.1.a-c

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 1 Part 3 Science Stories: Make It Balance!

Focus Question Why is balance important in our world? What are some examples of things we need balanced in our class, homes, world, etc.?

Be sure to address the objective below during this lesson 3.5.A.2.c Observe and describe that objects fall to the ground unless

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

See Science Stories Folio for lesson plan. Visit Fossweb.com to her the audio for this science story.

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 30 Balance keeps objects in a stable something holds them up position. If objects were not (gravity). stable they would fall over. Other Guiding Questions Examples may include but not limited to: Describe how the parts are Balancing a ball on the t-ball stick, playing a particular game, stacking items, pushing/moving something from one place to another without it tipping, made and how they work together. What would happen if _____ was left out? Would it still work?

Time

State Curriculu m Objective s 4.A.1.a-c

Lesson Overview

Vocabular y

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Modifications

Session 6

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 1 Part 4 Mobiles Guiding the Investigation 1. Steps 1-6 Wrapping Up Part 4 2. Steps 7-8

mobile

Focus Question How do the parts of a mobile stay in stable positions? To balance a motion you can move the object on the straws; if one end of the straw is too low, the objects attached there must be moved toward the balance point. Mobiles can be made from anything toys, dolls, or pieces of colored cloth.

Be sure to address the objective below during this lesson 3.5.A.2.c Observe and describe that objects fall to the ground unless something holds them up (gravity). Guiding Questions Describe how the parts are made and how they work

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 31 together. What would happen if _____ was left out? Would it still work? Session 7 4.A.1.a-c FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 1 Reflections and Assessment Session 8 4.A.1.a-c FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 2 Part 1 Tops Guiding the Investigation 1. Steps 1-6 2. Closure: Have the students discuss their observations about the spinning or rotating. motion spin rotate top axis shaft Focus Question How can spinning tops be changed? You need a force to start a top spinning. Fast-spinning tops are more stable than slow ones. Bigger tops are more stable and spin longer. Bigger can mean using large disks instead of small disks, or using lots of small disks. Guiding Questions What caused the change in the tops motion? What happens when the top is spun on a different surface? Describe how the parts are made and how they work together. What would happen if _____ was left out? Would it still work? Refer to focus questions and vocabulary from Parts 1-4

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

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Office of Elementary Education P a g e 32 Time State Curriculu m Objective s 4.A.1.a-c Lesson Overview Vocabular y Formative Assessment Extensions and Modifications

Session 9

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 2 Part 1 Tops Guiding the Investigation 1. Steps 7-12 Wrapping Up Part 1 2. Steps 12-14

motion spin rotate top axis shaft

Focus Question How can spinning tops be changed? You need a force to start a top spinning. Fast-spinning tops are more stable than slow ones. Bigger tops are more stable and spin longer. Bigger can mean using large disks instead of small disks, or using lots of small disks. Focus Question How do things move? Things move by a force. Pushing or pulling moves things.

Session 10

4.A.1.a

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 2 Part 1 Science Stories: Push or Pull? See Science Stories Folio for lesson plan. Visit Fossweb.com to hear the audio for this science story.

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Time

State Curriculu m Objective s 4.A.2.a

Lesson Overview

Vocabular y

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Modifications

Session 11

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 2 Part 2 Zoomers Guiding the Investigation 1. Steps 1-7 Wrapping Up Part 2 2. Steps 8-9

zoomer knot

Focus Question How can a spinning object be kept in motion? Both tops and zoomers spin. Tops are put in motion by pushing the straw around. Zoomers are put in motion by pulling on the string. Both need a force to start. You can speed up a zoomer by pulling on the string with more force. Focus Question How do machines or tools help things move? Machines and tools use force, push or pull, to move things.

Guiding Questions What caused the change in the zoomers motion? Describe how the parts are made and how they work together. What would happen if _____ was left out? Would it still work?

Session 12

4.A.1.a

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 2 Part 2 Science Stories: Tools and Machines See Science Stories Folio for lesson plan. Visit Fossweb.com to hear the audio for this science story.

Other Guiding Questions Describe how the parts are made and how they work together. What would happen if _____ was left out? Would it still work?

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Time

State Curriculu m Objective s 4.A.1.a

Lesson Overview

Vocabular y

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Modifications

Session 13

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 2 Part 2 Science Stories: Move It But Dont Touch It See Science Stories Folio for lesson plan. Visit Fossweb.com to hear the audio for this science story.

Focus Question What other focus can make things move? Magnetism can push and pull other magnets. Magnets also pull on metals like iron and steel.

Guiding Questions Describe how the parts are made and how they work together. What would happen if _____ was left out? Would it still work?

Session 14

4.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.2.a

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 2 Part 3 Twirlers Guiding the Investigation 1. Steps 1-9

twirler wing air resistance

Focus Question How can air start an object spinning?

Guiding Questions What caused the change in the twirlers motion?

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Wrapping Up Part 3 2. Steps 13-14

Tops, zoomers, and twirlers all Describe how the parts are rotate (spin). Twirlers move made and how they work when air pushes against the together. extended wings. Electric beaters, propellers, and fans spin. People What would happen if _____ was left out? Would it still spin when they dance or ice work? skate. Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

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Time

State Curriculu m Objective s 3.5.A.2.a

Lesson Overview

Vocabular y

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Modifications

Session 15

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 2 Part 3 Science Stories: Things That Spin See Science Stories Folio for lesson plan. Visit Fossweb.com to hear the audio for this science story.

Focus Questions How do things spin? What are some things at home, school, etc. that spin? Things spin on an axis. Things that spin can include but not limited: Ferris wheel, fan, blender, drier, spinning wheel on a game,

Guiding Questions What caused the change in motion? Describe how the parts are made and how they work together. What would happen if _____ was left out? Would it still work?

Session 16

4.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.2.a

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 2 Reflections and Assessment

Refer to focus questions and vocabulary from Parts 1-3

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WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 37 Time State Curriculu m Objective s 4.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.2.a-c Lesson Overview Vocabular y Formative Assessment Extensions and Modifications

Session 17

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 3 Part 1 Rolling Wheels Guiding the Investigation 1. Steps 1-13 Wrapping Up Part 1 2. Steps 14-15

roll wheel axle slope ramp

Focus Question How can a wheel-and axle system be changed? Things roll down ramps. Use two wheels the same size on an axle to roll straight. Use wheels of different sizes to make a roller that turns. Some things that roll are rolling pins, carts, pencils, and balls.

Guiding Questions What caused the change in the wheels motion? Describe the position of the wheels relative to other objects/backgrounds. Compare the speeds of the wheels traveling the same distance in different amounts of time. (fast or slow) Compare the distance that objects moving at different speeds travel the same amount of time. What happens when the wheels are rolled on a different surface? Describe how the parts are made and how they work together.

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

What would happen if _____ Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5: was left out? Would it still work?

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WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

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Office of Elementary Education P a g e 39 Time State Curriculu m Objective s 4.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.2.a-c Lesson Overview Vocabular y Formative Assessment Extensions and Modifications

Session 18

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 3 Part 2 Rolling Cups Guiding the Investigation 1. Steps 1-13 Wrapping Up Part 2 2. Steps 14-15

Focus Questions Can we predict the behaviors of a rolling cup? What happens if weight is added to a rolling-cup system? A cup will roll in the direction of the smaller end. To make a cup roll straight, tape another cup to it and let it roll on the large ends. Weights can slow down, speed up, or stop the rolling motion of a cup.

Guiding Questions What caused the change in the wheels motion? Describe the position of the wheels relative to other objects/backgrounds. Compare the speeds of the wheels traveling the same distance in different amounts of time. (fast or slow) Compare the distance that objects moving at different speeds travel the same amount of time. What happens when the wheels are rolled on a different surface? Describe how the parts are made and how they work together.

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

What would happen if _____ Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5: was left out? Would it still work?

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WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 41 Time State Curriculu m Objective s 4.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.2.a-c Lesson Overview Vocabular y Formative Assessment Extensions and Modifications

Session 19

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 3 Part 2 Science Stories: Rolling, Rolling, Rolling! See Science Stories Folio for lesson plan. Visit Fossweb.com to hear the audio for this science story.

Focus Question How do things roll? What things at home, school, ect. roll? Rolling things go around and ahead. Things that roll may include but not limited to balls, wheels, cans, marbles,

Guiding Questions What caused the change in the wheels motion? Describe the position of the wheels relative to other objects/backgrounds. Compare the speeds of the wheels traveling the same distance in different amounts of time. (fast or slow) Compare the distance that objects moving at different speeds travel the same amount of time. What happens when the wheels are rolled on a different surface? Describe how the parts are made and how they work together.

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

What would happen if _____ Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5: was left out? Would it still work?

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WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 43 Time State Curriculu m Objective s 4.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.2.a-c Lesson Overview Vocabular y Formative Assessment Extensions and Modifications

Session 20

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 3 Part 3 Rolling Sphere Guiding the Investigation 1. Steps 1-8 2. Conclusion: Have the students discuss their observations about the different runways with their team.

sphere runaway loop spiral

Focus Question How can we make a runway system that will keep a marble rolling? Round things roll. A cup rolls in all directions; it rolls down a slope. To make a marble roll all the way down a runway, start high and end low.

Guiding Questions What caused the change in the wheels motion? Describe the position of the wheels relative to other objects/backgrounds. Compare the speeds of the wheels traveling the same distance in different amounts of time. (fast or slow) Compare the distance that objects moving at different speeds travel the same amount of time. What happens when the wheels are rolled on a different surface? Describe how the parts are made and how they work together.

Session 21

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 3 Part 3 Rolling Sphere Guiding the Investigation 1. Steps 9-13

WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Wrapping Up Part 3 2. Steps 14-15

What would happen if _____ Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5: was left out? Would it still work?

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Time

State Curriculu m Objective s 3.5.D.2.ab

Lesson Overview

Vocabular y

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Modifications

Session 22

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 3 Part 3 Science Stories: Strings in Motion See Science Stories Folio for lesson plan. Visit Fossweb.com to hear the audio for this science story.

Focus Question How do strings move? What happens when strings move? Strings move back and forth when they are plucked. The back and forth motion is called vibration. This makes a sound when the strings are vibrating.

Guiding Questions Describe how the parts are made and how they work together. What would happen if _____ was left out? Would it still work?

Session 23

4.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.2.a-c 3.5.D.2.ab

FOSS Balance and Motion Investigation 3 Reflections and Assessment

Refer to focus questions and vocabulary from Parts 1-3

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Time

State Curriculu m Objective s 5.B.1.a-c 5.C.1.a-b

Lesson Overview

Vocabular y

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Modifications

Session 24

Addressing Heat and Electricity See Lesson Seeds

Session 25

Addressing Heat and Electricity See Lesson Seeds

heat light burning friction surface electricity fuels

Focus Questions What are some things that give off heat? How is heat produced? Things that give off light also give off heat. Examples may include but not limited to sun, light bulbs, fire, etc. Heat is produced by burning, friction between surfaces, and electricity in wires. What are some devices that use electricity to produce light, heat, and sound? Why is it important not to experiment with electricity? Electrical currents are dangerous and could harm and even cause death. Electrical wires can also produce heat that can burn you.

Students should be cautioned not to experiment with sources of electricity without adult supervision.

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Time

State Curriculu m Objective s 4.B.1.a-b 4.D.1.a-c

Lesson Overview

Vocabular y

Formative Assessment

Extensions and Modifications

Session 26 Session 27

Chemistry See Lesson Seeds Chemistry See Lesson Seeds

materials observable properties processes

Focus Questions What happened to the materials when they were made wet and mixed? What happened to the object when it was reshaped, broken apart, placed in the freezer, and heated with your hands? Answers may vary depending on material/objects being observed.

Session 28 Session 29 Session 30

Unit 2 Reflections Unit 2 Assessment Unit 2 Assessment

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Instructional Support for Science Objectives

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4.A.1.a Examine a variety of objects, such as toys, objects made from Legos or Tinker Toys to identify and describe the parts from which they are made. Resources to Support 4.A.1.a
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Balance and Motion

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 234-255 All Investigations

Notes

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

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4.A.1.b Take apart objects and rearrange the parts to identify and describe the ways the parts work together. Resources to Support 4.A.1.b
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Balance and Motion

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 234-255 All Investigations

Notes

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

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4.A.1.c Ask and seek answers to What if questions about the changes made to the objects and how they affect the way object work, for example, if a part were left out of the object would it make a difference in how Resources to Support 4.A.1.c
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Balance and Motion

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 234-255 All Investigations

Notes

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

the objects works?

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4.B.1.a Based on evidence from investigations describe that materials, such as clay are not changed by certain actions, such as reshaping or breaking into pieces.

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SEE LESSON SEEDS FROM 4.D.1.a 4.B.1.b Resources to Support 4.B.1.a


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 234-255 All About Solids, Liquids, and Gases All About Properties of Matter

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

Ask and seek answers to questions about what happened to the materials if other things were done to them, such as being placed in a
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freezer, heated, etc.

Resources to Support 4.B.1.b


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 234-255 All About Solids, Liquids, and Gases All About Properties of Matter

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

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SEE LESSON SEEDS FROM 4.D.1.a 4.D.1.a Based on investigations, describe what changes occur to the observable properties of various materials when they are subjected to the processes of wetting, cutting, bending, and mixing.

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Resources to Support 4.D.1.a


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 234-255 All About Solids, Liquids, and Gases All About Properties of Matter

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.
Lesson Seeds

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How Is Paper Made?


Materials: Aluminum foil cut in 6 in. squares Scissors Pencils Newspaper Large plastic container with lid Hot tap water Spoon Metal baking pans Cornstarch (ask Kindergarten or Grade 1) Measuring cup Markers, crayons, or paint

Directions:
1. Use a pencil to punch holes in each foil square. The holes should be vertical columns about 1 cm apart. 2. Cut or tear the newspaper into smaller pieces. You want to pack the plastic container half-full with shredded

newspaper.
3. Put the paper into the plastic container and fill the container with 2/4 of the way with hot tap water. Put the lid WCPS 2010-2011 Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5: Physics

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on the container and let it stand for about three hours. Every once in while shake the container to break up the clumpy paper. Add more hot tap water as the paper absorbs the water already in the container. 4. Once the newspaper has become a soupy, creamy mixture, pour the mixture into the baking pans. Add more hot water. Stir the mixture to make sure all the paper has dissolved.
5. Get 100 mL (1/2 cup) of hot tap water and add 40 mL (3 Tablespoons) of cornstarch. Stir the mixture until all the

cornstarch has dissolved. Pour the mixture over the paper in the baking pan. 6. Place a foil square over the mixture in the baking pan. Press down on the foil square. Then pull the foil up. Some of the mixture should stick to the foil.

How Is Paper Made? (Cont.)


7. Place the foil square on the table and press it flat to squeeze out all of the water. Repeat this same step with the three other foil squares. 8. Let the foil-backed paper dry in the sun on clean sheets of newspaper. Continue to squeeze any extra water out of the foil. If you see any holes or tears in the paper, pinch the sides of the holes or tears together.
9. After three hours, carefully peel the paper from the foil back. Trim the paper into a square note card. Use

crayons, markers, or paint to decorate the note card. 10. Try this same experiment using clean sheets of white paper instead of newspaper. What do you notice is different about the feel, look, and texture of the paper? Resource: Standards-Based Investigations Science Labs, Shell Education
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How Does Dough Work?


Materials: 700 mL (3 cups) flour 475 mL (2 cups) salt (Ask Grade 5) Bowl 120 mL (1/2 cup) vegetable oil Spoon Water Baking tray Paper Oven

Directions: 1. Mix the flour and salt in the bowl. 2. Add the oil and mix it in with the spoon. 3. Pour in water and stir until the mixture sticks together. 4. Roll the mixture into a ball. Divide it among your group.
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5. Make a shape or a creature out of your mixture. 6. Place your shape or creature on a piece of paper on the baking tray. Draw your shape.
7. Your teacher will bake the shape in the oven at 180 degrees for 10 minutes. What happens to the shape? Can

you turn your shape back into flour, salt, oil, and water? How or why?

Resource: Standards-Based Investigations Science Labs, Shell Education

4.D.1.b Compare the observable properties of objects before and after they have been subjected to various processes.

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SEE LESSON SEEDS FROM 4.D.1.a


Resources to Support 4.D.1.b Name of Resource ScienceSaurus Safari Montage Where Can the Resource Be Found? Pages 234-255 All About Solids, Liquids, and Gases All About Properties of Matter These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students. Notes

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

4.D.1.c
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Ask and seek answers to What if questions about what might happen to the materials if different processes, such as heating, freezing, and dissolving were used to change them. Resources to Support 4.D.1.c
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 234-255 All About Solids, Liquids, and Gases All About Properties of Matter

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

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Mystery Matter Exploring Physical Changes in Matter


Materials: 1 cup of water 16 oz box of corn starch (ask Grades 1 and 5) You can mix the water and cornstarch together before class or have the kids help during class. Large bowl Zipper-style sandwich bags (for each group or students) Spoon 6 oz plastic cup filled with frozen water Directions: 1. Hold up the clear plastic cup with frozen water. What state of matter is the material in the cup? (solid) If you want to change the solid into a liquid, what would you need to do? (heat, let the cup sit, etc.) Once the ice turns completely liquid, is there any way to make it solid again? (Place back into the freezer.) 2. Explain that when you freeze and melt a substance, you are making a physical change. In a physical change, the material doesnt change its composition, only its form. Most physical changes are reversible, and the most common ones involved adding or taking away heat. 3. Introduce the mystery matter. Have the students hold the bag of mystery matter in their hands. Make and record observations. 4. What happens when you poke it, squeeze it, etc.?
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5. What would happen if we made it hot or cold? Resource: Sandwich Bag Science, Tomecek

Resources to Support 5.A.1.a (Grade 3)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Balance and Motion

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 254-259, 280-297 Investigation 2 Part 3 Investigation 3 Parts 1-3

Notes

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

5.A.1.a (Grade 3) Describe the position of an object by locating it relative to another object or to its background.

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Lesson Seed
Where Is It?
Materials: Blocks of various shapes, sizes, and/or colors or various items or pictures of various items Crayons or markers

Directions: 1. With your teacher, brainstorm a list of words that tell where something is located. Write the words below. 2. Get in a group of four. Each student need two blocks. 3. Take turns around the circle. When it is our turn, place a block on the table. Everyone should say one fact about the blocks location. Write the facts down as you go. 4. Draw the blocks as they are laid out. 5. How would you describe the location of an item without using position or direction? 6. Pick a shape and describe its location in several different ways. (Dont move the shape, just tell where it is using different positional words!) Resource: Standards-Based Investigations Science Labs, Shell Education

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5.A.1.b Take objects apart and rearrange the parts to identify and describe the ways the parts work together.

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Resources to Support 5.A.1.b


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Balance and Motion Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 254-259, 280-297 Investigation 3 Parts 1-3 Tops and Yo-Yos (More suitable for teachers) Bill Nye: Balance

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.
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5.A.1.b (Grade 3)
Using information from multiple trails, compare the speeds (faster or slower) of objects that travel the same distance in different amounts of time.

Resources to Support 5.A.1.b (Grade 3)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Balance and Motion Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 254-259, 280-297 Investigation 3 Parts 1-3 Tops and Yo-Yos (More suitable for teachers) Bill Nye: Balance Bill Nye: Motion

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

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5.A.1.c Ask and seek answers to What if questions about the changes made to the objects and how they affect the way objects work, for example, if a part were left out of the object would it make a difference in how the object works?

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Resources to Support 5.A.1.c


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Balance and Motion Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 254-259, 280-297 Investigation 3 Parts 1-3 Tops and Yo-Yos (More suitable for teachers) Bill Nye: Balance Bill Nye: Motion

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.
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5.A.1.c (Grade 3) Using information from multiple trials, compare the distances that objects moving at different speeds travel in the same amount of time. Resources to Support 5.A.1.c
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Balance and Motion Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 254-259, 280-297 Investigation 3 Parts 1-3 Tops and Yo-Yos (More suitable for teachers) Bill Nye: Balance Bill Nye: Motion

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.
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5.A.2.a (Grade 3) Observe and describe the way an objects motion changes in a variety of situations (rolling a ball, bouncing a ball, dropping a yo-yo, winding up a toy, etc.) and identify what may have caused the change.

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5.A.2.b (Grade 3) Describe changes in the motion of objects as they move across different textured surfaces and suggest possible causes for the Resources to Support 5.A.2.a (Grade 3)
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Balance and Motion Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 280-297 Investigation 3 Parts 1-3 Tops and Yo-Yos (More suitable for teachers) Bill Nye: Balance Bill Nye: Motion

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.
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change.

5.A.2.c (Grade 3) Resources to Support 5.A.2.b (Grade 3)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Balance and Motion Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 280-297 Investigation 3 Parts 1-3 Tops and Yo-Yos (More suitable for teachers) Bill Nye: Balance Bill Nye: Motion

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.
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Observe and describe that objects fall to the ground unless something holds them up (gravity).

Resources to Support 5.A.2.c (Grade 3)


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus FOSS: Balance and Motion Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 280-297 Investigation 3 Parts 1-3 Bill Nye: Balance

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.
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5.B.1.a Based on evidence from investigations describe that materials, such as clay are not changed by certain actions, such as reshaping or breaking into pieces.

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Resources to Support 5.B.1.a


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 234-255 All About Solids, Liquids, and Gases All About Properties of Matter

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

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5.B.1.b Ask and seek answers to questions about what happened to the materials if other things were done to them, such as being placed in a freezer, heated, etc. Resources to Support 5.B.1.b
Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 234-255 All About Solids, Liquids, and Gases All About Properties of Matter

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

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5.B.1.a Recognize that things that give off light also give off heat.

Resources to Support 5.B.1.a


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 276-279 What is Energy? Safety Awareness

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

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5.B.1.b Describe methods of producing heat. Burning Friction between surfaces Electricity in wires

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Resources to Support 5.B.1.b


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 274-279 What is Energy? All About Safety Awareness

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

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Lesson Seeds How Can I Use the Sun to Cook?


Materials: *A pizza box *Black construction paper *Some aluminum foil *Glue *Tape *Scissors *Clear plastic wrap *Ruler *Felt tip marker *Straw Directions: 1. Draw a 3 cm (1 in.) border on the top of the pizza box.

Lid Foil

Cut-Out

Plastic

Construction Paper

2. Cut along three sides of the border. Do not cut the line running along the back of the box. 3. Make a flap by folding the top of the box back.
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4. Line the flap with aluminum foil. Be sure to smooth out the wrinkles and then glue the foil into place. 5. With the flap up, place the plastic over the open and tap the plastic to the bottom of the box. This will make a window. 6. Line the bottom of the box with aluminum foil. 7. Cover the foil on the bottom of the box with black construction paper. Tape the construction paper into place. 8. Close the pizza box window and prop the flap (lid) open with a straw. Point the box towards the sun. 9. How long do you guess it will take to melt a handful of chocolate chips in the oven? 10, Test your guess. How long did it take? Why would a solar oven be useful Resource: Standards-Based Investigations Science Labs, Shell Education

How Can I Make Heat?


Materials: Sandpaper (Ask Grades 1 or 5) Block of wood Rubber band

Directions: 1. Rub your hands together as fast as you can.


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2. Keep rubbing for 10 seconds. How do your hands feel? 3. Get a piece of sandpaper and a block of wood. 4. Rub the wood with the sandpaper for 10 seconds. Stop. Touch the wood. How does it feel? 5. Does rubbing two things together makes them feel warmer or colder? 6. Put the rubber band around your thumb and index finger on both hands. 7. Quickly stretch the rubber band. Place a long section against your forehead. Does it feel warm? 8. When you stretch the rubber band, the tine parts that make up the rubber band rub against each other. Draw the way that the rubber band made heat. 9. Ask your parents how your home is heated. 10. Pretend that a friend is cold. Draw them a picture to show one way that he or she can warm up.

Resource: Standards-Based Investigations Science Labs, Shell Education

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Heat Energy From Friction What happens when you rapidly rub your hands together?
Have the students put their hands on their faces. Have the students discuss how their hands feel. Tell the students to press the palms of their hands together. Tell them to rub their hands together fast and had while they count to 10 and then put their hands on their face again. Ask the how their hands feel now. Why? They are warmer because the friction between their hands created heat energy. Friction occurs with two objects are rubbed together. Heat energy is produced by friction. Let the students hands cool off and them repeat the experiment. Do they get the same results? Have the students rub their hands over their desk tops. Coats, sweaters, and books are other mediums the students can be encouraged to rub their hands across. Each time they should place their hands on their face. Other Things to Try: Rubbing tow inflated balloons together will create friction and raise the temperature. What happens? Why? Try rubbing two sheets of fine sandpaper together. There will be enough heat produced that you will not want to put your hands on them. Resource: AIMS Primarily Physics

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5.C.1.a Identify sources of electricity. Electrical outlets Batteries

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Resources to Support 5.C.1.a


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 271-275 What is Energy? All About Electricity Safety Awareness Magic School Bus Gets Charged

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

Lesson Seeds

Ho

w Do I Use Electricity?

Students should be cautioned not to experiment with sources of electricity without adult supervision.
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Materials:
A timer

Directions: 1. Your teacher will set the time for five minutes. 2. Look around the room. Find the things that use electricity. Look for things that are plugged in. 3. Fill in the chart. Draw pictures of the things. Object What does it do? Where does it get it power?

4. Talk about the objects that you found. Where do they get electricity from?

5. Add things that you missed to your chart.


6. Some objects are not plugged in. But they use power. How? They run on batteries. Do batteries give or use

energy. 7. What kinds of things run electricity? 8. Name three things in your home the use electricity. Draw them. Tell what they do. Resource: Standards-Based Investigations Science Labs, Shell Education

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How Can I Light a Light Bulb?


Students should be cautioned not to experiment with sources of electricity without adult supervision.
Materials: Rubber bands Fluorescent light bulb

Directions: 1. Darken the room as much as possible ~ the darker the room the better! 2. Rub the balloon on your hair as rapidly as possible for several seconds. 3. Touch the balloon to the light bulb. What happens? 4. What normally causes the light bulb to light up? 5. How is this experiment like lightning? 6. If your used different sized balloons in the experiment would they make the light bulb light up for a longer amount of time? Why or why not? Resource: Standards-Based Investigations Science Labs, Shell Education

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How Can a Battery Make Heat?


Students should be cautioned not to experiment with sources of electricity without adult supervision.
Materials: 3 cm x 15 cm ( 1 in. x 6 in.) strip of foil AA battery Timer Directions: 1. Fold the foil in half (hot dog style). 2. Fold the foil in half again (hot dog style). You have made a wire. 3. Hold the batter with one hand. With the other hand, hold the ends of the wire against the end of the battery. 4. Hold the wire for 10 seconds. Does it feel the same, colder, or hotter? 5. Quickly take the wire from the battery. 6. Batteries store electric energy. The wire let this energy flow from the battery. Why did the wires temperature change? 7. Name three things in your home that use batteries. What do these things do? 8. Draw the setup for this experiment. Write what happened. Resource: Standards-Based Investigations Science Labs, Shell Education

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How Can Fruit Make Electricity?


Students should be cautioned not to experiment with sources of electricity without adult supervision. Materials: A lemon ~ 2 cuts about an inch apart A penny A nickel Two pieces of electrical wire with the ends exposed (ask Grade 4)

Directions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Take the coins and push each coin into one of the cuts. Push the coins almost all the way down. Take one wire and push it all the way down next to the penny. Take the other wire and push it all the way down next to the nickel. Hold both ends of the wires and touch them to your tongues. Pay attention to what you feel. What other items do you use that require batteries? How is the closed electrical system (or
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electrical look) made? Draw a picture of one of the items and its electrical system.
Resource: Standards-Based Investigations Science Labs, Shell Education

5.C.1.b Identify the devices that use electricity to produce light, heat, and sound. (Students should be cautioned not to experiment with sources of electricity without adult supervision.)

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Resources to Support 5.C.1.b


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 271-275 What is Energy? All About Electricity Safety Awareness Magic School Bus Gets Charged

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

Lesson Seeds
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Have the students keep a classroom chart and or a three part Foldable of things that use electricity to produce light, heat, or sound. Students should name things in their environment. Students should be cautioned not to experiment with sources of electricity without adult supervision.

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6.A.1.a
Describe natural resources as something from the natural environment that is used to meet human needs.

Resources to Support 6.A.1.a


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 318-333, 344-349 All About Forest Ecosystems Environmental Health Magic School Bus Holiday Special: Recycling Plants of the Rainforest The United States U.S. Industries & Resources What is Economics?

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

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6.A.1.b
Identify water, air, soil, minerals, animals, and plants as basic natural resources.

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Resources to Support 6.A.1.b


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 318-333, 344-349 All About Forest Ecosystems Environmental Health Magic School Bus Holiday Special: Recycling Plants of the Rainforest The United States U.S. Industries & Resources What is Economics?

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

6.A.1.c
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Explain that food, fuels, and fibers are produced from basic natural resources.

Resources to Support 6.A.1.c


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 318-333, 344-349 All About Forest Ecosystems Environmental Health Magic School Bus Holiday Special: Recycling Plants of the Rainforest The United States U.S. Industries & Resources What is Economics?

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

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6.A.1.d
Identify ways that humans use Earths natural resources to meet their needs.

Resources to Support 6.A.1.d


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 318-333, 344-349 All About Forest Ecosystems Environmental Health Magic School Bus Holiday Special: Recycling Plants of the Rainforest The United States U.S. Industries & Resources What is Economics?

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES.

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SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

6.A.1.e
Explain that some natural resources are limited and need to be used wisely.

Resources to Support 6.A.1.e


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 318-333, 344-349 All About Forest Ecosystems Environmental Health Magic School Bus Holiday Special: Recycling Plants of the Rainforest The United States U.S. Industries & Resources What is Economics?

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of

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your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

6.B.1.a
Identify and describe that individual and group actions, such as turning off lights, conserving water, recycling, picking up litter, or joining an organization can extend the natural resources of the environment.

Resources to Support 6.B.1.a


Name of Resource
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage

Where Can the Resource Be Found?


Pages 318-333, 344-349 All About Forest Ecosystems Environmental Health

Notes

These videos may be used to enhance science investigations.

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Magic School Bus Holiday Special: Recycling Plants of the Rainforest The United States U.S. Industries & Resources What is Economics?

The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

6.B.1.b
Identify and describe that individual and group actions, such as leaving lights on, wasting water, or throwing away recyclables, can limit the natural resources of the environment.

Resources to Support 6.B.1.b


Name of Resource
WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

Where Can the Resource Be

Notes

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Found?
ScienceSaurus Safari Montage Pages 318-333, 344-349 All About Forest Ecosystems Environmental Health Magic School Bus Holiday Special: Recycling Plants of the Rainforest The United States U.S. Industries & Resources What is Economics? These videos may be used to enhance science investigations. The videos are not intended to replace investigations or to be used as a stand-alone activity. Please select chapters or segments within the videos to meet the needs of your students.

PLEASE BE SURE TO VISIT netTrekker FOR ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. SEE DIRECTIONS ON PAGE 115.

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Unit Vocabulary
Please note the following:

These words are suggested vocabulary words. Please continue to make instructional decisions about vocabulary words you feel your students may or may not need. At the bottom of each vocabulary card is coded. U2I1 stands for Unit 2 Investigation 1. U2SC stands for Unit 1 State Curriculum. Vocabulary should be reviewed at the end of each investigation and identified in the content/inquiry chart. Science vocabulary may be added to the Word Wall. Have your students help you determine at the end of the module what words should be displayed on the Word Wall. If you choose not to add the vocabulary words to your Word Wall, be sure these words are displayed where they are visible to all students during the time the unit is being taught.

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crayfish balance

U2I1

U2I1

clothespin
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U2I1

counterweight

U2I1

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stable arch
U2I1

U2I1

triangle
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U2I1

balance point

U2I1

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wire

U2I1

mobile motion spin


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U2I1

U2I2

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rotate top axis


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U2I2

U2I2

shaft

U2I2

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zoomer knot wing


WCPS 2010-2011 Physics U2I2

U2I2

twirler
U2I2

U2I2

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air resistance roll axle


WCPS 2010-2011 Physics U2I3

U2I2

wheel
U2I3

U2I3

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slope ramp

U2I3

U2I3

sphere runway
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U2I3

U2I3

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loop

U2I3

spiral

U2I3

observations
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U2SC

investigations

U2SC

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weight work
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U2SC

conclusions
U2SC

U2SC

distance

U2SC

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speed trial
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U2SC

travel
U2SC

U2SC

position

U2SC

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gravity heat
U2SC

U2SC

friction
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U2SC

electricity

U2SC

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sources light fuel


WCPS 2010-2011 Physics U2SC

U2SC

surface
U2SC

U2SC

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processes

U2SC

observable properties materials


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burning

U2SC

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Student Vocabulary for Content Sort

crayfish U2I1 balance U2I1 clothespin U2I1 counterweight stable U2I1 arch U2I1 triangle U2I1 balance point wire U2I1 mobile U2I1 motion U2I2
WCPS 2010-2011 Physics

U2I1

U2I1

spin U2I2 rotate U2I2 top U2I2 axis U2I2 shaft U2I2 zoomer U2I2 knot U2I2 twirler U2I2 wing U2I2 air resistance roll U2I3

U2I2

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wheel U2I3 axle U2I3 slope U2I3 ramp U2I3 sphere U2I3 runway U2I3 loop U2I3 spiral U2I3 observations U2SC investigations U2SC weight U2SC materials U2SC observable
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conclusions U2SC work U2SC distance U2SC speed U2SC travel U2SC trial U2SC position U2SC gravity U2SC heat U2SC friction U2SC electricity U2SC processes U2SC light U2SC
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properties burning U2SC fuels U2SC

U2SC

surface U2SC

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Careers in Chemistry and Physics


Chemistry
Agricultural chemistry Analytical chemistry Biochemistry Biotechnology Catalysis Chemical education Chemical engineering Chemical information specialists Chemical sales Chemical technology Colloid and surface chemistry Consulting Consumer product chemistry Environmental chemistry WCPS 2010-2011 Physics Forensic chemistry Geochemistry Hazardous waste management Inorganic chemistry Materials science Medicinal chemistry Organic chemistry Oil and petroleum Physical chemistry Polymer chemistry Pulp and paper chemistry R&D management Science writing Textile chemistry Water chemistry Acoustics Aeronautical engineer Agricultural engineer Air traffic controller Airline pilot Archaeologist Architect Astronomer Broadcasting Civil engineer Clinical scientist Computing Designer Doctor Electrical engineer Environmental scientist

Physics
Gas engineer Geologist Health services Journalist Marine engineering Mathematician Mechanical engineer Meteorologist Naval career Nuclear scientist Oceanographer Patent agent Pharmacist Radiographer Scientific officer (government)

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Food and flavor chemistry

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Sorts (Also known as concept attainment)

Students can use sorting mats to categorize pictures and words. Students identify characteristics that match the categories and their discussions about their sorts demonstrate a deeper understanding of the content.

How do you do sorts? Cut out each picture or word. Pose the question from the top of the page. Sort the pictures and/or words into the yes or no column on the sorting mat.

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For Example:

What are foods we can eat?

Yes

No

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Yes

No

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Investigation 1 Part 1

1. Something is balanced when it stays in position on its own without being held there.

2. Counterweights should be placed on top to make the crayfish balance.

Investigation 1 Part 2 & 3

1. You can tell something is in a stable position if the counterweights are above the balance point.

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Investigation 2 Part 1

1. You need force to start a top spinning.

2. Fast-spinning tops are less stable than slow one.

3. Bigger tops are more stabled and spin longer.

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Investigation 2 Part 2

1. Both tops and zoomers spin and need a force to start spinning.

2. Tops are put in motion by pulling the straw around.

3. Zoomers are put in motion by pulling on the string.

4. You can speed up a zoomer by pulling on the string with more force.

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Investigation 2 Part 3

1. Tops, zoomers, and twirlers rotate.

2. Twirlers move when air pushes against the extended wing.

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Investigation 3 Part 1

1. Things roll down ramps.

2. Use two different size wheels on an axle to make the roller roll straight.

3. Use wheels the same sizes to make a roller that turns.

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Investigation 3 Part 2

1. A cup will roll in the direction of the smaller end.

2. To make a cup roll straight, tape another cup to it and let it roll on the large ends.

3. Weights can change the speed of a rolling cup.

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Investigation 3 Part 3

1. Round things roll.

2. A cup rolls in a straight path.

3. A sphere can roll in all directions.

4. A sphere rolls down a slope.

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Literature in the Science Classroom


The use of literature in the science classroom enhances student understanding of scientific concepts. Literature can expose students to lives of real and fictitious people were instrumental in scientific discovery or who have applied scientific ideas to real-life situations. Resource: Fossweb.com Children should be encouraged to use many different books to learn about science. A book can be the expert to refer to for an answer or clarification, or a book can spark an interest or an investigation. More often, however, books, simply serve to deepen a childs understanding of some familiar topic, helping them to make increasing sense of the world and function more confidently in it. Resource: Science and Language Links, Johanna Scott

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Office of Elementary Education P a g e 136 Around and Around Author: Patricia J. Murphy Level: 1-2 Description: Introduces circular movement and the forces that affect it. Back and Forth Author: Lola M. Schaefer Level: 1-2 Description: Simple text and photographs provide examples of back-and-forth movement, including the pendulum in a clock, a child in a rocking chair, and a tree in the wind. 24 pages Back and Forth Author: Patricia J. Murphy Level: 1-2 Description: A simple introduction to back-and-forth movement. Balance And Motion Author: Lisa Trumbauer Level: 1-2 Description: Simple text and photographs examine how gravity and other forces affect balance and motion. Balances Author: Adele Richardson Level: K-3 Description: Introduces the function, parts, and uses of balances, and provides instructions for two activities that demonstrate how a balance works. The Bicycle Author: Larry Hills Level: 2-5 Description: Introduces the history and development of the bicycle and explains how a bicycle works. WCPS 2010-2011 Physics Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 137 Experiments with Motion Author: Salvatore Tocci Level: 2-4 Description: Projects and experiments explore motion and the forces that cause motion, covering such topics as inertia and resistance. Force and Motion Author: Delta Education Level: 2-3 Description: Students read about the relationship between force, motion, and work. They discover how the six simple machines help people do work by moving objects easier, faster, or farther. Finally, students find out how the waterwheel works and how friction affects motion. Full of Energy Author: Sally Hewitt Level: K-5 Description: Offers an interactive approach introducing the concept of energy as it is found in food, sun, wind, water, and other sources and as it is used for nutrition, warmth, and motion. How Do You Lift A Lion? Author: Robert E. Wells Level: K-2 Description: Provides a simple introduction to the use of levers, pulleys, and wheels to move heavy objects. Technical terms are introduced in the text as well as in a glossary. I Fall Down Author: Vicki Cobb Level: K-3 Description: Why do things fall down? In this book, illustrations and playful type lead you to explore how gravity works. With materials like molasses, sponges, soap, and rubber bands, the book suggests casual activities to play with both gravity and weight. Inclined Planes WCPS 2010-2011 Physics Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 138 Author: Michael S. Dahl Level: K-2 Description: Describes many different kinds, uses, and benefits of inclined planes, and provides basic information about levers, inclined planes, pulleys, and wheels and axles. Learn about the Way Things Move Author: Heidi Gold-Dworkin, Donna Goodman Lee Level: K-2 Description: Describes the basic forces that speed us up, slow us down, and cause things to rise and fall.

Machines Author: David Glover Level: 5-6 Description: Project book full of wonderful ideas for the application of simple machines, balance, and forces. Machines We Use Author: Sally Hewitt Level: K-3 Description: Examines various simple machines and how they are used to make work easier. Provides activities using wheels, levers, pulleys, screws, and more. Make It Balance Author: David Evans, Claudette Williams Level: 1-2 Description: Guides young students to explore their own balance and suggests simple balance tricks for them to perform, like balancing pillows on their heads and balls on their feet. Make It Move! Author: Jennifer VanVoorst Level: K-2 Description: Simple text and photographs introduce simple machines and give examples of their everyday use. WCPS 2010-2011 Physics Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 139 Make It Move! (Spanish) Author: Jennifer VanVoorst Level: Pre-K-3 Description: Simple text and photographs introduce simple machines and give examples of their everyday use. Motion Author: Rebecca Olien Level: K-3 Description: Introduces motion and provides instructions for an activity to demonstrate some of its characteristics. Motion Author: John Farndon Level: 2-5 Description: Motion is a concept all young readers can relate to. It is part of their everyday lives. The text reveals concepts and laws of motion. Motion and Movement Author: Joy Frisch Level: 2-4 Description: Examines the topics of motion, force, gravity, and friction. On The Move Author: Wendy Madgwick Level: 1-2 Description: Provides instructions for a variety of activities, which introduce some basic principles of physics. 32 pages Pulleys Author: Michael S. Dahl Level: 1-2 Description: Describes many different kinds, uses, and benefits of pulleys. Provides basic information about levers, inclined planes, pulleys, and wheels and axles. Push and Pull WCPS 2010-2011 Physics Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 140 Author: Lola M. Schaefer, Gail Saunders-Smith Level: 1-2 Description: Simple text and photographs describe and illustrate push-and-pull movement. Simple Machines Author: Allan Fowler Level: 1-2 Description: Describes and compares four kinds of simple machines, levers, pulleys, wheels, and ramps. Sound Author: Delta Education Level: K-4 Description: Students read about what causes sound, how sound travels, and how sounds differ. They learn how our voices and ears work to allow us to speak and hear. They discover how different types of musical instruments make sounds. Sounds All Around Author: Wendy Pfeffer Level: K-2 Description: This informative concept book provides clear explanations about sounds and hearing. It describes sound waves, how bones help us hear, and how animals hear. Up and Down Author: Patricia J. Murphy Level: 1-2 Description: A simple introduction to up-and-down movement. The Ways Things Move Author: Robin Nelson Level: K-2 Description: Simple text introduces how different objects move, in different patterns and in different speeds, when pushed or pulled. What Makes A Magnet? WCPS 2010-2011 Physics Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 141 Author: Franklyn M. Branley Level: K-4 Description: Addresses the properties and behaviors of magnetism and the history and uses of magnets. Activities include making a magnet and a compass. Whats Faster than a Speeding Cheetah? Author: Robert E. Wells Level: K-5 Description: Compares the speed of various animals, from humans to cheetahs to peregrine falcons, with even faster things like rockets, meteoroids, and light. Whirlers and Twirlers: Science Fun with Spinning Author: Vicki Cobb Level: 2-4 Description: Features simple experiments that introduce readers to balance, spin, centripetal and centrifugal forces, friction, and other concepts. Buzz Author: Janet S. Wong Level: K-2 Description: A little boy observes the buzzing of a bee outside his window as well as all the sounds that begin the day. High-wire Henry Author: Mary Calhoun Level: 2-4 Description: Although Henry the cat learns tightrope walking only to impress the humans in his family who have stopped paying attention to him because of their new puppy, his skill comes in handy when the puppy gets stranded on a high ledge. The Listening Walk Author: Paul Showers Level: K-2 Description: A young girl, her father, and their dog take a quiet walk through the neighborhood. They identify a variety of sounds, including lawn sprinklers, a baby crying, and a woman clicking in high heels. WCPS 2010-2011 Physics Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 142 Mirette And Bellini Cross Niagara Falls Author: Emily Arnold McCully Level: 2-4 Description: With the help of a young immigrant boy they meet on their crossing to America, two famous tightrope walkers manage to survive the treachery of a rival showman. Mirette On The High Wire Author: Emily Arnold McCully Level: 1-2 Description: Mirette learns tightrope walking from Monsieur Bellini, a guest in her mothers boardinghouse, not knowing that he is a celebrated tightrope artist who has withdrawn from performing because of fear. Ten Apples Up On Top! Author: Theo LeSieg Level: K-3 Description: This book has been helping young students learn to count and read simultaneously for over 40 years. Simple illustrations and rhymes tell the story of an apple-balancing competition. Tug-of-War: All About Balance Author: Kiarsten Hall Level: K-2 Description: When the bigger Beasties take on the smaller Beasties in a game of tug-of-war, they soon learn that size matters. Up And Down On The Merry Go Round Author: John Archambault Level: 1-2 Description: In this rhyming story, children describe the sights and sounds of riding on the merry-go-round.

The Science Book Of Motion Author: Neil Ardley Level: 3-5 WCPS 2010-2011 Physics Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 143 Description: Simple experiments demonstrate the laws of motion. Experiments include building slides, swinging records, looping the loop, and a variation on zoomers. Forces and Movement Author: Peter D. Riley, Jinny Johnson Level: 3-6 Description: Introduces the basic science behind forces and movement, presents experiments to show how they work, and shows how these principles can be applied in everyday life. Pushing And Pulling Author: Gary Gibson Level: 3-5 Description: Contains experiments about gravity, friction, weight, and more. Double page spreads consist of illustrated step-bystep directions with proper safety cautions, explanations of how or why the experiments work, and suggestions for further exploration. Ancient Machines: From Wedges to Waterwheels Author: Michael Woods, Mary B. Woods Level: Unknown Description: Discusses the invention of six simple machines in various ancient civilizations from the Stone Age to the fall of the Roman Empire. Force and Motion Author: FlashKids Editors Level: Unknown Description: This four-page chart covers Newtons laws of motion, Aristotle and Galileo, gravity, g-force, and center of gravity. Forces and Motion Author: Simon De Pinna Level: Unknown Description: Explains the concepts of force and motion through experiments that can be performed at home.

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Office of Elementary Education P a g e 144 Janice VanCleaves Machines: Mind-Boggling Experiments You Can Turn into Science Fair Projects Author: Janice Pratt VanCleave Level: Unknown Description: A collection of science projects and experiments exploring simple machines such as levers and screws. Science Experiments with Forces Author: Sally Nankivell-Aston Level: Unknown Description: Students will find out about different types of forces and what happens when forces act on objects. Experiments include sorting, measuring, and feeling forces. Discusses the forces involved with air and water motion. Spinning Blackboard and Other Dynamic Experiments on Force and Motion Author: Paul Doherty, Don Rathjen Level: Unknown Description: Presents over 20 experiments exploring the principles of mechanics. The experiments are miniature versions of some of the exhibits at the Exploratorium, San Franciscos famed museum of science, art, and human perception. Wedges Author: Anne Welsbacher Level: Unknown Description: Uses everyday examples to show that wedges are simple machines that make pushing, pulling apart, and lifting easier.

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netTrekker What is netTrekker?


netTrekker is an educational search tool for K-12 that brings digital resources into the classroom in a safe, relevant and engaging way, making it faster and easier to provide a more personalized and productive learning experience for every student.

How do I access suggested sites for this unit of instruction?


1. Login on netTrekker. (See next page for directions.)
2.

On the far right side select My Portfolio under My Tools.

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3.

Select District: Washington County Schools District Portfolio.

4.

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4. Select Elementary.

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5.

Select Science.

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6. 7. 8.

Select your grade level. (example: Grade 5) Select the folder identified by the unit of study. (example: Chemistry (Unit 2)) Select the site you wish to visit. You may select (more) to learn more about the site before leaving the Portfolio.

9. See below for special features once the site you have selected is opened. 10. To close a site, close the window the site is opened on. The Portfolio will still remain in an opened window.

Special features for entering websites through netTrekker

Read Aloud ~ Select the Read Aloud tab at the top of the page. Highlight any text you wish to have read aloud. The text highlighted will be read aloud. Make sure that the speaker volume is turned on through your computer settings. Dictionary ~ Select the Dictionary tab at the top of the page. Select any word in the text. A window with definitions and translations will appear. If Read Aloud is on, the word selected will
Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

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be read aloud.

Vote if you Dislike or Like the website.

See the netTrekker Quick Reference Guide for More Information

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Websites

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Websites
Amusement Park Physics (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.learner.org/exhibits/parkphysics/ Description: What variables and laws of physics affect amusement park ride design? At this website, you'll find out by designing your own roller coaster and experimenting with bumper car collisions. Balancing Frogs (student and teacher resource) URL: http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/67730/20070207-0000/www.sofweb.vic.edu.au/steps/students/56Years/machines/frogs.html Description: Balance frogs on a seesaw in this online activity. Benham Disk (teacher resource) URL: http://www.michaelbach.de/ot/col_benham/index.html Description: Check out this optical illusion website that includes an interactive Benham Disk similar to the one that students place on their tops. Exploratorium Snacks: Balancing Stick (teacher resource) URL: http://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/balancing_stick.html Description: Directions for investigating how to balance a stick on your handshould a clay weight sit on top or at the bottom? Exploratorium Snacks: Center of Gravity (teacher resource) URL: http://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/center_of_gravity.html Description: Here is a simple way to find the balance point of any long, thin object. All that is needed is a long stick (like a meteror yardstick) and a lump of clay. Exploratorium Snacks: Downhill Race (teacher resource) URL: http://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/downhill_race.html Description: Directions are given for making two rolling "wheels" from cookie tins. Inside, magnets are placed in the center or WCPS 2010-2011 Physics Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

Office of Elementary Education P a g e 154 around the rim to compare how the added weight affects the wheels speeds. How Rollercoasters Work (student and teacher resource) URL: http://science.howstuffworks.com/roller-coaster.htm Description: Examine the principles that keep coaster cars flying around their tracks and look at the hardware that keeps everything running, as well as the forces that make the ride so much fun. How Water Slides Work (teacher resource) URL: http://www.howstuffworks.com/water-slide2.htm Description: Illustrations and photographs show the construction of an intricate water slide, which looks like a fantastic classroom runway construction. The Yo-Yo Guy (student and teacher resource) URL: http://www.yoyoguy.com/info/yoyo/ Description: The official Yo-Yo Guy tells how to set up your yo-yo and do tricks.

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Formative Assessments Formative assessments are used to gain information that improves instruction and
advances student learning. Formative assessment entails both gathering information about childrens ongoing development of ideas and skills and using this in modifying activities and the teachers interventions to meet the childrens needs (Harlen 2001, p. 64) This process of gathering and using information about student understanding is thus ongoing and cyclical.

Resource: Science and Learning, March 2007, Assessing for Science Learning, Michele H. Lee and Sandra K. Abell

Administering the formative assessments is optional and the scores are NOT reported. Formative assessments provide an opportunity to informally assess students after each investigation for instructional purposes. Formative assessments do not serve as a practice for the end of the unit assessment. A formative assessment is provided for each unit investigation.
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A key is provided for each formative assessment.

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Name ____________________________ Investigation 1: Balance Formative Assessment 1. Clothespins are used as a counterweight to A. B. C. D. move the crayfish balance the crayfish decorate the crayfish keep the crayfish together Which best describes an object in a stable position?

2.

A. The counterweights are above the balance point. B. The object falls over. C. The counterweights are below the balance point and the object does not fall.
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D. Three counterweights are used. 3. Circle the system that is stable.

4. Explain why the system you circled is a stable system. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________
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Investigation 1: Balance Formative Assessment Key

Item
1 2 3 4

Indicator
4.A.1.a-c 4.A.1.a-c 4.A.1.a-c 4.A.1.a-c

Scoring Tool
1 - Correct answer 0 Incorrect answer 1 - Correct answer 0 Incorrect answer 1 - Correct answer 0 Incorrect answer 2 Complete response 1 Partial response 0 Other B C

Performance Criteria/Answer

First object is circled 2 2 correct details. Student states that the object does not fall over and the counterweights are located below the balance point. 1 1 correct detail from the above explanation

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0 Other

Name _______________________________ Investigation 2: Spinners Formative Assessment


1.

Force is best described as the strength of something what happens when something comes to a stop a spinning top a push or pull that makes something move

A. B. C. D.

2. Which of the following would produce the most stable spinning top? A. B. C. D. a a a a slow spinning top top using 1 small disk fast spinning top using large disks slow spinning top using small disks
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3.

Air resistance is best described as air pushing on the wings of a twirler the speed of a spinning top the force on a zoomer air pulling on the wings of a twirler

A. B. C. D.

4. Michelle used a straw and a disk to make a top, but it would not spin. What can Michelle do to get her top to spin and stay in motion? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________
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Investigation 2: Spinners Formative Assessment Key Item


1 2 3 4

Indicator
4.A.1.a 3.5.A.2.a 4.A.1.a 3.5.A.2.a 4.A.1.a 3.5.A.2.a 4.A.1.a 3.5.A.2.a

Scoring Tool
1 - Correct answer 0 Incorrect answer 1 - Correct answer 0 Incorrect answer 1 - Correct answer 0 Incorrect answer 2 Complete response 1 Partial response 0 - Other D C A

Performance Criteria/Answer

2 2 correct details. Student states that force is needs to be applied and the weights need to be at the bottom of the rod. 1 1 correct detail from the above explanation 0 Other

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Name __________________________________ Investigation 3: Rollers Formative Assessment


1.

The best description of an axle is the rod that attached to the back wheels of a tricycle a ramp for a marble to roll down the handle bars on a bike the wheels on a bike Which best describes a slope?

A. B. C. D.

2.

A. a flat surface B. a rough surface C. a surface that is higher at one end and lower at the other end D. a straight surface

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3. Which object will roll in all directions? A. cup B. a ball C. a penny D. a rod

4. How do weights change the motion of rolling cups? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________
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Investigation 3: Rollers Formative Assessment Key

Item
1

Indicator
4.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.2.a-c 4.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.2.a-c 4.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.2.a-c 4.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.1.a-c 3.5.A.2.a-c

Scoring Tool
1 - Correct answer 0 Incorrect answer 1 - Correct answer 0 Incorrect answer 1 - Correct answer 0 Incorrect answer 2 Complete response 1 Partial response 0 - Other B C A

Performance Criteria/Answer

Students may include some of the following ideas in their answer: The cups roll faster when the weight is at the bottom. The cups roll slower when the weight is loose between the cups. The cups dont roll when the weight is on the side of the cup. The cups bump along when the weights are on the side of the cup.
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Grade 2 Unit 2
Standard 4: Chemistry Standard 5: Physics

SCIENCE BE
Grade 2 Standard 4: Chemistry and Standard 5:

NCHMARK

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Science Assessment Collection Windows


Teachers should determine the most appropriate date to administer the end of the module assessment, keeping in mind the dates they are due to Central Office. End of the module assessment must be completed, scan sheets bubbled, and received at Central Office by the dates listed below.

Unit Assessment Due Dates Unit 1 November 19, 2010 Unit 2 February 25, 2011 Unit 3 Last Day of School

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Unit Assessment Teacher Directions

To assist students in doing the best possible, you may read any text information to students as necessary. Remind students to read the directions for each task carefully. After completing each activity, students should self-evaluate their work by checking for completeness and making changes if necessary. Students should understand that if they use these strategies, they will achieve higher success.

Please remember that students should receive appropriate accommodations as mandated by their IEP and/or 504 Plan.

Time Consideration: This assessment can be administered in approximately one 60-minute session or two-30 minute sessions.

Materials and Handouts:


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General supplies such as pencils and erasers

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1. Use the words in the word box to label the diagram below.

counterweight

balance point

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2.

Which statement best describes when something is in a stable position? A. B. Counterweights are used. It is not falling over and there are counterweights below the balance point. It falls over easily.

C.

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3.Circle the shapes below that will balance in a stable position. You may circle more than one shape.

A.

B.

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C. 4. Write at least 1 word to describe the ways the items shown below move.

____________________________

________________________________

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________________________________

5.

Tim has a ball that he wants to move. What could he do to get the ball moving?

______________________________________________ 6. Draw a line to match the roller to their path on the ramps?

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7.

Circle the system that is NOT stable.

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Why is the system you circled NOT stable? Be sure to include what you know about balance and a stable system in your response. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
8.

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Draw a picture or name 1 source of electricity.

10.

Draw pictures or name 2 ways to produce heat.

11.

Draw pictures or name 2 objects that use electricity to produce sound.

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Chemistry and Physics Assessment Key 20 Points Total Item 1 Indicator 4.A.1.a-c Scoring Tool 2 Complete response 1 Partial response 0 Other Performance Criteria/Answer 1 point The student labels the pencil as the balance point. 1 point The student labels the clothespin as the counterweight 0 Other 2 4.A.1.a-c 1 Correct answer 0 Incorrect answer 3 4.A.1.a-c 2 Complete response 1 Partial response 0 Other 4 3.5.A.1.a-c 3 Complete response 2 Partially complete
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2 Student circles A and B 1 Student circles A OR B with or without C 0 Student circles C Accept reasonable responses. For example: fast, slow, round and round, spinning, straight,
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response 1 Partial response 0- Other

zigzag, back and forth 3 Student describes the three items movement accurately. 2 Student describes the two items movement accurately. 1 Student describes at least one items movement accurately. 0 Other

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Item 5

Indicator 3.5.A.1.a-c

Scoring Tool 1 Correct answer 0 Incorrect answer

Performance Criteria/Answer Accept reasonable answers. For example: push it, pull it, apply a force, etc. 1 Point There is a line drawn between Roller A and the first ramp. 1 Point There is a line drawn between Roller B and the third ramp. 1 Point There is a line drawn between Roller C and the second ramp.

3.5.A.1.a-c

3 Points Possible

4.A.1.a-c

1 Correct answer 0 Incorrect answer

The student circled the first picture.

4.A.1.a-c

2 Complete response 1 Partial response 0 Other

2 Answer includes that the system in not balanced and that the counterweights are not positioned below the balance point. 1 Answer includes only one reason why the system is unbalanced. 0 Other

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Item 9

Indicator 5.C.1.a

Scoring Tool 1 Complete response 0 Other

Performance Criteria/Answer The students names or draws a picture of a battery or electrical outlet. The student names or draws pictures of things that represent burning, friction, and/or electricity. The student names or draws pictures of things that use electricity to make sound. Ideas may include by not limited to TV, radio, video game, alarm, phone, etc.

10

5.B.1.b

2 Complete response 1 Partial response 0 Other

11

5.C.1.b

2 Complete response 1 Partial response 0 Other

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MSA Science Rubric LEVEL 3


There is evidence in this response that the student has a full and complete understanding of the question or problem.
The supporting scientific evidence is complete and demonstrates a full integration of scientific concepts, principles, and/or skills. The response reflects a complete synthesis of information, such as data, cause-effect relationships, or other collected evidence. The accurate use of scientific terminology strengthens the response. An effective application of the concept to a practical problem or real-world situation reveals a complete understanding of the scientific principles.*

LEVEL 2
There is evidence in this response that the student has a general understanding of the question or problem.
The supporting scientific evidence is generally complete with some integration of scientific concepts, principals, and/or skills. The response reflects some synthesis of information, such as data, cause-effect relationships, or other collected evidence. The accurate use of scientific terminology is present in the response. An application of the concept to a practical problem or real-world situation reveals a general understanding of the scientific principles.*

LEVEL 1
There is evidence in this response that the student has minimal understanding of the question or problem.
The supporting scientific evidence is minimal. The response provides little or no synthesis of information, such as data, cause-effect relationships, or other collected evidence. The accurate use of scientific terminology may not be present in the response. An application , if attempted, minimal*

LEVEL 0
There is evidence that the student has no understanding of the question or the problem.
The response is completely incorrect or irrelevant or there is no response.

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