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Before the start of the lab you should be able to answer the following questions:

2. Describe (at least) two different analogy methods which may be used in solving heat transfer problems.

4. In these analogies, what are the entities corresponding to temperature, heat transfer resistance, heat capacity and heat flow?

5. Explain how a two-dimensional, steady state, heat conducting problem can be solved using finite difference equation approach.

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1 OBJECTIVE

In this lab, Schmidts method for solving a transient heat conducting problem through a wall will be used. Experiment will be conducted to verify the calculated solution. A simple computer program will also be used for comparison.

Further more, two analogy methods, Hydraulic and Electrical, will be demonstrated. Two different electrical approaches will be investigated, one continuous and one discrete. Agreement between them is investigated. The hydraulic analogy will be demonstrated on a wall with changing temperature on one side.

A MS-Excel program is written for numerical study of the problem at hand. Also a commercial FEM software is demonstrated.

Some different methods of measuring the heat flow through a wall is demonstrated, one old and two more modern methods.

2 AIM

Get hands on experience of some heat flow measuring methods. Experience of analogy method in solving heat transfer problems. Introduction in solving heat transfer problem numerically, understand the approach of FDE (Finite Difference Equations).

KEEP IN MIND

KEEP IT SIMPLE

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3 THEORY

3.1 Introduction

The general heat transfer problem has four dimensions, i.e. three dimension in space in one in time. However, it is often possible to simplify to a certain limit. Often, the steady-state solution is wanted. Many problem can be treated with only two dimensions in space and sometimes even with only one dimension in space.

The general governing equation for heat transfer in a solid, assuming constant material properties and no internal heat generation, is: 2T +

2

2T z2

(1)

Eq. (1) can be solved numerically which will be showed in this lab for two different cases, transient heat transfer in an one dimensional wall (Schmidts method) and steady-state heat transfer in a two dimensional wall.

Another way to investigate the influence of different parameters in heat transfer problems is to use analogy methods. Electrical currents, hydraulic flows and heat flows are governed by the same type of differential equations, and thus it is possible to use electric or hydraulic analogies in the study of heat transfer.

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As stated earlier there are analogy between heat transfer and electricity and hydraulic. A former professor of our department, professor Bo Pierre, investigated the influence of the ribs on the insulating capability of the hull of refrigerated freight ships by using the electric analogy. A couple of article were published on the subject (in Swedish, Spantens inverkan p isoleringen vid kyllastfartyg, belyst med elektriska analogifrsk), see appendix.

The following equations are valid for the thermal and electric flows: q = U A T = T / Rth I = V / R (2) (3)

Thus, the heat flow q correspond to the current I, the temperature difference T correspond to the difference in electric potential V, and the heat transfer resistance Rth correspond to the electric resistance.

In transient problems, there is an additional correspondence between heat capacity and electric capacitance.

A hydraulic model may be used for visualizing the heat flow and temperature distribution through a wall. The heat flow correspond to the liquid flow, the heat transfer resistance in different layers in the wall correspond to the flow resistance of capillary tubes of different length and diameter. The temperature in these layers correspond to the pressure inside the tube, in our case visualized as the water level in the vertical tubes.

In transient problems, there is an additional correspondence between the amount of heat stored in each layer and the amount of water stored in the vertical tubes. A large tube diameter is able to store more water at a given water level, which then correspond to a large amount of heat stored at a given temperature.

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HEAT TRANSFER - LAB LESSON NO. 3 To evaluate the results of the analogy test, a number of scale factors are needed. These are shown in table 1.

Thermal Heat Q Analogous quantities Temperature T Time Relations: Transport function (corresponding to heat transfer) Q / = K t Conduction: K = A k / x Surface heat transfer: K=Ah Conservation functions (corresponding to heat balance) Scales: Q= T= = Relations between scale factors = nh = nh

T Q

Qel = I d el

Electric potential V Time el Qel / h = I = V / R

Q=CT C = m cp = A x cp

v = Ar hv Ar = tube area

v = hv = h =

= nel

Qel V el

= nel = nel

= nh

Q nh =

K T nh nh Ch C T nh Ar

Q nh =

C T nel C el C 1 K Rel C el

C C nh = h K Ar

nel =

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An analytical solution for eq.(1) can be attained for some simple geometries, however for the general case no such solution has been reported. To be able solve the problem at hand, some other method must be used. With the fast and cheap computers of today it is now possible for almost anyone to solve eq.(1) by using numerical methods. T

i-1 i-1/2

i+1/2 i+1

Figure 1: Temperature as a function of space From eq.(1) it is apparent that we must find a way of expressing the derivatives in an simply way. We are interested in solving the temperature in position i,j,k. If we only study the temperature dependency of the x coordinate, realizing that the dependency in y- and zdimension is treated in an analogous manner, the temperature gradients can be expressed as: T x T x

(m )

i +1 2, j , k

= =

( ) Ti +m,)j ,k Ti ,(m,k 1 j

x

) ( Ti ,(m,k Ti m,)j ,k j 1

(m )

i 1 2, j , k

(4)

where i, j, k denotes points in x, y, z dimension, respectively, and (m) denotes time step.

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HEAT TRANSFER - LAB LESSON NO. 3 The second derivative of temperature in point i,j,k is 2T x 2

(m ) (m ) (m )

i 1 2, j , k

=

i , j ,k

T x

i +1 2, j , k

T x

(5)

(m ) ( ) Ti +m,)j ,k Ti ,(m,k 1 j

=

i , j ,k

) ( Ti ,(m,k Ti m,)j ,k 1 j

x 2

(6)

(m ) ) Ti ,(m+)1,k Ti ,(m,k j j

=

i , j ,k

y

) ) Ti ,(m,k +1 Ti ,(m,k j j

) Ti ,(m,k Ti ,(m)1,k j j

y

) ) Ti ,(m,k Ti ,(m,k 1 j j

y z z z

y 2

) ) ) Ti ,(m,k +1 + Ti ,(m,k 1 2 Ti ,(m,k j j j

(7)

(m )

=

i , j ,k

z 2

m

=

i , j ,k

) + Ti ,( m,k 1) Ti (, m,k j j

(8)

+ ) Ti ,(m,k 1) Ti ,(m,k j j

(9)

In a steady state analysis the temperature at any given point is constant with respect to time, T = 0 . In eq.(9) the left hand side is then zero. For a two dimensional analysis (x,y)

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HEAT TRANSFER - LAB LESSON NO. 3 the temperature in z-direction is constant, T = 0 . Eq.(9) can then be simplified, assuming z

that the computational domain is spaced equal in both directions (y = x), as: Ti , j = Ti +1, j + Ti 1, j + Ti , j +1 + Ti , j 1 4 (10)

Again, we use eq.(9) as a starting point. Now we have a transient problems, which means that the left hand side is not equal to zero. We are only interested in one space dimension, say x. Eq.(9) then simplifies to:

( T (m ) + Ti m ) 2 Ti (m ) Ti (m +1) Ti (m ) 1 = i +1 x 2

(11)

Collecting terms with temperature of the new time step on the left hand side and the old time step on the right hand side. Ti ( m +1) = (m ) ( Ti +1 + Ti m ) 2 Ti (m ) + Ti (m ) 1 2 x

( (

(12)

(13)

Introducing M defined as M= x 2

( ( Ti +m ) + Ti m ) 2 1 1 + Ti (m ) 1 M M

(14)

By making the clever observation and setting M = 2, i.e. the relation between step in space and step in time, Schmidt attained an equation which is easy to calculate. It can be seen that the second term on the right hand side vanishes, and eq.(15) simplifies to

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( m +1) ( ( Ti +m ) + Ti m ) 1 1 = 2

(16)

which says that the temperature at node i and time m+1 is the arithmetic mean of the surrounding nodes, i+1 and i-1, at the previous time step, m. Because of its simplicity, eq.(16) can be solved graphically, without any calculations required. At the pre-computer era this was a necessity.

By setting M=2 we have linked the increment in time together with the increment in space and the properties of the material. We must fulfill this relation if Schmidts method is used, i.e. eq.(16). However, for the modern engineer, calculation capability is no problem and the requirement of setting M=2 is somewhat obsolete. But, for numerical stability reasons it can be shown that M should be equal to or greater than 2.

4 Experiment

4.1 Analogy method 1: The influence of the ribs on the insulating capability of the hull of refrigerating freight ships

The apparatus consists of a plastic tray with aluminum rails at two sides and a number of loose pieces of rail. On the bottom of the tray there is a plastic sheet suitable for drawing lines with a pencil. The tray is filled with slightly salt water. With the loose rails, a profile model of the ships ribs is built, see figure 2. To calculate the factor, y, by which the heat transfer in to the refrigerated room is increased with the ribs compared to without the ribs is calculated as: y= k z + l zh z (17)

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HEAT TRANSFER - LAB LESSON NO. 3 1 b 1 = i + i + + ext b int k = h z + 0.90 l = 0.99 h z 0.015 h b + 0.040 b i

(18)

h z Figure 2: Schematic model of the ships ribs. An electrical potential is applied between the ribs and a parallel rail, and this potential corresponds to the temperature difference between the outside wall of the hull and the inside wall of the refrigerated room. A volt-meter is supplied for reading the potential at different positions in the water, and a Ampre-meter is connected in the circuit so that the current through the model can be read. TEST PROCEDURE A. Use the volt meter to find five points of equal potential in between the ribs and the inside wall. Connect the points to a curve. Draw such lines for three different potentials.

C:\Mina dokument\Institutionell tjnstgring\VT-labbar\#3\Lab-pek.doc

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HEAT TRANSFER - LAB LESSON NO. 3 B. Read the current through the model with the ribs connected. Then disconnect the ribs and remove them from the tray. Read the new current without the ribs. By what factor, y, is the heat flow (current) increased with the ribs compared to without the ribs? C. Compare the results from B with the equation of Pierre, eq.(17), using the following data: ext = ext = , b = 0, li = 0.04 W/(mK). z, b, h and i are found by measuring the model. D. What kinds of simplifications have we done in the model? How do you think that these simplifications affect the accuracy of the results?

A similar model as above is built by using a mesh of electric resistances. In this case, the potential may only be found in a finite number of discrete points. Note the similarity between the mesh model and the numerical model later used in the computer simulation.

TEST PROCEDURE A. Measure the electrical potential in two nodal points in the mesh. Note which nodes and the results in supplied figure, figure 3. B. Measure the potential of the four surrounding nodes for each of the two nodes measured in A. C. Compare the average of the four surrounding nodes with the potential of the node itself. D. Measure the current through the model with and without the connections representing the rib. Compare the result to that from the model in section 4.1.

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A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 T1= T2= C C B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q

USING MS-EXCEL The nodal mesh of the electric model may also be constructed in a spread sheet, e.g. MSExcel. To do this, let the cells of the spread sheet represent the nodal points, specify the boundary temperatures in the appropriate cells and let the program calculate the temperatures in the rest of the cells as the average of the four surrounding cells. An iterative procedure is needed. The calculations should be continued until no further change in the temperatures is found. The model is then said to be relaxed. A model template similar to figure 3 is supplied.

Compare the result from the excel model to those from the mesh! An example of solution is given in figure 4.

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A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.0 1.3 2.6 3.9 5.1 6.4 7.5 8.7 9.8 B 0.0 1.3 2.6 3.9 5.1 6.4 7.6 8.7 9.8 C 0.0 1.3 2.6 3.9 5.2 6.4 7.6 8.8 D 0.0 1.3 2.7 4.0 5.3 6.5 7.7 8.9 E 0.0 1.4 2.7 4.1 5.4 6.6 7.9 9.0 F 0.0 1.4 2.8 4.2 5.6 6.8 8.1 9.2 G 0.0 1.5 3.0 4.4 5.8 7.1 8.3 9.5 H 0.0 1.6 3.1 4.6 6.1 7.4 8.7 I 0.0 1.7 3.3 4.9 6.4 7.9 9.2 J 0.0 1.8 3.5 5.3 6.9 8.5 K 0.0 1.9 3.8 5.7 7.5 L 0.0 2.0 4.1 6.1 8.2 M 0.0 2.2 4.3 6.6 8.9 N 0.0 2.3 4.5 6.9 9.4 O 0.0 2.3 4.7 7.1 9.6 P 0.0 2.4 4.8 7.2 9.7 Q 0.0 2.4 4.8 7.2 9.8

9.8 10.3 10.9 11.7 12.8 14.0 14.5 14.8 14.9 15.0

9.9 10.0 10.1 10.3 10.5 10.8 11.2 11.7 12.4 13.1 13.9 14.4 14.6 14.8 15.0

10 10.9 10.9 11.0 11.0 11.1 11.3 11.5 11.8 12.1 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.3 14.6 14.8 15.0 11 11.9 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.1 12.3 12.4 12.6 12.9 13.2 13.5 13.8 14.2 14.4 14.7 14.8 15.0 12 13.0 13.0 13.0 13.1 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.6 13.8 14.0 14.2 14.4 14.6 14.8 14.9 15.0 13 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.1 14.1 14.2 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.9 15.0 14 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 T1= T2= 15 C 0 C

Figure 4: A solution of the two dimensional wall. It is of course also possible to write a computer program in any programming language to find the relaxed temperatures of the nodal mesh. A separate program has the advantage of letting you steer the iteration process. For example, you could change only one temperature in each step, the temperature in the point where the difference between the nodal value and the average of the surrounding values is the largest. This procedure is said to ensure a convergent solution. It is, however, considerably slower than just calculating new averages for every point.

The lab assistant will demonstrate a commercial software (ANSYS) by simulating the above problem.

The lab assistance will talking about methods of measuring the heat flow. Some small experiment will be conducted to let the student with both modern and historical equipment.

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4.4 Electrical and Hydraulic analogy for transient, one dimensional heat transfer through a wall

Two models of transient heat transfer through a wall will be demonstrated by the lab assistant, one electrical and one hydraulic, see also table 1. For both models: A. Try to figure out what each part of the model corresponds to in a real wall. B. Point out which part of the wall that has the lowest thermal conductivity and which has the highest heat capacity. C. In which part of the wall is the phase delay the largest? Why?

4.5 Transient, one dimensional heat transfer through a wall, Schmidts method

The apparatus in this test consists of a pile of five plates made of an insulating material. The temperatures in between the plates and on both sides of the pile are measured by thermocouples. The pile is placed on top of a copper plate, kept at room temperature by water cooling. An electrically heated copper plate, kept at approximately +40C, can be placed on top of the pile. the temperatures are read by a data acquisition system and transferred to a computer, where the temperature can be read. At any instance the students can store the temperature in MS-Excel. The insulating material has the following properties: =25 kg/m, k=0.041 W/(mK), cp=1.340 kJ/(kgK) and plate thickness x=10 mm. TEST PROCEDURE A. Using Schmidts method, calculate the time step, , and the absolute time corresponding to six time steps. = sec.

B. Place the heated plate on top of the pile, and start the timer in the computer program. C. Save the temperatures in MS-Excel for time step 0, 2, 4 and 6. Then note them in the table below. D. Calculate the temperature for six time steps using Schmidts method. E. Compare your calculated result with experiment. Is the agreement good? If not, why?

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HEAT TRANSFER - LAB LESSON NO. 3 F. Use Schmidts graphical method to estimate the temperature distribution for six time steps. G. Compare your graphical solution with your numerical solution. H. Together with the lab assistant compare your result with a computer program, which uses Schmidts method. See how the choice of plate thickness influence the accuracy of the result and also increase the number of time step needed to reach the same ending time.

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HEAT TRANSFER - LAB LESSON NO. 3 Schmidts method, graphically (See Holman):

T (C) 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 Position

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