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CODICE-DATA-P0

Introduction to CCITT
Signalling System No.7

Francesco Menichella
Hanoi, January 2012

Le informazioni contenute in questo documento sono di proprietà di Value Team S.p.A. e del destinatario del documento. Tali informazioni sono strettamente legate ai commenti orali che le hanno accompagnate, e possono essere utilizzate solo dalle
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CODICE-DATA-P1

Agenda

Basics

Introduction to CCSS7

CCITT and ANSI Recommendations

MTP (Message Transfer Part)

SCCP (Signaling Connection Control Part)

Examples of SS7 procedures

The SS7 and OPC objects in the SBS System

Changes in the SBS System with the new feature 0398: Location Service: BSS Centric Architecture

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CODICE-DATA-P2

Basics Ref: Nokia: introduction to SS7 signalling training document


Calling Party Exchange Called Party

Signaling
Operations Request for service

Request Address

Provide Address

Process Information
and make connection

Allert called Party

Called Party answer

Conversation

Disconnection

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CODICE-DATA-P3

Basics

•The message flow chart explain two main aspects:

1. Conversation that is the primary task


2. Signalling that is behind the scene to make the conversation succesfull

- The main functions of the signaling are:


. To set up a call
. To supervise a call
. To clear a call.

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CODICE-DATA-P4

Introduction to CCSS7: general characteristics

• CCITT Signalling System No.7 is a signaling method in which a single channel conveys, by
means of labeled messages, signaling information relating to, for example, a multiplicity of
circuits, or other information such as that used for network management.
• It uses more than one signaling link for transfer of signaling messages between nodes in
the telecommunication network served by the system (redundancy of signaling links)
• It has error detection and correction on each signaling link.
• It supports automatic diversion of signaling traffic to alternative paths in case of link
failures (changeover, changeback)

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CODICE-DATA-P5

Introduction to CCSS7: SS7 Signaling Network

•The SS No. 7 signaling network is the combination of signaling points and their
interconnecting signaling links

•All signaling points in a SS No. 7 network are identified by a unique code known as a point
code (Recommendation Q.704 refers)

•Examples of nodes in a signaling network that constitutes signaling points are:


- exchanges (switching centers);
- service control points;
- signaling transfer points;
- operation, administration and maintenance centers

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CODICE-DATA-P6

Introduction to CCSS7: SS7 Signaling Network (see….)

• End points of SS7 signalling messages are exchanges, such as the MSC, but also register
elements, such as the HLR.

• Within SS#7, the originator and the receiver of SS7 signalling messages are called Signalling
Points (SP).
It depends on the operator, whether Service Points can directly exchange SS7 messages. Often,
the routing of SS7 messages is done via Signalling Transfer Points (STP).
A Signalling Transfer Point receives SS7 messages, analyses the destination address of the SS7
message, then forwards the message, following rules set by the operator in the routing tables of
the Signalling Transfer Point.

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CODICE-DATA-P7

Introduction to CCSS7: SS7 Signaling Network (see….)

exchange 3

SP

STP

SP SP

exchange 1 exchange 2

SP Signalling Point
STP Signalling Transfer Point

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CODICE-DATA-P8

SS7 Architecture (1)


OSI Levels Application Entity SS7 Levels

TCAP
L7

B
I
T I
S
ASP U S Level 4
L4, L5, L6 U
P U
P
P

SSCP

L3

Network Level 3

L2 Data Link MTP Level 2

L1 Physical Level

TCAP: Transaction Capabilities Application Part


ASP: Application Service Part
SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part
TUP: Telephone User Part
DUP: Data User Part
ISUP: ISDN User Part
BISUP: Broadband ISDN User Part
Ref: http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/tel_pswt/vco_prod/ss7_fund/ss7fun03.htm
MTP: Message Transfer Part

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CODICE-DATA-P9

SS7 Architecture (2)

ISDN-UP/ Users parts


SCCP TUP DUP (level 4)
ISUP
(Level 4) (Level 4) (Level 4)
(Level 4)

Signalling Network functions


(Level 3)

Signalling Link functions


(Level 2) Message Transfer Part
(Levels 1 – 3)

Signalling Data Link functions


(Level 1)

SS7 Functional Levels

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CODICE-DATA-P10

SS7 Architecture (3)

•MTP lev.1: defines the physical, electrical and functional characteristics of a signaling data
link and the means to access it;

•MTP lev.2: defines the functions and procedures related to the transfer of signaling
messages over one individual signaling data link;

•MTP lev.3: defines those transport functions and procedures that are common to and
independent of the operation of individual signaling links. These functions fall into two
major categories:
Signaling message handling functions (these transfer the message to the proper
signaling link or User Part);
Signaling network management functions (these control the current message routing
and configuration of the signaling network facilities and in the case of signaling network
failures, control the reconfigurations and other actions to preserve or restore the normal
message transfer capability);

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CODICE-DATA-P11

SS7 - MTP / TUP / ISUP


The standard TUP messages help to set up the call, to supervise and clear it.

MSC PSTN exchange


SP SP

TUP/NUP/ISUP Call Control Messages TUP/NUP/ISUP

MTP3 Transport of signalling messages within one network MTP3

MTP2 Data link Control MTP2 MTP2 Data link Control MTP2
Physical Physical
MTP1 connections
MTP1 MTP1 connections
MTP1

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CODICE-DATA-P12

SS7 Architecture (4)

•SCCP: provides additional functions to the MTP to provide connectionless and connection-
oriented network (see related slide) services to transfer circuit related and non-circuit-
related signaling information.
The SCCP provides the means to:
- control logical signaling connections in a SS7 network;
- transfer Signaling Data Unit across the SS7 network with or without the use of logical
signaling connections.

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CODICE-DATA-P13

SS7 SCCP

The SCCP is the signalling connection and control part. Its main function is to provide virtual connections and connectionless
signalling.

Exchange SCCP offers following services to higher layers: exchange


SP • non-call related signalling via networks SP
of different operators
• connection-orientated network service

e.g. ISUP Call Control e.g. ISUP


Messages

SCCP SIGNALLING CONNECTION and SCCP


CONTROL PART

MTP3 Transport of signalling messages within one network MTP3

MTP2 Data link Control MTP2 MTP2 Data link Control MTP2
Physical Physical
MTP1 connections
MTP1 MTP1 connections
MTP1

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CODICE-DATA-P14

SS7 in GSM application

• In GSM signalling is not as simple as in the PSTN, there are a lot of extra messages because of the
different architecture and the fact that the mobility of MS, unlike the PSTN telephone which is always
in one place.

Protocols Description

Base Station Subsystem Application Part Protocol layer


responsible for communicating GSM specific messages
BSSAP between the MSC and the BSC, and the MSC and the
MS.

Mobile Application Part A GSM specific protocol for


MAP non-call-related applications between NSS elements.

Transaction Capabilities and Application Part Protocol


layer responsible for providing service to MAP by
TCAP handling the MAP transaction messages between
multiple elements.

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CODICE-DATA-P15

BSSAP

MSC communicates with the BSC and the mobile station on BSSAP. Since the mobile station and the MSC have to communicate
via the BSC, there must be a virtual connection; therefore the service of the SCCP is also needed.

Used to:
BSC • exchange requests and responses between BSC and MSC. MSC
• encapsulate messages to be exchanged transparently
between MS and MSC.

BSSAP Call Control BSSAP


Messages

SCCP SIGNALLING CONNECTION and SCCP


CONTROL PART

MTP3 Transport of signalling messages within one network MTP3

MTP2 Data link Control MTP2


Physical
MTP1 connections MTP1

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CODICE-DATA-P16

MAP TCAP

MAP is used typically for signalling communication between NSS elements.


TCAP has secretary function for higher layer, e.g. when the higher
layer transaction consists of a set of messages, which have HLR
GMSC
to be exchanged between the peer entities in an orderly way.

Mobile
MAP Application Part MAP

Transaction Capabilities
TCAP Application Part TCAP

Non-call-related requests and responses, e.g.


GMSC interrogation for the MSRN.

SCCP SIGNALLING CONNECTION and SCCP


CONTROL PART

MTP3 Transport of signalling messages within one network MTP3

MTP2 Data link Control MTP2


Physical
MTP1 connections MTP1

Note
The MSC-MSC communication using MAP is used only in case of non-call-related signalling. For routing a call from one MSC to another MSC, TUP
or ISUP is still used.
MAP need some sort of secretary to manage the transactions. This secretary is called the Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP).

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CODICE-DATA-P17

Protocol Stack in MSC

•Since the MTP is the foundation on which SS7 is built,


this will be required in every element that is capable of
processing SS7.

•The MSC is the element in GSM networks that is MSC

responsible for call control; therefore, TUP/ISUP sits on


MAP
top of the MTP.
BSSAP

•The MSC/VLR is also responsible for location updates TCAP


TUP
NUP
and communication with the BSC and the HLR. For this ISUP
reason it also needs to have BSSAP and MAP that sit on
top of the SCCP.
SCCP
•The MSC also has the TCAP to provide services for the
MAP.
MTP3

•It can thus be seen that the MSC/VLR has all the SS7 MTP2
protocol stacks implemented in it. MTP1

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CODICE-DATA-P18

Split among NEs

MAP
BSSAP BSSAP SCCP
TUP
TCAP NUP MTP3
ISUP MTP2
SCCP MTP1
PSTN Exchange
SCCP
TUP
MTP3 MTP3 NUP
MTP2 MTP2 ISUP
MTP1 MTP1 SCCP

MTP3
MTP2
STP MTP1
A

BSC MSC
D

MAP

TCAP

SCCP

MTP3 HLR
MTP2
MTP1

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CODICE-DATA-P19

MTP CCITT Recommendations

•Q.700: Introduction to CCITT Signaling System No. 7


•Q.701: Functional description of the message transfer part (MTP)
•Q.702: MTP level 1
•Q.703: MTP level 2
•Q.704: MTP level 3
•Q.705: Signaling network structure
•Q.706: MTP signaling performance
•Q.707: Testing and maintenance
•Q.781: MTP level 2 test specification
•Q.782: MTP level 3 test specification

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CODICE-DATA-P20

SCCP CCITT Recommendations

•Q.711: Functional description of SCCP


•Q.712: Definition and function of SCCP messages
•Q.713: SCPP formats and codes
•Q.714: Signaling and connection control part procedures
•Q.715: SCCP user guide
•Q.716: SCCP performance

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CODICE-DATA-P21

ANSI Recommendations

•T1.111-1996: MTP
•T1.112-1996: SCCP
•T1.234-1993: SS7 MTP levels 2 and 3 compatibility testing

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CODICE-DATA-P22

MTP: introduction

The overall objectives of the MTP are to provide the mean for:

• the reliable transport and delivery of “user part” signaling information across the SS7
network;
• the ability to react to system and network failures that will affect the point above and take
the necessary action to ensure that it is achieved.

The users of the MTP are:


- SCCP;
- Telephone user part (TUP);
- Data user part (DUP)
- ISDN user part (ISUP).

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CODICE-DATA-P23

MTP level 1: Signaling Data Link

•Physical layer

•Bi-directional transmission path for signaling, comprising two data channels operating together
in opposite directions at the same data rate.

•The operational signaling data link shall be exclusively dedicated to the use of a Signaling System
No.7 signaling link between two signaling points.

•The standard bit rate on a digital bearer will be 64 Kbps.

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CODICE-DATA-P24

MTP level 2: Signaling Link (1)

• Function and procedures for and relating to the transfer of signaling messages over
one signaling data link.

• The signaling messages delivered by superior hierarchical levels are transferred over
the signaling link in variable length Signal Unit.

• The signal unit include transfer control information for proper operation of the
signaling link in addition to the signaling information.

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CODICE-DATA-P25

MTP level 2: Signaling Link (2)

The signaling link function comprise:

•Signal unit delimitation;


•Signal unit alignment;
•Error detection;
•Error correction;
•Initial alignment;
•Signaling link error monitoring;
•Flow control.

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CODICE-DATA-P26

Signal unit delimitation and alignment

• In order to handle the Signal Unit delimitation the beginning and the end of a signal
unit are indicated by a unique 8-bit pattern (FLAG). Measures are taken to ensure that
the pattern cannot be imitated elsewhere in the unit (zero insertion and deletion).

• Loss of alignment is highlighted when a bit pattern not allowed by the delimitation
procedure (more than 6 consecutive 1s) is received, or when a certain maximum length
of signal unit is exceeded.

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CODICE-DATA-P27

Error Detection

•The error detection is performed by means of 16 check bits provided at the end of each signal
unit.

•The check bits are generated by the transmitting signaling link terminal by operating on the
preceding bits of the signal unit following a specified algorithm.

•At the receiving signaling link terminal the received check bits are operated on using specified
rules which correspond to that algorithm.

•If consistency is not found between the received check bits and the preceding bits of the
signaling unit the presence of error is indicated and the signal unit is discarded.

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CODICE-DATA-P28

Error Correction

Two methods of error correction are provided:

•Basic Method: if a negative acknowledgement is received, the transmission of new Signal Unit is
interrupted and are retransmitted once those not yet positively acknowledged, in the right order.
Such method is applied for signaling links using non intercontinental terrestrial transmission
means and for intercontinental signaling links where the one way propagation delay is less than
15 ms.

•Preventive cyclic retransmission method: all the signal unit not yet positively acknowledged are
retransmitted cyclically (window).
Applied for intercontinental signaling links where the one way propagation delay is greater than
15 ms and for all signaling links established via satellite.

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CODICE-DATA-P29

Initial Alignment

• After a first time initialization (e.g. after “switch on”) or restoration after a link failure.

• Procedure: exchange of status information (LSSU) between the two SP (Signal Points)
and provision of a proving period.

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CODICE-DATA-P30

Signaling link error monitoring

Two signaling link error monitoring are provided:

•Signal Unit error rate monitor: used when a signaling link is in service -> criteria for taking the
link out of service. Based on an incremented / decremented error count (leaky bucket principle).

•Alignment error rate monitor: used when a signaling link is in the proving state of the initial
alignment procedure. Based on a linear count of signal unit errors.

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CODICE-DATA-P31

Flow Control

• The flow control is initiated when congestion is detected at the receiving end of the
signaling link.

• The congested state is notified to the other end of the signaling link by means of an
appropriate Link Status Signal Unit: all the acknowledgements are withhold until the
congestion is finished.

• The remote transmitting end will indicate the link as failed if the congestion continues too
long.

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CODICE-DATA-P32

Signal Unit format (1)

• A Signal Unit is constituted of a variable length signaling information field which carries the
information generated by the User Part and a number of fixed length fields which carry
information required for message transfer control.

• In the case of link status signal units, the signalling information field and the service information
octet are replaced by a status field which is generated by the signalling link terminal.

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CODICE-DATA-P33

Signal Unit format (2)

•Three types of signal unit are differentiated by means of the length indicator contained in all
signal units, i.e.:

- message signal units (MSU)


- link status signal units (LSSU)
- fill-in signal units (FISU).

•Message signal units are retransmitted in case of error, link status signal unit and fill-in signal
units are not.

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CODICE-DATA-P34

Signal Unit format (3)

• Message Signal Unit (MSU)


• MSU carries SS7 information
• MSU consists of MTP protocol fields and two additional fields
• Service indicator octet (SIO), that indicates type of protocol at level 4, e.g. TUP, ISUP, and type of
standard, e.g. national, international.
• Service information field (SIF) that is used to carry control information as well as level 3 routing
label. SIF can be up to 272 octets and is used by all level 4 Protocols

• Link Status Signal Unit (LSSU)


• It is used to carry link status information and also used by level 3 at one node to transmit link status
information to its adjacent node
• LSSU only used on single point-to-point links, never through the network and no information traffic is carried
on a link when LSSU are sent

• Fill-In Signal Unit (FISU)


• FISU is used when no information needs be sent and the network is idle
• FISU is used to monitor error rates on links. This allows SS7 to be highly reliable as it can detect link quality
even when idle.
In addition to FISU transmission the MTP protocol is constantly monitoring the link status

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CODICE-DATA-P35

Signal Unit format (4)

F B
F CK SIF SIO LI I FSN I BSN F
B B
First bit
8 16 8n, n 2 8 2 6 1 7 1 7 8 transmitted
a) Basic format of a Message Signal Unit (MSU)

F B
F CK SF LI I FSN I BSN F
B B
First bit
8 16 8 or 16 2 6 1 7 1 7 8 transmitted
b) Format of a Link Status Signal Unit (LSSU)

F B
F CK LI I FSN I BSN F
B B
First bit
8 16 2 6 1 7 1 7 8 transmitted
c) Format of a Fill-In Signal Unit (FISU)
T1156540-93

BIB Backward Indicator Bit


BSN Backward Sequence Number
CK Check bits
F Flag
FIB Forward Indicator Bit
FSN Forward Sequence Number
LI Length Indicator
n Number of octets in the SIF
SF Status Field
SIF Signalling Information Field
SIO Service Information Octet

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CODICE-DATA-P36

Function of the signal unit fields (1)

Flag:
•The opening flag indicates the start of a signal unit.
•The opening flag of one signal unit is normally the closing flag of the preceding signal unit.
•The closing flag indicates the end of a signal unit.
•The bit pattern for the flag is 01111110.

Length indicator:
•Number of octets following the length indicator octet and preceding the check bits (range
0-63).
Length indicator = 0; Fill-in signal unit
Length indicator = 1 or 2: Link status signal unit
Length indicator > 2: Message signal unit

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CODICE-DATA-P37

Function of the signal unit fields (2)

Service Information Octet (SIO):

•The service information octet is divided into the service indicator and the subservice field.

DCBA DCBA

Sub-service Service
field indicator
First bit
4 4 transmitted

T1158970-94/d022

• subservice field: the sub-service field contains the network indicator (bits C and D) and two
spare bits (bits A and B).
bits D C
0 0 International network
0 1 Spare (for international use only)
1 0 National network
1 1 Reserved for national use

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CODICE-DATA-P38

Function of the signal unit fields (3)

•The service indicator is used to associate signalling information with a particular user part
and is present only in message signal units.

bits D C B A
0 0 0 0 Signalling network management messages
0 0 0 1 Signalling network testing and maintenance messages
0 0 1 0 Spare
0 0 1 1 SCCP
0 1 0 0 Telephone User Part
0 1 0 1 ISDN User Part
0 1 1 0 Data User Part (call and circuit-related messages)
0 1 1 1 Data User Part (facility registration and cancellation messages)
1 0 0 0 Reserved for MTP Testing User Part
1 0 0 1 Broadband ISDN User Part
1 0 1 0 Satellite ISDN User Part
1 0 1 1 )
1 1 0 0 )
1 1 0 1 ) Spare
1 1 1 0 )
1 1 1 1 )

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CODICE-DATA-P39

Function of the signal unit fields (4)

Sequence numbering:

•The forward sequence number is the sequence number of the signal unit in which it is carried.
•The backward sequence number is the sequence number of a signal unit being acknowledged.

Indicator bits:
•The forward indicator bit and backward indicator bit together with the forward sequence
number and backward sequence number are used in the basic error control method to perform
the signal unit sequence control and acknowledgement functions

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CODICE-DATA-P40

Function of the signal unit fields (6)


Signalling information field:
• The service information field (SIF) provides the first piece of information necessary for routing and decoding
the message. The SIF transfers control information and the routing label used by Level 3.
• The routing label consists of the destination point code (DPC), originating point code (OPC) and signaling link
selection (SLS) fields.
• The SIF can contain up to 272 octets and is used by network management, ISUP, TCAP and MAP.
First bit transmittal Last bit transmittal

F B
FCS SIF SIO LI I FSN I BSN FLAG
B B

Routing Label Application


CIC
DPC/OPC etc. Information

Message type
Mandatory Parameter A
Mandatory Parameter B
...
Optional Parameter A
Optional Parameter B
...

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CODICE-DATA-P41

Function of the signal unit fields (5)

Check bits:
•Every signal unit has 16 check bits for error detection.

Status field (in LSSU):


•Status indication “O”: out of alignment;
•Status indication “N”: normal alignment status;
•Status indication “E”: emergency alignment status;
•Status indication “OS”: out of service;
•Status indication “B”: busy.

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CODICE-DATA-P42

Zero insertion and deletion

• To ensure that the flag code is not imitated by any other part of the signal unit the
transmitting signalling link terminal inserts a 0 after every sequence of five consecutive
1 s before the flags are attached and the signal unit is transmitted.
• At the receiving signalling link terminal, after flag detection and removal, each 0 which
directly follows a sequence of five consecutive 1 s is deleted.

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CODICE-DATA-P43

Basic error correction method

• The correction is performed by retransmission.


• The error correction procedure operates independently in the 2 directions.
• The acknowledgement is performed by means of the backward sequence number.
• If a NACK is to be sent, then the backward indicator bit value of the signal units
transmitted is inverted.
• At the start of the retransmission the forward indicator bit is inverted.

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CODICE-DATA-P44

Initial alignment procedure (1)

•The indications are carried in the status field of the link status signal units (LSSU).
•The procedure provides a "normal" proving period for "normal" initial alignment
and an "emergency" proving period for "emergency" initial alignment. The decision
to apply either the "normal" or the "emergency" procedures is made unilaterally at
level 3 (see Recommendation Q.704). Only the signalling link to be aligned is
involved in the initial alignment procedure (i.e. no transfer of alignment
information over other signalling links is required).
•Status indication "OS" (Out of Service) informs the remote signalling link terminal
that for reasons other than processor outage (e.g. link failure) the signalling link
terminal can neither receive nor transmit message signal units. Status indication
OS is sent on completion of "power on" until initial alignment is started.

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CODICE-DATA-P45

Initial alignment procedure (2)

•Status indication "O“ (out of Aligment) is transmitted when initial alignment has been
started and none of the status indications "O", "N" or "E" are received from the link.
•Status indication "N“ (Normal) is transmitted when, after having started initial
alignment, status indication "O", "N" or "E" is received and the terminal is in the
"normal" alignment status.
•Status indication "E" (Emergency) is transmitted when, after having started initial
alignment, status indication "O", "N" or "E" is received and the terminal is in the
"emergency" alignment status, i.e. it must employ the short "emergency" proving
period.

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CODICE-DATA-P46

Initial alignment procedure (3)

•State "not aligned": The signalling link is not aligned and the terminal is sending status
indication "O". Time-out T2 is started on entry to State and stopped when State is left.

•State "aligned": The signalling link is aligned and the terminal is sending status
indication "N" or "E", status indications "N", "E" or "OS" are not received. Time-out T3
is started on entry to State and stopped when State is left.

•State 03, "proving": The signalling link terminal is sending status indication "N" or "E",
status indication "O" or "OS" are not received, proving has been started.

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CODICE-DATA-P47

Initial alignment procedure (4)

•Proving is the means by which the signalling link terminal validates the link's ability to
carry signal units correctly by inspecting the signal units. «Proving» must last for a
period of T4 before the link can enter the «aligned ready» link state. Expiry of timer T4
indicates a successful proving period unless the proving period has been previously
aborted up to four times.

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CODICE-DATA-P48

MTP level 3: Signaling Network functions and messages

•The signalling network functions can be divided into two basic categories, namely:

- signalling message handling;

-signalling network management.

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CODICE-DATA-P49

Signaling Message Handling (1)

•The purpose of the signalling message handling functions is to ensure that the signalling
messages originated by a particular User Part at a signalling point (originating point) are
delivered to the same User Part at the destination point indicated by the sending User Part.

•this delivery may be made through a signalling link directly interconnecting the originating
and destination points (SP), or via one or more intermediate signalling transfer points (STP).

•The signalling message handling functions are based on the label contained in the messages
which explicitly identifies the destination and originating points.

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CODICE-DATA-P50

Signaling Message Handling (2)

The signalling message handling functions are divided into:

- the message discrimination function, used at a signalling point to determine whether or


not a received message is destined to the point itself.
When the signalling point has the transfer capability and a message is not destined to it,
that message has to be transferred to the message routing function;

- the message routing function, used at each signalling point to determine the outgoing
signalling link on which a message has to be sent towards its destination point;

- the message distribution function, used at each signalling point to deliver the received
messages (destined to the point itself) to the appropriate User Part.

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CODICE-DATA-P51

Message routing, discrimination and distribution

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CODICE-DATA-P52

Signalling Network Management (1)

•The main tasks of the Signalling Network Management are:


- providing reconfiguration of the signalling network in the case of failures
- assuring control traffic in case of congestion.
Such a reconfiguration is effected by use of appropriate procedures to change the routing
of signalling traffic in order to bypass the faulty links or signalling points; this requires
communication between signalling points (and, in particular, the signalling transfer
points) concerning the occurrence of the failures. Moreover, in some circumstances it is
necessary to activate and align new signalling links, in order to restore the required
signalling traffic capacity between two signalling points. When the faulty link or signalling
point is restored, the opposite actions and procedures take place, in order to re-establish
the normal configuration of the signalling network.

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CODICE-DATA-P53

Signalling Network Management (2)

The signalling network management functions are divided into:

• signalling traffic management (changeover, changeback,...);

• signalling link management (link activation, restoration, deactivation,...);

• signalling route management (transfer allowed, prohibited, restricted,...).

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CODICE-DATA-P54

MTP3: routing Label

• MTP Level 3 provides message routing between signaling points in the SS7 network. MTP Level 3 is
equivalent in function to the OSI Network Layer.

• MTP Level 3 routes messages based on the routing label in the signaling information field (SIF) of message
signal units. The routing label is comprised of the destination point code (DPC), originating point code (OPC),
and signaling link selection (SLS) field.

• Points codes are numeric addresses which uniquely identify each signaling point in the SS7 network. When
the destination point code in a message indicates the receiving signaling point, the message is distributed to
the appropriate user part (e.g., ISUP or SCCP) indicated by the service indicator in the SIO. Messages destined
for other signaling points are transferred provided that the receiving signaling point has message transfer
capabilities (like an STP). The selection of outgoing link is based on information in the DPC and SLS.

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CODICE-DATA-P55

Routing Label (1)

SLS OPC DPC

First bit
Length n 8 4 14 14 transmitted
(bit) (n 0)
Routing label

Label
T1158800-94/d03

DPC Destination Point Code


OPC Originating Point Code
SLS Signalling Link Selection

•The standard routing label has a length of 32 bits and is placed at the beginning
of the Signalling Information Field.

•The Destination Point Code (DPC) indicates the destination point of the message.

•The Originating Point Code (OPC) indicates the originating point of the message

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CODICE-DATA-P56

Routing Label (2)

•The Signalling Link Selection (SLS) field is used, where appropriate, in performing load
sharing . This field exists in all types of messages and always in the same position. The only
exception to this rule is some Message Transfer Part level 3 messages (e.g. the changeover
order), for which the message routing function in the signalling point of origin of the
message is not dependent on the field: in this particular case the field does not exist as
such, but it is replaced by other information (e.g. in the case of the changeover order, the
identity of the faulty link).

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CODICE-DATA-P57

Message Routing Function

•The Message Routing function is based on information contained in the routing label,
namely on the destination point code and on the signalling link selection field; moreover, in
some circumstances the service indicator may also need to be used for routing purposes.

•Load sharing between links belonging to the same link set is performed.

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CODICE-DATA-P58

Signaling traffic management: procedures

•To divert signalling traffic from a link or route to one or more different links or routes, to
restart a signalling point's MTP, or to temporarily slow down signalling traffic in the case of
congestion at a signalling point; it comprises the following procedures:

- changeover;
- changeback;
- forced rerouting;
- controlled rerouting;
- MTP restart;
- management inhibiting;
- signalling traffic flow control.

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CODICE-DATA-P59

Changeover

• The Changeover procedure is used to ensure that signalling traffic carried by the
unavailable signalling link is diverted to the alternative signalling link(s) as quickly as
possible while avoiding message loss, duplication or mis-sequencing

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CODICE-DATA-P60

Changeback

• The Changeback procedure is used to ensure that signalling traffic is diverted from the
alternative signalling link(s) to the signalling link made available as quickly as possible,
while avoiding message loss, duplication or mis-sequencing.

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CODICE-DATA-P61

Forced Rerouting

•The Forced Rerouting procedure is to be used in the case where a signalling route
towards a given destination becomes unavailable (due to, for example, remote failures
in the signalling network) to divert signalling traffic towards that destination to an
alternative signalling route outgoing from the concerned signalling point. Signalling
links pertaining to the alternative signalling route can be carrying their own signalling
traffic (relating to different signalling routes), and this is not interrupted by the forced
rerouting procedure.

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CODICE-DATA-P62

Controlled Rerouting

• The objective of the Controlled Rerouting procedure is to restore the optimal


signalling routing and to minimize mis-sequencing of messages. Therefore, controlled
rerouting includes a time-controlled traffic diversion procedure, which is the same as
that used in some cases of changeback.

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CODICE-DATA-P63

MTP Restart

•When a signalling point is isolated from the network for some time, it
cannot be sure that its routing data are still valid (note that circumstances
might cause the management entity to isolate the node, i.e. make all links
unavailable, in order to facilitate recovery from a partial isolation). Thus,
problems could be present when the sending of User traffic is resumed, due
to wrong routing data as well as due to many parallel activities (e.g. link
activation, changebacks etc.) which have to be performed within the node
whose MTP is restarting.
•The objective of the MTP restart procedure is to protect the node whose
MTP is restarting, and the network. This is done by giving the restarting MTP
time to activate sufficient links, and to exchange enough routing data with
the network, before User traffic is restarted. Note that in this context
"sufficient" and "enough" mean that potential remaining problems should not
cause the node to fail again.

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CODICE-DATA-P64

Management Inhibiting

•Signalling link management inhibiting is requested by management when it becomes


necessary, e.g. for maintenance or testing purposes (for example, if the link
experiences too many changeovers and changebacks in a short time, or there is a
significant link error rate), to make or keep a signalling link unavailable to User Part-
generated signalling traffic.

•Management inhibiting is a signalling traffic management action, and does not cause
any link status changes at level 2. A signalling link is marked "inhibited" under the
management inhibiting procedure.

•In particular, a signalling link that was active and in service prior to being inhibited will
remain so, and will thus be able to transmit maintenance and test messages, for which
the signalling link test message could be used.

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CODICE-DATA-P65

Signaling Traffic Flow Control

•The purpose of the Signalling Traffic Flow Control Function is to limit signalling
traffic at its source in the case when the signalling network is not capable of
transferring all signalling traffic offered by the user because of network failures or
congestion situations.
•Flow control action may be taken as a consequence of a number of events; the
following cases have been identified:
- Failure in the signalling network (signalling links or signalling points) has resulted
in route set unavailability. In this situation, flow control may provide a short-term
remedy until more appropriate actions can be taken.
- Congestion of a signalling link or signalling point has resulted in a situation where
reconfiguration is not appropriate.
- Failure of a part has made it impossible for the user to handle messages delivered
by the Message Transfer Part.

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CODICE-DATA-P66

Flow Control Indications

•Signaling route set test unavailability


No signaling route is available for traffic towards a particular destination.

•Signaling route set test availability


A signaling route becomes available for traffic to a previously unavailable destination.

•Signaling route set test congestion


The congestion status of a signaling route set changes to congested.

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CODICE-DATA-P67

Signaling route management

•The purpose of the Signaling Route Management is to ensure a reliable exchange of


information between the Signal Points about the availability of the signaling routes.

•The unavailability, restriction, availability of a signaling route is communicated by


means of the following
-transfer_prohibited,
-transfer_restricted,
-transfer_allowed.

•The recovery of the signaling route status information is made by means of the
Signaling-route- set-test procedure.

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CODICE-DATA-P68

Transfer-prohibited

•The Transfert-prohibited is performed at a signaling point acting as STP (signaling


transfer point) for messages relating to a given destination, when it has to notify one
or more adjacent signaling points that they must no longer route the concerned
messages via that signaling transfer point.

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CODICE-DATA-P69

Transfer-allowed

•The Transfer-allowed is performed at a signaling point, acting as STP (signaling transfer


point) for messages relating to a given destination, when it has to notify one or more
adjacent signaling points that they may start to route to it, if appropriate, the
concerned messages.

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CODICE-DATA-P70

Transfer-restricted

•The Transfer-restricted is performed at a signaling point, acting as STP (signaling


transfer point) for messages relating to a given destination, when it has to notify one
or more adjacent signaling points that they should, if possible, no longer route the
concerned messages via the STP.

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CODICE-DATA-P71

Signaling-route-set-test

•The Signaling-route-set-test procedure is used at a SP (signaling point) to test whether


or not signaling traffic towards a certain destination may be routed via an adjacent
STP.

•A Signaling-route-set-test message is sent from a SP after a transfer-prohibited or


transfer-restricted message is received from an adjacent STP. In this case a Signaling-
route-set-test message is sent to that STP referring to the destination declared
inaccessible or restricted by the Transfer-Prohibited or Transfer-Restricted message
every T10 period until a Transfer-Allowed indicating that destination has become
accessible, is received.

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CODICE-DATA-P72

Testing and Maintenance (Q.707)

•The signaling link test procedure is used when the link is activated or restored.

-The link becomes available only if the test is successful.


-The signaling link test (SLT) can be applied while the link is in service: the message
is sent at regular intervals T2.
-The SP initiating the test sends a SLTM message on the link to be tested: the
message contains a test pattern (chosen by the end initiating the test).
-The other SP answers with a SLTMA message of acknowledgement on the link
identified by the SLS contained in the SLTM.
-The test pattern included in SLTMA must be identical to the test pattern received.

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CODICE-DATA-P73

SCCP: introduction (1)

• SCCP provides additional functions to the MTP to cater for Connectionless and Connection-oriented network
services to transfer circuit related and non-circuit related signaling information and other types of
information.

• MTP + SCCP = NSP (Network Service Part).

• SCCP provides the means for logical signaling connections within the SS7 network.
• SCCP provides the means for a transfer capability for network service data units with or without the use of
logical signaling connections.
OSI Levels Application Entity SS7 Levels

TCAP
L7

B
I
T I
S
ASP U S Level 4
L4, L5, L6 U
P U
P
P

SSCP

L3

Network Level 3

L2 Data Link MTP Level 2

L1 Physical Level

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CODICE-DATA-P74

SCCP: introduction (2)

•The SCCP also includes the ability to segment/reassemble user data that cannot be
transferred in one MTP message.

•The functions of the SCCP are performed by means of the SCCP protocol between two
systems that provide the NSP service to the upper layers.

•The service interfaces to the upper layers and to the MTP are described by means of
primitives and parameters, as recommended in Recommendation X.200.

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CODICE-DATA-P75

Service Primitives

Upper
layers

N-Service primitives
SCCP-SAP
Services of the SCCP

Signalling
Service access
connection control
points (SAP)
part

MTP-SAP
MTP-Service primitives Services of the MTP

Service primitives

Message
transfer part
T1157190-93

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CODICE-DATA-P76

Peer-to-peer Communication

•Exchange of information between two peers of the SCCP is, as usual, performed by
means of a protocol. The protocol is a set of rules and formats by which the control
information (and user data) is exchanged between the two peers. The protocol caters
for:

- the setup of logical signalling connection;


- the release of logical signalling connections;
- the transfer of data with or without logical signalling connections.

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CODICE-DATA-P77

Services Provided by the SCCP

•The overall set of services is grouped into:


– connection-oriented services;
– connectionless services.

•Four classes of service are provided by the SCCP protocol, two for connectionless
services and two for connection-oriented services.
The four classes are:
0 Basic connectionless class.
1 In-sequence delivery connectionless class.
2 Basic connection-oriented class.
3 Flow control connection-oriented class.

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CODICE-DATA-P78

Connection-oriented Service

•The control of a signalling connection is divided into the following phases:

– connection establishment phase;

– data transfer phase;

– connection release phase.

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CODICE-DATA-P79

Connection Establishment Phase

• Connection establishment procedures provide the mechanism for establishing


temporary signalling connections between users of the SCCP
• During connection establishment, routing functions are provided by the SCCP, in
addition to those provided by the MTP.
• The connection refusal procedure is invoked if the SCCP or the SCCP user is unable to
establish a signalling connection.

•So, the Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) offers enhancements to MTP level 3
to provide connectionless and connection-oriented network services, as well as to
address translation capabilities. The SCCP enhancements to MTP provide a network
service which is equivalent to the OSI Network layer 3.
(Compliant with the ITU specification Q.713, ITU-T: Signalling System No. 7 SCCP
Formats And Codes 03-93 SS7 Basics/ Toni Beninger/ S038 1991 ANSI T1.112.)

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CODICE-DATA-P80

Data Transfer Phase (1)

•The data transfer service provides for an exchange of user data, called Network
Service Data Units (NSDUs), in either direction or in both directions simultaneously
on a signalling connection.
•An SCCP message between two peers consists of:
– Network Protocol Control Information (NPCI);
– Network Service Data Unit (NSDU).
•The NPCI supports the joint operating of the SCCP-peer entities within the two
nodes communicating with each other. It contains a connection reference
parameter which allocates the message to a certain signalling connection.
•If the size of user data is too big to be transferred within one message, user data are
segmented into a number of portions.
•The data transfer service caters for sequence control and flow control depending on
the quality of service required by the SCCP user (two different classes of the
connection-oriented service are provided by the protocol; see Recommendation
Q.714).

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CODICE-DATA-P81

Data Transfer Phase (2)

NPCI NSDU

Message

T1157210-93

NPCI Network Protocol Control Information


NSDU Network Service Data Unit
Message Protocol data unit

NPCI NSDU

Message 1 Message 2

T1157220-93

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CODICE-DATA-P82

Connection Release Phase

• Connection release procedures provide the mechanism for disconnecting temporary


signalling connections between users of the SCCP

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CODICE-DATA-P83

Signalling connection control part messages


(Connection Oriented: Class 2)

• Connection Request (CR):


- A Connection Request message is initiated by a calling SCCP to a called SCCP to
request the setting up of a signalling connection between the two entities. The
required characteristics of the signalling connection are carried in various parameter
fields. On reception of a Connection Request message, the called SCCP initiates the
setup of the signalling connection, if possible.

• Connection Confirm (CC):


- A Connection Confirm message is initiated by the called SCCP to indicate to the calling
SCCP that it has performed the setup of the signalling connection. On reception of a
Connection Confirm message, the calling SCCP completes the setup of the signalling
connection, if possible.

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CODICE-DATA-P84

Signalling connection control part messages


(Connection Oriented: Class 2)

•Connection Refused (CREF):


-A Connection Refused message is initiated by the called SCCP or an
intermediate node SCCP to indicate to the calling SCCP that the setup of the
signalling connection has been refused.
•data form 1 (DT1):
- A Data Form 1 message is sent by either end of a signalling connection to
pass transparently SCCP user data between two SCCP nodes.
•inactivity test (IT):
- An Inactivity Test message may be sent periodically by either end of a
signalling connection section to check if this signalling connection is active at
both ends, and to audit the consistency of connection data at both ends.
• protocol data unit error (ERR):
-A Protocol Data Unit Error message is sent on detection of any protocol
errors.

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CODICE-DATA-P85

Signalling connection control part messages


(Connection Oriented: Class 2)

•Released (RLSD):
-A Released message is sent, in the forward or backward direction, to indicate
that the sending SCCP wants to release a signalling connection and the
associated resources at the sending SCCP have been brought into the
disconnect pending condition. It also indicates that the receiving node
should release the connection and any other associated resources as well.
•Release Complete (RLC):
-A Release Complete message is sent in response to the Released message
indicating that the Released message has been received, and the appropriate
procedures have been completed.
• subsystem-allowed (SSA):
-A Subsystem-Allowed message is sent to concerned destinations to inform
those destinations that a subsystem which was formerly prohibited is now
allowed or that a SCCP which was formerly unavailable is now available. It is
used for SCCP management.

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CODICE-DATA-P86

Signalling connection control part messages


(Connection Oriented: Class 2)

• Subsystem-Out-of-service-Request (SOR):
- A Subsystem-Out-of-Service-Request message is used to allow subsystems to go out-
of-service without degrading performance of the network. When a subsystem
wishes to go out-of-service, the request is transferred by means of a Subsystem-Out-
of-Service-Request message between the SCCP at the subsystem's node and the SCCP
at the duplicate subsystems node. It is used for SCCP subsystem management.

• Subsystem-Out-of-service-Grant (SOG):
- A Subsystem-Out-of-Service-Grant message is sent, in response to a
Subsystem-Out-of-Service-Request message, to the requesting SCCP if both the
requested SCCP and the backup of the affected subsystem agree to the request. It is
used for SCCP subsystem management.

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CODICE-DATA-P87

Signalling connection control part messages


(Connection Oriented: Class 2)

•SubSystem-Prohibited (SSP):
-A Subsystem-Prohibited message is sent to concerned destinations to inform SCCP
Management (SCMG) at those destinations of the failure of a subsystem. It is used for
SCCP subsystem management.
• Subystem-Status-Test (SST): A Subsystem-Status-Test message is sent to verify the
status of a subsystem marked prohibited or the status of an SCCP marked unavailable.
It is used for SCCP management.

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CODICE-DATA-P88

Connectionless services

• The SCCP provides the SCCP user with the ability to transfer signalling messages
via the signalling network without setup of a signalling connection.
In addition to the MTP capability, a "routing" function has to be provided within
the SCCP, which maps the called address to the signalling point codes of the MTP
service.

• Under certain conditions of congestion and unavailability of subsystems and/or


signalling points, connectionless messages in support of SCCP-SDUs could be
discarded instead of being transferred. If the SCCP user wishes to be informed of
the non-delivery of a SCCP-SDU caused by the discard of a message, the return
option parameter must be set to "return SCCP-SDU on error" in the primitive to
the SCCP.

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CODICE-DATA-P89

Signalling connection control part messages


(Connection-less: Class 0,1)

•UnitDaTa (UDT):
- A Unitdata message can be used by an SCCP wanting to send data in a connectionless mode.
• UnitDaTa Service (UDTS):
- A Unitdata Service message is used to indicate to the originating SCCP that a UDT sent cannot
be delivered to its destination. Exceptionally and subject to protocol interworking
considerations, a UDTS might equally be used in response to an XUDT or LUDT message. A UDTS
message is sent only when the option field in that UDT is set to "return on error".
• eXtended UnitDaTa (XUDT):
- An Extended Unitdata message is used by the SCCP wanting to send data (along with optional
parameters) in a connectionless mode.
•eXtended UnitDaTa Service (XUDTS):
- An Extended Unitdata Service message is used to indicate to the originating SCCP that an XUDT
cannot be delivered to its destination. Exceptionally and subject to protocol interworking
considerations, an XUDTS might equally be used in response to a UDT or LUDT message. An
XUDTS message is sent only when the return message on error option in the XUDT (or possibly
LUDT) is set.

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CODICE-DATA-P90

Signalling connection control part messages


(Connection-less: Class 0,1)

•SubSystem Congested (SSC):


-A Subsystem Congested message is sent by an SCCP node when it experiences
congestion.
• Long UnitDaTa (LUDT):
-A Long Unitdata message is used by the SCCP to send data (along with optional
parameters) in a connectionless mode. When MTP capabilities according to
Recommendation Q.2210 are present, it allows sending of NSDU sizes up to 3952
octets without segmentation.
• Long UnitDaTa Service (LUDTS):
-A Long Unitdata Service message is used to indicate to the originating SCCP that an
LUDT cannot be delivered to its destination. An LUDTS message is sent only when the
return message on error option in the LUDT is set.

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CODICE-DATA-P91

SCCP Management

•The SCCP provides functions which manage the status of the SCCP subsystems.
These functions allow other nodes in the network to be informed of the change in
status of SCCP subsystems at a node.
•SCCP management also keeps track of the congestion status of MTP destinations and
remote SCCPs.
•When a subsystem is out of service, SCCP test functions are activated at nodes
receiving unavailability information. At periodic intervals the status of the unavailable
subsystem is checked by a SCCP management procedure (SST - SSA).

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CODICE-DATA-P92

SCCP Message Parameters

•Affected Point Code:


-The "affected point code" identifies a signalling point where the affected subsystem
or SCCP is located.

• Affected Subsystem Number:


-The "affected subsystem number" parameter field identifies the SCCP or a subsystem
which is failed, withdrawn, congested or allowed. In the case of SST messages, it also
identifies the subsystem being audited. In the case of SOR or SOG messages, it
identifies a subsystem requesting to go out-of-service. The SSN for SCMG (=1) is used
to denote the SCCP as a whole in the SSA, SSC and SST messages.

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CODICE-DATA-P93

SCCP Message Parameters

•Calling/Called Party Address:


- The "calling/called party address" parameter field, together with additional
information given by the MTP, contains enough information to uniquely identify the
origination/destination signalling point and/or the SCCP service access point. It can
be any combination of a global title (dialled digits, for example), a signalling point
code, and a subsystem number. The subsystem number (SSN) identifies an SCCP user
when provided.
• Credit:
- The "credit" parameter field is used in the acknowledgements to indicate to the
sender how many messages it may send, i.e. window size. It is also used in the CR
and CC message to indicate the proposed and selected credit, and in the IT message
to audit the consistency of this connection data at both ends of a connection section.
• data:
-The "data" parameter field contains information coming from upper layers or from
SCCP management

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CODICE-DATA-P94

SCCP Message Parameters

• Error Cause:
- The "error cause" parameter field is used in the Protocol Data Unit Error message in order to
indicate what is the exact protocol error.
• End of Optional Parameters:
- The "end of optional parameters" parameter field is used in any message containing optional
parameters to indicate where the part allocated to these optional parameters ends.
• Local Reference Number (source/destination):
- The "local reference number (source/destination)" parameter field uniquely identifies a
signalling connection in a node. It is an internal working number chosen by each node
independently from the destination node. At least one local reference number is to be found
in any message exchanged on a signalling connection section.
• Protocol Class:
- For connection-oriented protocol classes, the "protocol class" parameter field is used during
the connection establishment phase; it is negotiated between the two end SCCP. It is also
used during data transfer phase to audit the consistency of this connection data at both ends
of a connection section.

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CODICE-DATA-P95

SCCP Message Parameters

• Receive Sequence Number:


-The "receive sequence number" parameter field P(R) is used in the data
acknowledgement message to indicate the lower edge of the receiving window.
• Refusal Cause:
- The "refusal cause" parameter field is used in a Connection Refused message to indicate
the reason why the connection set-up request was refused.
• Release Cause:
- The "release cause" parameter field is used in a Released message to indicate the
reason of the connection release.
• Reset Cause:
- The "reset cause" parameter field is used in a Reset Request message to indicate the
reason why a reset procedure is invoked.
• Return Cause:
- For connectionless protocol classes, the "return cause" parameter field is used to
indicate the reason why a message was returned.

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CODICE-DATA-P96

SCCP Message Parameters

•Segmenting/Reassembling:
-The "segmenting/reassembling" parameter field is used in the data message for the
segmenting and reassembling function. It is the more data indicator (M-bit). This is used
only in connection-oriented messages.
- It is set to one in a data message to indicate that more data will follow in a subsequent
message.
- It is set to zero in a data message to indicate that the data in this message forms the end of
a complete data sequence.

• Sequencing/Segmenting:
-The "sequencing/segmenting" parameter field contains the information necessary for the
following functions:
. sequence numbering,
. flow control,
. segmenting and reassembling.

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CODICE-DATA-P97

SCCP Message Parameters

• Subsystem Multiplicity Indicator:


-The "subsystem multiplicity indicator" is used in SCCP management messages to
indicate the number of associated replicated subsystems. This parameter is reserved
for national use.
• hop counter:
- The "hop counter" parameter field is used in the CR, XUDT, XUDTS, LUDT and LUDTS
messages to detect excessively long routes at the SCCP layer.

• Segmentation:
- The "segmentation" parameter field is used in the XUDT, XUDTS, LUDT and LUDTS
messages to indicate that a SCCP message has been segmented, or, in case of the
LUDT(S), that it may undergo segmenting at an MTP/MTP-3b interworking node. The
parameter also contains all the information necessary to allow the correct reassembly
of the message.

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CODICE-DATA-P98

SCCP Message Parameters

• Importance:
-The "importance" parameter is an optional parameter transported in CR, CC, RLSD,
CREF, LUDT, LUDTS, XUDT and XUDTS messages. It gives SCCP the ability to restrict
messages based on their importance.

• Congestion Level:
- The "SCCP congestion level" parameter is included in the Subsystem Congested
message (SSC) to report the severity of the congestion referring to either the whole
SCCP node or to the local SCCP.

• Long Data:
- The "long data" parameter is a "data" parameter with a two octet length indicator.
It allows sending of up to 3952 octets in a single LUDT or LUDTS message when MTP-
3b capabilities are present.

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CODICE-DATA-P99

Messages CR CC CREF RLSD RLC DT1 DT2 A ED EA RSR RSC ERR IT UDT UDTS XUDT XUDTS LUDT LUDTS
K

Parameter field
Destination local m m m m m m m m m m m m m
reference number
Source local reference m m m m m m m
number
Called party address m o o m m m m m m
Calling party address o m m m m m m
Protocol class m m m m m m
Segmenting/ m
reassembling
Receive sequence m
number
Sequencing/segmenting m ma)
a)
Credit o o m m
Release cause m
Return cause m m m
Reset cause m
Error cause m
User data o o o o m m m m m m m
Refusal cause m
End of optional o o o o o o o o
parameters
Hop counter o m m m m
b)
Segmentation o o o o
Importance o o o o o o o o
Long data m m
a)
Information in these parameter fields are ignored if the protocol class parameter indicates class 2.
b)
The segmentation parameter must be included by the originating node, if MTP/MTP-3b interworking is expected.

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CODICE-DATA-P100

SCCP message layout

•A SCCP message consists of the following parts (see Figure):


– the message type code;
– the mandatory fixed part;
– the mandatory variable part;
– the optional part, which may contain fixed length and variable length fields.

•The message type code consists of a one octet field and is mandatory for all messages.
The message type code uniquely defines the function and format of each SCCP
message.
MTP Routing Label

Message Type Code

Mandatory Fixed Part


SCCP Message

Mandatory Variable Part

Optional Part

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CODICE-DATA-P101

Order of octet
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 transmission

Message type code

Mandatory parameter A
Mandatory
fixed part
Mandatory parameter F
Pointer to parameter M

Pointer to parameter P
Pointer to start of optional part
Length indicator of parameter M
Mandatory
Parameter M variable part

Length indicator of parameter P

Parameter P
Parameter name = X
Length indicator of parameter X

Parameter X

Optional part
Parameter name = Z
Length indicator of parameter Z

Parameter Z

End of optional parameters T1178720-96

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CODICE-DATA-P102

Validation of SCCP messages

Check of

•Protocol Class
•Subsystem Number
•Global Title
•Called/Calling Party Address (OPC, DPC)
•etc.

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CODICE-DATA-P103

Complete connection with data transfer and release

SP A SP B

---------------------- CR
CC -----------------------
----------------------- DT1
DT1 -----------------------
----------------------- RLSD
RLC -----------------------

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CODICE-DATA-P104

•TCONN: Timer for CC. Determines the waiting time for the Connection Confirm
(response to the Connection Request).
•TIAS: Inactivity test send timer. Determines the periodicity of the sending of
inactivity test messages on a connection.
•TIAR: Inactivity test receive timer. The SCCP connection is released if there are no
inactivity test messages received within the TIAR interval. (TIAR of the receiving
entity >2 TIAS of the sending entity).

SP A SP B

CR -----------------------
Start Tias
<------------------------ CC
Start Tiar
DT1 -----------------------
Restart Tias

DT1 -----------------------
Restart Tias

Expiring Tias IT ----------------------


Start Tias

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CODICE-DATA-P105

SP A SP B

CR -----------------------
Start Tias
<------------------------ CC
Start Tiar
DT1 -----------------------
Restart Tias

Expiring Tias IT ----------------------


Start Tias

Expiring Tias IT ----------------------


Start Tias

Expiring Tiar RLSD ----------------------


Stop Tias
Start Tint
Start Trel

Expiring Trel RLSD ----------------------


Restart Trel

Expiring Trel RLSD ----------------------


Restart Trel

Expiring Tint
Stop Trel
Connection marked as idle

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CODICE-DATA-P106

•Trel: Release Timer. Repetition time between Released

•Tint: Determines the waiting time for the Release Complete. The connection is
marked as idle after the expiring of the timer.

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CODICE-DATA-P107

Connection Oriented vs. Connectionless

• Connection Oriented
• Connection-Oriented means that when devices communicate, they perform handshaking to set up an end-to-end
connection. The handshaking process may be as simple as synchronization such as in the transport layer protocol TCP, or as
complex as negotiating communications parameters as with a modem.
• Connection-Oriented systems can only work in bi-directional communications environments. To negotiate a connection,
both sides must be able to communicate with each other. This will not work in a unidirectional environment.

• Connectionless
• Connectionless means that no effort is made to set up a dedicated end-to-end connection.
• Connectionless communication is usually achieved by transmitting information in one direction, from source to destination
without checking to see if the destination is still there, or if it is prepared to receive the information. When there is little
interference, and plenty of speed available, these systems work fine. In environments where there is difficulty transmitting
to the destination, information may have to be re-transmitted several times before the complete message is received.
• Walkie-talkies, or Citizens Band radios are a good examples of connectionless communication. You speak into the mike, and
the radio transmitter sends out your signal. If the person receiving you doesn't understand you, there's nothing his radio can
do to correct things, the receiver must send you a message back to repeat your last message.
• IP, UDP, ICMP, DNS, TFTP and SNMP are examples of connectionless protocols in use on the Internet.

See http://www.inetdaemon.com/tutorials/basic_concepts/communication/connection-oriented_vs_connectionless.shtml

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CODICE-DATA-P108

SIGTRAN

SIGTRAN is the definition of a suite of protocols to carry


SS#7 and ISDN messages over IP. This protocol suite is
made up of a new transport layer–the Stream Control
Transmission Protocol (SCTP)–and a set of User
Adaptation (UA) layers which mimic the services of the
lower layers of SS#7 and ISDN.
TCAP

M2UA provides services of MTP2 in a client-server SCCP


situation, such as SG to MGC. Its user would be MTP3.

M2PA provides the services of MTP2 in a peer-to-peer MTP3 ISDN


situation, such as SG-to-SG connections. Its user would
be MTP3.
M3UA M2UA M2PA SUA IUA
M3UA provides the services of MTP3 in both a client-
server (SG to MGC) and peer-to-peer architecture. Its
users would be SCCP and/or ISUP.
SCTP
SUA provides services of SCCP in a peer-to-peer
architecture, such as SG to IP SCP. Its user would be
TCAP, or another transaction-based application part. IP

IUA provides services of the ISDN Data Link layer


(LAPD). Its user would be an ISDN layer 3 (Q.931) entity.

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CODICE-DATA-P109

Protocols Introduced in Release 4

Bearer Independent Call Control (BICC) A call control protocol used


between serving nodes. Based on the ISUP protocol adapted to support the
ISDN services independent of the bearer technology and signalling
message transport technology used. The messages are of call set-up type.
Megaco Megaco/H.248 allows an MSS to instruct MGW:s to connect
streams coming from outside a packet or cell data network onto a packet or
cell stream such as the ATM AAL2 stream.
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) is an application-layer control protocol
that can establish, modify, and terminate multimedia sessions such as
Internet telephony calls (VOIP).

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CODICE-DATA-P110

Signalling in GSM MSC HLR


MS
CM BTS BSC CM
MAP
MM MM

RR BSSAPP BSSAP TUP


RR NUP
TCAP
ISUS
RR‘ BTSM BTSM SCCP SCCP

LAPDm LAPDm LAPD LAPD


MTP MTP‘
Um TDMA Abis A
TDMA
L1 L1 External
FDMA FDMA Ex-change

CM Connection Management BTSM Base Transceiver Station Management


MM Mobility Management BSSAP BSS Application Part
RR Radio Resource Management SCCP Signalling Connection Control Part
LAPDm Link Protocol MTP Message Transfer Part

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CODICE-DATA-P111

Summary of SS7

• Signalling is the transfer of information between subscriber interface points and the
network, and between different network elements to help establish a call.

• Signalling information is interchanged as standard sets of messages, and was developed and
standardised into the present SS7 system.

• GSM networks need non-call-related signalling, which is possible with SS7.

• The SS7 used in PSTN networks is not sufficient to fulfil the signalling requirements of
GSM networks, thus new GSM protocols specific were developed.

• MTP is the basis of SS7, and it is responsible for transferring signalling messages from one
element to another within the same signalling network.

• TUP/ISUP are the user parts of MTP that handle call control.

• SCCP is needed for virtual connections and connectionless signalling.

• BSSAP is used for signalling between MSC - BSC and MSC - MS.

• MAP is needed for signalling between NSS elements.

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