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Contents
INTRODUCTION 3
PIPELINE DISPLACEMENTS 4
THERMAL EXPANSION 5
THE EXPANSION PROBLEM 6
THE BUCKLING PROBLEM 7
SYSTEMATIC APPROACH 8
CORRECT SOLUTION
SPACE AVAILABLE
STRUCTURE AVAILABLE
PLANT CONNECTIONS
EVALUATION OF PIPING SYSTEMS
NATURAL FLEXIBILITY SOLUTION 9
LOOP SOLUTION
COLD SPRING SOLUTION
LOW PRESSURE
UNRESTRAINED E.J. SOLUTION 10
RULES FOR UNRESTRAINED E.JS
POSITIONING OF EXPANSION JOINTS 11
LOW PRESSURE
RESTRAINED E.J. SOLUTION 12
LATERAL EXPANSION JOINT
ANGULAR EXPANSION JOINT
GIMBAL EXPANSION JOINT
SAMPLE CONFIGURATIONS
2 PIN SYSTEMS 13
LATERAL EXPANSION JOINTS - ONE PLANE
LATERAL EXPANSION JOINTS - TWO PLANES
ANGULAR EXPANSION JOINTS
SAMPLE CONFIGURATIONS 3 PIN SYSTEMS 14
THREE PIN 3 U SYSTEM
THREE PIN 3 Z SYSTEM
THREE PIN 3 W SYSTEM
DESIGN CHECK LIST 15
PIPELINE ACCESSORIES 16
SUPPORTS
SLIDERS 18
HANGERS
GUIDES
RULES FOR GUIDES
GUIDE SPACING 20
PLANAR GUIDES 21
TYPICAL PIPE GUIDES
ANCHORS 22
END THRUST
SPRING FORCE 23
FRICTION FORCE
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE 24
WIND LOADING 25
UNRESTRAINED SYSTEMS 26
RESTRAINED SYSTEMS 27
LATERAL SYSTEM
2 PIN ANGULAR SYSTEM 28
DESIGN CHECK LIST FOR ANCHORS 28
TYPICAL PIPE ANCHORS 29
HEAVY VERTICAL LOAD ANCHOR 30
INTERMEDIATE ANCHORS
PLANAR ANCHORS
SPECIFICATION
INSPECTION & TEST CERTIFICATES 31
INSTALLATION 32
ORIENTATION
FLANGED
WELDED
SOLDERED
SCREWED
COLD DRAW 32
NORMAL APPLICATIONS
SPECIAL APPLICATIONS 33
NIL COLD DRAW
100% COLD DRAW
LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS
PRE COLD DRAW UNITS
APPLYING COLD DRAW TO 33
UNRESTRAINED SYSTEMS
FLANGED:
WELDED:
SCREWED:
APPLYING COLD DRAW TO
RESTRAINED SYSTEMS 34
USEFUL INFORMATION 36
PIPE DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHT 40
SATURATED WATER AND SYSTEM 42
FORMULA NOTATION & DISCLAIMER 43

Introduction
This booklet has been prepared with YOU the customer
in mind. Whether you are responsible for plant,
designing or installing, this booklet should provide you
with an insight into the use of metallic bellows
expansion joints in pipe systems. We are not seeking to
make you experts by covering all situations, thats OUR
job. We are however, hoping to give YOU the confdence
to select, specify and install Expansion Joints correctly
for most applications and to recognise that the product
is of appropriate quality.
We are only too aware that your main concern is to
solve an expansion, movement or vibration problem. You
do not want to become involved in the fner points of
Expansion Joint design. We have only gone into detail
where we consider it important to convey the principle
behind a statement.
Practical issues such as the storage, handling,
installation and maintenance of all types of all types of
bellows are covered. We also include the related topics
of pipe support, guiding and anchoring in relation to the
forces and movements exerted by expandinges, Process
piping, Ship building and Power generation applications.
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Thermal expansion is our main interest, but it is not the only movement being imposed on the pipelines. The following displacements
may occur that can have benefcial or detrimental effects on the expansion condition. For example:
'.-- '..--|
COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR EXPANSION
Material Nominal Composition C of L E
10
-6
K
-1
Arsenical Copper Cu: 0.024% P,035%As 17.40
Stainless Steel 304 Fe: 18% Cr, 8% Ni 16.30
(Austenitic) 310 Fe: 25% Cr, 20% Ni 14.50
316 Fe: 18% Cr, 13% Ni, 3% Mo 16.30
321 Fe: 18% Cr, 10% Ni, 1% Ti 16.20
347 Fe: 18% Cr, 10% Ni, 1% Nb 16.30
Monel 400 Ni: 31% Cu, 2.5% Fe 14.10
Incoloy 800 Fe: 32.4% Ni, 21% Cr 14.20
Incoloy 825 Fe: 42% Ni, 21.5%Cr,3% Mo 14.00
Inconel 600 Ni: 15,5% Cr, 8% Fe 13.30
Inconel 625 Ni: 21% Cr, 9% Mo, 5% Fe 12.80
Nimonic 90 Ni: 20% Cr, 17% Co 12.70
Nimonic 75 Ni: 20% Cr 11.00
Low Carbon Steel Fe: 0.08%C 12.19
Carbon Steel Fe: 0.23% C 12.18
Alloy Steel Fe: 1% Cr, 0.5% Mo 11.90
Cast Iron Fe: 4% C, 2.5% Si 11.00
Stainless Steel Fe: 13% Cr 10.90
(Ferritic)
Plastics ABS Acrylonitrile-butadene-styrene 80/120
PE Polyethylene 130/250
PP Polypropylene 80/150
UPVC Polyvinyl chloride 50/100
All pipelines and vessels will expand or contract if they are
subject to changes in temperature.
Temperature changes may arise from the fow media or from
the environment in the form of daily or seasonal ambient
temperature fuctuations, solar gain and wind chill.
Expansion and contraction is expressed mathematically by
the formula:
L = o x L x T
Note 1. any consistent set of units may be used.
Note 2. the coeffcient of linear expansion varies with
the material and temperature range. If you
wish to use the above formula you should
take an average coeffcient of linear
expansion for the temperature range.
The values are only valid in the range 20
o
C - 100
o
C
Settlement of buildings and plant
Expansion of structure, vessels or plant
Vibration from rotating and reciprocating plant
Induced vibration from high velocity and/or
turbulent fow of media
Start-up kick of rotating plant, e.g. standby
generators
Tank settlement and bulge as a result of flling
and emptying
Wind loading and sway on adjacent structures
Seismic shock
'- c\..
For most practical purposes the following table may be simpler to use. It expresses expansion in terms of millimetres per
metre (mm/m) for various materials at given temperatures from a base of 0
o
C. The table is based on BS806: 1986,
Appendix D, issue 1.
EXPANSION RATE
Carbon & 762 High Austenitic
Low Alloy Temperature Stainless
Steel Alloy Steel Cast Iron steel Copper

deg C mm/m mm/m mm/m mm/m mm/m
-50 -0.56 -0.53 -0.48 -0.80
-40 -0.45 -0.42 -0.39 -0.64
-30 -0.34 -0.32 -0.29 -0.48
-20 -0.23 -0.21 -0.19 -0.32 -0.33
-10 -0.12 -0.11 -0.10 -0.16 -0.16
0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
10 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.16 0.16
20 0.23 0.21 0.20 0.33 0.33
30 0.35 0.32 0.29 0.49 0.50
40 0.47 0.43 0.39 0.66 0.67
50 0.59 0.54 0.49 0.82 0.84
60 0.71 0.65 0.59 0.99 1.01
70 0.94 0.76 0.69 1.16 1.18
80 0.96 0.87 0.79 1.32 1.35
90 1.08 0.98 0.89 1.49 1.52
100 1.21 1.10 0.99 1.66 1.69
110 1.34 1.21 1.09 1.83 1.86
120 1.47 1.32 1.19 2.01 2.03
130 1.60 1.44 1.29 2.18 2.20
140 1.73 1.55 1.39 2.35 2.39
150 1.86 1.67 1.49 2.53 2.57
160 1.99 1.78 1.59 2.70 2.75
170 2.12 1.90 1.69 2.88 2.92
180 2.26 2.01 1.80 3.05 3.10
190 2.39 2.13 1.90 3.23 3.28
200 2.53 2.25 2.00 3.41 3.46
210 2.67 2.37 2.10 3.59 3.63
220 2.81 2.49 2.21 3.77 3.81
230 2.95 2.61 2.31 3.95 3.98
240 3.09 2.73 2.41 4.13 4.16
250 3.23 2.85 2.52 4.32 4.34
260 3.38 2.97 2.62 4.50 4.51
270 3.52 3.09 2.72 4.68 4.69
280 3.67 3.22 2.83 4.87 4.87
290 3.81 3.34 2.93 5.05 5.04
300 3.96 3.47 3.04 5.24 5.22
310 4.11 3.59 3.14 5.43
320 4.26 3.72 3.25 5.62
330 4.41 3.84 3.36 5.81
340 4.57 3.97 3.46 6.00
350 4.72 4.10 3.57 6.19
The expansion rate per metre between any two temperatures
T2C and T2C is given by:
oL
21
= ol
21
- ol
21
mm/m

and total expansion in millimetres by:
L = oL
21
x L mm
Consider a carbon steel pipe 65m long. Minimum
temperature - 20
o
C being heated up to 140
o
C.
From the table:
oL
21
= ol
2
- ol
1

= 1.73 - (-0.23)
= 1.96mm/m
L = oL
21
x L
= 1.96 x 65 = 127.4mm
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Assuming that the anchor forces and the pipe stresses are
acceptable there can be other problems. If the temperature
of a pipe is increasing, the pipe behaves as a strut being
compressed and buckling is a potential problem.
Continuing with the previous example,
we can calculate the buckling load for
a strut fixed at each end.
Buckling Load (P
c
)
= 4 x t
2
x E x I / L
2
= 4 x t
2
x 2 x (2x10
11
) x (1.17x10
-5
)
50
2
= 36,989.3N = 3.77.tonne
This is much less than the compressive force of 53.58 tonne
due to thermal expansion, therefore the pipe will buckle.
We can calculate the critical length of pipe that would just
buckle under the compressive load and hence determine
guide spacing to prevent buckling.
Critical length (L
c
)
= (4 x t
2
x E x I / F
= (4 x t
2
x (2x10
11
) x (1.17x10
-5
)
525600

= 13.3m
In this case guides should be placed at least every 12.5m
If the pipeline is free to move no problem exists. But when
the movement is restricted, very large forces are imposed on
fxed points and unacceptable stress may apply. Pipes never
exist in limbo. They are a means of transporting media from a
source to a point of use, storage or discharge and hence have
fxed points.
Consider a 50 metre length of 150mm nominal
bore, standard schedule, carbon steel to BS3601-
410 being heated from 20C to 80C.
L = oL
21
x L
L = (0.96-0.23) x 50
= 36.5 mm
Assume that the ends are fxed solid so that the whole
movement is applied as strain within the material.
Strain (c) = L/L
= 36.5 x 10
-3
/ 50
= 0.00073

Note: t = L
21
so the stresses and forces
generated are independent of length.
From the strain we can then calculate
the stress.
Stress (o) = Youngs Modulus (E) x c
= 2 x 10
11
x .00073
= 146 x 10
6
N/m
2
The stress is close to the total allowable design stress
(149 x 10
6
N/m
2
) without taking into account stresses
resulting from internal pressure or dead weight. Stress is
force per unit area. We can calculate the area of the pipe.
Area (A) = (t/4) x (D
2
- d
2
)
= (t/4) x ((168.28 x 10
-3
)
2
- (154.06 x 10
-3
)
2
)
= 3.6 x 10
-3
m
2
and can therefore calculate the force.
Force (F) = o x A
= 146 x 3.6 x 10
3
= 525,600 N
= 53.58 tonne
The force being applied to the anchor is high and would be
unacceptable if being directly applied to a pump, turbine
casing or wall.
In many cases more than one pipe is being used and the
force from each must be added to determine the total force
being applied at a fxed point.
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CORRECT SOLUTION
There is no such thing as the correct solution to an
expansion or displacement problem. There are as many
solutions as there are engineers. The reverse is not true.
There are incorrect solutions and this guides seeks to help
non-specialists to avoid making mistakes.
We would like to put forward a systematic approach for
dealing with expansion and displacement problems in
pipelines. This will depend on many factors including space
availability, structure and plant strength.
SPACE AVAILABLE
Availability of space will affect the solution. It is no good
providing a pipe layout without indicating the proximity of
trench walls, structural members etc.
The pipe may be able to flex, but if anything restricts this
movement massive forces may be imposed. In buildings,
pipes often run in restricted ceiling voids and risers where
loops cannot be used and structure strength is limited.
STRUCTURE AVAILABLE
An unrestricted axial bellows solution may be correct if the
same pipe were suspended on drop rods from a flimsy space
frame. The building structure may not take the anchor forces.
However, an offset fitted with a restrained bellows assembly
could provide the solution.
PLANT CONNECTIONS
The pipe may well be able to flex naturally, but can the
vessel, pump or turbine take the resultant forces without
distorting or breaking or causing leaky joints.
Pipe
Layout
Calculate
Expansion
Create N.F
L or Z sections
Natural Flexibility
solution
Anchor Guide
& Support
Determine
Pipeline displacements
Unrestrained
Solution
Anchor Guide
& Support
Restrained
Solution
Anchor Guide
& Support
Special
Solution EA
END
N.F. = Natural Flexibility
YES
YES
NO
NO NO
Most pipe runs contain changes in direction. This introduces
flexibility into the pipe systems by bending, thus reducing
the forces and the stresses considerably.
Z CONFIGURATION
L CONFIGURATION
The minimum leg that will absorb the expansion in
the main pipe run can be calculated as follows:
L
min
= (3 x L x E x D)
o

= 3x(36.5x10
3
)x(2x10
11
)x(168.28x10
-3
)
(1.5x10
8
)
= 4.96m
Design Guide: This is too short as we cannot utilise all the
allowable design stress on bending. If we
restrict the bending stress to 50% of the
allowable stress, no fatigue problems should
occur in the life of the plant. The residual
allowable stress can be used for other loads.
L
50%
- 7.01 m
The force imposed at the anchor due to the flexing of leg L is
given by:
F = 12 x L x E x I
L
3

= 12x(36.5x10
-3
)x(2x10
11
)x(1.17x10
-5
)
7.01
3

= 2,975 N
= 0.3 tonne
LOOP SOLUTION
If natural offsets are not available and cannot be created,
loops can be used to induce flexibility. The CIBSE Guide gives
details of how to calculate loop sizes and determine
their stiffness.
Loops can be manufactured using elbows and straight pipe
or by hot forming pipe. Loops require a lot of space and
anchor loads remain high.
COLD SPRING SOLUTION
It is possible to pre-stress or cold spring the pipe in order to
reduce the forces by about 50%. This subject is dealt with in
detail in the installation section.
INDUCED FLEXIBILITY SOLUTION
If space is not available to provide natural flexibility, or the
resulting forces are excessive for the structure, other
solutions are necessary. Induced flexibility in the form of
expansion joints should now be considered.
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The application of an axial expansion joint is very simple with
few variants as possible, offering little room for engineering
initiative. The only limitations on an axial solution are the
movement capacity of the expansion joint and the ability to
support, guide and anchor the pipe.
Axial expansion joints exert a pressure thrust on the pipe due
to pressure attempting to open out the bellows lengthwise.
This is similar to the force generated by a hydraulic piston.
Force is also required to compress or extend the bellows due
to the stiffness of the convolutions. A good analogy is the
force required to compress and extend a spring.
PULL FROM EXTENDED SPRING
PUSH FROM COMPRESSED SPRING
The use or application of unrestrained expansion joints is
rigid and therefore best expressed as a set of rules.
1. Unrestrained expansion joints can only be used in
anchored pipe lines.

unpressurised
pressurised
Omitting anchors will result in failure of
unrestrained expansion joints.
2. The pipe run must be straight in plan and elevation.
Offsets can result in excessive forces and
moments being applied to guides.
3. Only one axial bellows may be placed between any
two anchors.
If more than one bellows were fitted, variations in
spring rate and friction would cause one to work
harder than the other and therefore fail prematurely.
4. If the movement capacity of one axial bellows is
inadequate for the movement in the pipe, the pipe may
be subdivided by intermediate anchors.
5. The pipe adjacent to the axial bellows must be guided to
control movement.
A pipeline suspended on hangers is free to
swing and cannot be considered as guided.
6. The full length of the pipe may require less guides to
prevent buckling.
The compressive force from the bellows added to
pipe friction may cause buckling of the pipe.
7. An axial expansion joint which is not Pre-cold-set must be
cold-set on installation to utilise the full movement capacity
of the unit and minimise spring forces.
Cold-set is probably the most difficult aspect of
installing an expansion joint.
Positioning of Expansion Joint
To decide where to locate the unrestrained expansion
joints in relation to the anchors, the following factors
should be considered:
1. Where it is necessary to equalise the anchor
forces, the bellows should be places midway between
anchors. As the end thrust normally far exceeds the friction
forces, the bellows may be located for convenience of
access and guiding.
2. Where branch movement must be kept to a minimum, an
expansion joint located near the centre will minimise
branch deflections.
3. To minimise the number of guides, the bellows should be
placed within a few pipe diameters of the anchor.
Detailed instructions on supports, guides and anchors can
be found later in the booklet.
Low Pressure
At very low pressures (1 to 2.5 bar g) it is possible to
use some types of Unrestrained Expansion Joints to absorb
a combination of axial, lateral and angular movements.
Diesel exhaust applications can usually be resolved using
this method.
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LATERAL EXPANSION JOINT
Lateral Expansion Joints are two bellows within a set of
tie-bars. They can take up lateral movement in two planes.
If two tie-bars are used some angulation is also possible,
but even if more are used the flanges still remain parallel.
ANGULAR EXPANSION JOINT
Angular Expansion Joints are single hinged bellows.
Individually, they can take up an ANGLE within one plane.
There are no practical applications using ONE Angular
Expansion Joint. To absorb movements, they have to be used
in sets of TWO or THREE.

Double Angular Expansion Joints are used for convenience
and to reduce installation cost. They move laterally by the
combined angulation of each bellows.
GIMBAL EXPANSION JOINT
Gimbal Expansion Joints are a specialised form of angular
expansion joint with a gimbal ring system to enable one end
of the unit to take up an angle in any direction in relation
to the other end. Although useful in high pressure complex
three-dimensional piping and some turbine connection
applications, their use is rare enough not to warrant detailed
treatment in this booklet. A lateral expansion joint will
usually replace two gimbal units more cheaply
and conveniently.
LATERAL EXPANSION JOINTS - ONE PLANE
It is possible to take up three-dimensional expansion using a
lateral expansion joint. Expansion of L
1
and L
2
are taken up
by the normal action of the expansion joint. as the tie-bars
stay cool, L
3
is held constant and the expansion of the pipe
within the tie-bars is taken up by axial compression of
the bellows.
Lateral expansion joints are not suitable for systems with
high pressure or high flow velocity. The centre pipe section
is unsupported and could become unstable. In these
instances and for large movements, 2 gimbal units should
be used.
'-|-. c\.. ).| '..|.
Restrained expansion joints are more versatile than
unrestrained joints. Many different configurations are
available to the design engineer. Restrained expansion joints
generally impose MUCH SMALLER forces on pipe supports
guides and anchors than an unrestrained solution.
The bellows of restrained expansion joints are spanned
by a restraining mechanism consisting of either hinged
members or tie-bars. Internal pressure tries to open out the
bellows axially, but the restraining mechanism prevents this
happening.
Movement is the result of controlled angulation of the
bellows, i.e. lateral movement is achieved by two
bellows or two halves of a single bellows angulating in
opposite directions.
The correct use of these units depends on an understanding
of the behaviour of TWO-PIN and THREE PIN systems. This
section of the booklet looks at some of these configurations.
Subsequent sections deal with supporting, guiding and
anchoring them.
'.- .|.|. ` ' '.|-
ANGULAR EXPANSION JOINTS
Two Pin System Used where offset L is too long for
convenient use of a lateral expansion joint. The effect is
basically the same. In view of the expansion in length L
and the arc movement about the hinge centres, special
allowance for natural flexibility should be made at one end,
as shown.
Tie rods with spherical seats permit the Lateral Tied Expansion Joint to absorb expansion in ANY DIRECTION
at right angles to its axis. It may be installed in any plane. Movement is controlled by guiding the pipe on one
side of the joint and providing a planar guide on the other to allow it to absorb the arc height (swing) of the
unit by natural flexibility.
Cold
Neutral
Hot
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THREE PIN 3 U SYSTEM
Three Pin U System mainly used in long distance pipelines
where no suitable offset is available. The loop can be
installed horizontally, vertically or sloped in any plane. The
centre bellows takes up twice the angle of the outer bellows
and may have more convolutions. Guides are required on
each side of the system. The loop can be installed in any
part of the pipe. To prevent movement of the centre bellows
along the direction of pipe expansion, we recommend that
cold draw be taken on each side of the loop in proportion to
the amount of expansion reaching the loop from each side.
THREE PIN 3 Z SYSTEM
Used where the offset in the pipe is too short to
accommodate a suitable articulated expansion joint. As
bellows B move at right angles to the line AB under pipe
expansion, bellows C is used to minimise pipe bending and
absorb vertical displacement as pipe AB swings
with expansion.
THREE PIN 3 W SYSTEM
This system is usually installed horizontally and is used
where there are two long runs at right angles to each other.
Both movements are to be taken at the bend.
Suggestion: We recommend that the centre bellows be
placed in the leg producing the larger expansion, i.e. where
L
1
is greater than L
2
.
This produces the most compact layout for the system.
Guides are to be positioned as close as possible to the outer
units. Sliding supports are required on the intermediate
pipes (Three Pin 3 W System).
DESIGN CHECK LIST
Due to the many various configurations possible with
restrained systems, it is difficult to produce a set of rules.
The following design check list can be used to ensure all
aspects of restrained expansion joint systems have been
duly considered:
1. Are there suitable supports, guides, planar guides and
anchors to allow the pipe to push itself along against
the frictional resistance of its supports?
2. Are the expansion joints arranged in such a manner so
that they are free to follow the movement
imposed on them by the pipe?
3. Have the guides been provided either side of the
expansion system?
TWO-PIN SYSTEMS
On Two Pin lateral systems limited freedom of movement
must be given one leg of the pipe. The leg perpendicular
to the main pipe movement shortens as the expansion
joints angulate and this must be absorbed by slight
bending of the main run of pipe. Closest restraint
in one leg should be about 40 pipe diameters from the
Expansion Joint. The other leg should be fully
guided within two diameters, plus half the
movement from the elbow or expansion joint.
THREE-PIN SYSTEMS
The pipes entering a 3 pin system must be fully guided. A
clearance of two pipe diameters plus half the
movement of the leg should be provided from the guide
to the expansion joint.
4. Is the pipe within the expansion mechanism
adequately supported?
The selection of supports will vary if the expansion
system is operating in a vertical, horizontal plane
or subject to three dimensional movement. The pipe
and expansion joints should be supported so
that no twisting, bending or compressive loads are
applied to the restraints.

TWO-PIN SYSTEMS
The guides either side of a two pin system usually
provide all the support necessary.

THREE-PIN SYSTEMS
The pipe legs within the arc must also be supported.
If horizontal, the supports are required to take the dead
weight of the system to prevent sagging.
If vertical, the supports should maintain alignment
and prevent sway. Constant load spring supports
may be required to take the weight of the pipe as it
moves vertically.
5. Are the restraints strong enough to transmit
natural flexibility forces and support pipe weight?
The main duty of the restraints is to contain the pressure
endthrust of the bellows. The dead weight of the system
must be supported so that there is no tendency to let the
expansion joint sag.
On two-pin systems, support may be impossible,
Restraints would be required to transmit forces and
moments due to natural flexibility and weight.
Always advise the expansion joint supplier of this
requirement, as special consideration must be
given to the strength of the hinge or
tie-bar restraints.
6 Are the pipe anchors adequate to take a combination
of forces and movements?
NOTE: Calculation of the forces and movements from
the two and three pin systems is a complex subject. We
will be publishing detailed design instructions soon, until
then, contact Engineering Appliances.
7. Do the connections to branches, valves, steam traps,
condensate main and other connected equipment,
restrict the free movement of the main run of pipe?

8. Is there adequate spacing between adjacent pipes with
varying expansions to prevent fouling under all conditions?
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SUPPORTS
All pipelines must be supported to ensure that the dead
weight of the pipe does not apply excessive stresses to the
pipe. The accepted stress level in BS3974 from dead weight
is 25x10
6
N/m
2
.
Expansion joint users have an interest in pipe supports
as they affect the slope of the pipe entering the joint. The
closer the supports, the straighter the pipe and therefore the
straighter the bellows.
A single pipe span is assumed to be simply supported and
span is calculated as follows:
L
max
= 8 x o
a
x Z / e
Continuously supported pipe is assumed to be fixed at the
support and the span is calculated as follows:
L
max
= 12 x o
a
x Z / e
The following table shows calculated pipe support
distances for BS1387 pipe. The media in the pipe effects
the solution, therefore gas filled and water filled results are
shown. Insulation is another additional weight to consider
as are specific components such as valves, deaerators etc.
Although it is possible to calculate pipe supports as shown on the previous page, this is impractical for every
installation. Standard pipe support intervals have been established and are specified by the Property Services Agency.
The following tables are industrial standards as laid down in Standard Specifications (M&E) No.3 and No.100.
In most cases more than one pipe diameter is laid side by
side and is supported by the same structure. The support
interval will therefore be determined by the smallest pipe
diameter. it is possible that the larger pipes will be mounted
on rollers which maybe situated on every second or
third support.
e.g. Support for 40mm nominal bore steel pipe is required
every 3 metres and 250mm nominal bore steel pipe
every 9 metres.
In restrained systems the forces generated by the expansion
joint are negligible, the design of the pipe supports decides
almost entirely the thrust on the pipe anchor. Obviously it is
well worthwhile to make special arrangements to keep pipe
supports as friction-free as possible. Support systems using
line or point contact are recommended to minimise friction.
It may be worth while using special roller supports or even
P.T.F.E. support pads, whose co-efficient of friction can be as
low as 0.03.
'.-- \..-.-
PIPE SUPPORT SPACING
BS 1387 - LIGHT
NB single span fixed/continuous span
gas water gas water
mm m m m m
15 1.84 1.78 2.26 2.18
20 2.31 2.21 2.84 2.70
25 2.84 2.67 3.48 3.27
32 3.38 3.09 4.14 3.78
40 3.77 3.41 4.61 4.17
50 4.37 3.83 5.35 4.69
65 5.18 4.40 6.34 5.39
80 5.70 4.70 6.99 5.76
100 6.74 5.35 8.26 6.55
PIPE SUPPORT SPACING
BS 1387 - MEDIUM
NB single span fixed/continuous span
gas water gas water
mm m m m m
15 1.96 1.91 2.40 2.33
20 2.39 2.28 2.92 2.80
25 2.96 2.80 3.62 3.43
32 3.51 3.25 4.30 3.98
40 3.85 3.51 4.72 4.29
50 4.55 4.05 5.57 4.96
65 5.28 4.54 6.47 5.56
80 5.89 4.98 7.22 6.10
100 6.93 5.66 8.49 6.93
125 7.86 6.21 9.63 7.61
150 8.64 6.57 10.59 8.05
PIPE SUPPORT SPACING
BS 1387 - HEAVY
NB single span fixed/continuous span
gas water gas water
mm m m m m
10 1.61 1.59 1.97 1.94
15 2.01 1.97 2.47 2.41
20 2.46 2.37 3.01 2.90
25 3.03 2.90 3.71 3.55
32 3.61 3.38 4.42 4.14
40 3.96 3.66 4.85 4.48
50 4.65 4.22 5.70 5.17
65 5.41 4.75 6.62 5.82
80 6.00 5.18 7.35 6.35
100 7.05 5.90 8.63 7.23
125 7.93 6.38 9.72 7.81
150 8.73 6.76 10.69 8.28
INTERVALS BETWEEN SUPPORT CENTRES
FOR STEEL PIPEWORK
Intervals for Intervals for
Horizontal Runs Vertical Runs
Bare Insulated Bare or
insulated
mm m m m
15 1.8 1.8 2.4
20 2.4 2.4 3.0
25 2.4 2.4 3.0
32 2.7 2.4 3.0
40 3.0 2.4 3.7
50 3.0 2.4 3.7
65 3.7 3.0 4.6
80 3.7 3.0 4.6
100 4.0 3.0 4.6
125 4.5 3.7 5.5
150 5.5 4.5 5.5
200 8.5 6.0 8.5
250 9.0 6.5 9.0
300 10.0 7.0 10.0
INTERVALS BETWEEN SUPPORT CENTRES
FOR COPPER PIPEWORK
Intervals for Intervals for
Horizontal Runs Vertical Runs
Bare Insulated Bare or
insulated
mm m m m
15 1.2 1.2 1.8
22 1.2 1.2 1.8
28 1.8 1.5 2.4
35 2.4 1.8 3.0
42 2.4 1.8 3.0
54 2.7 1.8 3.0
67 3.0 2.4 3.7
76 3.0 2.4 3.7
108 3.0 2.4 3.7
133 3.7 3.0 3.7
159 4.5 3.7 3.7
INTERVALS BETWEEN SUPPORT CENTRES
FOR PLASTICS PIPEWORK
Intervals for Intervals for
Horizontal Runs Vertical Runs
mm m m
15 0.9 1.3
20 1.0 1.5
25 1.0 1.5
32 1.1 1.6
40 1.2 1.8
50 1.3 1.9
80 1.6 2.4
100 1.9 2.8
150 2.1 3.0
200 2.4 3.6
250 2.6 3.9
300 2.8 4.2
Size
Size
Size
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SLIDERS
Sliders are required to protect the pipe from wear due
to movement.
DESIGN GUIDE:
BS3974 gives a method for calculating slide overlaps to
ensure that slides do not fall off their supports
throughout the working range of the installation.

L = the calculated longitudinal movement in millimetres.
X = 0.25 L or 50 millimetres, whichever is the greater.
T = the calculated transverse movement in millimetres.
Y = 0.25 T or 50 millimetres, whichever is the greater.
HANGERS
Providing special guide arrangements are made, hangers
can be used to support pipes containing unrestrained (axial)
bellows. Care must be taken to ensure that the swing of the
hanger does not cause jamming of the guides.
Hangers can be used more readily on pipelines containing
restrained expansion joints, providing the spring stiffness
of the expansion joint does not exceed the buckling load of
the pipe run. Some lateral restraint of the pipe is desirable.
Where large expansions are present long drop-rods are
necessary to prevent an appreciable rise and fall of the pipe
GUIDES
Expansion joints will only function correctly if properly
guided. A pipe guide is any form of constraint which allows
the pipe true axial movement along its length, but prevents
movement perpendicular to the pipe axis. The pipe guide
should also, as far as possible, prevent angular movement
through it.
RULES FOR GUIDES
1 Guides nearest the bellows
The function of guides nearest the bellows is to ensure
true axial movement onto the bellows. This can be achieved
by using a tubular type guide of such length, in relation to
its diameter, that the necessary clearances to permit axial
movement do not allow appreciable angular
offset movement.
DESIGN GUIDE:
Tubular guide length should be five to six pipe
diameters. A tubular guide is normally only fitted to very
small pipes. It acts as the first and second guide combined.
In the great majority of cases, straps sometimes with rollers
are employed. These are short and individually cannot
control angular movement of the pipe through them. To
ensure alignment of the pipe on the bellows, we recommend
the arrangement shown below
DESIGN GUIDE:
The recommended minimum length for strap type guides is
100mm, or one pipe diameter,
whichever is larger.
The first guides should be as close to the bellows
as possible, but taking care not to interfere with the
arrangements for COLD DRAW.
DESIGN GUIDE:
BS6129 states that there should be a MAXIMUM spacing of
4 pipe diameters from the bellows to the first guide and 14
pipe diameters from this to the second guide.
We realise the difficulties involved when pipes of widely
varied diameters run alongside each other, but every effort
should be made to obtain good alignment next to
the bellows.
2 Guides along the remaining pipe run.
The entire pipe run is often subjected to large compressive
forces. This can cause buckling and guides are therefore
required at regular intervals. The spacing of the guides
depends on compressive loads on the pipeline.
The bellows end-thrust is the predominant load to be
considered for unrestrained systems, while pipe friction
takes over on restrained ones.

DESIGN GUIDE:
In restrained systems where the predominant force is due to
cumulative friction of the pipe near the anchor, it is apparent
that the force in the pipe decreases steadily along the pipe
run towards the expansion joint. It is therefore theoretically
possible to increase guide spacing progressively from the
anchor towards the expansion joint. This is only worth
considering in very long pipelines.
The following table gives guide spacing for BS1387 pipe for
standard pressure ratings. The pressure thrust used is for
test pressure conditions at 1.5 x pressure rating.
L
max
= t
2
x E x l / 4 x F
GUIDE SPACING
BS 1387 - MEDIUM
Bar 2.5 6 10 16 25 40
NB metres
15 4.4 2.9 2.2 1.7 1.4 1.1
20 5.1 3.3 2.6 2.0 1.6 1.3
25 7.1 4.6 3.6 2.8 2.3 1.8
32 7.5 4.9 3.8 3.0 2.4 1.9
40 7.6 4.9 3.8 3.0 2.4 1.9
50 9.3 6.0 4.6 3.7 2.9 2.3
65 10.2 6.6 5.1 4.0 3.2 2.5
80 12.3 7.9 6.1 4.8 3.9 3.1
100 15.5 10.0 7.8 6.1 4.9 3.9
125 18.1 11.7 9.1 7.2 5.7 4.5
150 19.8 12.8 9.9 7.8 6.3 4.9

BS 1387 - HEAVY
Bar 2.5 6 10 16 25 40
NB metres
15 4.7 3.0 2.3 1.9 1.5 1.2
20 5.5 3.5 2.7 2.2 1.7 1.4
25 7.7 5.0 3.8 3.0 2.4 1.9
32 8.2 5.3 4.1 3.2 2.6 2.0
40 8.3 5.3 4.1 3.3 2.6 2.1
50 10.1 6.5 5.0 4.0 3.2 2.5
65 11.1 7.2 5.6 4.4 3.5 2.8
80 13.2 8.5 6.6 5.2 4.2 3.3
100 16.8 10.9 8.4 6.6 5.3 4.2
125 19.0 12.3 9.5 7.5 6.0 4.8
150 20.8 13.4 10.4 8.2 6.6 5.2
'.-- \..-.-
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3 Clearance between Guide & Pump
As the effectiveness of a pipe guide is dependant on
the clearance between fixed and moving elements, it is
important to keep the clearance indicated on the drawings
to a minimum.
GUIDE SPACING
Pipe Load in Newtons
PLANAR GUIDES
Planar guides may be used on certain restrained systems to ensure that the pipe is free to move in the correct plane, but not
perpendicular to it.
TYPICAL PIPE GUIDES
The sketches below show typical guides.
4 Strength of Guides
The purpose of the guides is to resist
the tendency of the pipe to bow out or
to displace itself from the true axial line
from anchor to anchor. The perpendicular
force exerted by the pipe is dependant
on the total compressive load and on the
straightness of the pipe.
DESIGN GUIDE:
Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association (EJMA) suggest
that the guides should be designed to take a lateral force
of 15% of the longitudinal compressive force. This could be
applied in any direction perpendicular to the pipe.
Design Guide Guide Clearance
Nominal Bore up to 100mm 100mm+
1st & 2nd Guides 1.5mm 3mm
Subsequent Guides 3mm 6mm
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ANCHORS
The pipe anchors must be fixed if the pipe movement is to be controlled and the expansion joints are to operate correctly:
The forces acting on the anchor will be a combination of:
End-thrust (for unrestrained expansion joints).
Spring force from the expansion joint.
Frictional resistance of restraints (for restrained expansion joints).
Frictional forces between the pipe and its supports.
Inertia and flow effects in the pipe.
Wind loading.
The slope of the pipe (vitally important if the pipe is vertical).
Differential forces due to changes in pipe diameter.
Dead Weight of media, pipe, components and insulation.
Spring force from branch connections.
SPRING FORCE
The bellows spring force for unrestrained expansion joints results from the axial spring rate of the bellows and the axial
extension or compression applied to it.
F
s
= f
s
x L
FRICTIONAL FORCE
Pipe frictional resistance occurs as the pipe expands and contracts over supports. The total friction force at the anchor is the
sum of the weight (at each support) multiplied by the coefficient of friction. This works out as the total pipe weight (including
media and insulation) multiplied by the coefficient of friction.
F
r
= W x Cf
PIPE FRICTION FORCES
based on pipe length 150m and Coefficient of Friction 0.4
NB NB O/D XS pipe water instn. total weight force
inch mm mm mm kg/m kg/m kg/m kg/m kg kg tonne
0.50 12.7 21.34 3.73 1.62 0.15 2.24 4.01 601.86 240.75 0.24
0.75 19 26.67 3.91 2.19 0.28 2.41 4.88 732.36 292.94 0.29
1.00 25 33.40 4.55 3.24 0.46 2.62 6.32 948.17 379.27 0.38
1.25 32 42.16 4.85 4.46 0.83 2.90 8.19 1227.81 491.12 0.49
1.50 40 48.26 5.08 5.41 1.14 3.09 9.64 1445.49 578.20 0.58
2.00 50 60.33 5.54 7.49 1.91 3.47 12.86 1928.52 771.41 0.77
2.50 65 73.03 7.01 11.41 2.73 3.87 18.01 2702.00 1080.80 1.08
3.00 80 88.90 7.62 15.27 4.26 4.36 23.90 3584.89 1433.96 1.43
3.50 90 101.60 8.08 18.64 5.73 4.76 29.13 4369.70 1747.88 1.75
4.00 100 114.30 8.56 22.32 7.42 5.16 34.90 5235.13 2094.05 2.09
5.00 125 141.30 9.53 30.97 11.74 6.01 48.71 7307.23 2922.89 2.92
6.00 150 168.28 10.97 42.56 16.82 6.86 66.24 9935.28 3974.11 3.97
8.00 200 219.08 12.70 64.64 29.46 8.45 102.55 15383.0 6153.22 6.15
10.00 250 273.05 12.70 81.54 48.17 10.15 139.86 20978.9 8391.58 8.39
12.00 300 323.85 12.70 97.45 69.96 11.74 179.15 26873.2 10749.2 10.75
14.00 350 355.60 12.70 107.40 85.63 12.74 205.77 30865.8 12346.3 12.35
16.00 400 406.40 12.70 123.31 114.01 14.34 251.65 37748.2 15099.2 15.10
18.00 450 457.20 12.70 139.22 146.44 15.93 301.59 45238.5 18095.4 18.10
20.00 500 508.00 12.70 155.13 182.92 17.53 355.58 53337.0 21334.8 21.33
22.00 550 558.80 12.70 171.04 223.46 19.13 413.62 62043.4 24817.3 24.82
24.00 600 609.60 12.70 186.95 268.05 20.72 475.72 71357.9 28543.2 28.54
'.-- \..-.-
F
p
= p x A
e
END THRUST
The bellows end thrust for unrestrained expansion joints is calculated by multiplying the bellows effective area by the pressure.
The effective area can be found in our product data sheets.
END THRUST
Bar 2.5 6 10 16 25 40
NB tonne
40 0.069 0.165 0.275 0.441 0.688 1.101
50 0.102 0.245 0.408 0.653 1.020 1.632
65 0.176 0.422 0.704 1.126 1.759 2.814
80 0.217 0.520 0.867 1.387 2.167 3.467
100 0.324 0.777 1.295 2.072 3.238 5.180
125 0.477 1.144 1.907 3.051 4.767 7.628
150 0.673 1.615 2.692 4.307 6.730 10.768
175 0.880 2.111 3.518 5.629 8.795 14.072
200 1.109 2.661 4.436 7.097 11.089 17.743
250 1.683 4.038 6.730 10.768 16.825 26.921
300 2.335 5.604 9.341 14.945 23.352 37.363
350 3.133 7.519 12.532 20.052 31.331 50.129
400 3.923 9.416 15.693 25.110 39.234 62.774
450 4.948 11.876 19.793 31.668 49.482 79.171
500 5.700 13.681 22.801 36.482 57.002 91.204
600 8.318 19.964 33.273 53.238 83.184 133.094
SPRING FORCE BASED ON TYPE EA07
NB Axial Movement Spring Rate Force
mm +/- mm N/mm N tonne
40 20 141.0 2820.0 0.287
50 19 139.0 2641.0 0.269
65 22 130.0 2860.0 0.292
80 22 120.0 2640.0 0.269
100 22 122.0 2684.0 0.274
125 24 155.0 3720.0 0.379
150 26 152.0 3952.0 0.403
175 24 204.0 4896.0 0.499
200 20 314.0 6280.0 0.640
250 17 486.0 8262.0 0.842
300 19 478.0 9082.0 0.926
350 17 681.0 11577.0 1.180
400 18 785.0 14130.0 1.440
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FRICTIONAL FORCE CONTINUED
This resistance acts against the direction of movement i.e. it
can act either way, depending on whether the pipe is warming
up or cooling down.
Figures quoted for friction coefficients vary widely, but the
following may be used as a guide for steel on steel:
Point Contact = 0.2
Line Contact = 0.25
Edge Contact = 0.3
Face to Face Contact = 0.4
The friction forces must be absorbed by the anchors in
restrained or unrestrained systems. On small bore pipes, up to
80mm NB or so, friction between pipe and support is usually
negligible as the run between anchors is short. However,
with large bore pipes containing water, the dead weight, can
be considerable.
See Tables of pipe, media and lagging weights.
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE
F
c
= p x V
2
x A
b
x O / g
Centrifugal force occurs at elbows due to the flow of media
around the bend. It is common for the anchors to occur at
elbows in which case the axial and perpendicular force is
simply calculated, otherwise it must be distributed to the
nearest guides or anchors.
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE
based on water flowing through a 90 elbow
Velocity m/sec 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.6 3.2 6.4
NB Area cm2 Force KG
40 13.1 0.008 0.034 0.135 0.539 2.154 8.617
50 21.7 0.014 0.055 0.222 0.888 3.551 14.203
65 30.9 0.020 0.079 0.317 1.266 5.064 20.257
80 47.7 0.031 0.122 0.489 1.955 7.819 31.275
90 63.8 0.041 0.163 0.654 2.615 10.459 41.835
100 82.1 0.53 0.210 0.842 3.367 13.466 53.866
125 129.1 0.083 0.331 1.323 5.291 21.165 84.660
150 186.4 0.119 0.478 1.910 7.641 30.565 122.259
200 322.8 0.207 0.827 3.308 13.230 52.922 211.687
250 508.7 0.326 1.303 5.214 20.854 83.416 333.665
300 729.6 0.467 1.869 7.477 29.908 119.631 478.522
350 889.5 0.570 2.279 9.116 36.463 145.853 583.410
400 1178.4 0.755 3.019 12.076 48.302 193.208 772.883
450 1507.7 0.966 3.863 15.451 61.803 247.210 988.841
500 1877.6 1.203 4.810 19.241 76.965 307.859 1231.436
550 2288.0 1.465 5.862 23.447 93.789 375.154 1500.617
600 2739.0 1.754 7.017 28.069 112.274 449.096 1796.385
WIND LOADING
Wind Loading is normally considered by the structural engineers. At a high wind velocity on exposed sites (the wind force) can
be significant. Guides and anchors will have to be strong enough to hold this lateral force.
The following table gives an indication of the forces that could be expected.
WIND LOAD
Based on a Wind Velocity of 50m/sec
Wind Load N/m2 570 685 725
NB Area Height above ground
Insulated 5m 20m 40m
m2/m kg/m
8 0.1134 6.59 7.92 8.38
10 0.1169 6.79 8.16 8.64
15 0.1212 7.04 8.46 8.96
20 0.1267 7.36 8.84 9.36
25 0.1335 7.76 9.32 9.87
32 0.1422 8.26 9.93 10.51
40 0.1481 8.61 10.34 10.95
50 0.1599 9.29 11.17 11.82
65 1.1756 10.20 12.26 12.98
80 0.1883 10.94 13.15 13.92
100 0.2135 12.40 14.90 15.77
NOTES:
'.-- \..-.-
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It is clear that many different load cases can exist.
Experience has shown that two load cases must be
considered to establish the maximum anchor force from
unrestrained bellows to expansion joints.
Case 1 Cold pipe at test pressure
Case 2 Hot pipe at working pressure
A 150mm NB, ANSI schedule 40, steel pipe, 50m
long operates between 10
o
C and 80
o
C and is
installed at 20
o
C. The pipe carries water at
16 bar g and is lagged with insulation material
50mm thick. The test pressure is 1.5 times
working pressure, 24 bar g.
Step 1. Calculate the Expansion
AL = 50 x (0.96-0.12)
= 42mm
Step 2. Calculate Cold Draw
X
cp
= 42 x(0.5-(20-10)/(80-10))
= 15mm
Step 3. Select unrestrained expansion joint
EA07-150
Details:
Movement +/-26mm = 52mm
Effective Area = 262cm
2
Spring Rate = 152N/mm
Step 4. Establish pipe details
150mm NB, ANSI sch 40
Pipe Weight = 28.26 kg/m
Media Weight = 18.64 kg/m
Insulation Weight = 6.86 kg/m
Total = 53.76 kg/m
Total pipe weight to = 53.76 x 50
be supported = 2688 kg
Step 5. Calculate Case 1
Case 1 is for test pressure at installation temperature.
a) End Thrust = 24 x 262 x 10
= 62880 N
b) Spring Force = 152 x -15
= -2280 N
Total Force (a+b) = 60600 N
Step 6. Calculate Case 2
Case 2 is for working pressure and temperature.
The expansion joint is placed close to one anchor, giving
maximum friction force. If the joint was fitted at the mid-
point, the friction force would be halved.
a) End Thrust =16 x 262 x 10
= 41920 N
b) Spring Force = 152 x 26
= 3952 N
c) Friction = 0.3 x 9.81 x 2688
= 7911 N
Total Force (a+b+c) = 53783 N
Step 7. Compare Case 1 & 2
In this example Case 1 is greater than Case 2, therefore the
anchor should be designed to withstand 6.2 tonne (say 10
tonne).
Care should be taken as all pipes are normally tested singly
but operate concurrently, consequently the worst test
condition should be compared to the sum of all the working
conditions. it is clear from this example that if two identical
pipes operated side by side, the anchor load at working
pressure and temperature would be 11.3 tonne.
Step 8. Supports
Support interval is 4.5m taken from table on page 17.
Step 9. Guides & Intermediate guides
Guide 1 = 4 x dia = 672mm
Guide 2 = 14 x dia = 2352mm
Guide Intermediate = 9500mm
(from graph on page 20)
The predominant anchor force in restrained systems is the friction force. The calculation of forces and moments for 2
Pin Angular and lateral system is simple and included in this booklet. Forces and moments for a 3 pin Angular systems
is complex and is dealt with in a separate publication. If the application is critical and the forces and moments must be
established, we invite you to contact us and we will undertake the calculation.
Lateral System
F
rl
= C
y
AL + C
rl
p
2
To calculate the reaction force from a Lateral System, 250mm NB, operating at 14 bar g and moving a total of
96mm = +/- 48mm from a neutral position.
F
rl
= (113 x 96/2) + (157 x 14)
= 7622 N
= 777 kg
The following table give the reaction force for lateral expansion joints type EA20 operating at maximum pressure and
movement.
When used to relieve stresses on turbine nozzles or delicate machinery, these forces are obviously significant in view of the
very low thrusts and bending moments essential in such cases. However, when applied in a normal application with pipework,
large expansions originating from long lengths of pipe, these forces are small enough to be TOTALLY IGNORED in comparison
with the frictional forces between the pipe and its supports!
REACTION FORCE FROM LATERAL EXPANSION JOINT EA20
Based on pressure of 16 bar and movement +/- 50mm
NB Lateral Spring C
y
Friction C
lr
Spring Friction Total Force
mm mm N/mm N/bar N N N kg tonne
40 50 7 4 350 64 414 42.20 0.04
50 50 9 5 450 80 530 54.03 0.05
65 50 14 9 700 144 844 86.03 0.09
80 50 21 11 1050 176 1226 124.97 0.12
100 50 24 15 1200 240 1440 146.79 0.15
125 50 23 22 1150 352 1502 153.11 0.15
150 50 33 29 1650 464 2114 215.49 0.22
200 50 53 44 2650 704 3354 341.90 0.34
250 50 113 157 5650 2512 8162 832.01 0.83
300 50 140 196 7000 3136 10136 1033.23 1.03
350 50 182 240 9100 3840 12940 1319.06 1.32
400 50 199 326 9950 5216 15166 1545.97 1.55
450 50 244 404 12200 6464 18664 1902.55 1.90
500 50 258 522 12900 8352 21252 2166.36 2.17
600 50 322 1125 16100 18000 34100 3476.04 3.48
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2 Pin Angular System
M
ra
= C
a
x 0 = C
r
x p + C
b
x 0 x p
F
ra
= 2 x M
ra
/ L
h
To calculate the the reaction force from a 2 Pin System, 80mm NB, operating at 8.5 bar g,
angulating 15 degrees at 1.5 metre hinge centres.
M
ra
= ((3.2 x 15) = (41 x 8.5) + (0.1648 x 15 x 8.5))
= 417.5 Nm
F
ra = 2 x 417.5 / 1.5
= 556.7 N = 56.7 kg
The following table gives the reaction force from an angular 2 Pin System using type EA31 expansion joints operating at their
maximum pressure to give +/- mm lateral movement while limiting the angulation to 5 degrees.
DESIGN CHECK LIST FOR ANCHORS
1. A valve in a pipe could result in some bellows being
pressurised while others are not, the anchor between valve
and bellows must be calculated as a main anchor.
2. An intermediate anchor between bellows of different
diameters will be subject to different thrusts from each
side and should be designed to take the nett thrust.
3. Where several pipes containing bellows run parallel
and are anchored at a common point, the critical condition
is under working temperature and pressure conditions for

ALL THE PIPES. It is most likely that only one or two pipes
will be tested at once.
4. If the pipe changes direction at the anchor point position,
it is necessary to calculate the resultant of the two forces
acting on it.
5. Where pipe is buried in insulating powder or foam
concrete, it is usual to pressure test before the pipe is
covered. If using Axial compensators, remember to design
correct anchoring and guiding for testing at this stage.
REACTION FORCE FROM ANGULAR EXPANSION JOINT EA31
Based on pressure of 16 bar movement +/- 150mm (Bellows angulation 5)
NB Angle Spring Friction Reaction Spring Friction Reaction Total Length Centr e Total Force
q Ca Cr Cb Fa Fr Fb Ft min
mm deg Nm/deg Nm/bar Nm/bar Nm Nm Nm Nm m m N Kg tonne
40 27.0 1.1 13.50 0.0492 14.9 216.0 10.6 241.5 0.300 0.643 751.6 76.62 0.08
50 28.0 1.7 19.50 0.0795 23.8 312.0 17.8 353.6 0.300 0.620 1140.6 116.27 0.12
65 25.0 2.8 32.00 0.1317 35.0 512.0 26.3 573.3 0.300 0.693 1654.6 168.66 0.17
80 23.0 3.2 41.00 0.1648 36.8 656.0 30.3 723.1 0.285 0.752 1922.2 195.95 0.20
100 29.0 8.1 0.60 0.4407 117.5 9.6 102.2 229.3 0.400 0.599 765.5 78.03 0.08
125 27.0 11.1 0.90 0.6450 149.9 14.4 139.3 303.6 0.400 0.643 944.9 96.32 0.10
150 22.0 13.4 1.25 0.8019 147.4 20.0 141.1 308.5 0.390 0.786 784.9 80.02 0.08
175 20.0 20.0 2.60 1.1728 200.0 41.6 187.6 429.2 0.420 0.864 993.8 101.31 0.10
200 16.5 27.7 3.25 1.2926 228.5 52.0 170.6 451.1 0.410 1.045 863.2 87.99 0.09
250 16.0 49.2 9.90 2.3338 393.6 158.4 298.7 850.7 0.435 1.078 1578.6 160.92 0.16
300 12.5 88.8 13.60 2.9515 555.0 217.6 295.2 1067.8 0.435 1.378 1549.9 157.99 0.16
350 12.5 116.1 26.30 3.8255 725.6 420.8 382.6 1529.0 0.450 1.378 2219.4 226.24 0.23
400 12.0 164.2 34.00 5.2147 985.2 544.0 500.6 2029.8 0.470 1.435 2829.0 288.38 0.29
450 11.5 207.2 43.00 6.8799 1191.4 688.0 633.0 2512.4 0.485 1.497 3356.1 342.11 0.34
500 11.0 269.3 105.00 10.5421 1481.2 1680.0 927.7 4088.9 0.525 1.565 5225.3 532.65 0.53
600 9.3 496.7 150.50 14.3501 2309.1 2408.0 1067.6 5785.3 0.540 1.850 6253.4 637.45 0.64
Typical Pipe Anchors

The sketches below show differing designs of anchors for
various locations such as: riser ducts, underground ducts,
underside of slabs, factory roof structures,etc.
It is difficult to anticipate all load conditions and
site variations. Anchors should be designed with a
LARGE SAFETY FACTOR!
An anchor is only good as its fixing to the fabric of
a building, duct or trench! Always check that the
structure is capable of holding the load applied!
HEAVY ANCHOR
TYPICAL RISER ARRANGEMENT
TYPICAL WALKWAY ARRANGEMENT
MEDIUM ANCHOR
MEDIUM ANCHOR
LIGHT ANCHOR
TYPICAL DUST ARRANGEMENT
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HEAVY VERTICAL LOAD ANCHOR
In addition to the loads generated by the expansion joints a vertical load anchor must
support the column of water in the vertical riser.
INTERMEDIATE ANCHORS
Intermediate anchors are fitted to unrestrained systems to ensure movement is applied to each bellows in the line. In normal
operation the forces on intermediate anchors are balanced and therefore negligible. Some authorities recommend that
intermediate anchors can be designed on the assumption that the pipe warms up from one end to the other, giving a design
force of twice the elasticity force of the bellows, plus an allowance for pipe frictional forces. If the pipe system is to be tested
in sections, we recommend that intermediate anchors are designed to take the main anchor loads.
PLANAR ANCHORS
The planar anchor is designed to take axial pipe loading and prevent perpendicular movement in one direction whilst allowing
it in the other.
Specification is the critical step by which a buyer communicates requirements to the supplier. The following
table has been developed to capture the minimum information while suggesting other requirements that may
be necessary for critical applications.
INSPECTION & TEST CERTIFICATES
Inspection and test requirements should be clearly
identified in enquiries and orders. Retrospective certification
is undesirable and usually impossible. All Quality Control
requirements bear a cost in terms of price and delivery.
Most of the bellows we supply are ex-stock and are
normally only covered by General Works Certificates
from our suppliers.
ENVIRONMENT
LIFE
cycles Required
MATERIALS
Convolutions
Sleeves
Pipe
Flanges
Restraints
ORIENTATION
QUALITY ASSURANCE
QUALITY CONTROL
Quality Plan
DESIGN
Codes
Calculations
Drawing Approval
PRODUCTION
Weld procedures
WP Qualifications
Welder-Qualifications
NDT
Hydraulic
Helium
Soapy Water
X-ray
Dye-penerant
Magnetic Particle
Ultra-sonic
CERTIFICATION
Material
Test
Quality System
SPECIFICATION UNITS E.J.1 E.J.2
NOMINAL BORE mm
APPLICATION
E.J. TYPE
PRESSURE
Design bar

Test bar

Working bar
VACUUM Yes/No
TEMPERATURE
Maximum C
Minimum C
Installation C
MOVEMENT
Extension mm
Compression mm
Lateral mm

Angular degree
END FITTINGS
Flange Spec
Flange Type
Flange Orientation
Pipe
Specifications
Pipe Schedule
Weld Preparation
CRITICAL APPLICATIONS ONLY
VIBRATION
Amplitude mm
Frequency HZ
MEDIA
Name
Density
Viscosity
Flow Velocity
Turbulent/Laminar
Direction
Reversible Flow
Ph
`!
SPECIFICATION
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The physical installation of expansion joints into pipe systems is simple. The connections are the same as most other
pipe line components in that they may be welded, soldered, flanged or screwed. Each method can potentially damage
the unit, therefore the following precautions are necessary.
ORIENTATION
In all cases it is necessary to check that the correct unit is
being fitted and that it is orientated correctly with regard to
flow direction.

With restrained units it is important to check the orientation
of the restraints. The hinge pin axis should be perpendicular
to the plane in which movement occurs. Two tie bar lateral
expansion joints should be orientated so that the tie bars
are either side of the plane of which the movement occurs.
The orientation of multiple tie bar lateral expansion joints is
not critical.
FLANGED
Flange orientation should be checked.The correct length bolts
are essential to ensure that they do not foul the convolutions
and damage convolutions on full compression. Some units
are fitted with threaded flange holes to avoid this occurrance.
WELDED
Protect the convolutions from arc strikes and weld spatter.
Thin ply material can be holed.
SOLDERED
Ensure that chloride based fluxes do not get on to stainless
steel surfaces. Most fluxes are neutralised on heating, but if
joints are made up and not completed immediately, corrosion
can result. In all cases the system should be flushed to
remove any acidic residue.
SCREWED
Torsion must not be applied to bellows as the distortion
increases the likelihood of squirm and very high stress,
reduce cyclic life. Screw connections are very susceptible
to this, but some are fitted with anti-torsion devices to
reduce the risk.
Cold pull applies equally to all expansion and deflection
problems in that the maximum deflection forces can be
halved by this technique whether or not natural flexibility,
unrestrained or restrained solution are being applied.
Cold draw is the only complex facet of installing expansion
joints and requires understanding on the part of the installer.
To keep stress in the bellows material to a minimum and
to obtain maximum total movement from a given bellows,
we recommend that a bellows is used STRETCHED and
COMPRESSED equally on each side of its neutral (i.e. as
delivered) length.
X
cp
= AL
{
1
-
( T
3
- T
1
)
}
2 ( T
2
- T
1
)
+ ive = Extend - ive = Compress
NORMAL APPLICATIONS
For normal applications, where the bellow is installed at or
near its lowest pipe temperature, it is necessary to STRETCH
the bellows (COLD DRAW) by HALF THE TOTAL CALCULATED
EXPANSION. As the temperature rises the bellows is
compressed past its neutral position. At working temperature,
the bellows is COMPRESSED BY HALF THE TOTAL EXPANSION
from its neutral position (see sketch).
Ideally, each bellows should be cold drawn by half of its
particular total expansion. It is permissible to cold draw
bellows by half their RATED movement. However if the bellows
is used to deal with the expansion of a pipe subjected to
ambient temperature changes only (day-night, summer-winter)
as on oil pipes, allowance must be made when calculating
cold draw.
SPECIAL APPLICATIONS
The following special applications require particular attention:-
NIL COLD DRAW:
When vibration, subsidence or very small movements have to
be taken up, we often recommend NO cold draw.
100% COLD DRAW
When bellows operate at a very high temperature or pressure,
we sometimes recommend 100% cold draw to reduce stress
in the convolutions under working conditions.
LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS:
When the operating temperature is below installation
temperature, as in chilled water or refrigeration applications,
it will be necessary to cold compress. Note that the formula
deals with this case.
PRE COLD-DRAWN UNITS:
For normal applications where the bellows should be cold
drawn by half the rated movement, special units are available
already PRE-STRETCHED. These need only be installed into the
pipe at their delivered length to achieve the half cold drawn
effect. These are particularly useful in welding
end applications.
\... .. '. . U-|-. '.|-
FLANGED:
We recommend that these be installed with a wooden spacer fitted, equal to the cold
draw required. This is removed when the pipe is fully installed and anchored.
WELDED:
We recommend that the cold draw be taken at a joint away from the bellows, either at a
flange (as above) or by pulling up the pipe at a welded joint.
Alternatively, the pre-cold drawn units are particularly convenient to install in weld
end installations.
SCREWED:
Screwed units are usually supplied pre-cold drawn. We do not recommend applying cold
draw to screwed bellows on site, due to the risk of applying torsion to the bellows.
'||.
.. '.
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APPLYING COLD DRAW TO RESTRAINED SYSTEMS
Cold draw can be applied to restrained systems in exactly the same way it is applied to unrestrained ones.
The only difference occurs when significant expansion occurs in two directions and the Cold Draw is applied to both.
The cold draw to be taken close to the
expansion joint to prevent moving any
skids from their positions. Theoretically,
the cold draw can be taken anywhere in
the pipe run, but greater care must be
taken in the positioning of the skids.
Most pipe systems are now lagged due to the cost of energy. The following points should be considered:
1. Lagging should not restrict the movement of expansion joints or flexing pipe. Clearances may be quite substantial when
considering the base pipe, but rapidly disappear when insulation is added.
2. Insulation should be removable to permit inspection of the expansion joints.
3. Care should be taken in selecting the insulation material. Some mineral wools contain chlorides that can leach out if
condensation conditions occur, subsequent evaporation and concentration has been known to cause corrosion. Trace
heating may be required to ensure that dew point conditions do not occur.
The cold draw has been applied in two
directions and is calculated on the
movement in the leg in which the cold
draw is being applied. The cold draw
shown equals half the movement, but
can be calculated accurately using the
formula provided.
'
`'
\.|-
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BS1387 (LIGHT)
NB Diameter Pipe Properties Mass Mass
Max Min Mean I/D Thks A pipe Z pipe I pipe A bore Water Pipe
mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
3
mm
4
mm
2
kg/m kg/m
8 13.60 13.20 13.40 9.80 1.80 65.60 168.64 1129.90 75.43 0.075 0.515
10 17.10 16.70 16.90 13.3 1.80 85.39 292.10 2468.26 138.93 0.139 0.670
15 21.40 21.00 21.20 17.20 2.00 120.64 530.12 5619.28 232.35 0.232 0.947
20 26.90 26.40 26.65 21.95 2.35 179.40 1003.05 13365.63 378.41 0.378 1.408
25 33.80 33.20 33.50 28.20 2.65 256.83 1837.59 30779.68 624.58 0.625 2.016
32 42.50 41.90 42.20 36.90 2.65 329.26 3064.84 64668.18 1069.41 1.069 2.585
40 48.40 47.80 48.10 42.10 2.90 411.80 4390.79 105598.38 1405.31 1.405 3.233
50 60.20 59.60 59.90 54.10 2.90 519.31 7060.06 211448.77 2298.71 2.299 4.077
65 76.00 75.20 75.60 69.10 3.25 738.71 12812.75 484322.13 3750.13 3.750 5.799
80 88.70 87.90 88.30 81.80 3.25 868.38 17810.22 786321.05 5255.29 5.255 6.817
100 113.90 113.00 113.45 106.1 3.65 1259.06 33486.13 1899500.54 8849.73 8.850 9.884
125
150
`
BS1387 (MEDIUM)
NB Diameter Pipe Properties Mass Mass
Max Min Mean I/D Thks A pipe Z pipe I pipe A bore Water Pipe
mm mm mm mm mm mm
2
mm
3
mm
4
mm
2
kg/m kg/m
8 13.90 13.30 13.60 8.90 2.35 83.06 201.66 1371.30 62.21 0.062 0.652
10 17.40 16.80 17.10 12.40 2.35 108.90 355.16 3036.62 120.76 0.121 0.855
15 21.70 21.10 21.40 16.10 2.65 156.10 653.91 6996.80 203.58 0.204 1.225
20 27.20 26.60 26.90 21.60 2.65 201.89 1116.54 15017.46 366.44 0.366 1.585
25 34.20 33.40 33.80 27.30 3.25 311.92 2177.60 36801.40 585.35 0.585 2.449
32 42.90 42.10 42.50 36.00 3.25 400.75 3656.54 77701.55 1017.88 1.018 3.146
40 48.80 48.00 48.40 41.90 3.25 460.99 4879.17 118075.82 1378.85 1.379 3.619
50 60.80 59.80 60.30 53.00 3.65 649.59 8678.89 261668.63 2206.18 2.206 5.099
65 76.60 75.40 76.00 68.70 3.65 829.62 14321.51 544217.23 3706.84 3.707 6.513
80 89.50 88.10 88.80 80.70 4.05 1078.31 21854.54 970341.66 5114.90 5.115 8.465
100 114.90 113.30 114.10 105.10 4.50 1549.43 40848.86 2330427.39 8675.52 8.676 12.163
125 140.60 138.40 139.65 129.95 4.85 2053.91 66899.39 4671250.25 13263.02 13.263 16.123
150 166.10 164.10 165.10 155.40 4.85 2441.69 95033.40 7845007.50 18966.71 18.967 19.167
BS1387 (HEAVY)
NB Diameter Pipe Properties Mass Mass
Max Min Mean I/D Thks A pipe Z pipe I pipe A bore Water Pipe
mm mm mm mm mm mm
2
mm
3
mm
4
mm
2
kg/m kg/m
8 13.90 13.30 13.60 7.80 2.90 97.48 220.23 1497.59 47.78 0.048 0.765
10 17.40 16.80 17.10 11.30 2.90 129.37 397.29 3396.79 100.29 0.100 1.016
15 21.70 21.10 21.40 14.90 3.25 185.31 736.03 7875.53 174.37 0.174 1.455
20 27.20 26.60 26.90 20.40 3.25 241.47 1278.91 17201.31 326.85 0.327 1.896
25 34.20 33.40 33.80 25.70 4.05 378.52 2523.85 42653.11 518.75 0.519 2.971
32 42.90 42.10 42.50 34.40 4.05 489.22 4301.67 91410.44 929.41 1.929 3.840
40 48.80 48.00 48.40 40.30 4.05 564.29 5780.79 139895.07 1378.85 1.276 4.430
50 60.80 59.80 60.30 51.30 4.50 788.85 10249.51 309022.67 1275.56 2.267 6.193
65 76.60 75.40 76.00 67.00 4.50 1010.81 17065.69 648496.15 2066.92 3.526 7.935
80 89.50 88.10 88.80 79.10 4.85 1279.12 25464.07 1130604.84 4914.09 4.914 10.041
100 114.90 113.30 114.10 103.30 5.40 1844.05 47858.28 2730315.00 8380.90 8.381 14.476
125 140.60 138.70 139.65 128.85 5.40 2277.50 73601.67 5139236.66 13039.43 13.039 17.878
150 166.10 164.10 165.10 154.30 5.40 2709.25 104748.44 8646984.08 18699.14 18.699 21.268
BS2871 table X
NB Diameter Pipe Properties Mass Mass
Max Min Mean I/D Thks A pipe Z pipe I pipe A bore Water Pipe
mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
3
mm
4
mm
2
kg/m kg/m
6 6.045 5.965 6.005 4.805 0.6 10.19 12.54 37.66 18.13 0.018 0.090
8 8.045 7.965 8.005 6.805 0.6 13.96 24.06 96.30 36.37 0.036 0.123
10 10.045 9.965 10.005 8.805 0.6 17.73 39.34 196.81 60.89 0.061 0.156
12 12.045 11.965 12.005 10.805 0.6 21.50 58.39 350.51 91.69 0.092 0.190
15 15.045 14.965 15.005 13.605 0.7 31.46 107.51 806.60 145.37 0.145 0.277
18 18.045 17.965 18.005 16.405 0.8 43.24 178.11 1603.44 211.37 0.211 0.381
22 22.055 21.975 22.015 20.215 0.9 59.70 302.81 3333.22 320.95 0.321 0.527
28 28.055 27.975 28.015 26.215 0.9 76.67 503.56 7053.58 539.75 0.540 0.676
35 35.070 34.990 35.030 32.630 1.2 127.54 1043.00 18268.09 836.23 0.836 1.125
42 42.070 41.990 42.030 39.630 1.2 153.93 1527.65 32103.64 1233.50 1.233 1.358
54 54.070 53.990 54.030 51.630 1.2 199.16 2573.37 69519.55 2093.60 2.094 1.757
67 66.750 66.600 66.675 64.275 1.2 246.83 3968.99 132316.35 3244.70 3.245 2.177
76 76.30 76.150 76.225 73.225 1.5 352.13 6451.44 245880.38 4211.23 4.211 3.106
108 108.250 108.000 108.125 105.125 1.5 502.46 13210.46 714190.75 8679.64 8.680 4.432
133 133.500 133.250 133.375 130.375 1.5 621.45 20260.51 1351122.56 13349.92 13.350 5.481
159 159.500 159.250 159.375 155.375 2.0 988.82 38421.74 3061732.51 18960.60 18.961 8.721
BS2871 table Y
NB Diameter Pipe Properties Mass Mass
Max Min Mean I/D Thks A pipe Z pipe I pipe A bore Water Pipe
mm mm mm mm mm mm
2
mm
3
mm
4
mm
2
kg/m kg/m
6 6.045 5.965 6.005 4.405 0.8 13.08 15.10 45.35 15.24 0.015 0.115
8 8.045 7.965 8.005 6.405 0.8 18.11 29.72 118.95 32.22 0.032 0.160
10 10.045 9.965 10.005 8.405 0.8 23.13 49.35 246.88 55.48 0.055 0.204
12 12.045 11.965 12.005 10.405 0.8 28.16 74.01 444.22 85.03 0.085 0.248
15 15.045 14.965 15.005 13.005 1.0 44.00 144.51 1084.22 132.83 0.133 0.388
18 18.045 17.965 18.005 16.005 1.0 53.42 215.24 1937.71 201.19 0.201 0.471
22 22.055 21.975 22.015 19.615 1.2 78.47 387.37 4263.94 302.18 0.302 0.692
28 28.055 27.975 28.015 25.615 1.2 101.09 649.95 9104.23 515.32 0.515 0.892
35 35.070 34.990 35.030 32.030 1.5 158.01 1270.31 22249.49 805.76 0.806 1.394
42 42.070 41.990 42.030 39.030 1.5 190.99 1868.73 39271.31 1196.43 1.196 1.685
54 54.070 53.990 54.030 50.030 2.0 326.97 4100.98 110787.97 1965.85 1.966 2.883
67 66.750 66.600 66.675 62.675 2.0 406.37 6379.42 212673.95 3085.17 3.085 3.584
76 76.300 76.150 76.225 72.225 2.0 466.37 8433.12 321407.27 4096.99 4.097 4.113
108 108.250 108.000 108.125 103.125 2.5 829.58 21411.50 1157559.40 8352.53 8.353 7.317
BS2871 table Z
NB Diameter Pipe Properties Mass Mass
Max Min Mean I/D Thks A pipe Z pipe I pipe A bore Water Pipe
mm mm mm mm mm mm
2
mm
3
mm
4
mm
2
kg/m kg/m
6 6.045 5.965 6.005 5.005 0.5 8.65 11.00 33.03 19.67 0.020 0.076
8 8.045 7.965 8.005 7.005 0.5 11.79 20.83 83.37 38.54 0.039 0.104
10 10.045 9.965 10.005 9.005 0.5 14.93 33.80 169.08 63.69 0.064 0.132
12 12.045 11.965 12.005 11.005 0.5 18.07 49.91 299.58 95.12 0.095 0.159
15 15.045 14.965 15.005 14.005 0.5 22.78 79.96 599.93 154.05 0.154 0.201
18 18.045 17.965 18.005 16.805 0.6 32.81 138.16 1243.80 221.80 0.222 0.289
22 22.055 21.975 22.015 20.815 0.6 40.37 210.39 2315.83 340.28 0.340 0.356
28 28.055 27.975 28.015 26.815 0.6 51.68 346.76 4857.18 564.74 0.565 0.456
35 35.070 34.990 35.030 33.630 0.7 75.50 635.26 11126.53 888.27 0.888 0.666
42 42.070 41.990 42.030 40.430 0.8 103.62 1048.15 22026.90 1283.80 1.284 0.914
54 54.070 53.990 54.030 52.230 0.9 150.22 1962.64 53020.82 2142.54 2.143 1.325
67 66.750 66.600 66.675 64.675 1.0 206.32 3337.55 111265.57 3285.21 3.285 1.820
76 76.300 76.150 76.225 73.825 1.2 282.84 5222.79 199053.69 4280.52 4.281 2.495
108 108.250 108.000 108.125 105.725 1.2 403.10 10657.06 576147.40 8779.00 8.779 3.555
133 133.500 133.250 133.375 130.375 1.5 621.45 20260.51 1351122.56 13349.92 13.350 5.481
159 159.500 159.250 159.375 156.375 1.5 743.97 29089.77 2318090.77 19205.45 19.205 6.562
`o
c'`o... '.- .-'| c'`o... .|- .-'|
BS3600 PIPE WEIGHT (kg/mm)
NB O/D Thickness
mm 3.2 3.6 4 4.5 5 5.4 5.6 5.9 6.3 7.1 8 8.8 10 11 12.5 14.2 16
32 42.4 3.09 3.44 3.79 4.21 4.61 4.93 5.08 5.31 5.61 6.18 6.79 7.29
40 48.3 3.56 3.97 4.37 4.86 5.34 5.71 5.90 6.17 6.53 7.21 7.95 8.57 9.45 10.12
50 60.3 4.51 5.03 5.55 6.19 6.82 7.31 7.55 7.92 8.39 9.32 10.32 11.18 12.40 13.37 14.74 16.14
65 76.1 5.75 6.44 7.11 7.95 8.77 9.42 9.74 10.21 10.84 12.08 13.44 14.61 16.30 17.66 19.61 21.68 23.71
80 88.9 6.76 7.57 8.38 9.37 10.35 11.12 11.50 12.08 12.83 14.32 15.96 17.38 19.46 21.13 23.55 26.16 28.77
90 101.6 7.77 8.70 9.63 10.78 11.91 12.81 13.26 13.92 14.81 16.55 18.47 20.14 22.59 24.58 27.47 30.61 33.78
100 114.3 8.77 9.83 10.88 12.19 13.48 14.50 15.01 15.77 16.78 18.77 20.97 22.90 25.72 28.02 31.38 35.05 38.79
125 139.7 10.77 12.08 13.39 15.00 16.61 17.89 18.52 19.47 20.73 23.22 25.98 28.41 31.99 34.91 39.21 43.95 48.81
150 168.3 13.03 14.62 16.21 18.18 20.14 21.69 22.47 23.63 25.17 28.23 31.63 34.61 39.04 42.67 48.03 53.96 60.10
175 193.7 15.03 16.88 18.71 21.00 23.27 25.08 25.98 27.33 29.12 32.67 36.64 40.13 45.30 49.56 55.86 62.86 70.12
200 219.1 17.04 19.13 21.22 23.82 26.40 28.46 29.49 31.02 33.06 37.12 41.65 45.64 51.57 56.45 63.69 71.75 80.14
225 244.5 19.04 21.39 23.72 26.63 29.53 31.84 32.99 34.72 37.01 41.57 46.66 51.15 57.83 63.34 71.52 80.65 90.16
250 273 21.29 23.92 26.54 29.80 33.05 35.64 36.93 38.86 41.44 46.56 52.28 57.34 64.86 71.07 80.30 90.63 101.41
300 323.9 25.31 28.44 31.56 35.45 39.32 42.42 43.96 46.27 49.34 55.47 62.32 68.38 77.41 84.88 95.99 108.45 121.49
350 355.6 27.81 31.25 34.68 38.96 43.23 46.64 48.34 50.88 54.27 61.02 68.58 75.26 85.23 93.48 105.77 119.56 134.00
400 406.4 31.82 35.76 39.70 44.60 49.50 53.40 55.35 58.27 62.16 69.92 78.60 86.29 97.76 107.26 121.43 137.35 154.05
450 457 35.81 40.25 44.69 50.22 55.73 60.14 62.34 65.64 70.02 78.78 88.58 97.27 110.24 120.99 137.03 155.07 174.01
500 508 39.84 44.78 49.72 55.88 62.02 66.93 69.38 73.06 77.95 87.71 98.65 108.34 122.81 134.82 152.75 172.93 194.14
550 559 43.86 49.31 54.75 61.54 68.31 73.72 76.43 80.48 85.87 96.64 108.71 119.41 135.39 148.66 168.47 190.79 214.26
600 610 59.78 67.20 74.60 80.52 83.47 87.90 93.80 105.57 118.77 130.47 147.97 162.49 184.19 208.65 234.38
650 660 72.75 80.77 87.17 90.38 95.17 101.56 114.32 128.63 141.32 160.30 176.06 199.60 226.15 254.11
700 711 78.41 87.06 93.97 97.42 102.59 109.49 123.25 138.70 152.39 172.88 189.89 215.33 244.01 274.24
750 762 93.34 100.76 104.46 110.01 117.41 132.18 148.76 163.46 185.45 203.73 231.05 261.87 294.36
800 813 107.55 111.51 117.44 125.33 141.11 158.82 174.53 198.03 217.56 246.77 279.73 314.48
850 864 114.34 118.55 124.86 133.26 150.04 168.88 185.60 210.61 231.40 262.49 297.59 334.61
900 914 141.03 158.80 178.75 196.45 222.94 244.96 277.90 315.10 354.34
1000 1016 156.87 176.66 198.87 218.58 248.09 272.63 309.35 350.82 394.58
`' `o
BS3600 WATERWEIGHT (kg/mm)
NB O/D Thickness
mm 3.2 3.6 4 4.5 5 5.4 5.6 5.9 6.3 7.1 8 8.8 10 11 12.5 14.2 16
32 42.4 1.02 0.97 0.93 0.88 0.82 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.70 0.62 0.55 0.48
40 48.3 1.38 1.33 1.28 1.21 1.15 1.10 1.08 1.05 1.00 0.91 0.82 0.74 0.63 0.54
50 60.3 2.28 2.21 2.15 2.07 1.99 1.92 1.89 1.85 1.79 1.67 1.54 1.43 1.28 1.15 0.98 0.80
65 76.1 3.82 3.73 3.64 3.54 3.43 3.35 3.31 3.25 3.17 3.01 2.84 2.69 2.47 2.30 2.05 1.79 1.53
80 88.9 5.35 5.24 5.14 5.01 4.89 4.79 4.74 4.67 4.57 4.38 4.17 3.99 3.73 3.52 3.21 2.87 2.54
90 101.6 7.12 7.00 6.88 6.73 6.59 6.48 6.42 6.33 6.22 6.00 5.45 5.75 5.23 4.98 4.61 4.21 3.80
100 114.3 9.14 9.01 8.87 8.71 8.54 8.41 8.35 8.25 8.12 7.87 7.59 7.34 6.98 6.69 6.26 5.80 5.32
125 139.7 13.96 13.79 13.62 13.42 13.21 13.05 12.97 12.85 12.69 12.37 12.02 11.71 11.25 10.88 10.33 9.73 9.11
150 168.3 20.59 20.38 20.18 19.93 19.68 19.48 19.38 19.24 19.04 18.65 18.22 17.84 17.27 16.81 16.13 15.37 14.59
175 193.7 27.55 27.32 27.08 26.79 26.50 26.27 26.16 25.99 25.76 25.31 24.80 24.36 23.70 23.15 22.35 21.46 20.54
200 219.1 35.53 35.27 35.00 34.67 34.34 34.08 33.95 33.75 33.49 32.97 34.40 31.89 31.13 30.51 29.59 28.56 27.49
225 244.5 44.53 44.23 43.93 43.56 43.19 42.90 42.75 42.53 42.24 41.66 41.01 40.44 39.58 28.88 37.84 36.68 35.47
250 273 55.82 55.49 55.15 54.74 54.33 54.00 53.83 53.58 53.26 52.60 51.87 51.23 50.27 49.48 48.31 46.99 45.62
300 323.9 79.17 78.77 78.38 77.88 77.39 76.99 76.80 76.50 76.11 75.33 74.46 73.69 72.54 71.58 70.17 68.58 66.92
350 355.6 95.77 95.33 94.90 94.35 93.81 93.37 93.16 92.83 92.40 91.54 90.58 89.73 88.46 87.41 85.84 84.08 82.24
400 406.4 125.66 125.16 124.66 124.04 123.41 122.91 122.67 122.29 121.80 120.81 119.70 118.73 117.26 116.05 114.25 112.22 110.09
450 457 159.47 158.90 158.34 157.63 156.93 156.37 156.09 155.67 155.11 153.99 152.75 151.64 149.99 148.62 146.57 144.28 141.86
500 508 197.61 196.98 196.35 195.56 194.78 194.16 193.84 193.38 192.75 191.51 190.12 188.88 187.04 185.51 183.22 180.65 177.95
550 559 239.83 239.14 238.45 237.58 236.72 236.03 235.69 235.17 234.48 233.11 231.57 230.21 228.17 266.48 223.96 221.12 218.13
600 610 284.63 283.69 282.74 281.99 281.61 281.05 280.30 278.80 277.12 275.63 273.40 271.55 268.78 265.67 262.39
650 660 332.85 331.83 331.01 330.61 330.00 329.18 327.56 325.73 324.12 321.70 319.69 316.69 313.31 309.75
700 711 387.05 385.95 385.07 384.63 383.97 383.09 381.33 379.37 377.62 375.01 372.85 369.61 365.95 362.10
750 762 444.15 443.20 442.73 442.02 441.08 439.20 437.09 435.21 432.41 430.08 426.60 422.68 418.54
800 813 505.42 504.92 504.16 503.16 501.15 498.89 496.89 493.90 491.41 487.69 483.49 479.06
850 864 571.73 571.19 570.39 569.32 567.18 564.78 562.65 559.47 556.82 552.86 548.39 543.67
900 914 638.15 635.89 633.35 631.09 627.72 624.91 620.72 615.98 610.98
1000 1016 790.75 788.23 785.40 782.89 779.13 776.00 771.32 766.04 760.47
\\''. '.- '-. c .-'|
ANSI PIPE - DIMENSIONS &WEIGHT
NB NB O/D Schedule Insulation
Inch mm mm 5 10 20 30 std 40 60 xs 80 100 120 140 160 xxs 25 50
thk mm 1.65 2.11 2.77 2.77 3.73 3.73 4.75 7.47
0.5 12.7 21.34 Wp kg/m 0.80 1.00 1.27 1.27 1.62 1.62 1.94 2.56 0.73 2.24
Wwkg/m 0.26 0.23 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.15 0.11 0.03
thk mm 1.65 2.11 2.87 2.87 3.91 3.91 5.54 7.82
0.75 19 26.67 Wp kg/m 1.02 1.28 1.68 1.68 2.19 2.19 2.89 3.64 0.81 2.41
Wwkg/m 0.43 0.40 0.34 0.34 0.28 0.28 0.19 0.10
thk mm 1.65 2.77 3.38 3.38 4.55 4.55 6.35 9.09
1 25 33.40 Wp kg/m 1.29 2.09 2.50 2.50 3.24 3.24 4.24 5.45 0.92 2.62
Wwkg/m 0.71 0.61 0.56 0.56 0.46 0.46 0.34 0.18
thk mm 1.65 2.77 3.56 3.56 4.85 4.85 6.35 9.70
1.25 32 42.16 Wp kg/m 1.65 2.69 3.39 3.39 4.46 4.46 5.61 7.76 1.05 2.9
Wwkg/m 1.19 1.05 0.96 0.96 0.83 0.83 0.68 0.41
thk mm 1.65 2.77 3.68 3.68 5.08 5.08 7.14 10.16
1.5 40 48.26 Wp kg/m 1.90 3.11 4.05 4.05 5.41 5.41 7.24 9.55 1.15 3.09
Wwkg/m 1.59 1.43 1.31 1.31 1.14 1.14 0.91 0.61
thk mm 1.65 2.77 3.91 3.91 5.54 5.54 8.71 11.07
2 50 60.33 Wp kg/m 2.39 3.93 5.44 5.44 7.49 7.49 11.09 13.45 1.34 3.47
Wwkg/m 2.55 2.36 2.17 2.17 1.91 1.91 1.45 1.15
thk mm 2.11 3.05 5.16 5.16 7.01 7.01 9.53 14.02
2.5 65 73.03 Wp kg.m 3.69 5.26 8.64 8.64 11.41 11.41 14.92 20.40 1.54 3.87
Wwkg/m 3.72 3.52 3.09 3.09 2.73 2.73 2.29 1.59
thk mm 2.11 3.05 5.49 5.49 7.62 7.62 11.13 15.24
3 80 88.90 Wp kg/m 4.52 6.46 11.29 11.29 15.27 15.27 21.35 27.68 1.79 4.36
Wwkg/m 5.63 5.38 4.77 4.77 4.26 4.26 3.49 2.68
thk mm 2.11 3.05 5.74 5.74 8.08 8.08 16.15
3.5 101.60 Wp kg/m 5.18 7.41 13.57 13.57 18.64 18.64 34.03 1.99 4.46
Wwkg/m 7.45 7.16 6.38 6.38 5.73 5.73 3.77
thk mm 2.11 3.05 6.02 6.02 8.56 8.56 11.13 13.49 17.12
4 100 114.30 Wp kg/m 5.84 8.37 16.08 16.08 22.32 22.32 28.32 33.54 41.03 2.19 5.16
Wwkg/m 9.52 9.19 8.21 8.21 7.42 7.42 6.65 5.99 5.03
thk mm 2.77 3.40 6.55 6.55 9.53 9.53 12.70 15.88 19.05
5 125 141.30 Wp kg/m 9.46 11.56 21.77 21.77 30.97 30.97 40.28 49.12 57.43 2.61 6.01
Wwkg/m 14.48 14.21 12.91 12.91 11.74 11.74 10.55 9.42 8.36
thk mm 2.77 3.40 7.11 7.11 10.97 10.97 14.27 18.24 21.95
6 150 168.28 Wp kg/m 11.31 13.83 28.26 28.26 42.56 42.56 54.20 67.49 79.21 3.04 6.86
Wwkg/m 20.80 20.48 18.64 18.64 16.82 16.82 15.34 13.64 12.15
thk mm 2.77 3.76 6.35 7.04 8.18 8.18 10.31 12.70 12.70 15.06 18.24 20.62 23.01 22.23
8 200 219.08 Wp kg/m 14.78 19.97 33.31 36.81 42.55 42.55 53.08 64.64 64.64 75.77 90.34 100.92 111.26 107.92 3.83 8.45
Wwkg/m 35.81 35.15 33.45 33.01 32.28 32.28 30.93 29.46 29.46 28.04 26.19 24.84 23.52 23.95
4! 4.
ANSI PIPE- DIMENSIONS&WEIGHT
NB NB O/D Schedule Insulation
Inch mm mm 5 10 20 30 std 40 60 xs 80 100 120 140 160 xxs 25 50
thkmm 3.40 4.19 6.35 7.80 9.27 9.27 12.70 12.70 15.06 18.24 21.41 25.40 28.58
10 250 273.05 Wpkg/m 22.61 27.78 41.77 51.02 60.30 60.30 81.54 81.54 95.82 114.62 132.87 155.13 172.31 4.68 10.15
Wwkg/m 55.68 55.02 53.24 52.06 50.87 50.87 48.17 48.17 46.35 43.96 41.63 38.79
thkmm 4.19 4.57 6.35 8.38 9.53 10.31 14.27 12.70 17.45 21.41 25.40 28.58 33.32
12 300 323.85 Wpkg/m 33.03 35.98 49.72 65.20 73.87 79.72 108.95 97.45 131.86 159.69 186.95 208.11 238.73 5.48 11.74
Wwkg/m 78.16 77.79 76.04 74.07 72.96 72.22 68.49 69.96 65.57 62.03 58.56 55.86 51.96
thkmm 6.35 7.92 9.53 9.53 11.13 15.06 12.70 19.05 23.80 27.76 31.75 35.71
14 350 355.60 Wpkg/m 54.69 67.91 81.33 81.33 94.55 126.48 107.40 158.11 194.75 224.44 253.58 281.72 8.98 12.74
Wwkg/m 92.35 90.66 88.95 88.95 87.27 83.20 85.63 79.17 74.51 70.72 67.01 63.43
thkmm 6.35 7.92 9.53 9.53 12.70 16.66 12.70 21.41 26.19 30.94 36.53 40.46
16 400 406.40 Wpkg/m 62.65 77.83 93.27 93.27 123.31 160.13 123.31 203.28 245.57 286.49 333.21 365.14 6.78 14.34
Wwkg/m 121.74 119.80 117.84 117.84 114.01 109.32 114.01 103.82 98.43 93.22 87.27 83.20
thkmm 6.35 7.92 11.13 9.53 14.27 19.05 12.70 23.80 29.36 34.93 39.67 45.24
18 450 457.20 Wpkg/m 70.60 87.75 122.44 105.21 155.88 205.84 139.22 254.38 309.78 363.75 408.48 459.62 7.57 15.93
Wwkg/m 155.18 152.99 148.58 150.77 144.32 137.95 146.44 131.77 124.71 117.84 112.14 105.62
thkmm 6.35 9.53 12.70 9.53 15.06 20.62 12.70 26.19 32.54 38.10 44.45 49.99
20 500 508.00 Wpkg/m 78.56 117.15 155.13 117.15 183.08 247.84 155.13 311.19 381.55 441.52 508.15 564.65 8.37 17.53
Wwkg/m 192.68 187.76 182.92 187.76 179.36 171.11 182.92 163.04 154.08 146.44 137.95 130.75
thkmm 6.35 9.53 12.70 9.53 22.22 12.70 28.57 34.92 41.27 47.62 53.97
22 550 558.80 Wpkg/m 86.51 129.09 171.04 129.09 294.03 171.04 373.59 451.15 526.73 600.32 671.92 9.17 19.13
Wwkg/m 234.23 228.80 223.46 228.80 207.79 223.46 197.66 187.77 178.15 168.77 159.65
thkmm 6.35 9.53 14.27 9.53 17.45 24.59 12.70 30.94 38.89 46.02 52.37 59.51
24 600 609.60 Wpkg/m 94.47 141.03 209.51 141.03 254.83 354.77 186.95 441.53 547.36 639.62 719.68 807.32 9.97 20.72
Wwkg/m 279.83 273.90 265.17 273.90 259.40 246.67 268.05 235.62 222.14 210.38 200.19 189.02
thkmm 7.92 12.70 0.00 9.53 12.70
26 650 660.40 Wpkg/m 127.44 202.86 0.00 152.97 202.86 10.77 22.32
Wwkg/m 326.30 316.69 0.00 323.05 316.69
thkmm 7.92 12.70 15.87 9.53 12.70
28 700 711.20 Wpkg/m 137.36 218.77 272.14 164.91 218.77 11.56 23.91
Wwkg/m 379.76 369.39 362.59 376.25 369.39
thkmm 7.92 12.70 15.87 9.53 12.70
30 750 762.00 Wpkg/m 147.29 234.68 292.02 176.85 234.68 12.36 25.51
Wwkg/m 437.27 426.14 418.84 433.51 426.14
thkmm 7.92 12.70 15.87 9.53 17.45 12.70
32 800 812.80 Wpkg/m 157.21 250.59 311.90 188.79 342.27 250.59 13.16 27.11
Wwkg/m 498.84 486.95 479.14 494.82 475.27 486.95
thkmm 12.70 9.53 12.70
36 900 914.40 Wpkg/m 282.41 212.67 282.41 14.76 30.3
Wwkg/m 620.72 629.60 620.72
'|.|-. .|- . '|-
01932 788888
for assistance
4`
Saturated Water and Steam
Pressure Temperature Specific Density
Absolute Volume

bar deg C m
3
/kg kg/m
3
0.1 45.8 14.670 0.068
0.2 60.1 7.648 0.131
0.3 69.1 5.228 0.191
0.4 75.9 3.992 0.251
0.5 81.3 3.239 0.309
0.6 86.0 2.731 0.366
0.7 90.0 2.364 0.423
0.8 93.5 2.087 0.479
0.9 96.7 1.869 0.535
1.0 99.6 1.694 0.590
2.0 120.2 0.886 1.129
3.0 133.5 0.606 1.651
4.0 143.6 0.462 2.163
5.0 151.8 0.375 2.668
6.0 158.8 0.316 3.169
7.0 165.0 0.273 3.666
8.0 170.4 0.240 4.161
9.0 175.4 0.215 4.653
10.0 179.9 0.194 5.144
20.0 212.4 0.100 10.043
30.0 233.8 0.067 15.004
40.0 250.3 0.050 20.092
50.0 263.9 0.039 25.355
60.0 275.6 0.032 30.826
70.0 285.8 0.027 36.536
80.0 295.0 0.024 42.517
90.0 303.3 0.020 48.828
100.0 311.0 0.018 55.494
DISCLAIMER
We trust that you will appreciate that even with this relatively detailed booklet we have had to leave a lot unsaid! In view of the varied methods of sup-
porting and running pipe, practically every single installation is unique and requires special treatment. We have done our very best to convey to you
some of the essentials of the correct use of metallic bellows expansion joints, but we cannot cover every case.
In view of this please do not proceed on the design of a bellows system if you are not completely happy about the design of anchors, guides
and support.
PLEASE DO NOT TRY TO USE YOUR INTERPRETATION OF ANY INSTRUCTIONS IN THIS BOOKLET AS EVIDENCE AGAINST US!
THE WISDOM ACqUIRED OVER 40 YEARS OF BELLOWS APPLICATION CANNOT BE CONVEYED ADEqUATELY BY WRITTEN DESCRIPTIONS, BUT IS
AVAILABLE IF YOU WRITE OR CALL US.
AN ENGINEER'S VISIT IS THE ONLY SAFE WAY OF CHECKING THE TOTAL SITUATION!
engineeringappliances
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01932 788888
for assistance
A
b
Area Bore m
2
A
e
Effective area of convolutions m
2
A
p
Area pipe m
2
C
a
Angulation moment Nm/deg
C
b
Angular reaction moment Nmbar.deg
C
f
Coefficient of friction -
C
lr
Lateral friction rate N/bar
C
r
Frictional moment Nm/bar
C
y
Lateral spring rate N/mm

D Outside diameter m
D Inside diameter m
E Youngs modulus N/m
2

F Force total axial N
F
c
Force centrifugal from media flow N
F
p
Force endthrust N
F
r
Force frictional resistance N
F
ra
Force reaction 2 pin angular EJ N
F
rl
Force reaction from lateral EJ N
F
s
Force spring rate of bellows N
G Acceleration due to gravity m/sec
2
I 2
nd
moment of area m
4
L Length of pipe leg m
L
c
Critical length of a strut m
L
h
Hinge centre distance m
L
max
Maximum length to satisfy requirement m
L
min
Minimum length to satisfy requirement m

AL Change in length m
ol
t1
Rate of expansion (T
1
and 0C) mm/m
ol
t2
Rate of expansion (T
2
and 0C) m/mm
ol
t21
Rate of expansion (T
2
and T
1
C) mm/m
M
ra
Angular resisting moment N/m
p Pressure N/m
2
P
c
Buckling load of a strut N
T
1
Minimum temperature C
T
2
Maximum temperature C
T
3
Installation temperature C
T Change in temperature (T
1
T
2
) C
V Velocity of media msec
W Pipe weight kg
W
i
Weight per metre insulation on pipe kg/m
W
m
Weight per metre media in pipe kg/m
W
p
Weight per metre pipe kg/m
W
t
Weight per metre total kg/m
X
cp
Cold draw mm
Z 1
st
moment of area m
3

o Coefficient of linear expansion C


-1
t Strain -
0 Angulation of hinged expansion joint degree
0 Elbow anglulation radian
t Pie -
p Density of media kg/m
2
o Stress N/m
2
o
a
Allowable stress N/m
2
c Diameter m
e Uniformly distributed load kg/m
'.. \.||. . '.-
Copyright Andrews Sykes Group Plc. 2003. Other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.
Engineering Appliances Limited
Unit 11 Brooklands Close, Sunbury-on-Thames
Middlesex TW16 7DX
tel: +44 (0) 1932 788 888
fax: +44 (0) 1932 761 263
e-mail: info@engineering-appliances.com
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A member company of Andrews Sykes Group plc.
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EA/BOA THICK WALL MULTI PLY EXPANSION JOINTS
STENFLEX NYLON & STEEL WIRE RE-INFORCED RUBBER BELLOWS
IND. MATEU FAN COIL & CHILLED CEILING HOSES
SPIROVENT DEAERATORS & DIRT SEPARATORS
SPIROTOP AUTOMATIC AIR VENTS
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support within the industry.
All products are supported by a regional network of highly experienced engineers
who discuss the application and then recommend the best solution, both technically
and commercially. Site visits to check that the installation conforms to the relevant
standards are also arranged.
In a commitment to improve understanding of expansion compensation, the
application of rubber bellows and deaeration, EA have a range of CPD seminars
which have been registered by CIBSE.
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