Sei sulla pagina 1di 394

8 SI ISO

AIRSHIPS

PAST AND PRESENT

A.HILDEBRANDT

:ia BOOK WAS SUPPLIED

COWARD BAKER,

AIRSHIPS PAST AND PRESENT

AIRSHIPS PAST AND

PRESENT

TOGETHER WITH CHAPTERS ON THE USE

OF BALLOONS IN CONNECTION WITH

METEOROLOGY, PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE

CARRIER PIGEON

BY

A. HILDEBRANDT

Captain and Instructor in the Prussian Balloon Corps

TRANSLATED BT W. H. STORY

LONDON

ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE & CO. LTD.

10 ORANGE STREET LEICESTER SQUARE W.C.

1908.

BRADBURY, AONEW, & CO. LD., FHINTKR8,

LONDON AND TONBRIDGE.

PREFACE.

THE modern application of ballooning to scientific purposeshas

caused a widespread interest to be taken in the sport, and this

has been intensified by the successes which have attended the

efforts of Santos Dumont and the brothers Lebaudy in another

direction.

The present moment, therefore, seems to be suitable

for a survey of the development of the art, and, in making this

attempt, the author has drawn on a large number of sources

that many applications have years not of to hitherto practical scientific been experience. ends, accessible and further to the it general is hoped reader, that and the

has also supplemented the historical outline with the result of

The following pages contain

a rough sketch of the past and present state of the art, and its

looker-on may find in them something to help him towards

understanding the various problems which are now calling for

solution and afford such a fruitful subject for discussion in the

daily press. Certain matters have been described in some detail,

such, for instance, as balloon photography and the use of the

carrier pigeon ; and this has seemed to be desirable, seeing that

hitherto no trustworthy information on these subjects has been Lieutenant-Colonel Klussman, who was formerly in command of

the Prussian Balloon Corps, has also kindly contributed much

valuable information as to the various optical phenomena that

Professor Miethe's assistance on many of these occasions, and

forthcoming.

years.

Balloon photography has been very carefully studied of late

The author can lay claim to considerable experience in

this photographic department, purposes. and has made about eighty ascents, mainly for

He has also had the advantage of

arise in balloon photography.

s

Herr Bernhard Floring, of Barmen, has also been good enough

to give the author the benefit of his long experience in the matter

360362

vi

PKEFACE.

of the carrier pigeon. The chapterwhich deals with this subject

contains a good deal of general information, and is not merely the present little has been done on a systematic basis, and it is

entirely neglected by most balloonists.

The importance of the scientific application of ballooning had the pleasure of the imitation of the flight of birds, is on the other hand rather

The flying machine, which includes all devices which aim at

meteorologists.

briefly discussed, inasmuch as from the practical point of view

upper layers of the atmosphere places them in the front rank of

Assmann and Professor Hergesell, whose work in exploring the

little of real importance has been accomplished in this depart-

confined to the use of carrier pigeons in connection with balloons.

The author has for many years devoted himself to the breeding

and training of these birds, and feels that the sport deserves

every encouragement. It is hoped that something may be done

towards increasing its usefulness, seeing that it might be of

untold value in time of war ; but it must be admitted that up to

entitles it to careful consideration, and such work is here fully

discussed.

The author had the honour of being elected a member

of the international commission which was appointed to consider

matters connected with the application of ballooning to scientific

ends,

and has

working with Professor

ment.

But it is

more than probable the future will have

surprises in store for us, and

that the hopeful views, lately

in expressed these so lines far bythe as is the concerned. Academie results which des Sciences, may be will expected prove from to be work j ustified on

Generally speaking, it may be said that in the following pages

all questions are fully discussed which lend themselves to popular

treatment and appear to be of general interest. Many years of

experience in connection with balloon clubs, specially those of

delivered the Strassburg author in to and connection think Berlin, that informationon with coupled the with Prussian many the outcome Balloon of the points Corps, of lectures which lead

are here discussed will be of service to those who take interest

in these matters.

PEEFACE.

vii

A certain amount of theoretical investigation was unavoidable,

but it has been reduced to the smallest possible limits. combined in these pages, and may derive both pleasure and

There

is not enough of it to frighten anybody, and it may further be

said in self-defence, if any should be found to complain that

there is too little of it, that the author had no intention of

writing a technical textbook.

It has been his wish that the

profit reader from may the find review amusement of past and and present. instruction to be pleasantly

BERLIN, October, 1906.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

PAGE

1

9

14

27

38

48

53

61

90

116

124

128

141

151

169

II. THE THE INVENTION EARLY HISTORY OF THE OF THE AIR BALLOON ART

I.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

III. MONTGOLFIERES, CHARLIERES, AND ROZIERES .

IV.

THE THEORY OF THE BALLOON

V. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIRIGIBLE BALLOON

VII. THE DIRIGIBLE HISTORY BALLOONS- OF THE FROM DIRIGIBLE 1883 BALLOON, 1897 1852

VI.

vm.

18981906

IX. FLYING MACHINES

X.

KITES

XI. PARACHUTES

.

.

.

XII.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MILITARY BALLOONING

XIII. BALLOONING IN THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR

1872

.

.

*

XIV. MODERN ORGANISATION OF MILITARY BALLOONING IN FRANCE,

MILITARY GERMANY, BALLOONING ENGLAND, IN AND OTHER RUSSIA COUNTRIES XVII. BALLOONING INSTRUMENTS AS A SPORT PHOTOGRAPHIC OUTFIT FOR BALLOON WORK CARRIER PIGEONS FOR BALLOONS

XXV.

XV.

XVI. BALLOON CONSTRUCTION AND THE PREPARATION OF THE GAS . 175

XVIII.

.

.

XIX. SCIENTIFIC BALLOONING

XX.

XXI.

BALLOON PHOTOGRAPHY

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

XXII. THE INTERPRETATION OF PHOTOGRAPHS

XXIII.

XXIV.

XXVI.

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY BY MEANS OF KITES AND ROCKETS .

PROBLEMS IN PERSPECTIVE

BALLOON LAW

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

192

197

323 238 302 284

337

340 358

343

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FIG.

PAGJ3

2

3

4

5 7

10

11

15

1. THE THRONE OP XERXES DRAWN THROUGH THE AIR BY FOUR TAME

EAGLES

.

.

.

.

.

.

*

.

.

2. FAUSTE PHOTOGRAPH VERANZIO OF AUGSBURG, IN HIS PARACHUTE SHOWING THE CATHEDRAL. TAKEN

.

.

.

.

3. THE PLYING SHIP, DESIGNED BY FRANCISCO DE LANA

4.

5.

FROM A BALLOON BY A. RIEDINGER

.

.

.

.

.

.

MEERWEIN'S FLYING MACHINE. FROM MOEDEBECK'S " POCKET BOOK

FOR BALLOONISTS "

.

'

6. CLOUDS PHOTOGRAPHED FROM A BALLOON

7. APPARATUS ASCENT OF A FOR " MONTGOLFIERE GENERATING " HYDROGEN

8.

9.

10.

A SUCCESSFUL LANDING

PORTJENGRAT, AN ALPINE PEAK. PHOTOGRAPH BY SPELTERINI .

.

.

.

.

.

.

11. PARIS, SHOWING THE EIFFEL TOWER

12. A BALLOON IN THE ACT OF LANDING

13. THE "ROZIERE," CONSTRUCTED BY PILATRE DE ROZIER

'

14.

15.

THE BAROSCOPE .

.

.

.

.

.

.

'.

.

.

.

VIENNA. PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN FROM A CAPTIVE BALLOON .

.

.

.

16. STOCKHOLM, SEEN FROM A HEIGHT OF 1,600 FEET .

17.

18.

THE STATOSCOPE, BY GRADENWITZ

.

.

A PARADE ON THE TEMPELHOFER FELD .

.

.

.

.

19. BALLOON WITH SAIL, AND WITH GUIDE-ROPE

.16

20

21

23

24

.28

29

.31

.35

36

40

20.

21.

SCOTT'S BALLOON, FISH DESIGNED BALLOON BY GENERAL MEUSNIER

.

22. GIFFARD'S DIRIGIBLE BALLOON, MADE IN 1852

23. GIFFARD'S SECOND BALLOON, MADE IN 1855

24.

25.

PAUL DUPUY HAENLEIN'S DE LOME'S DIRIGIBLE BALLOON, 1872 BALLOON

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

26. 27. THE TISSANDIER'S BASKET OF DIRIGIBLE TISSANDIER'S BALLOON DIRIGIBLE BALLOON .

28. THE BALLOON " LA FRANCE," BUILT BY RENARD AND KREBS .

29. CAPTAIN RENARD

30.

31.

32.

33.

DR. WOLFERT'S DIRIGIBLE BALLOON ABOUT TO START

SCHWARZ'S COUNT ZEPPELIN BALLOON AFTER THE ACCIDENT

COUNT ZEPPELIN'S DIRIGIBLE BALLOON

.

.

34. SANTOS DUMONT

35. SANTOS DUMONT'S SECOND BALLOON BREAKS ITS BACK, MAY HTH,

1899

.41

50 45 48

.51

52

54 53

56

57

58

59

66 62

63

67

A.

b

xii

LIST OF ILLUSTBATIONS.

FIG.

36. SANTOS DUMONT'S THIRD BALLOON .

37. GRADENWITZ ANEMOMETER

38. EOZE'S DOUBLE BALLOON .

39. SEVERO'S BALLOON ABOUT TO START

40.

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

46.

FRAMEWORK AND CAR OF L^BAUDY'S DIRIGIBLE BALLOON

CAR OF L^BAUDY'S BALLOON

LE"BAUDY'S DIRIGIBLE BALLOON

MAJOR PARSEVAL'S DIRIGIBLE BALLOON

COUNT DE LA VAULX .

COUNT DE LA VAULX'S DIRIGIBLE BALLOON

DEGEN'S FLYING MACHINE .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

47. DUFAUX' DIAGRAMS FLYING ILLUSTRATING MACHINE MAREY'S WITH PROPELLERS THEORY WITH . REFERENCE TO

THE FLIGHT OF A BIRD

48.

49.

STENTZEL'S FLYING MACHINE

.

.

.

.

50.

51.

52.

53.

54.

SANTOS DUMONT'S FIRST FLYING MACHINE

PHILLIPS' FLYING MACHINE

SIR ADER'S HIRAM FLYING MAXIM'S MACHINE FLYING . MACHINE MACHINE

.

.

KRESS'S FLYING MACHINE

55. DITTO

56. STARTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR PROFESSOR LANGLEY'S FLYING

'-

-

57. PROFESSOR LANGLEY'S FLYING MACHINE AT THE MOMENT OF

STARTING

58. HOFMANN'S FIRST MODEL WITH CARBONIC ACID MOTOR

59. HOFMANN'S WORKING MODEL

.

PAGE

69 68

72 75

78

79

81

85 87

.86

.90

91

95 92 94 99 97

98

100

101

103

104

105

105

60. HERR HOFMANN AND MR. PATRICK ALEXANDER IN THE WORKSHOP 106

61. LILIENTHAL LILIENTHAL STARTING ON HIS FLYING FROM MACHINE THE HILL ON HIS FLYING MACHINE 108

62.

107

63.

64.

AEROPLANE STARTING AN IN AEROPLANE FLIGHT

Ill 110

67. ARCHDEACON'S WELLNER'S FLYING EXPERIMENTS MACHINE ON THE SEINE

65.

66.

LANGLEY'S FLYING MACHINE ON THE POTOMAC

.

.

.

68. THE JAPANESE "MAY CARP "

69. HARGRAVE KITE

70. OTHER SHAPES OF HARGRAVE KITES

71.

VARIOUS FORMS OF KITES .

72. CODY'S KITE

73.

74.

CODY'S KITE USED AS A CAPTIVE BALLOON

KITE MILLET'S FOR KITE SIGNALLING CARRYING OBSERVERS

75. SIGNALLING BY MEANS OF LIGHTS FROM A KITE

76.

77.

.

LIEUTENANT WISE MAKING AN ASCENT IN A KITE .

.

.

.

.

113 115

.114

116

117

117 119

.118 .120

121

.121

.122

123

LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS.

FIG.

78. COOKING'S CHUTE PARACHUTE

.

.

79. FRAULEIN KATHE PAULUS PREPARING TO DESCEND IN HER PARA-

.

.

80. FRAULEIN KATHE PAULUS WITH HER DOUBLE PARACHUTE .

81. FALL OF A PARACHUTE

.

.

82. METHODS OF TRANSPORTING A CAPTIVE BALLOON .

.

84. LANDING BELLE-ALLIANCE OF A BALLOON PLATZ, BERLIN, IN THE STREETS TAKEN FROM OF STRASSBURG A BALLOON .

83.

.

.

Xlll

PAGE

125 126

126

127

129

130

132

85. A HELPING BALLOON TO ABOUT LAND A TO BALLOON LAND .

86.

87. KITE-BALLOON AT ANCHOR

.

88.

89.

90.

91.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

'.

.133

135

137 142

. .

.

. .

.

.

.

STEAM WINCH FOR PULLING IN A CAPTIVE BALLOON BALLOON CORPS

.

.

.

.

.

;

GUN SKETCH CONSTRUCTED ILLUSTRATING BY KRUPP THE METHOD FOR FIRING OF AIMING AT BALLOONS AT A BALLOON . 147

.

145

WAGGON CARRYING GAS CYLINDERS FOR ONE DIVISION OF THE

.

.

.

.

.

149

 

.

:

'

152

 

.

.

.

153

92. OLD METHOD OF GENERATING HYDROGEN.

93. MODERN GAS WAGGON

.

.

.

94. FRENCH METHOD OF SUSPENDING THE BASKET FOR AN OBSERVER. 155

95. ONE OF THE BALLOONS IS PEGGED DOWN IN THE OPEN FIELD,

AND THE OTHER IS SUNK IN A SPECIALLY PREPARED PIT .

.

96. FRONT AND REAR WAGGONS OF A MODERN GAS EQUIPMENT FOR

USE IN THE FIELD

.

.'

,

.

97. WAGGON CARRYING TOOLS AND APPLIANCES, THE BALLOON BEING

98.

PACKED ON THE TOP

.

.

.

.

.

.

^

.

.

.

BALLOONS FELD USED FOR WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY ON THE TEMPELHOFER

.

.

.

.

.

.

'

.

156

159 157

161

99. BARRACKS FOR THE PRUSSIAN BALLOON CORPS AT TEGEL

100.

101.

102.

103.

104.

105.

106.

107.

108.

109.

110.

A A BALLOON COLLECTION READY OF EXPLODED FOR INFLATION GAS CYLINDERS .

,

.163

164

166

.171

173 176

177

.

.

.

.

.

CAPTAIN HINTERSTOISSER, OF THE AUSTRIAN BALLOON CORPS

AFTER A LANDING

.

.

,

.

.

.

ASCENT OF A CAPTIVE BALLOON IN CALM WEATHER

ASCENT OF A CAPTIVE BALLOON ON A WINDY DAY

.

.

'.

.

.

PROFESSOR STEEL CYLINDER FINSTERWALDER'S FOR CONTAINING PATTERNS HYDROGEN FOR BALLOON ENVELOPES 182

SECTION THROUGH STEEL CYLINDER

MAKING BALLOON ENVELOPES IN REIDINGER'S FACTORY .

.

.

179

179

181

NET BALLOON OF A VALVES BALLOON

.

,

.

.

185 183

185

186

186

187 188

111. THE FIRST RIPPING-PANEL USED IN A BALLOON IN 1844

ARRANGEMENTS FOR RIPPING-PANEL 115A. DITTO

112.

113.

114. DIFFERENT KINDS OF GRAPNEL

115.

.

.

.

.

THE KITE-BALLOON DESIGNED BY MAJOR VON PARSEVAL AND

CAPTAIN VON SIGSFELD

xiv

LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS.

flG.

PAGE

116. DRAWING SHOWING THE DESIGN OF THE KITE-BALLOON

117. BASKET SUSPENSION

118. ANEROID BAROMETER .

.

.

189 192 193 194 195

190

194

119. 121. 120. BAROGRAPH, BALLOON BASKET OR RECORDING AND ITS CONTENTS BAROMETER . 122. A BANK OF CLOUDS

VOLLBEHR'S MICROPHOTOSCOPE

MICROPHOTOSCOPE IN CASE

123.

124.

125.

.

.

MICROPHOTOSCOPE, WITH MAGNIFYING GLASS FOR USE IN DAYLIGHT 195

PROFESSOR BUSLEY, PRESIDENT OF THE BERLIN BALLOON CLUB . 199

201

202

209 203

205

.211

213 212

212 214

215

216

217

221

222

227

229

231

232

235

236

240

241

244

245

248 247

249

126.

BALLOON AFTER THE RIPPING-CORD HAS BEEN PULLED .

 

.

.

127. THE HOFBURG, VIENNA

.

.

128. HELIGOLAND

129.

WATER ANCHOR FOR BALLOON

130. BALLOON EXPEDITIONS ACROSS THE ENGLISH CHANNEL .

 

.

131. COUNT DE LA VAULX' BALLOON OVER THE MEDITERRANEAN .

 
 

.

132. BASKET OF COUNT DE LA VAULX' BALLOON

.

.

.

.

.

133. COUNT DE LA VAULX' DEVIATOR IN ACTION

.

.

.

.

.

134.

DEVIATOR OFFERING THE MAXIMUM RESISTANCE

 

135.

DEVIATOR OFFERING THE MINIMUM RESISTANCE

.

.

.

.

136. MAP SHOWING THE COURSE OF THE BALLOON FROM BERLIN TO

FROM MARKARYD BERLIN TO MARKARYD

137. CURVE GIVEN BY THE RECORDING BAROMETER ON THE JOURNEY

139. 140. THE STOCKHOLM LAKE OF SEEN LUCERNE FROM AN ALTITUDE OF 3,000 FEET

138.

MISCHABELHORN, SEEN FROM THE EAST

.

.

.

141. BALLOON AND BALLOONISTS ON THEIR WAY HOME

142. LANDING IN A TREE

143.

DILLINGEN, SEEN THROUGH THE CLOUDS .

.

.

144. BUILDING A PONTOON OVER THE SPREE .

.

.

.

.

145. BRIDGE OVER THE ILLER, NEAR KEMPTEN

.

146. DR. JEFFRIES WITH THE BAROMETER USED ON HIS ASCENTS .

147. APPARATUS FOR GENERATING HYDROGEN

148. GLAISHER AND COXWELL IN THE BASKET

149. GLAISHER'S INSTRUMENTS

150. BASKET FITTED WITH INSTRUMENTS ACCORDING TO THE METHOD

PROPOSED BY ASSMANN

151. ASSMANN'S ASPIRATOR-PSYCHROMETER

152. PROFESSOR ASSMANN AND PROFESSOR BERSON

153. THE KAISER ATTENDING THE ASCENT OF A RECORDING BALLOON

ON THE TEMPELHOFER FELD, NEAR BERLIN

154. MAJOR MOEDEBECK

155. CAPTAIN VON SIGSFELD

156. CAPTAIN GROSS .

157. A RECORDING BALLOON WITH INSTRUMENTS

.

.

.

.

.251

252

252

253

254

LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS.

xv

FIG.

158.

A WICKKRWORK BASKET WITH INSTRUMENTS FOR A RECORDING 164. 163. 162. CURVES CURVKS GIVEN TAKEN BY BY RECORDING RECORDING INSTRUMENTS INSTRUMENTS . .

PAGE

255

256

BALLOON

DR. HERGESELL .

159.

160.

161.

.

.

ASCENT OF A BALLOON, FITTEDWITH A PARACHUTE,AT LINDENBERG 257

ASCENT OF A BOX KITE CONTAINING METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS

WINCH HOUSE AT ASSMANN'S AERONAUTICAL OBSERVATORY .

.

.

.

.

.

.

;

'

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

258 259

.261

265 264 262

266

267

165. A. LAURENCE ROTCH

166. KITE ASCENTS ON THE PRINCE OF MONACO'S YACHT

167. RECORDING BALLOONS ON THE SS. "PLANET" .

168. THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGIST, ROTCH, MAKING SOME KITE

ASCENTS ON THE ATLANTIC .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

173. THE BARO-THKRMO-HYGROGRAPH, BARO-THERMO-HYGROGRAPH, BALLOON, "PRUSSIA." BELONGING DESIGNED DESIGNED FOR FOR TO BALLOONS RECORDING THE AERONAUTICAL . BALLOONS 271

169.

170. BARO-THERMO-HYGROGRAPH, DESIGNED FOR KITES . ' .

171.

.

.

.

.

269

270

172.

PROFESSOR SURING, OF THE PRUSSIAN METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE 272

OBSERVATORY

.

273

174. HERR VON SCHROETTER'S ORDINARY HANDWRITING .

.

.

.

274

175. HERR VON SCHROETTER'S HANDWRITING UNDER AN ATMOSPHERIC

 

PRESSURE OF 9'45 INCHES OF MERCURY.

.

.

.

.

.

176.

THE BALLOON, "PRUSSIA," HALF FULL OF GAS

.

.

177.

THE BALLOON, "PRUSSIA," GETTING READY FOR AN ASCENT .

 

.

178.

VIKTOR SILBERER, PRESIDENT OF THE AERO CLUB, OF VIENNA

.

275 277 279

276

179. THE SHADOW OF THE BALLOON IS SEEN ON THE CLOUDS, TOGETHER

WITH A HALO

.

-

.

.

.

.

180. THE SHADOW OF THE BALLOON IS CAST ON THE CLOUDS, AND THE

181.

182.

183.

184.

185.

186.

187.

18S.

189.

CAR IS SEEN SURROUNDED BY A RAINBOW .

.

.

TRIBOULET'S PANORAMIC APPARATUS

.

.

THE FIRST PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN FROM A BALLOON IN AUSTRIA

THE REICHSBRUCKE IN VIENNA .

EASTERN RAILWAY STATION IN BUDAPESTH

CLOUDS OVER THE A ALPS VILLAGE

.

PHOTOGRAPH, OF

.

.

HAGEN'S PHOTOGRAPH METHOD OF A OF VILLAGE, MOUNTING TAKEN THE AT CAMERA NIGHT

DUCOM'S PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

190. PHOTOGRAPH OF THE EXHIBITION BUILDINGS

191. BARON VON BASSUS' RIFLE APPARATUS

192. VAUTIER-DUFOUR APPARATUS, PACKED IN ITS CASE

193. VAUTIIiR-DUFOUR APPARATUS, READY FOR USE

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

280

.281

289 288

290

294

298

299

300

304

304

306

308

309

309

194. AIGUILLE VERTE, TAKEN WITH THE VAUTIER-DUFOUR APPARATUS 310

195. AIGUILLE VERTE, TAKEN WITH AN ORDINARY LENS

196. FILM HOLDER

.

.

.

.311

312

xvi

LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS.

FIG.

PAGE

317

seefating page 317

197. DIAGRAM SHOWING THE RELATION BETWEEN THE FOCAL LENGTH

OP THE LENS, THE SIZE OF THE IMAGE, AND THE DISTANCE OF

DITTO THE OBJECT

200. MONT PYRAMIDS BLANC, OF AS CHEOPS, SEEN CHEPHREN, FROM GENEVA AND MENCHERES

198.

199.

;

.

-

.

.

.

201. CAPTAIN SPELTERINI, OF ZURICH

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

202. VILLAGE IN POSEN, AS SEEN FROM A BALLOON IN WINTER .

203. HERRENBERG IN WURTTEMBURG

204.

.

.

.

205. VIEW OF BLANKENBURG IN THE HARZ MOUNTAINS

206. RUDERSDORF

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

207. CHALKPITS NEAR RUDERSDORF

208. VILLAGE IN THE UCKERMARK IN WINTER

209.

210-

211.

212.

213.

seefacing page 318 317 320 326 327 334 333 338 340

338 336

332

331

323 324

325

329 328

OBJECTS OF DIFFERENT COLOURS, PHOTOGRAPHED FROM ABOVE . 330

DITTO .

CAMERA FOR THREE-COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY

SLIDING SCREEN CARRIER FOR THREE-COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY .

.

MIETHE'S CAMERA FOR THREE-COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY IN A BALLOON

214. BOULADE'S STEREOSCOPIC CAMERA

215. BATUT'S KITE FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS

216. PANORAMIC APPARATUS FOR A BALLOON WITHOUT OBSERVERS

217. THE VILLAGE OF EUDOW, AS SHOWN ON THE ORDNANCE MAP

.

.

218. PHOTOGRAPH OF RUDOW, TAKEN FROM A BALLOON

.

.

.341

219. PHOTOGRAPHIC REPRODUCTION OF MESSAGES ON A REDUCED SCALE 345

220. DARK SLATE.-COLOURED CARRIER PIGEON BELONGING TO HERR

FLORING

221. HAYNAU IN SILESIA. TAKEN FROM A HEIGHT OF 8,000 FEET

.

222. IN THIS PHOTOGRAPH THE SHADOW OF THE BALLOON IS SEEN ON

THE "OLD FORTIFICATIONS

350

352 355

AIRSHIPS PAST AND PRESENT

CHAPTER I.

THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE ART. mounted on the ram with Phrixos the golden and Helle fleece. flew over the sea,

THE

folklore of

almost every race contains some myth,

embodying the aspiration of man to add the conquest of the

air to that of the sea.

Icarus attempted flight, but Icarus ventured so near Daedalus the and sun

that the wax which fastened the wings to his body was melted,

and he fell headlong into the sea.

Passing from myth to semi-legendary history, we are told that the throne from the ground. pu