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PROJECT REPORT ON

DC MOTOR DRIVE FOR AN


ELECTRIC VEHICLE
Submitted by
Reg.No Name

2K7305 Afsal Ismail P


2K7307 Amaljith M K
2K7338 Prajeesh P Prabhakaran
2K7340 Rajees Rahman P P
2K7344 Ren Mathew
2K7347 Sandheep C

Guided By
Dr. Jayaprakash P

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND


ELECTRONICS
GOVT. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KANNUR
April 2011
Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

GOVT. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,


KANNUR, KERALA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report entitled DC MOTOR DRIVE
FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE is a bonafide project report submitted by
AFSAL ISMAIL P, AMALJITH M K, PRAJEESH P
PRABHAKARAN, RAJEES RAHMAN P P, REN MATHEW and
SANDHEEP C of 8th semester electrical and electronics engineering in
partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of
bachelor of technology in electrical and electronics engineering from
Kannur University.

Head Of Department Project Guide

Place :
Date :

Dept. of EEE ii Govt. College of Engineering, Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our gratitude towards all the people who have contributed
their precious time and effort to help us. Without them it would not have been possible
for us to understand and complete the project. Acknowledgment would be hollow if we
fail to think the entire faculty of electrical and electronics Dept. at GCE Kannur.

We are pleased to show our indebtedness to Prof. T.VALSALAN, HOD, Dept. of


Electrical and electronics engineering, GCEK for many valuable suggestions he offered
and for the diligence with which he assisted us in the development of our project.

We also extend our deep sense of gratitude to our project guide Dr. JAYAPRAKASH
P, Asst. Professor, electrical and electronics Dept. GCE Kannur for providing us with
valuable guidance, support and encouragement throughout the project.

We would like to thank our principal Dr. V. GOPAKUMAR for providing the
necessary facilities.

We thank all the teaching and non-teaching staff, our classmates and friends for sharing
their knowledge and valuable suggestion and for being there to help us whenever we are
in need.

Dept. of EEE iii Govt. College of Engineering, Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

ABSTRACT

The environmental impact of the petroleum-based transportation infrastructure,


alongwith the hike in oil prices, has led to renewed interest in electric vehicles. With
their instant starting, quiet running, and ease of operation, electric vehicles are
definitely superior to gasoline vehicles. But the real challenge is to make them more
adaptive to ordinary people by developing vehicles with a simplified design and
reduced cost.

Through this project design and setup of a dc motor drive is envisaged for an electric
vehicle which uses a boost converter in which MOSFET is the switching device. Using
boost converter we have controlled the speed of dc series motor efficiently.

Dept. of EEE iv Govt. College of Engineering, Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

CONTENTS

Chapter Chapter Name Page


No No
Certificate ii
Acknowledgement iii
Abstract iv
Contents v
List of Figures vi
List of Tables vii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Objectives 2
2 DC Series Motor Drive for EV 3
2.1 Electric Energy Input 4
2.2 Power Converter 4
2.3 Controller 8
2.4 Motor 8
3 Determination of DC Series Motor Characteristics 9
3.1 Aim 9
3.2 Theory 9
3.3 Observations 10
3.4 Result 11
4 Design of Motor Drive 12
4.1 Selection Of Gear Ratio 12
4.2 Selection of Boundary Conditions For Drive 13
4.3 Design Of Boost Converter 13
4.4 Design Of Firing Circuit 15
4.5 Design Of Gate Drive 16
5 Hardware development and Testing 17
5.1 Test Under Resistive Load 17
5.2 Test Under Motor Load 20
6 Conclusion and Future Scope 21
6.1 Limitations 24
6.2 Future Scope 25
References 26
Annexures 27-59

Dept. of EEE v Govt. College of Engineering, Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure.No Figure Name Page


No
2.1 Block Diagram of Electric Motor Drive 3
2.2 Boost Converter Topology and Waveforms 5
2.3 Symbol of Power MOSFET 6
2.4 Output Characteristics of Power MOSFET 6
2.5 Firing Circuit 7
3.1 Equivalent Circuit of DC Series Motor 9
4.1 Forces Acting on a Vehicle 12
4.2 Circuit Diagram of Boost Converter 14
4.3 Gate Drive Circuit 16
5.1 Circuit Diagram with Resistive Load for Testing 17
5.2 Wave Form of Firing Pulses Given for Testing the Drive with
19
Resistive Load (1-6)
5.3 Output Voltage Vs. Duty Ratio 20
5.4 Circuit Diagram with Resistive Load for Testing 20
5.5 Wave Form of Firing Pulses Given for Testing the Drive with
21
Motor Load (1-5)
5.6 Motor Speed Vs. Duty Ratio 22

Dept. of EEE vi Govt. College of Engineering, Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

LIST OF TABLES

Table. Table Name Page


No No
2.1 List of Available Batteries 4
3.1 Load Test on Universal Motor. 10
5.1 Output Voltage for Different Pot Position 18
5.2 Output Voltage for Different Duty Ratio 18
5.3 Motor Speed for Different Duty Ratio 22

Dept. of EEE vii Govt. College of Engineering, Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 BACKGROUND

Electric vehicles have been around since the inception of the automobile [1]. But in the
early race for dominance, the internal combustion engine (ICE) quickly won out as the
best power system for cars. Although the electric vehicle was superior in many respects,
as a source of energy, the battery was no match for the high energy content, ease of
handling, and cheap and abundant supplies of petroleum motor fuel. Today, nearly a
century after the electric vehicle (EV) was forced into near oblivion; it seems that EVs
may actually become the ultimate winner. As easily-recoverable petroleum deposits
dwindle, automobile populations soar, and cities become choked with combustion by-
products, the ICE is increasingly becoming the victim of its own success. Automobiles
must become cleaner and more energy efficient.

Although electric vehicles has several advantages over existing ICE vehicle, availability
of electric vehicle in the market is less due to its short range and high cost. The solution
for these drawbacks are converting the existing vehicle into EV's using low cost high
efficient electric drives. Existing drives and battery systems makes this conversion very
expensive. So a cheap as well as compact drive is to be developed. This project is
focusing on the design of a dc motor drive for a cleaner and low cost electric vehicle.

Dept. of EEE 1 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

1.2 OBJECTIVES

The EV's are not accepted widely since the cost of EV's and conversion kits available in
market is very high. To start with we aim to design and fabricate a cheap dc motor drive
for conversion of a bicycle into electric bike. The main objectives can be summarised as
follows.The main objective is to design and setup a drive for a vehicle with the
following specifications;
 Total capacity of vehicle is 60 Kg.
 Maximum speed of vehicle 40 Km/h.

The design process include the following steps


 Selection of motor and battery of appropriate ratings with minimum cost.
 Design of a dc-dc converter for selected motor and battery.
 Design of a controller circuit for the converter.
 Fabrication and testing the circuits.

Dept. of EEE 2 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

Chapter 2

DC Series Motor Drive for EV

Block diagram of a general motor drive is shown in Fig. 2.1. The electric energy is
processed using power electronic devices before giving it to load. A power converter
along with a controller serves the processing system [2].

Fig.for
The main components 2.1theBlock Diagram
DC series of Electric
motor drive areMotor Drive.
discussed here.

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Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

2.1 ELECTRIC ENERGY INPUT

For an electric vehicle, considering the portability, weight, size and cost, batteries are
the suitable energy source. Table 2.1 shows the available batteries of different types and
power rating [2].

BatteryType Wh/kg Joules/kg Wh/litre

Lead-acid 41 146,000 100


Alkaline long-life 110 400,000 320
NiMH 95 340,000 300
NiCad 39 140,000 140
Lithium-ion 128 460,000 230

Table 2.1 List of Available Batteries

The battery provides all the necessary power for the motor. The battery delivers power
to the motor through a boost converter. The control module for the boost converter is
also energised using the same battery. Considering the cost, availability and power
rating, two lead-acid batteries of 12V, 7Ah is selected as the energy source.

2.2 POWER CONVERTER

A power converter modulates flow of power from the source to the motor in such a
manner that motor is imparted speed –torque characteristic required by the load. Here
boost converter which uses MOSFET as the switching device is used as the power
converter. The boost converter takes the DC voltage from the battery and steps it up to a
higher dc voltage corresponding to the user selected speed. The stepped up voltage is
then used to drive the motor. The change in the voltage is determined by the boost
convert’s duty cycle which is managed by the controller block. Some description about
Boost Converter and Power MOSFET are given.

2.2.1 Boost Converter

A boost converter is part of a subset of DC-DC converters called switch-mode


converters [3] [4]. The circuits belonging to this class, including buck, flyback, buck-

Dept. of EEE 4 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

boost, and push-pull converters are very similar. They generally perform the conversion
by applying a DCvoltage across an inductor or transformer for a period of time (usually
in the 100 kHz to 5MHz range) which causes current to flow through it and store energy
magnetically, thenswitching this voltage off and causing the stored energy to be
transferred to the voltageoutput in a controlled manner. The output voltage is regulated
by adjusting the ratio of on-time to off-time. As this subset does not use resistive
components to dissipate extra power, the efficiencies are seen in the 80-95% range. This
is clearly desirable, as it increases the running time of battery-operated devices.

The basic boost converter circuit consists of only a switch (typically a transistor), a
diode, an inductor, and a capacitor. The specific connections are shown in Fig.2.2.

Fig. 2.2 Boost Converter Topology and Waveforms

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Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

Applying Kirchhoff’s rules around the loops and rearranging terms yields intuitive
results shown in Fig. 2.2.

2.2.2 Power MOSFET

For power electronic applications with a voltage rating below 200 V, power MOSFETs
are the device of choice [3] [5]. Power MOSFETs have replaced traditional power
bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) as the load switch in many applications including
automotive systems, because of their low on-state resistance, high switching speed, ease
of control, and superior safe operating area (SOA) and device ruggedness. In addition
MOSFETs are preferred even for 200–600 V applications, which may require a high
switching speed but only a moderate power level.

Fig. 2.3 Symbol of Power MOSFET

Fig. 2.4 Output Characteristics of Power MOSFET

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Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

A power MOSFET is a three-terminal device where the gate (i.e., the control terminal)
controls the main current flow between the two output terminals; the drain and source.
The source terminal is usually common to the gate and drain terminals. Power
MOSFET output characteristics, that is, the drain current iD as a function of drain-to-
source voltage vDS with gate-to-source voltage VGS as a parameter, are shown in Fig. 2.4.
The MOSFET is in off-state when the gate-source voltage VGS is less than the threshold
voltage VGS(th), which is typically a few volts.

2.3 CONTROLLER

Controller unit provides the controls for a power converter. Nature of the control unit
for a particular drive depends on the power converter that is used. Here the controller
generates the firing pulse for the MOSFET. The controller used is a 555 timer
configured in astable multi-vibrator mode. The duty ratio of the firing pulse is
controlled by a potentiometer (which acts as the accelerator of the vehicle).

Fig. 2.5 Firing Circuit

Pin 2 is trigger pin, 3 is output, 6 is threshold and 7 is discharge pin. Trigger and
threshold are connected to anode of capacitor. The capacitor will discharge through R2,
portion of pot, diode and discharge pin of 555.

Its working can be explained as follows. At beginning of a cycle the voltage across
capacitor will be low. Hence it will set the output to high and the discharge pin will be

Dept. of EEE 7 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

open. Hence the capacitor will charge from supply through R1, left part of pot P and
R2. Hence voltage across the capacitor will increase gradually. When it attains 0.67
times the Vcc, it will reset the output and discharge pin is grounded. Now the capacitor
will be discharged through R2 and portion of P. Hence the ON period and OFF periods
are given by
Ton = 0.693 * ( R1 + xP + R2) C1 (2.1)
Toff = 0.693 * ( R2 + (1-x)P ) C1 (2.2)

2.4 MOTOR

The available dc motors for an electric vehicle are DC shunt motor, DC series motor
(universal motor), and PMDC motor. PMDC is the mostly used DC motor, but it is also
costly. DC shunt motor and DC series motor are not available for low ranges. Universal
motors are less efficient and rated for high speed. Considering the availability and
cheapness we have selected universal motor of 240V ac 400W.

Dept. of EEE 8 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

Chapter 3

Determination of Universal Motor


Characteristics

Since we took an old universal motor of mixer grinder to convert electric energy to
mechanical energy, we have to conduct load test on motor to find its characteristics and
rating.

3.1 AIM

 Find Ra, La, Rf, Lf and motor R = Ra + Rf


constant K.

 Determine the extreme point


of operation.

L = La + Lf

Fig. 3.1 Equivalent Circuit of DC Series


Motor

3.2 THEORY
V = Ia R + Ea (3.1)
Ea = z φ N P / (60 A) (3.2)

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Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle
= K 1φ N
= K2Ia N
= K Ia ω (3.3)

T = (Ea Ia ) / ω (3.4)
2
= K Ia (3.5)

ω =  (3.6)
 /
√

3.3 OBSERVATIONS

By multi-meter we obtain following data


R = Ra + Rf = 37 Ω
L = La + Lf = 0.5 H
V Ia k1 k2 ω T Pin Pout K
40 0.6 0.7 0.3 87.4836 0.10987 24 9.612 0.3052
40 0.71 0.8 0.3 63.8814 0.13734 28.4 8.77347 0.27245
40 0.82 0.95 0.4 47.1893 0.15107 32.8 7.12908 0.22468
40 1.03 1.2 0.4 7.97305 0.21974 41.2 1.75203 0.20713
80 0.88 0.95 0.2 182.382 0.20601 70.4 37.5725 0.26603
80 0.96 1 0.2 174.889 0.21974 76.8 38.4307 0.23844
80 1.11 1.15 0.2 149.039 0.26095 88.8 38.8911 0.21179
80 1.22 1.3 0.2 126.681 0.30215 97.6 38.2763 0.203
100 0.7 0.7 0.15 309.008 0.15107 70 46.683 0.30831
100 0.77 0.75 0.2 328.028 0.15107 77 49.5564 0.25481
100 0.8 0.8 0.2 307.558 0.16481 80 50.688 0.25751
100 0.85 1 0.2 238.645 0.21974 85 52.4408 0.30414
Average K 0.254457

Table 3.1 Load Test on Universal Motor.

Where
– V and Ia are motor terminal voltage and armature current respectively.
Dept. of EEE 10 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur
Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle
– k1 and k2 are readings of brake-drum spring.
– ω is the angular velocity of motor in rad/sec
– Motor torque T = ( k1 – k2 ) * 9.81 * 2.8 * 10-2 Nm. ( r = 2.8 cm)
– Input power Pin = V * Ia
– Output power Pout = T * ω
– Motor constant K = T / Ia2

3.4 RESULT

K = 0.255
R = 37 Ω
L = 0.5 H
Motor characteristics is ω = V / √ - 145.1 rad/s
Maximum operating voltage = 150 V
Maximum current = 1.7 A

Dept. of EEE 11 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

Chapter 4

Design of Motor Drive

4.1 SELECTION OF GEAR RATIO

We have selected chain drive to transmit


high speed low torque motor output to low
speed power to the wheel of vehicle.

– From specification, maximum speed


of bike = 40 km/h. i.e., ω of wheel =
37 rad/s.

– Maximum steady statetorque acting


on wheel, considering θ = 0, Fig. 4.1 Forces Acting on a Vehicle
T = ( DA + RX) * r
= (5 + u * W ) * r
= ( 5 + 0.015 * 65 * 9.81 ) * 0.3
= 4.37 Nm
Where
DA is the aero dynamic drag and is approximated as 5 Nm.
Force due to friction RX = u * W ( u is coefficient of friction is taken as 0.015)
W is the total weight of vehicle and its load [6]. W is taken as 65 * 9.81 N.

Dept. of EEE 12 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle
– Since maximum allowable current is 1.7 A , taking 1.4 A as maximum steady
state current,
torque available at motor output T=K Ia2 = 0.255 * (1.4)2= 0.5Nm

– gear ratio n = (maximum torque of wheel) / (maximum motor torque)


n = 4.37/0.5=8.7 (take n=9)

– From motor characteristics


ω = Va / √– 145.1 rad/s (4.1)
at maximum voltage Va = 150 V & current = 1.4 A
ω = 150 / √0.255 ∗ 0.5 – 145.1 = 275 rad/s
ω of vehicle = 275 / 9 = 31 rad/s which is nearer to the specification.

4.2 SELECTION OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR DRIVE

– Minimum torque T= u * W * r (since at low steady state speed DA≈ 0 )


T = 0.015 * 65 * 9.81 * 0.3 = 2.87 Nm
Motor torque = 2.87 / 9 = 0.32 Nm
Corresponding minimum current= / = 0.32/0.255
= 1A

– Minimum output Voltage should be such that the motor can draw the minimum
current. I.e. minimum Voltage V = I * R = 1 * 37
≈40 V
– And from previous section maximum current = 1.7 A

– Maximum voltage = 150 V

4.3 DESIGN OF BOOST CONVERTER

– Circuit diagram of boost converter is shown in Fig. 4.2.


– Take frequency = 1 kHz

– Output voltage of the converter is given by


Vo = V / ( 1-D ) = 24 / ( 1-D ) where D is the duty ratio of the switch.

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Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle
or D = 1 – ( 24 / Vo )

– For minimum output voltage 40 V


D = 1 – 24 / 40 = 0.4

Fig. 4.2 Circuit Diagram of Boost Converter

– For maximum voltage 150 V


D = 1 – 24 / 150 = 0.84

– The boundary current IB is given by


IB=D*V/(2*L*f) (4.2)
IB should be the minimum motor current1A. Applying minimum output voltage
condition, i.e. D = 0. 4
L=0.4*24/(2*1*1000 )
=2.88mH

– Output voltage ripple is den by


v = (1/C)*I0 *D * T (4.3)
Taking voltage ripple as 10%, then
C = 1.7 * 0.84 * 0.001 / 15 =95.2 MFD

– Rating of MOSFET
Maximum voltage across switch occurs when it is off i.e., when diode is on and it
is equal to output voltage, i.e., = 150 + ripple voltage = 165 V ( take 200 V ).
Maximum current through MOSFET is the peak of input current, given by
= IL + D * V * T / 2 / L ( IL is the average inductor current )
= Io / ( 1-D) + D * V * T / 2 / L
= 1.7 / ( 1 - 0.84 ) + 0.84 * 24 * 0.001 / 2 / 2.88 * 1000
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Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle
= 14 A (take 15 A)

– Rating of Diode
Maximum inverse voltage across the diode occurs when MOSFET is on.
The maximum PIV of diode is 200 V
Maximum current through diode is the maximum output current 1.7 A.
(take 5 A )

4.4 DESIGN OF FIRING CIRCUIT

In this project we used a PWM generator using a 555 based astable multi-vibrator as the
firing circuit. In this circuit there will be a variable pot such that by varying this we can
change the pulse width of signal from 0.4 to 0.84. The circuit diagram is shown in Fig.
2.3.

– From equation (2.1) on period of output is given by


Ton = 0.693 * ( R1 + xP + R2) C1

– From equation (2.2) off period of output is given by


Toff = 0.693 * ( R2 + (1-x)P ) C1

– Since f = 1000 Hz
T = Ton + Toff = 0.001 s
I.e., C1 ( R1 + 2*R2 + P) = 1.44 * 10-3 (4.4)

– At x = 0, the output voltage should be minimum 40 V.


i.e. D = 0.4
Hence Ton = 0.693 * (R1 + R2) C1 = 0.4 * 0.001 (4.5)

– At x = 1, the output voltage should be maximum 150 V.


i.e. D = 0.84
Hence Toff = 0.693 * R2 * C1 = 0.16 * 0.001 (4.6)

– (4.5)-(4.6) ===>0.693 * R1 * C1 = 0.24 * 0.001


Let R1 = 3.2 k,
thenC1 = 0.1 uF

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Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle
Then R2 = 2.3 k
From (1), ( P + 5.5 k ) = 14.44 k
P = 10 k.
4.5 DESIGN OF GATE DRIVE

Fig. 4.3 Gate Drive Circuit

The circuit diagram of an optocoupler based gated drive is shown. It will provide
isolation between the firing circuit and power circuit.

– From the data sheet of optocoupler MCT2E maximum forward input current is
100 mA and forward voltage is 2 V. Also the high level of firing pulse is 12 V.
i.e. 12 – R1 ( 0.1 + 1 / R2) = 1
taking R2 = 1 k
then R1 = 11 / ( 0.1 + 0.001) = 110 Ω.

– From the datasheet of MOSFET, gate voltage VGS = 8 V, to turn on the


MOSFET.
i.e. 12 * R4 / ( R3 +R4 ) = 8
taking R4 = 3.3 k
then R3 = [ 12 * 3300 / 8 ] – 3300 = 1650 (take 1.6 k).

Dept. of EEE 16 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

Chapter 5

Hardware development and Testing

The batteries, inductor, switch, diode, MOSFET, capacitor and load are wired as per the
circuit diagram. Firing circuit and gate drive circuit are done on a bread board. Power
supplies for the circuits are taken from one of the batteries used in power circuit, and
the output is fed to the gate of MOSFET.

The inductor used is having a value of 12 mH and the capacitor of value 72 MFD.
IRFP250 MOSFET and MCT2E optocoupler is used. Two types of loads resistive load
and motor load are used for testing the drive conditions.

5.1 TEST UNDER RESISTIVE LOAD

The complete circuit diagram is shown in Fig. 5.1. In this test we connected a resistive
load instead of motor load. The output of the firing circuit (555) is given to the CRO
and a voltmeter is connected across the resistance load. Then switch is turned on. Then
reading of voltmeter is noted and corresponding firing pulse waveform is stored for
different pot position. Observation is given Table 5.1.Corresponding waveforms of
firing pulses for each pot position is given in Fig. 5.2.

Now the duty ratio of firing pulse in each case can be computed from Fig. 5.2. This is
given below. Also expected output voltage is calculated using equation in section 4.3.
These are tabulated in Table 5.2.

Dept. of EEE 17 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

RL

Fig. 5.1 Circuit Diagram with Resistive Load for Testing.

Sl.No Vo
1 34.85
2 37.5
3 43.8
4 56.4
5 94
6 125.4
Table 5.1 Output Voltage for Different Pot Position

D Vo Expected Vo
(V) (V)
0.39 34.85 39.62
0.44 37.5 43.58
0.5 43.8 48.42
0.61 56.4 62.25
0.78 94 108.94
0.83 125.4 145.26
Table 5.2 Output Voltage for Different Duty Ratio

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Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle
A graph between both expected and measured voltages and duty-ratio (D) is shown in
Fig. 5.3.

Fig. 5.2 Wave Form of Firing Pulses Given for Testing the Drive with Resistive Load (1-6)

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Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

160

140

120
Output Voltage (V)

100

80

60

40 Measure Value
Expected value
20

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Duty Ratio
Fig. 5.3 Output Voltage Vs. Duty Ratio

5.2 TEST UNDER MOTOR LOAD

The complete circuit diagram is shown in Fig. 5.4. Here we connected the motor to the
drive. As in the previous experiment the output of firing pulse is given to the CRO
probe. Then the switch is turned on. The speed of motor is measured using a tachometer
for different position of pot. Observation is shown in Table 5.3. In Fig. 5.5 wave forms
of firing pulses in each case is shown.
Sl.No D Speed
(rpm)
1 0.44 2860
2 0.5 3110
3 0.56 3570
4 0.61 4100
5 0.78 6275
Table 5.3 Motor Speed for Different Duty Ratio

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Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle
In Table 5.3 the speed in rpm for different values of duty ratio is tabulated. The same data
is plotted as a graph which is shown in Fig. 5.6.

Fig. 5.4 Circuit Diagram with Resistive Load for Testing

5.3 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The boost converter is designed for a minimum output voltage of 40V and a maximum
output voltage of 150V, for duty ratio between 0.4 and 0.84, and the obtained a
minimum output voltage of 34.85V and a maximum output voltage of 125.4V for duty
ratio between 0.39 and 0.84. The obtained result follows the expected results.

During testing we have obtained speed variations of motor between 2860 rpm to 6275
rpm on no load. This satisfies the designed values.

Dept. of EEE 21 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

Fig. 5.5 Wave Form of Firing Pulses Given for Testing the Drive with Motor Load (1-5)

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Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

7000

6000

5000
Spedd (rpm)

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Duty Ratio

Fig. 5.6 Motor Speed Vs. Duty Ratio

Dept. of EEE 23 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

Chapter 6

Conclusion and Future Scope

• Designed a dc series motor drive for an electric vehicle using boost converter
with MOSFET as the switching device.

• Gate pulses for the MOSFET are generated using 555 timer in astable multi-
vibrator mode.

• The hardware and circuits were setup and tested for both resistive load and motor
load.

• The working of the drive was as per the design.

6.1 LIMITATIONS

For the minimization of cost we have chosen a low performance DC motor for the
drive. And the designed value for the inductance for the boost converter is 2.88 mH. But
we have chosen a 12mH inductance as the designed value of inductance is not available.
Due to these reasons the drive performance varies slightly from designed values.

The designed drive has an open loop control. Hence its controllability and performance
are low. The battery charging circuit also not designed and fabricated. Also the system
has a less efficiency since we didn’t use regenerative braking system.

Dept. of EEE 24 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle
6.2 FUTURE SCOPE

It can be extended for high capacity. Although this drive is designed for an electric bike,
the same design procedure can be implemented for vehicles of higher capacity. It means
vehicles of longer range, higher speed and load can be achieved. Advances in
technology of batteries and converters may make this possible.

Addition of regenerative braking is possible. A large amount of energy is wasted during


the braking. By employing regenerative braking this energy can be recovered and the
efficiency can be improved. The improved efficiency improves the range and operating
cost of the vehicle.

The overall performance can be improved using high performance motor. The
efficiency, load capacity and maximum speed can be improved by using specially
designed high performance motors such as brush less DC motor (BLDC) and permanent
magnet DC motor (PMDC). It provides better controllability also.

Dept. of EEE 25 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

Reference

[1] K.T. Chau and Zheng Wang, “Overview of power electronic drives for electric
vehicles,” HAIT Journal of Science and Engineering B, Vol 2, Issues 5-6, pp. 737-
761, 2005.
[2] Gopal K Dubey, Fundamentals Of Electric Drives, Narosa Publishing House, 2001.
[3] Ali. Emadi, Hand Book of Automotive Power Electronics and Motor Drives, Taylor
&Francis Group, LLC.
[4] Ned Mohan E.A and John, Power Electronics, Wiley And Sons.
[5] Bimal. K. Bose, Power Electronics and Motor Drives; Advances and Trends,
Academic Press Publications, USA.
[6] Wei Zhan, M. McDermott, BehboodZoghi, and Muhammad Hasan, “Requirement
Development for Electrical Vehicles Using Simulation Tools,” in Proceedings of
the WCECS., Vol II, pp.20-22, October, 2009 San Francisco, USA.

Dept. of EEE 26 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


Project 2011 DC Motor Drive for Electric Vehicle

ANNEXURE

Dept. of EEE 27 Govt. College of Engineering Kannur


IRFP250

Data Sheet January 2002

33A, 200V, 0.085 Ohm, N-Channel Features


Power MOSFET • 33A, 200V
This N-Channel enhancement mode silicon gate power field
• rDS(ON) = 0.085Ω
effect transistor is an advanced power MOSFET designed,
tested, and guaranteed to withstand a specified level of • Single Pulse Avalanche Energy Rated
energy in the breakdown avalanche mode of operation. All of • SOA is Power Dissipation Limited
these power MOSFETs are designed for applications such
as switching regulators, switching convertors, motor drivers, • Nanosecond Switching Speeds
relay drivers, and drivers for high power bipolar switching • Linear Transfer Characteristics
transistors requiring high speed and low gate drive power.
• High Input Impedance
These types can be operated directly from integrated
circuits. • Related Literature
- TB334 “Guidelines for Soldering Surface Mount
Formerly developmental type TA9295.
Components to PC Boards”

Ordering Information Symbol


PART NUMBER PACKAGE BRAND D

IRFP250 TO-247 IRFP250

NOTE: When ordering, use the entire part number. G

Packaging
JEDEC STYLE TO-247

SOURCE
DRAIN
GATE

DRAIN
(TAB)

©2002 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation IRFP250 Rev. B


IRFP250

Absolute Maximum Ratings TC = 25oC, Unless Otherwise Specified


IRFP250 UNITS
Drain to Source Voltage (Note 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VDS 200 V
Drain to Gate Voltage (RGS = 20kΩ) (Note 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VDGR 200 V
Continuous Drain Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ID 33 A
TC = 100oC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ID 21 A
Pulsed Drain Current (Note 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IDM 130 A
Gate to Source Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VGS ±20 V
Maximum Power Dissipation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PD 180 W
Linear Derating Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.44 W/oC
Single Pulse Avalanche Energy Rating (Note 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EAS 810 mJ
Operating and Storage Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TJ, TSTG -55 to 150 oC
Maximum Temperature for Soldering
Leads at 0.063in (1.6mm) from Case for 10s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TL 300 oC
Package Body for 10s, See Techbrief 334 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tpkg 260 oC

CAUTION: Stresses above those listed in “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation of the
device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied.

NOTE:
1. TJ = 25oC to 125oC.

Electrical Specifications TC = 25oC, Unless Otherwise Specified

PARAMETER SYMBOL TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS


Drain to Source Breakdown Voltage BVDSS ID = 250µA, VGS = 0V (Figure 10) 200 - - V
Gate Threshold Voltage VGS(TH) VGS = VDS, ID = 250µA 2.0 - 4.0 V
Zero Gate Voltage Drain Current IDSS VDS = Rated BVDSS, VGS = 0V - - 25 µA
VDS = 0.8 x Rated BVDSS, VGS = 0V, TC = 125oC - - 250 µA
On-State Drain Current (Note 2) ID(ON) VDS > ID(ON) x rDS(ON)MAX, VGS = 10V 33 - - A
Gate to Source Leakage Current IGSS VGS = ±20V - - ±100 nA
Drain to Source On Resistance (Note 2) rDS(ON) ID = 17A, VGS = 10V (Figures 8, 9) - 0.07 0.085 Ω
Forward Transconductance (Note 2) gfs VDS ≥ 50V, ID = 17A (Figure 12) 13 19 - S
Turn-On Delay Time td(ON) VDD = 100V, ID = 30A, RGS = 6.2Ω, VGS = 10V, - 18 30 ns
RL = 3.2Ω
Rise Time tr - 125 180 ns
MOSFET Switching Times are Essentially
Turn-Off Delay Time td(OFF) Independent of Operating Temperature - 70 100 ns
Fall Time tf - 80 120 ns
Total Gate Charge Qg(TOT) VGS = 10V, ID = 30A, VDS = 0.8 x Rated BVDSS, - 79 120 nC
(Gate to Source + Gate to Drain) IG(REF) = 1.5mA (Figure 14)
Gate Charge is Essentially Independent of Operating
Gate to Source Charge Qgs - 12 - nC
Temperature
Gate to Drain “Miller” Charge Qgd - 42 - nC
Input Capacitance CISS VDS = 25V, VGS = 0V, f = 1MHz (Figure 11) - 2000 - pF
Output Capacitance COSS - 800 - pF
Reverse Transfer Capacitance CRSS - 300 - pF
Internal Drain Inductance LD Measured from the Contact Modified MOSFET - 5.0 - nH
Screw on Header Closer to Symbol Showing the
Source and Gate Pins to Internal Device
Center of Die Inductances
D
Internal Source Inductance LS Measured from the Source - 12.5 - nH
Lead, 6.0mm (0.25in) from LD
Header to Source Bonding
Pad
G
LS

Thermal Resistance, Junction to Case RθJC - - 0.70 oC/W

Thermal Resistance, Junction to Ambient RθJA Free Air Operation - - 30 oC/W

©2002 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation IRFP250 Rev. B


IRFP250

Source to Drain Diode Specifications


PARAMETER SYMBOL TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS
Continuous Source to Drain Current ISD Modified MOSFET Symbol D - - 33 A
Pulse Source to Drain Current (Note 3) ISDM Showing the Integral - - 130 A
Reverse P-N Junction
Rectifier
G

S
Source to Drain Diode Voltage (Note 2) VSD TJ = 25oC, ISD = 33A, VGS = 0V (Figure 13) - - 2.0 V
Reverse Recovery Time trr TJ = 25oC, ISD = 30A, dISD/dt = 100A/µs 140 - 630 ns
Reverse Recovery Charge QRR TJ = 25oC, ISD = 30A, dISD/dt = 100A/µs 1.8 - 8.1 µC
NOTES:
2. Pulse test: pulse width ≤ 300µs, duty cycle ≤≤ 2%.
3. Repetitive rating: pulse width limited by maximum junction temperature. See Transient Thermal Impedance curve (Figure 3).
4. VDD = 50V, starting TJ = 25oC, L = 1.1mH, RG = 50Ω, peak IAS = 33A.

Typical Performance Curves Unless Otherwise Specified

1.2 40
POWER DISSIPATION MULTIPLIER

1.0
32
ID, DRAIN CURRENT (A)

0.8
24

0.6
16
0.4

8
0.2

0 0
0 50 100 150 25 50 75 100 125 150
TC, CASE TEMPERATURE (oC) TC , CASE TEMPERATURE (oC)

FIGURE 1. NORMALIZED POWER DISSIPATION vs CASE FIGURE 2. MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS DRAIN CURRENT vs
TEMPERATURE CASE TEMPERATURE

0.5
ZθJC , THERMAL IMPEDANCE

0.2
0.1
0.1
0.05
PDM
0.02
0.01
10-2
t1
SINGLE PULSE t2
NOTES:
DUTY FACTOR: D = t1/t2
PEAK TJ = PDM x ZθJC + TC
10-3
10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 0.1 1 10
t1, RECTANGULAR PULSE DURATION (s)

FIGURE 3. MAXIMUM TRANSIENT THERMAL IMPEDANCE

©2002 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation IRFP250 Rev. B


IRFP250

Typical Performance Curves Unless Otherwise Specified (Continued)

103 50
PULSE DURATION = 80µs
OPERATION IN THIS VGS = 10V
AREA IS LIMITED VGS = 7V DUTY CYCLE = 0.5% MAX
BY rDS(ON) 40
10µs

ID, DRAIN CURRENT (A)


102
ID, DRAIN CURRENT (A)

100µs 30
VGS = 6V

10 1ms
20
10ms

1 DC 10 VGS = 5V
TJ = MAX RATED
TC = 25oC VGS = 4V
SINGLE PULSE 0
0.1
0 20 40 60 80 100
1 10 102 103
VDS , DRAIN TO SOURCE VOLTAGE (V)
VDS , DRAIN TO SOURCE VOLTAGE (V)

FIGURE 4. FORWARD BIAS SAFE OPERATING AREA FIGURE 5. OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS

50 102
PULSE DURATION = 80µs VGS = 10V PULSE DURATION = 80µs
DUTY CYCLE = 0.5% MAX DUTY CYCLE = 0.5% MAX
VGS = 8V VDS ≥ 50V
40
ID, DRAIN CURRENT (A)

ID, DRAIN CURRENT (A)


VGS = 7V

10
30

VGS = 6V
20 TJ = 150oC TJ = 25oC

1
10 VGS = 5V

VGS = 4V
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 0.1
0 2 4 6 8 10
VDS , DRAIN TO SOURCE VOLTAGE (V) VGS , GATE TO SOURCEVOLTAGE (V)

FIGURE 6. SATURATION CHARACTERISTICS FIGURE 7. TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

0.5 3.0
PULSE DURATION = 80µs PULSE DURATION = 80µs
rDS(ON), ON-STATE RESISTANCE (Ω)

DUTY CYCLE = 0.5% MAX DUTY CYCLE = 0.5% MAX


NORMALIZED DRAIN TO SOURCE

ID = 17A, VGS = 10V


0.4 2.4
ON RESISTANCE

0.3 1.8

VGS = 10V 1.2


0.2

0.1 0.6
VGS = 20V

0 0
0 25 50 75 100 125 -40 0 40 80 120 160
ID, DRAIN CURRENT (A) TJ , JUNCTION TEMPERATURE (oC)

NOTE: Heating effect of 2µs pulse is minimal. FIGURE 9. NORMALIZED DRAIN TO SOURCE ON
FIGURE 8. DRAIN TO SOURCE ON RESISTANCE vs GATE RESISTANCE vs JUNCTION TEMPERATURE
VOLTAGE AND DRAIN CURRENT

©2002 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation IRFP250 Rev. B


IRFP250

Typical Performance Curves Unless Otherwise Specified (Continued)

1.25 7500
ID = 250µA VGS = 0V, f = 1MHz
NORMALIZED DRAIN TO SOURCE

CISS = CGS + CGD


1.15 6000 CRSS = CGD

C, CAPACITANCE (pF)
COSS ≈ CDS + CGD
BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE

1.05 4500 CISS

0.95 3000
COSS

0.85 1500
CRSS

0.75 0
-40 0 40 80 120 160 1 2 5 10 2 5 102
TJ , JUNCTION TEMPERATURE (oC) VDS , DRAIN TO SOURCE VOLTAGE (V)

FIGURE 10. NORMALIZED DRAIN TO SOURCE BREAKDOWN FIGURE 11. CAPACITANCE vs DRAIN TO SOURCE VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE vs JUNCTION TEMPERATURE

25 103
PULSE DURATION = 80µs PULSE DURATION = 80µs
DUTY CYCLE = 0.5% MAX
TJ = 25oC ISD, SOURCE TO DRAIN CURRENT (A) DUTY CYCLE = 0.5% MAX
gfs, TRANSCONDUCTANCE (S)

VDS ≥≥ 50V
20

102
15 TJ = 150oC

10 TJ = 150oC TJ = 25oC
10

0 1
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
ID, DRAIN CURRENT (A) VSD, SOURCE TO DRAIN VOLTAGE (V)

FIGURE 12. TRANSCONDUCTANCE vs DRAIN CURRENT FIGURE 13. SOURCE TO DRAIN DIODE VOLTAGE

20
ID = 30A

VDS = 160V
16
VGS, GATE TO SOURCE (V)

VDS = 100V
VDS = 40V
12

0
0 25 50 75 100 125
Qg , GATE CHARGE (nC)

FIGURE 14. GATE TO SOURCE VOLTAGE vs GATE CHARGE

©2002 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation IRFP250 Rev. B


IRFP250

Test Circuits and Waveforms

VDS
BVDSS

tP
L VDS
IAS
VARY tP TO OBTAIN VDD
+
REQUIRED PEAK IAS RG
VDD
VGS -
DUT

tP
0V IAS 0

0.01Ω tAV

FIGURE 15. UNCLAMPED ENERGY TEST CIRCUIT FIGURE 16. UNCLAMPED ENERGY WAVEFORMS

tON tOFF

td(ON) td(OFF)

tr tf
VDS
90% 90%
RL

+ 10% 10%
VDD 0
RG
-
90%
DUT
VGS 50% 50%
PULSE WIDTH
10%
0
VGS

FIGURE 17. SWITCHING TIME TEST CIRCUIT FIGURE 18. RESISTIVE SWITCHING WAVEFORMS

VDS
CURRENT (ISOLATED
REGULATOR SUPPLY) VDD

Qg(TOT)
SAME TYPE VGS
AS DUT Qgd
12V
0.2µF 50kΩ
BATTERY Qgs
0.3µF

D VDS

G DUT 0

IG(REF) S IG(REF)
0
VDS
IG CURRENT ID CURRENT
SAMPLING SAMPLING 0
RESISTOR RESISTOR

FIGURE 19. GATE CHARGE TEST CIRCUIT FIGURE 20. GATE CHARGE WAVEFORMS

©2002 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation IRFP250 Rev. B


TRADEMARKS
The following are registered and unregistered trademarks Fairchild Semiconductor owns or is authorized to use and is
not intended to be an exhaustive list of all such trademarks.
ACEx™ FAST  OPTOLOGIC™ SMART START™ VCX™
Bottomless™ FASTr™ OPTOPLANAR™ STAR*POWER™
CoolFET™ FRFET™ PACMAN™ Stealth™
CROSSVOLT™ GlobalOptoisolator™ POP™ SuperSOT™-3
DenseTrench™ GTO™ Power247™ SuperSOT™-6
DOME™ HiSeC™ PowerTrench  SuperSOT™-8
EcoSPARK™ ISOPLANAR™ QFET™ SyncFET™
E2CMOSTM LittleFET™ QS™ TinyLogic™
EnSignaTM MicroFET™ QT Optoelectronics™ TruTranslation™
FACT™ MicroPak™ Quiet Series™ UHC™
FACT Quiet Series™ MICROWIRE™ SILENT SWITCHER  UltraFET 
STAR*POWER is used under license
DISCLAIMER

FAIRCHILD SEMICONDUCTOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO MAKE CHANGES WITHOUT FURTHER


NOTICE TO ANY PRODUCTS HEREIN TO IMPROVE RELIABILITY, FUNCTION OR DESIGN. FAIRCHILD
DOES NOT ASSUME ANY LIABILITY ARISING OUT OF THE APPLICATION OR USE OF ANY PRODUCT
OR CIRCUIT DESCRIBED HEREIN; NEITHER DOES IT CONVEY ANY LICENSE UNDER ITS PATENT
RIGHTS, NOR THE RIGHTS OF OTHERS.
LIFE SUPPORT POLICY

FAIRCHILD’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT
DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF FAIRCHILD SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION.
As used herein:
1. Life support devices or systems are devices or 2. A critical component is any component of a life
systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into support device or system whose failure to perform can
the body, or (b) support or sustain life, or (c) whose be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life
failure to perform when properly used in accordance support device or system, or to affect its safety or
with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be effectiveness.
reasonably expected to result in significant injury to the
user.
PRODUCT STATUS DEFINITIONS
Definition of Terms

Datasheet Identification Product Status Definition

Advance Information Formative or This datasheet contains the design specifications for
In Design product development. Specifications may change in
any manner without notice.

Preliminary First Production This datasheet contains preliminary data, and


supplementary data will be published at a later date.
Fairchild Semiconductor reserves the right to make
changes at any time without notice in order to improve
design.

No Identification Needed Full Production This datasheet contains final specifications. Fairchild
Semiconductor reserves the right to make changes at
any time without notice in order to improve design.

Obsolete Not In Production This datasheet contains specifications on a product


that has been discontinued by Fairchild semiconductor.
The datasheet is printed for reference information only.

Rev. H4
PHOTOTRANSISTOR OPTOCOUPLERS

MCT2 MCT2E MCT210 MCT271


MCT2200 MCT2201 MCT2202

WHITE PACKAGE (-M SUFFIX) BLACK PACKAGE (NO -M SUFFIX)

6 6 6
6
1 1

1 1

6 6

1 1

DESCRIPTION
The MCT2XXX series optoisolators consist of a gallium arsenide
infrared emitting diode driving a silicon phototransistor in a 6-pin
dual in-line package.

FEATURES
• UL recognized (File # E90700)
• VDE recognized (File # 94766)
-Add option V for white package (e.g., MCT2V-M)
-Add option 300 for black package (e.g., MCT2.300)
• MCT2 and MCT2E are also available in white package SCHEMATIC
by specifying -M suffix, eg. MCT2-M
1 6

2 5

3 NC 4

PIN 1. ANODE
2. CATHODE
3. NO CONNECTION
4. EMITTER
5. COLLECTOR
6. BASE
APPLICATIONS
• Power supply regulators
• Digital logic inputs
• Microprocessor inputs

 2001 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation


DS300234 1/3/02 1 OF 13 www.fairchildsemi.com
PHOTOTRANSISTOR OPTOCOUPLERS

MCT2 MCT2E MCT210 MCT271


MCT2200 MCT2201 MCT2202

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS


Parameter Symbol Device Value Units
TOTAL DEVICE
TSTG ALL -55 to +150 °C
Storage Temperature
Operating Temperature TOPR ALL -55 to +100 °C
Lead Solder Temperature TSOL ALL 260 for 10 sec °C
-M 250
Total Device Power Dissipation @ TA = 25°C mW
Non-M 260
PD
-M 2.94
Derate above 25°C mW/°C
Non-M 3.3
EMITTER -M 60
IF mA
DC/Average Forward Input Current Non-M 100
Reverse Input Voltage VR ALL 3 V
Forward Current - Peak (300µs, 2% Duty Cycle) IF(pk) ALL 3 A
-M 120
LED Power Dissipation @ TA = 25°C PD mW
Non-M 150
-M 1.41
Derate above 25°C mW/°C
Non-M 2.0
DETECTOR
IC ALL 50 mA
Collector Current
Collector-Emitter Voltage VCEO ALL 30 V
Detector Power Dissipation @ TA = 25°C ALL 150 mW
PD -M 1.76
Derate above 25°C mW/°C
Non-M 2.0

www.fairchildsemi.com 2 OF 13 1/3/02 DS300234


PHOTOTRANSISTOR OPTOCOUPLERS

MCT2 MCT2E MCT210 MCT271


MCT2200 MCT2201 MCT2202

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (TA = 25°C Unless otherwise specified.)

INDIVIDUAL COMPONENT CHARACTERISTICS


Parameter Test Conditions Symbol Device Min Typ** Max Unit
EMITTER MCT2/-M
MCT2E/-M
MCT271
Input Forward Voltage (IF = 20 mA) VF MCT2200 1.25 1.50 V
MCT2201
MCT2202
(TA = 0-70°C, IF = 40 mA) MCT210 1.33
MCT2/-M
MCT2E/-M
MCT271
Reverse Leakage Current (VR = 3.0 V) IR MCT2200 0.001 10 µA
MCT2201
MCT2202
(TA = 0-70°C, VR = 6.0 V) MCT210
DETECTOR (IC = 1.0 mA, IF = 0) ALL
BVCEO 30 100 V
Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage (TA = 0-70°C) MCT210
MCT2/-M
MCT2E/-M
MCT271
70 120
Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage (IC = 10 µA, IF = 0) BVCBO MCT2200 V
MCT2201
MCT2202
(TA = 0-70°C) MCT210 30
MCT2/-M
MCT2E/-M
MCT271
7 10
Emitter-Collector Breakdown Voltage (IE = 100 µA, IF = 0) BVECO MCT2200 V
MCT2201
MCT2202
(TA = 0-70°C) MCT210 6 10
(VCE = 10 V, IF = 0) 1 50 nA
Collector-Emitter Dark Current ICEO ALL
(VCE = 5 V, TA = 0-70°C) 30 µA
Collector-Base Dark Current (VCB = 10 V, IF = 0) ICBO ALL 20 nA
Capacitance (VCE = 0 V, f = 1 MHz) CCE ALL 8 pF

** Typical values at TA = 25°C

DS300234 1/3/02 3 OF 13 www.fairchildsemi.com


PHOTOTRANSISTOR OPTOCOUPLERS

MCT2 MCT2E MCT210 MCT271


MCT2200 MCT2201 MCT2202

TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS (TA = 25°C Unless otherwise specified.)


DC Characteristic Test Conditions Symbol Device Min Typ** Max Unit
(TA = 0-70°C) MCT210 150
MCT2200 20
(IF = 10 mA, VCE = 5 V)
MCT2201 100
MCT2202 63 125
MCT2
Output Collector
CTR MCT2-M %
Current 20
(IF = 10 mA, VCE = 10 V) MCT2E
MCT2E-M
MCT271 45 90
(IF = 3.2 mA to 32 mA, VCE = 0.4 V)
MCT210 50
(TA = 0-70°C)
MCT2
MCT2-M
(IC = 2 mA, IF = 16 mA) MCT2E
MCT2E-M
Collector-Emitter
MCT271 0.4 V
Saturation Voltage
(IC = 16 mA, IF = 32 mA, TA = 0-70°C) MCT210
VCE (SAT)
MCT2200
(IC = 2.5 mA, IF = 10 mA) MCT2201
MCT2202
AC Characteristic (IF = 15 mA, VCC = 5 V, RL = 2 k1) MCT2 1.1
Saturated Turn-on Time (RB = Open) (Fig. 20) MCT2E 1.1
ton
from 5 V to 0.8 V (IF = 20 mA, VCC = 5 V, RL = 2 k1) MCT2 1.3
(RB = 100 k1 ) (Fig. 20) MCT2E 1.3
(IF = 15 mA, VCC = 5 V, RL = 2 k1) MCT2 50
Saturated Turn-off Time (RB = Open) (Fig. 20) MCT2E 50
toff
from SAT to 2.0 V (IF = 20 mA, VCC = 5 V, RL = 2 k1) MCT2 20
(RB = 100 k1 ) (Fig. 20) MCT2E 20
µs
MCT2-M
Turn-on Time (IF = 10 mA, VCC = 10 V, RL = 100 1) ton 2
MCT2E-M
MCT2-M
Turn-off Time (IF = 10 mA, VCC = 10 V, RL = 100 1) toff 2
MCT2E-M
MCT2-M
Rise Time (IF = 10 mA, VCC = 10 V, RL = 100 1) tr 2
MCT2E-M
MCT2-M
Fall Time (IF = 10 mA, VCC = 10 V, RL = 100 1) tf 1.5
MCT2E-M

** Typical values at TA = 25°C

www.fairchildsemi.com 4 OF 13 1/3/02 DS300234


PHOTOTRANSISTOR OPTOCOUPLERS

MCT2 MCT2E MCT210 MCT271


MCT2200 MCT2201 MCT2202

TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS (Cont.)


AC Characteristic Test Conditions Symbol Device Min Typ** Max Unit
Saturated turn-on time ton 1.0
Saturated turn-off time (IF = 16 mA, RL = 1.9k1, VCC = 5 V)
(Approximates a typical (Fig. 20) toff 48
TTL interface)
MCT271
Saturated turn-on time ton 1.0
Saturated turn-off time (IF = 16 mA, RL = 4.7k1, VCC = 5 V)
(Approximates a typical (Fig. 20) toff 98
low power TTL interface)
Saturated rise time (IF = 16 mA, RL = 5601, VCC = 5 V) tr 1.0
Saturated fall time (Fig. 20, 21) tf 11
Saturated propagation
TPD (HL) MCT210 1.0
delay - high to low
(IF = 16 mA, RL = 2.7k1) (Fig. 20, 21) µs
Saturated propagation
TPD (LH) 50
delay - low to high
Non-saturated
TON MCT2200 2 10
turn on time (IC = 2 mA, VCC = 10 V, RL = 1001
MCT2201
Non-saturated (Fig. 20)
TOFF MCT2202 2 10
turn off time
Non-saturated rise time (IC = 2 mA, VCC = 5 V, RL = 1001) tr 2
MCT210
Non-saturated fall time (Fig. 20) tf 2
Non-saturated
ton 2 7
turn-on time (IC = 2 mA, VCC = 5 V, RL = 1001)
MCT271
Non-saturated (Fig. 20)
toff 2 7
turn-off time

** Typical values at TA = 25°C

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PHOTOTRANSISTOR OPTOCOUPLERS

MCT2 MCT2E MCT210 MCT271


MCT2200 MCT2201 MCT2202

TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES

Fig. 1 LED Forward Voltage vs. Forward Current Fig. 2 LED Forward Voltage vs. Forward Current
(Black Package) (White Package)
1.8 1.8

1.7 1.7
VF - FORWARD VOLTAGE (V)

VF - FORWARD VOLTAGE (V)


1.6 1.6

1.5 1.5

1.4 1.4
TA = 55˚C
TA = 55˚C
1.3 1.3
TA = 25˚C
TA = 25˚C
1.2 1.2

TA = 100˚C
1.1 TA = 100˚C 1.1

1.0 1.0

1 10 100 1 10 100

IF - LED FORWARD CURRENT (mA) IF - LED FORWARD CURRENT (mA)

Fig.3 Normalized CTR vs. Forward Current Fig.4 Normalized CTR vs. Forward Current
(Black Package) (White Package)
1.4 1.6
VCE = 5.0V Normalized to VCE = 5.0V Normalized to
TA = 25˚C IF = 10 mA TA = 25˚C IF = 10 mA
1.2 1.4

1.2
1.0
NORMALIZED CTR
NORMALIZED CTR

1.0
0.8

0.8
0.6
0.6

0.4
0.4

0.2
0.2

0.0 0.0
0 5 10 15 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

IF - FORWARD CURRENT (mA) IF - FORWARD CURRENT (mA)

Fig. 5 Normalized CTR vs. Ambient Temperature Fig. 6 Normalized CTR vs. Ambient Temperature
(Black Package) (White Package)
1.6 1.4

1.4 IF = 5 mA 1.2
IF = 5 mA
NORMALIZED CTR
NORMALIZED CTR

1.2 1.0

IF = 10 mA IF = 10 mA

1.0 0.8

0.8 0.6 IF = 20 mA

0.6 0.4 Normalized to


Normalized to IF = 10 mA
IF = 20 mA
IF = 10 mA
TA = 25˚C
TA = 25˚C
0.4 0.2

-75 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100

TA - AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (˚C) TA - AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (˚C)

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PHOTOTRANSISTOR OPTOCOUPLERS

MCT2 MCT2E MCT210 MCT271


MCT2200 MCT2201 MCT2202

Fig. 7 CTR vs. RBE (Unsaturated) Fig. 8 CTR vs. RBE (Unsaturated)
(Black Package) (White Package)
1.0 1.0

NORMALIZED CTR ( CTRRBE / CTRRBE(OPEN))


NORMALIZED CTR ( CTRRBE / CTRRBE(OPEN))

0.9 0.9
IF = 20 mA

0.8 VCE= 5.0 V 0.8


IF = 20 mA IF = 10 mA
0.7 0.7
IF = 5 mA
0.6
0.6 IF = 10 mA
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4 IF = 5 mA
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.2 VCE= 5.0 V
0.1
0.1
0.0

0.0
10 100 1000 10 100 1000

RBE- BASE RESISTANCE (kΩ) RBE- BASE RESISTANCE (kΩ)

Fig. 9 CTR vs. RBE (Saturated) Fig. 10 CTR vs. RBE (Saturated)
(Black Package) (White Package)
1.0 1.0
NORMALIZED CTR ( CTRRBE / CTRRBE(OPEN))

NORMALIZED CTR ( CTRRBE / CTRRBE(OPEN))

0.9 0.9
VCE= 0.3 V VCE= 0.3 V
0.8 0.8
IF = 20 mA
0.7 0.7 IF = 20 mA

0.6 0.6
IF = 10 mA

0.5 0.5 IF = 10 mA

0.4 0.4

0.3 IF = 5 mA 0.3 IF = 5 mA

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0.0 0.0

10 100 1000 10 100 1000


RBE- BASE RESISTANCE (k Ω) RBE- BASE RESISTANCE (k Ω)

Fig. 11 Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage vs Collector Current Fig. 12 Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage vs Collector Current
(Black Package) (White Package)
VCE (SAT) - COLLECTOR-EMITTER SATURATION VOLTAGE (V)
VCE (SAT) - COLLECTOR-EMITTER SATURATION VOLTAGE (V)

100 100

TA = 25˚C
10 10

1 1

IF = 2.5 mA IF = 2.5 mA

0.1 0.1

IF = 20 mA
IF = 10 mA IF = 20 mA
0.01 0.01
IF = 5 mA
IF = 5 mA IF = 10 mA
TA = 25˚C
0.001 0.001
0.01 0.1 1 10
0.01 0.1 1 10

IC - COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA) IC - COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA)

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PHOTOTRANSISTOR OPTOCOUPLERS

MCT2 MCT2E MCT210 MCT271


MCT2200 MCT2201 MCT2202

Fig. 13 Switching Speed vs. Load Resistor Fig. 14 Switching Speed vs. Load Resistor
(Black Package) (White Package)
1000 1000

IF = 10 mA IF = 10 mA
VCC = 10 V VCC = 10 V
TA = 25˚C TA = 25˚C
SWITCHING SPEED - (µs)

100 100

SWITCHING SPEED - (µs)


Toff Toff
10 Tf 10 Tf

Ton Ton

1 Tr 1
Tr

0.1 0.1

0.1 1 10 100 0.1 1 10 100

R-LOAD RESISTOR (kΩ) R-LOAD RESISTOR (kΩ)

Fig. 15 Normalized ton vs. RBE Fig. 16 Normalized ton vs. RBE
(Black Package) (White Package)
5.0 5.0

4.5 VCC = 10 V 4.5 VCC = 10 V


NORMALIZED ton - (ton(RBE) / ton(open))

NORMALIZED ton - (ton(RBE) / ton(open))

IC = 2 mA IC = 2 mA
RL = 100 Ω RL = 100 Ω
4.0
4.0

3.5
3.5

3.0
3.0
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.0
1.5

1.5
1.0

1.0
0.5
10 100 1000 10000 100000 10 100 1000 10000 100000

RBE- BASE RESISTANCE (k Ω) RBE- BASE RESISTANCE (k Ω)

Fig. 17 Normalized toff vs. RBE Fig. 18 Normalized toff vs. RBE
(Black Package) (White Package)
1.4 1.4

1.3 1.3
NORMALIZED toff - (toff(RBE) / toff(open))

NORMALIZED toff - (toff(RBE) / toff(open))

1.2 1.2

1.1 1.1

1.0 1.0

0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6
VCC = 10 V VCC = 10 V
0.5 IC = 2 mA 0.5 IC = 2 mA
RL = 100 Ω RL = 100 Ω
0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1
10 100 1000 10000 100000 10 100 1000 10000 100000

RBE- BASE RESISTANCE (k Ω) RBE- BASE RESISTANCE (k Ω)

www.fairchildsemi.com 8 OF 13 1/3/02 DS300234


PHOTOTRANSISTOR OPTOCOUPLERS

MCT2 MCT2E MCT210 MCT271


MCT2200 MCT2201 MCT2202

Fig. 19 Dark Current vs. Ambient Temperature

10000
VCE = 10 V

ICEO - COLLECTOR -EMITTER DARK CURRENT (nA)


TA = 25˚C
1000

100

10

0.1

0.01

0.001
0 20 40 60 80 100

TA - AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (˚C)

TEST CIRCUIT WAVE FORMS

VCC = 10V
INPUT PULSE
IF IC RL

10%
INPUT OUTPUT OUTPUT PULSE
90%
RBE
tr tf

ton toff
Adjust IF to produce IC = 2 mA

Figure 20. Switching Time Test Circuit and Waveforms

INPUT

TPDHL TPDLH

OUTPUT 5V
(SATURATED)

1.5 V 1.5 V
SAT

Figure 21. Switching Time Waveforms (MCT210)

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PHOTOTRANSISTOR OPTOCOUPLERS

MCT2 MCT2E MCT210 MCT271


MCT2200 MCT2201 MCT2202

Black Package (No -M Suffix)


Package Dimensions (Through Hole) Package Dimensions (Surface Mount)
PIN 1 0.350 (8.89)
ID. 0.330 (8.38)

3 2 1 PIN 1
0.270 (6.86) ID.
0.240 (6.10)

0.270 (6.86)
0.240 (6.10)
SEATING PLANE

0.350 (8.89)
0.330 (8.38) 4 5 6

0.070 (1.78)
0.045 (1.14) 0.070 (1.78) 0.300 (7.62)
0.045 (1.14) TYP

0.200 (5.08)
0.135 (3.43) 0.200 (5.08) 0.016 (0.41)
0.165 (4.18) 0.008 (0.20)

0.154 (3.90) 0.020 (0.51) 0.020 (0.51)


0.100 (2.54) MIN MIN 0.016 (0.40) MIN
0.022 (0.56)
0.016 (0.40) 0.016 (0.41) 0.100 (2.54) 0.315 (8.00)
0.008 (0.20) TYP MIN
0.022 (0.56) 0.300 (7.62) 0.405 (10.30)
0° to 15° TYP
0.016 (0.41) MAX

0.100 (2.54) Lead Coplanarity : 0.004 (0.10) MAX


TYP

Package Dimensions (0.4”Lead Spacing) Recommended Pad Layout for


Surface Mount Leadform
3 2 1 PIN 1
ID.

0.270 (6.86)
0.240 (6.10) 0.070 (1.78)

4 5 6 0.060 (1.52)

0.350 (8.89)
0.330 (8.38)
0.415 (10.54) 0.100 (2.54)
0.070 (1.78)
0.045 (1.14)
0.295 (7.49)
SEATING PLANE

0.030 (0.76)
0.004 (0.10)
0.200 (5.08) MIN
0.135 (3.43)

0.154 (3.90) 0.016 (0.40)


0.100 (2.54) 0.008 (0.20)

0° to 15°
0.022 (0.56)
0.016 (0.41)
0.400 (10.16)
0.100 (2.54) TYP TYP

NOTE
All dimensions are in inches (millimeters)

www.fairchildsemi.com 10 OF 13 1/3/02 DS300234


PHOTOTRANSISTOR OPTOCOUPLERS

MCT2 MCT2E MCT210 MCT271


MCT2200 MCT2201 MCT2202

White Package (-M Suffix)


Package Dimensions (Through Hole) Package Dimensions (Surface Mount)
0.350 (8.89)
0.320 (8.13) 0.350 (8.89)
0.320 (8.13)
PIN 1
ID.
PIN 1
ID.

0.390 (9.90)
0.260 (6.60)
0.332 (8.43)
0.240 (6.10) 0.260 (6.60)
0.240 (6.10)

0.070 (1.77) 0.070 (1.77)


0.040 (1.02) 0.040 (1.02)
0.014 (0.36) 0.320 (8.13) 0.320 (8.13)
0.010 (0.25) 0.014 (0.36)
0.010 (0.25)

0.200 (5.08)
0.115 (2.93) 0.200 (5.08) 0.012 (0.30)
0.115 (2.93) 0.008 (0.20)

0.100 (2.54)
0.025 (0.63)
0.015 (0.38)
0.020 (0.51)
0.100 [2.54]
0.020 (0.50) 15° 0.035 (0.88)
0.100 (2.54) 0.020 (0.50)
0.016 (0.41) 0.006 (0.16)
0.012 (0.30) 0.016 (0.41)

Package Dimensions (0.4”Lead Spacing) Recommended Pad Layout for


0.350 (8.89) Surface Mount Leadform
0.320 (8.13)

PIN 1
ID.

0.070 (1.78)
0.260 (6.60)
0.240 (6.10)

0.060 (1.52)

0.070 (1.77)
0.040 (1.02)
0.014 (0.36) 0.425 (10.79)
0.010 (0.25)
0.100 (2.54)
0.305 (7.75)
0.030 (0.76)
0.200 (5.08)
0.115 (2.93)

0.100 (2.54)
0.015 (0.38)

0.100 [2.54] 0.012 (0.30)


0.020 (0.50) 0.008 (0.21)
0.016 (0.41)
0.425 (10.80)
0.400 (10.16)

NOTE
All dimensions are in inches (millimeters)

DS300234 1/3/02 11 OF 13 www.fairchildsemi.com


PHOTOTRANSISTOR OPTOCOUPLERS

MCT2 MCT2E MCT210 MCT271


MCT2200 MCT2201 MCT2202
ORDERING INFORMATION

Black Package White Package Description


(No Suffix) (-m Suffix)

Order Entry Idenifier


.S S Surface Mount Lead Bend
.SD SR2 Surface Mount; Tape and reel
.W T 0.4” Lead Spacing
.300 V VDE 0884
.300W TV VDE 0884, 0.4” Lead Spacing
.3S SV VDE 0884, Surface Mount
.3SD SR2V VDE 0884, Surface Mount, Tape & Reel

QT Carrier Tape Specifications (“D” Taping Orientation) (Black Package, No Suffix)


12.0 ± 0.1
4.85 ± 0.20
4.0 ± 0.1 Ø1.55 ± 0.05
0.30 ± 0.05 4.0 ± 0.1
1.75 ± 0.10

7.5 ± 0.1

13.2 ± 0.2 16.0 ± 0.3


9.55 ± 0.20

0.1 MAX 10.30 ± 0.20 Ø1.6 ± 0.1

User Direction of Feed

QT Carrier Tape Specifications (“D” Taping Orientation) (White Package, -m Suffix)

12.0 ± 0.1
4.5 ± 0.20
2.0 ± 0.05 Ø1.5 MIN
0.30 MAX 4.0 ± 0.1
1.75 ± 0.10

11.5 ± 1.0

21.0 ± 0.1 24.0 ± 0.3


9.1 ± 0.20

0.1 MAX 10.1 ± 0.20 Ø1.5 ± 0.1/-0

User Direction of Feed

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PHOTOTRANSISTOR OPTOCOUPLERS

MCT2 MCT2E MCT210 MCT271


MCT2200 MCT2201 MCT2202

DISCLAIMER
FAIRCHILD SEMICONDUCTOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO MAKE CHANGES WITHOUT FURTHER NOTICE TO
ANY PRODUCTS HEREIN TO IMPROVE RELIABILITY, FUNCTION OR DESIGN. FAIRCHILD DOES NOT ASSUME
ANY LIABILITY ARISING OUT OF THE APPLICATION OR USE OF ANY PRODUCT OR CIRCUIT DESCRIBED
HEREIN; NEITHER DOES IT CONVEY ANY LICENSE UNDER ITS PATENT RIGHTS, NOR THE RIGHTS OF
OTHERS.

LIFE SUPPORT POLICY


FAIRCHILD’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT
DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF FAIRCHILD
SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein:

1. Life support devices or systems are devices or 2. A critical component in any component of a life support
systems which, (a) are intended for surgical device or system whose failure to perform can be
implant into the body,or (b) support or sustain life, reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life
and (c) whose failure to perform when properly support device or system, or to affect its safety or
used in accordance with instructions for use provided effectiveness.
in labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a
significant injury of the user.

DS300234 1/3/02 13 OF 13 www.fairchildsemi.com


NE555
® SA555 - SE555
GENERAL PURPOSE SINGLE BIPOLAR TIMERS

.. LOW TURN OFF TIME


MAXIMUM OPERATING FREQUENCY

.. GREATER THAN 500kHz


TIMING FROM MICROSECONDS TO HOURS
OPERATES IN BOTH ASTABLE AND

. MONOSTABLE MODES
HIGH OUTPUT CURRENT CAN SOURCE OR

.. SINK 200mA
ADJUSTABLE DUTY CYCLE

. TTL COMPATIBLE
TEMPERATURE STABILITY OF 0.005%
PERoC

N D
DESCRIPTION DIP8 SO8
The NE555 monolithic timing circuit is a highly stable (Plastic Package) (Plastic Micropackage)
controller capable of producing accurate time delays
or oscillation. In the time delay mode of operation,
the time is precisely controlled by one external re-
sistor and capacitor. For a stable operation as an os-
cillator, the free running frequency and the duty cy-
cle are both accurately controlled with two external ORDER CODES
resistors and one capacitor. The circuit may be trig- Part Temperature Package
gered and reset on falling waveforms, and the out- Number Range N D
put structure can source or sink up to 200mA. The NE555 0oC, 70oC • •
NE555 is available in plastic and ceramic minidip
SA555 o o
–40 C, 105 C • •
package and in a 8-lead micropackage and in metal
can package version. SE555 –55oC, 125oC • •

PIN CONNECTIONS (top view)

1 8 1 - GND
2 - Trigger
3 - Output
2 7 4 - Reset
5 - Control voltage
6 - Threshold
3 6 7 - Discharge
8 - VCC
4 5

July 1998 1/10


NE555/SA555/SE555

BLOCK DIAGRAM
VCC+

5kΩ

COMP
DISCHARGE
THRESHOLD
CONTROL VOLTAGE R

FLIP-FLOP

5kΩ Q

COMP OUT
TRIGGER
S
INHIBIT/
RESET

5kΩ

RESET S

S - 8086

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
CONTROL
VOLTAGE
OUTPUT
THRESHOLD
COMPARATOR

VCC 5

R1 R2 R3 R4 R8 R12
4.7kW 830W 4.7kW 1kW 5kW 6.8kW

Q21
Q19
Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q20 Q22
31R

3.9kW
R11
5kW
3
R17 D1
THRESHOLD Q1 Q4 4.7kW
Q23
Q2 Q3 R9 R14
5kW D2 220W
Q11 Q12
Q24
2 Q13
TRIGGER Q10
R16 R15
Q16 Q18 100W 4.7kW
4
RESET Q15
7 Q17
DISCHARGE
R5 R6 R7 R10
Q14 10kW 100kW 100kW 5kW
1
GND

TRIGGER COMPARATOR FLIP FLOP

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS


Symbol Parameter Value Unit
Vcc Supply Voltage 18 V
o
Toper Operating Free Air Temperature Range for NE555 0 to 70 C
for SA555 –40 to 105
for SE555 –55 to 125
o
Tj Junction Temperature 150 C
o
Tstg Storage Temperature Range –65 to 150 C

2/10
NE555/SA555/SE555

OPERATING CONDITIONS
Symbol Parameter SE555 NE555 - SA555 Unit
VCC Supply Voltage 4.5 to 18 4.5 to 18 V
Vth, Vtrig, Vcl, Vreset Maximum Input Voltage VCC VCC V

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Tamb = +25oC, VCC = +5V to +15V (unless otherwise specified)
SE555 NE555 - SA555
Symbol Parameter Unit
Min. Typ. Max. Min. Typ. Max.
ICC Supply Current (RL ∞) (- note 1) mA
Low State VCC = +5V 3 5 3 6
VCC = +15V 10 12 10 15
High State VCC = 5V 2 2
Timing Error (monostable)
(RA = 2k to 100kΩ, C = 0.1µF)
Initial Accuracy - (note 2) 0.5 2 1 3 %
Drift with Temperature 30 100 50 ppm/°C
Drift with Supply Voltage 0.05 0.2 0.1 0.5 %/V
Timing Error (astable)
(RA, RB = 1kΩ to 100kΩ, C = 0.1µF,
VCC = +15V)
Initial Accuracy - (note 2) 1.5 2.25 %
Drift with Temperature 90 150 ppm/°C
Drift with Supply Voltage 0.15 0.3 %/V
VCL Control Voltage level V
VCC = +15V 9.6 10 10.4 9 10 11
VCC = +5V 2.9 3.33 3.8 2.6 3.33 4
Vth Threshold Voltage V
VCC = +15V 9.4 10 10.6 8.8 10 11.2
VCC = +5V 2.7 3.33 4 2.4 3.33 4.2
Ith Threshold Current - (note 3) 0.1 0.25 0.1 0.25 µA
Vtrig Trigger Voltage V
VCC = +15V 4.8 5 5.2 4.5 5 5.6
VCC = +5V 1.45 1.67 1.9 1.1 1.67 2.2
Itrig Trigger Current (Vtrig = 0V) 0.5 0.9 0.5 2.0 µA
Vreset Reset Voltage - (note 4) 0.4 0.7 1 0.4 0.7 1 V
Ireset Reset Current mA
Vreset = +0.4V 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.4
Vreset = 0V 0.4 1 0.4 1.5
VOL Low Level Output Voltage V
VCC = +15V, IO(sink) = 10mA 0.1 0.15 0.1 0.25
IO(sink) = 50mA 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.75
IO(sink) = 100mA 2 2.2 2 2.5
IO(sink) = 200mA 2.5 2.5
VCC = +5V, IO(sink) = 8mA 0.1 0.25 0.3 0.4
IO(sink) = 5mA 0.05 0.2 0.25 0.35
VOH High Level Output Voltage V
VCC = +15V, IO(source) = 200mA 12.5 12.5
IO(source) = 100mA 13 13.3 12.75 13.3
VCC = +5V, IO(source) = 100mA 3 3.3 2.75 3.3
Notes : 1. Supply current when output is high is typically 1mA less.
2. Tested at VCC = +5V and VCC = +15V.
3. This will determine the maximum value of RA + RB for +15V operation the max total is R = 20MΩ and for 5V operation
the max total R = 3.5MΩ.

3/10
NE555/SA555/SE555

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)


SE555 NE555 - SA555
Symbol Parameter Unit
Min. Typ. Max. Min. Typ. Max.
Idis(off) Discharge Pin Leakage Current 20 100 20 100 nA
(output high) (Vdis = 10V)
Vdis(sat) Discharge pin Saturation Voltage mV
(output low) - (note 5)
VCC = +15V, Idis = 15mA 180 480 180 480
VCC = +5V, Idis = 4.5mA 80 200 80 200
tr Output Rise Time 100 200 100 300 ns
tf Output Fall Time 100 200 100 300
toff Turn off Time - (note 6) (Vreset = VCC) 0.5 0.5 µs
Notes : 5. No protection against excessive Pin 7 current is necessary, providing the package dissipation rating will not be exceeded.
6. Time mesaured from a positive going input pulse from 0 to 0.8x VCC into the threshold to the drop from high to low of the
output trigger is tied to treshold.

Figure 1 : Minimum Pulse Width Required for Figure 2 : Supply Current versus Supply Voltage
Trigering

Figure 3 : Delay Time versus Temperature Figure 4 : Low Output Voltage versus Output
Sink Current

4/10
NE555/SA555/SE555

Figure 5 : Low Output Voltage versus Output Figure 6 : Low Output Voltage versus Output
Sink Current Sink Current

Figure 7 : High Output Voltage Drop versus Figure 8 : Delay Time versus Supply Voltage
Output

Figure 9 : Propagation Delay versus Voltage


Level of Trigger Value

5/10
NE555/SA555/SE555

APPLICATION INFORMATION Figure 11


t = 0.1 ms / div
MONOSTABLE OPERATION
In the monostable mode, the timer functions as a INPUT = 2.0V/div
one-shot. Referring to figure 10 the external capaci-
tor is initially held discharged by a transistor inside
the timer.

Figure 10
OUTPUT VOLTAGE = 5.0V/div
VCC = 5 to 15V

Reset

R1
4 8
Trigger 2 7

NE555 6 C1
CAPACITOR VOLTAGE = 2.0V/div

Control Voltage R1 = 9.1kΩ, C1 = 0.01µF, RL = 1kΩ


Output 3 5

1 0.01µF
Figure 12

The circuit triggers on a negative-going input signal


when the level reaches 1/3 Vcc. Once triggered, the
circuit remains in this state until the set time has C
elapsed, even if it is triggered again during this in- (µF)
terval. The duration of the output HIGH state is given 10

by t = 1.1 R1C1 and is easily determined by


1k

1.0
1=

figure 12.
k
R

10


0k

Notice that since the charge rate and the threshold


10

0.1
1M

level of the comparator are both directly proportional



M

to supply voltage, the timing interval is independent


10

0.01
of supply. Applying a negative pulse simultaneously
to the reset terminal (pin 4) and the trigger terminal 0.001
(pin 2) during the timing cycle discharges the exter- 10 100 1.0 10 100 10 (t d )
µs µs ms ms ms s
nal capacitor and causes the cycle to start over. The
timing cycle now starts on the positive edge of the
reset pulse. During the time the reset pulse in ap-
plied, the output is driven to its LOW state.
When a negative trigger pulse is applied to pin 2, the
flip-flop is set, releasing the short circuit across the ASTABLE OPERATION
external capacitor and driving the output HIGH. The When the circuit is connected as shown in figure 13
voltage across the capacitor increases exponen- (pin 2 and 6 connected) it triggers itself and free runs
tially with the time constant τ = R1C1. When the volt- as a multivibrator. The external capacitor charges
age across the capacitor equals 2/3 Vcc, the compa- through R1 and R2 and discharges through R2 only.
rator resets the flip-flop which then discharge the ca- Thus the duty cycle may be precisely set by the ratio
pacitor rapidly and drivers the output to its LOW of these two resistors.
state. In the astable mode of operation, C1 charges and
Figure 11 shows the actual waveforms generated in discharges between 1/3 Vcc and 2/3 Vcc. As in the
this mode of operation. triggered mode, the charge and discharge times and
When Reset is not used, it should be tied high to therefore frequency are independent of the supply
avoid any possibly or false triggering. voltage.

6/10
NE555/SA555/SE555

Figure 13 Figure 15 : Free Running Frequency versus R1,


R2 and C1
VCC = 5 to 15V

R1 C
4 8 (µF)
Output 3 7 10 1k
10 Ω
NE555 R2 1.0 kΩ
R 10
1 0k
Control + 1M Ω
Voltage 0.1 R2 Ω
5 6
0.01µF
=
1 2 C1
10
M
0.01 Ω

0.001
0.1 1 10 100 1k 10k f o (Hz)
Figure 14 shows actual waveforms generated in this
mode of operation.
The charge time (output HIGH) is given by :
t1 = 0.693 (R1 + R2) C1
and the discharge time (output LOW) by :
t2 = 0.693 (R2) C1 PULSE WIDTH MODULATOR
Thus the total period T is given by : When the timer is connected in the monostable
T = t1 + t2 = 0.693 (R1 + 2R2) C1 mode and triggered with a continuous pulse train,
The frequency ofoscillation is them : the output pulse width can be modulated by a signal
1 1.44
f= = applied to pin 5. Figure 16 shows the circuit.
T (R1 + 2R2) C1
and may be easily found by figure 15. Figure 16 : Pulse Width Modulator.
The duty cycle is given by :
R2
D=
R1 + 2R2 VCC

RA
4 8

Figure 14 Trigger 2 7

t = 0.5 ms / div
NE555 6

OUTPUT VOLTAGE = 5.0V/div Modulation


Input
Output 3 5
C
1

CAPACITOR VOLTAGE = 1.0V/div

R1 = R2 = 4.8kΩ, C1= 0.1µF, RL = 1kΩ

7/10
NE555/SA555/SE555

LINEAR RAMP 50% DUTY CYCLE OSCILLATOR


When the pullup resistor, RA, in the monostable cir- For a 50% duty cycle the resistors RA and RE may
cuit is replaced by a constant current source, a linear be connected as in figure 19. The time preriod for the
ramp is generated. Figure 17 shows a circuit con- output high is the same as previous,
figuration that will perform this function. t1 = 0.693 RA C.
For the output low it is t2 =
Figure 17.  RB − 2RA 
[(RARB) ⁄ (RA + RB)] CLn  
 2RB − RA 
1
Thus the frequency of oscillation is f =
VCC
t1 + t2
RE R1 Note that this circuit will not oscillate if RB is greater
4 8

Trigger 2 7
Figure 19 : 50% Duty Cycle Oscillator.
2N4250
or equiv.
NE555 6 VCC
VCC
C
Output 3 5 R2
0.01µF RA
1 51kΩ
4 8
RB
2 7
22kΩ

NE55 6

Figure 18 shows waveforms generator by the linear


ramp. Out 3 5 0.01µF
C
The time interval is given by : 1 0.01µF
(2/3 VCC RE (R1+ R2) C
T= VBE = 0.6V
R1 VCC − VBE (R1+ R2)

Figure 18 : Linear Ramp.


than 1/2 RA because the junction of RA and RB can-
not bring pin 2 down to 1/3 VCC and trigger the lower
comparator.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Adequate power supply bypassing is necessary to
protect associated circuitry. Minimum recom-
mended is 0.1µF in parallel with 1µF electrolytic.

VCC = 5V Top trace : input 3V/DIV


Time = 20µs/DIV Middle trace : output 5V/DIV
R1 = 47kΩ Bottom trace : output 5V/DIV
R2 = 100kΩ Bottom trace : capacitor voltage
RE = 2.7kΩ 1V/DIV
C = 0.01µF

8/10
NE555/SA555/SE555

PACKAGE MECHANICAL DATA


8 PINS - PLASTIC DIP

PM-DIP8.EPS
Millimeters Inches
Dimensions
Min. Typ. Max. Min. Typ. Max.
A 3.32 0.131
a1 0.51 0.020
B 1.15 1.65 0.045 0.065
b 0.356 0.55 0.014 0.022
b1 0.204 0.304 0.008 0.012
D 10.92 0.430
E 7.95 9.75 0.313 0.384
e 2.54 0.100
e3 7.62 0.300
e4 7.62 0.300
F 6.6 0260
i 5.08 0.200
L 3.18 3.81 0.125 0.150
DIP8.TBL

Z 1.52 0.060

9/10
NE555/SA555/SE555

PACKAGE MECHANICAL DATA


8 PINS - PLASTIC MICROPACKAGE (SO)

PM-SO8.EPS
Millimeters Inches
Dimensions
Min. Typ. Max. Min. Typ. Max.
A 1.75 0.069
a1 0.1 0.25 0.004 0.010
a2 1.65 0.065
a3 0.65 0.85 0.026 0.033
b 0.35 0.48 0.014 0.019
b1 0.19 0.25 0.007 0.010
C 0.25 0.5 0.010 0.020
c1 45o (typ.)
D 4.8 5.0 0.189 0.197
E 5.8 6.2 0.228 0.244
e 1.27 0.050
e3 3.81 0.150
F 3.8 4.0 0.150 0.157
L 0.4 1.27 0.016 0.050
M 0.6 0.024
SO8.TBL

S 8o (max.)

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consequences of use of such information nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of STMicroelectronics. Specifi-
cations mentioned in this publication are subject to change without notice. This publication supersedes and replaces all infor-
mation previously supplied. STMicroelectronics products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support
devices or systems without express written approval of STMicroelectronics.
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