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SPE 53715

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery Pilot Test in Piedras Coloradas Field, Argentina
M. A. Maure, SPE, and F. L. Dietrich, SPE, Microbes, Inc. and V. A. Diaz and H. Argañaraz, Perez Companc S.A.

Copyright 1999, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.


reservoirs. Further evaluations in course will be covering
This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1999 SPE Latin American and Caribbean microbial influence mechanisms on waterflooding methods.
Petroleum Engineering Conference held in Caracas, Venezuela, 21–23 April 1999.

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of Introduction
information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as Enhanced Oil Recovery pilot tests using biotechnology
presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to
correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any methods were conducted with the two main productive
position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at
SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of
formations in Piedras Coloradas Oilfield,Mendoza Province,
Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper Argentina (Figure 1). The objective of these trials was to
for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is
prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 determine project performance in terms of fractional flow
words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous
acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O.
evolution and its correlation with well completion
Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435. configuration and reservoir petrophysic parameters. By the use
of experimental design techniques, associated objectives were
Abstract achieved to determinate how predictable and controllable this
Extensive feasibility tests involving Microbial Improvement technology is based on previous screening criteria and
Technology were conducted with the two main productive monitoring routines.
formations in Piedras Coloradas Oilfield, Mendoza Province,
Argentina. The program started March 1997 and continued Piedras Coloradas Field Description
during twelve non-consecutive months. Six producer wells, The field was discovered in 1953 and production started in
two of them horizontals, were under a systematic program of 1956. It is located in Argentine Republic (South America), 65
inoculations using hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic- km southwest of the city of Mendoza. It is part of NW-SE-
facultative microorganisms. A complete set of rheology oriented trend of oilfields that parallels the western margin of
parameters, specific geochemical fingerprints and biomarkers the Cuyo basin.
comparison was used to evaluate pre- and post-trial The field produces from two separate reservoirs:
compositional alterations in produced fluids. Conglomerado Rojo Inferior, named C.R.I.(Barrancas Fm.)
Project performance in terms of fractional flow evolution and Victor Oscuro Member (Rio Blanco Fm.). The first
was correlated with well completion configuration and accounts for 80% of the total production (Figure 2). The area
reservoir petrophysics by the use of parametric models and produces 430 M3/D of very paraffinic oil becoming from 85
compared on a well-by-well basis with corresponding decline active wells. Average production per well is 5.8 M3/D with a
and complementary baselines. Incremental Oil averages 66% standard deviation of ±7.3 M3/D). Active wells are grouped in
over baseline with minimum values of 28.5% and maximum four batteries and 24 of these are horizontal. Eighty percent of
above 110%. Results are consistent and show a clear Piedras Coloradas production comes from 38% of wells. The
correlation between treatment design modifications and water field has incipient waterflooding projects with 6 wells
cut reduction. This correlation proves that Microbial Enhanced injecting 1100 M3/D in both reservoirs.
Oil Recovery methods are controllable and predictable if team
MEOR: Conceptual frame
integration and proper engineering methods are observed
Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology is
during pilot design and well monitoring stages. based on the systematic inoculation of producing wells with
Cost per Incremental Barrel (CIB) was 5.1 $/barrel during hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic-facultative microorganisms.
pilot stage. On MEOR Expanded scales, this value is forecast
The primary goal of the method is to extensively colonize the
to decrease to below 2 $/barrel. The project demonstrates that
poral medium of the oil bearing . [Ref .: 1, 16]
this technology is cost effective, easy to implement and
Seven different microbial products (sub-communities) of
complies very well with local environmental regulations and highly motile, synergetic, symbiotic microorganism consortia
biosafety issues. were initially used to test Piedras Coloradas oil biotreatability.
This pilot program is the first part of an integral mid-term These strains are naturally occurring bacteria capable of
strategy to use biotechnology in paraffinic oil bearing
deriving nourishment from linear hydrocarbons. A
combination of products is necessary to adjust the bacterial
2 M. A MAURE, F. L. DIETRICH, V. A. DIAZ, H. ARGAÑARAZ SPE 53715

community to specific substrates (oils) and reservoir paper [Ref.: 1], and served as an important reference to
conditions. Microbial products are also conditioned to have an encourage MEOR application in Piedras Coloradas field.
adequate balance in type of complementary nutrients, buffers,
MEOR In Piedras Coloradas Field
trace elements (K+, Na+, Mg++, Ca++, Fe++/+++, Zn++, Co++) and
bio-catalizers, since formation water usually lacks sufficient General Screening Criteria
nitrogen and phosphorous. Primary requirements to check are:
Secondary objectives of this stage are to stabilize 1. Crude oil composition must contain n-alkanes in
enzymatic reactions at water/oil interfaces in the productive sufficient amount and show little or no evidence of
formation, in order that such biochemical action can modify previous levels of biodegradation by indigenous
oil mobility, by the generation of solvents and bio-surfactants. microbiota. Table 6.
Differences in microbial effect in treated wells could be 2. Bottom hole temperature need to be less than 250 °F.
detected in two consecutive stages: Pressure is not a limiting factor.
1- Clean-up effects by the removal of organic damage 3. Chlorides less than 100,000 ppm in the formation water.
occurring in the near wellbore of the perforated 4. PH is best near neutral.
interval, opening non-productive zones bearing oils 5. Pore throat distribution in objective reservoirs needs to
with a more segregated, heavy and pseudoplastic have a minimal portion above the range of microbial
behavior. This effect produces a high peak in oil rate community size to permit microorganism migration. This
but only for a limited time (Figures 19, 20 and 21). requirement means to have an "available window" in
2- Rheological effects by the compositional alteration poral geometry to permit profound microbial incursion
occurring at deeper colonization radius, in drainage (Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6).
zones with extremely low shear rate values. This
effect is the most important MEOR objective to Fluid Evaluation, Oil
Comparison of a complete set of rheology parameters, specific
pursue in treated wells, as this improvement is
geochemical data, ionic patterns, fingerprints and biomarkers
sustainable for a long period if proper microbial
was used to evaluate pre- and post-trial compositional
inoculation schedule is continued (Figure 23, c2
segment, Figure24, v-w segment). alterations in produced fluids.
The proof of these alterations and consequent modifications is
accomplished by serial Rheological Lab Procedures (Annex PVT relevant data.
Bubble pressure (psi): 1023
A) in combination with Organic Geochemistry Methods
GOR (M3/M3): 37
(Biomarkers and GC-MS Chromatography, Annex C).
The change in amount and compositional characteristic of Bo factor (M3/M3 ): 1.176
produced fluids arises as a consequence of microbial action on Viscosity (cp, SR>20 s-1, 180°F): 4.5 (Roll Ball viscometer)
API°: 32 (Reservoir condition)
saturated hydrocarbon substrates under anaerobic conditions
accompanied by a strong modification on N/P ratio in the
colonized poral volume. Changes in micro-environmental Geochemical background
In October 1988, Geochemical Analyses were performed on
parameters existing in poral space promote specific metabolic
paths that ultimately produce the cracking on linear and five oils from Piedras Coloradas field (EI-14, PC-29, PC-44,
branched paraffin compounds, which are present in abundance PC-55 and PC-74). This report provide a clear evidence that
these oils could be good targets for a MEOR program, in close
in Piedras Coloradas oil (Figures 31, 32). The expected result
agreement with results obtained in Tupungato pilot project.
is the shifting in molecular weight and chain length toward a
Main conclusions were [Ref.: 2]:
lower range and greater compositional homogeneity. The most
significant evidence is the viscosity reduction at low shear • All five Piedras Coloradas oils belong to one oil family.
rates and the shift in pour and cloud temperature points • All are very paraffinic, undegraded oils that were sourced
(Figures 42 and 43, Annex A). from a single source facies.
Candidate wells were selected as producers from only one • All geochemical parameters indicate a single oil type,
reservoir (Barrancas or Rio Blanco), avoiding treatment of with normal alkane distributions.
multilayer systems, with different petrophysical parameters. • Pristane/Phytane ratios and carbon isotope ratios are
particularly diagnostic oil-oil correlation parameters.
Related Case: Tupungato MEOR Project • The oils show no signs of water washing or
Tupungato is a neighbor field in close connection with Piedras biodegradation.
Coloradas area. The North-West limit is common for both • An odd-carbon preference is discernable in the oils, both
areas. It is also part of NW-SE oriented trend of oilfields that in the medium range (C17, C19) and higher molecular
parallels the western margin of the Cuyo basin. In July 1994 a weight (C23, C25) n-alkanes. These preferences, together
MEOR pilot project was started and conducted for two years, with the presence of C27 and C29 steranes suggest the
involving the same formations and showing very positive oils were derived from both algal and terrestrial
results. Project details were discussed in a previous technical precursors (Table 6).
SPE 53715 MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PILOT TEST IN PIEDRAS COLORADAS FIELD, ARGENTINA 3

MEOR-oriented geochemical studies sensitive to microbial attack and should experience


Two independent geochemical laboratories and consultants changes after a MEOR process.
were selected to evaluate compositional alterations and their • Stable Carbon Isotopes of Whole Oil, Saturates
correlation with rheology parameter evolution. Hydrocarbon Fraction And Aromatic
Conceptual basis and methodology. Changes in the Hydrocarbon Fraction. The δ 13C values are bulk
composition of petroleum during a MEOR process can be characteristics of oils. After a MEOR process the
followed through analyses that are typically applied in the values could hypothetically show minor to significant
geochemical characterization of rock bitumens and oils. These modifications.
changes could occur at a bulk or molecular level, most likely • Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry Of
both, and are difficult to anticipate: each oil type subjected to a Saturates Hydrocarbons. The terpane and sterane
specific microbial batch treatment reacts in a different manner biomarker fingerprints represent extraordinary
under particular subsurface conditions. Moreover, these valuable information in the characterization of an oil
changes are time-dependant and several of them sequential, (source, thermal maturity, biodegradation). A MEOR
and could show up at very different times in non-related oils. process could very possibly modify molecular ratios
A summary list of the analytical techniques applied to the and parameters of these fingerprints.
geochemical characterization of oils can be found in Annex C. • Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry Of
Short comments of the changes that could be expected after a Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Similar to saturate
MEOR process on a particular oil are: biomarkers, the fingerprints of aromatic steranes are a
• Liquid Column Chromatography is applied after supplement to the molecular characterization of an oil.
precipitation of asphaltenes to determine the In addition, the method allows quantification of 2- &
proportions of saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic 3-ring aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene,
hydrocarbons and resins + NSO (nitrogen, sulfur, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophenes compounds).
oxygen) compounds. The naphthenes can be later
estimated as a part of the saturates from the whole oil Rheological studies
gas chromatography. These five fractions are expected Conceptual basis. Oil as very complex substance exhibits
to change after a MEOR process. Modification of API typical non-Newtonian behavior. Viscosity is shear rate
gravity should be related to the changes in the bulk sensitive (pseudoplastic model) and it correlates strongly with
composition of the oil. the fluid dynamics occurring in the poral space. The concept
• Percent Sulfur is a typical bulk parameter of an oil, of constant viscosity in the drainage area is no longer valid,
which will likely be modified after a MEOR process. rather "apparent" values are pertinent. Specific quantitative lab
• High Resolution Whole Oil Gas Chromatography procedures were conducted to measure the shift in rheological
typically allows determination of normal- and iso- properties in treated (inoculated) and untreated (control)
paraffins (quantitatively, in ppm) and defines the samples obtained from well head manifold for every
“envelope” of an oil. Ratios between compounds and candidate well.
relations between ranges of compounds (light, Lab indexes and methodology. Serial assays were
medium, heavy) as well as the chromatogram baseline conducted to determine the alterability of Barrancas and Rio
should change after a MEOR process. Blanco oils under systematic microbial influence (enzymatic
• Gas Chromatography of the Saturated cracking). Basically, lab procedures consisted of serial
Hydrocarbon Fraction basically provides the same inoculations of oil with seven different microbial products,
information as whole oil gas chromatography but is followed with 48 to 96 hours of controlled atmosphere
more precise in resolving peak co-elution and allows incubation at specific temperatures. Further examination of
better ratio calculations. However, a big disadvantage inoculated and control oil (originals) using full computational
is that during isolation of the fraction the light rotational viscometers (Brookfield DVII+/III models), will be
compounds <C15 are partially or totally lost. produced the necessary plots and data vectors to generate
• Gas Chromatography of the Aromatic quantitative indexes. Deviations in µapp.[mpa.s] vs.
Hydrocarbon Fraction allows identification and Temperature [°F] and µapp.[mpa.s] vs. Shear Rate [1/s] curves
quantification of the typical aromatic compounds were the basis for calculating quantitative numbers describing
present in oils: methyl-naphthalenes, dimethyl- the degree of compositional alteration. Mathematical
naphthalenes, trimethyl-naphthalenes, phenanthrene, expressions for these dimensionless indexes are described in
methyl-phenanthrenes and dimethyl-phenanthrenes. Annex A. These numbers translate the graphical information
Relationships between these groups of compounds and into lab performance indicators. Furthermore, they are used
between isomers could change after a MEOR process. during pilot monitoring to contrast and compare lab and field
• Detailed C6-C7 Gas Chromatography. Twenty-five figures.
compounds are identified and quantified in the C6-C7 So, the Newtonian Index (NI) is used to evaluate the
range through gas chromatography. The range is very shifting from shear rate sensitive (pseudoplastic) behavior
toward a more newtonian fluid. The comparison between
4 M. A MAURE, F. L. DIETRICH, V. A. DIAZ, H. ARGAÑARAZ SPE 53715

control and inoculated oil samples is evidence of microbial Kro(Swi): 0.46


cracking by each different microbial culture. To test as Krw(Sor): 0.13
positive NI need to be greater than 1.10. (Eq.32) Swirr (%): 31.4
The Delta Viscosity (DV) Index measures the global Sor (%): 23.3
change in apparent viscosity in the explored range of shear Porosity (%): 16.8
rates (minSR, maxSR). To test as positive DV need to be Absolute Permeability (md): 120
greater than 0.10, (Eq.33) Depth (m.b.s.): 1930
By direct mathematical manipulation of DV index, a Reservoir Temperature (°F) 170
simple version of Enhanced Oil Recovery factor (EOR Index) Original Reservoir Pressure (psi): 2285
is obtained, as related only to viscosity contribution. An Present Reservoir Pressure (psi): 569
exceeding EOR value from 1.15 tests as positive, (Eq. 34) Bubble Pressure (psi): 1023
A data base of 84 oil samples from 11 different fields (22 GOR (M3/M3): 37
from P.C. area), pertaining to the same sector of Cuyo Bo factor (M3/M3 ): 1.176
sedimentary basin were tested to define general rheological Viscosity (cp, SR>20 s-1, 170°F): 4.5 (Roll Ball viscometer)
properties of Mendoza North oils. First evaluations start on API° (Bottom Hole Conditions): 32
1994. In general all these crude oils tested far above cut-off Lithology: Conglomeradic and sandstone with variable
values, evidencing very good microbial treatability. Piedras interleaved shales and limonite components
Coloradas values in pre-selected wells were:
B- Rio Blanco member (V.O.)
Sample NI DV EOR Poral geometry: The poral system is controlled by the quantity
and type of cement, which is related to the amount of tuff
PC-1020 (Horizontal, V.O.) 1.64 0.38 1.61 ashes between the grains. Capillary pressures and electronic
PC-1022 (Horizontal, V.O.) 4.44 0.39 1.64 microscopy runs on core specimens were used to determine
PC-86 (Vertical, V.O.) 20.80 0.76 4.13 pore geometry characteristics. It follows a distinctive matrix
PC-94 (Vertical, V.O.) 0.27 0.61 2.60 monomodal distribution with poral throat mean values
PC-19 (Vertical, C.R.I.) 13.50 0.39 1.64 centered at 2 µm (Figures 3 and 5). Further evaluation has
PC-68 (Vertical, C.R.I.) 1.57 0.95 20.89 detected the presence of microscopic fractures. These small
Limit for positive testing >1.10 >0.10 >1.15 fractures, which are common in this tectonic framework
contribute to the movement of fluids and permit microbes
migration outward in the reservoir. Effective interval: 2-4 m
Fluid Evaluation, Water
Ionic pattern and salinity of formation water need to meet Petrophysical parameters
certain requirements to avoid side effects during the MEOR End Point relative permeabilities values
pilot test. Maximum limit in chlorides is considered safe when Relative permeabilities
it has less than 100.000 p.p.m. PH is best near neutral. Kro(Swi): 0.57
Blending water is also conditioned and monitored for total Krw(Sor): 0.36
solid content and particulate size distribution (Figure 39) Swirr (%): 30.6
Sor (%): 28.2
Reservoir Characterization Porosity (%): 16.2
Main Mechanism of drainage for both reservoir is due to gas Absolute Permeability (md): 5-10
expansion assisted by incipient artificial water drive. Depth (M.b.s.): 2030
Waterflooding projects are not massive. Reservoir Temperature (°F) 180
Structurally the Cuyo basin is an extensive NW-trending Original Reservoir Pressure (psi): 3371
depocenter that is limited by extension faults which were Present Reservoir Pressure (psi): 1279
subjected to several movements. In Piedras Coloradas area, Bubble Pressure (psi): 1026
these tectonics movements formed an anticlinal structure that GOR (M3/M3): 35
plunges to the southwest. This structure continues westward to Bo factor (M3/M3 ): 1.154
the Tupungato field. Viscosity (cp, SR>20 s-1, 170°F): 4.5 (Roll Ball viscometer)
API°(Bottom Hole Conditions): 32
A- Barrancas Fm. (C.R.I.) Lithology: Good reservoirs are mainly related to the
Poral geometry: Core testing using microporosity and presence of sand associated with alluvial fan influx from the
capillary pressures converted into poral throat distribution western flank of the basin. Deposition occurred under a
show very large pore system with average values of 50 µm persistent rain of ash, generating tuff and mixed rocks.
(Figures 4, 6). Effective interval: 8 m Pilot Design
Petrophysical parameters Design of a pilot test is a complex task. To produce the best
End Point relative permeabilities values results in terms of degree of significance and discrimination it
SPE 53715 MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PILOT TEST IN PIEDRAS COLORADAS FIELD, ARGENTINA 5

is necessary to integrate a multidisciplinary team in bio- periodic treatments have been one third of initial volume every
technology, reservoir, production and complementary areas 15 days. Treatment design centers on seven items:
(rheology and geochemical topics). The main issues behind 1. Method of inoculation based on well completion and
pilot design is to achieve technical closure and good levels of extraction method (Figures 37 and 38).
correlation between controllable and uncontrollable groups of 2. Microbial community structure.
variables. The controllable variables are mainly MEOR 3. The total biotic concentration to use during initial and
treatment parameters. The uncontrollable variables are related periodic treatments.
with fluid and rock characteristics, which exert significant 4. Blending and displacement water.
influence on MEOR response. Additional goals are to confirm 5. Microbial product structure (product participation).
feasibility indexes exhibited during laboratory testing. The 6. Frequency of periodic inoculations.
pilot was designed to define microbial impact on productivity 7. Initial and periodic latencies (shut-in time) that follow
index for every treated well, completion method and reservoir every treatment.
in exploitation. Horizontal wells. Initial inoculation was conducted by
A reasonable prediction capability between previous squeezing method according to diagram of Figure 40. Initial
screening and post-MEOR results is another important treatment size of 150 barrels was the minimum considered,
objective. Discrimination in pre- and post-pilot data based on a lateral diameter of 0.15 m. This size would provide
information and good “signal to noise ratio” are essential for a a bio-reactor that the production would be in for one day as it
successful pilot. The trial needs to be programmed to see all traveled to the wellbore, if the entire 150 barrels were
relevant processes in time (pilot duration) and spatial displaced into the formation. To ensure this the treatment size
dependence (number of wells, depth and structural position). was increased by the capacity of the lateral from 150 to 220
Minimal time scale needs to be a twelve months period. barrels. If the formation would accept a larger treatment at low
Another important concept behind of pilot implementation is pressure, an initial treatment volume two to three times this
to reduce the uncertainty for all relevant measurement might be considered. A higher microbe concentration in the
occurring during the pre- and post-MEOR stages. Finally, cost maintenance treatments is advisable due the treatment size
of pilot evaluation need to be consistent with expected benefits mandated by the length of the lateral. The formation needs to
under different scenarios, risk and expansion strategies. be over balanced in so that it can take fluid over the 3 day
shut-in time.
Periodic treatments were by batching using annulus space.
Well Selection
The volume of microbe-laden water was calculated so that as
Six producer wells from a pool of 29 possible candidates (12
the fluid level in the well gradually decreases, the fluid forced
from Barrancas and 17 from Rio Blanco Fms.) were selected
into the formation is microbe-laden and not displacement
to implement the pilot according with following scheme:
water. Using pressure build-up data, the bottom hole pressure
• Barrancas Formation: PC-19 (Vertical), PC-68 at the end of three days was used to determine approximately
(Vertical) what the fluid level in the well would be at the end of the shut-
• Rio Blanco Formation: PC-1020 (horizontal), PC- in period, and the treatment was sized accordingly.
1022 (horizontal), PC-86 (Vertical), PC-94 (Vertical) Vertical wells. The initial treatment was designed to use a
Main reasons behind this selection are: lower concentration than the maintenance treatment. Usually a
1. Adequate number of candidates to have sufficient 1: 210 dilution was used on the initial treatment (0.2 gal./bbl.)
statistical significance and good discrimination in well- and a 1:84 dilution on the maintenance treatments (0.5
by-well performance evaluation. gal./bbl.). The rationale is that with the longer shut-in times
2. Non-marginal wells having consistent and clear fluid the microbes have more time to grow and become established
production histories. than with the shorter times normally used on maintenance
3. Capable of discriminating microbial stimulation and EOR treatments. For wells having a low average permeability
improvements in corresponding with control variables for limiting fluid input, higher concentration for the initial
each targeted reservoir (Barrancas Fm. and Rio Blanco treatment is probably advisable.
Fm). The maintenance (periodic) treatment size of 50 barrels
4. Wells producing oils with positive bio-treatability tests. was selected as a compromise between radius of microbial
5. Adequate completion and extraction configuration. penetration and quick fractional flow stabilization after shut-in
6. Relevance to determining design consideration for future period. Results in Tupungato field validated this assumption.
expansions. Both initial and periodic treatments were by annulus (Figure
41).
Operative aspects The original program of treatments is summarized in Table
Treatments 1. Product participation was P #1: 28.5%, P #4: 13.5%, P #5:
Initial microbial treatments were variable amount of microbe- 9.5% and P #6: 48.5%. Microbial sub-communities are
laden water (having neutral PH and with solid particulate presented in liquid medium as concentrates, having 106 - 108
control), followed by a 72 hour shut-in period. Subsequent viable microorganism per ml. Microbial liquid product (five
6 M. A MAURE, F. L. DIETRICH, V. A. DIAZ, H. ARGAÑARAZ SPE 53715

gallon drums) was stored out of direct sunlight and extreme Field data was matched using radial/elliptical flow model
weather conditions (+5 to +30 ºC), avoiding freezing expressions considering concentric coupled zones of altered
temperatures. and original fluids. The model considers the oil as non-
Newtonian, shear-rate-dependent fluid (Annex B).
Project evaluation
Mechanistic models could be easily adjusted to take into
The inoculation program started March 1997 and continued
consideration horizontal completion geometry and
for twelve non-consecutive months. Two reservoirs and six
permeability anisotropy.
producer wells, two of them horizontals, were under a
systematic program of inoculations using hydrocarbon
Net oil increment
degrading anaerobic-facultative microorganisms. A complete
Evaluation of incremental oil was performed using reservoir
set of rheology parameters, specific geochemical fingerprints
simulations that consider two-parameter rheological models
and biomarkers comparison was used to evaluate pre- and
(Ostwald de Waele Nutting scheme, Annex B). Results are
post-trial compositional alterations in produced fluids.
dimensionless time-dependent quotients of Productivity
Indexes for the oil fraction before and after MEOR. The
Technical aspects influence on MEOR response of petrophysic parameters is
Methodology to evaluate MEOR performance mainly associated with two aspects:
MEOR’s long-term distinctive response is to increase net oil 1. Microbial Migration Rate (MMR) is related to reservoir
rate and simultaneously to reduce Water Cut (Figures 07 to poral geometry (pore throats distributions); and
18). This typical duality in MEOR response is explained by 2. Shear Rate Field (SRF) is based on colonized reservoir
the change in apparent oil and water mobilities in the and fluid flow dynamics and their connection with
colonized portion of the reservoir, the bioreactor. apparent viscosity.
Project Performance is evaluated well by well by tracking MMR correlate very well with how quickly the maximum
Productivity Index (P.I.) evolution (Eq. 1). Individual well MEOR response is obtained (improvement in Productivity
testing into common battery and last generation echometry Index, PI). This point will be depends on final radius of
were used to have good data input for calculating and updating bacteria penetration and density of colonies in the
P.I. Four production tests per well per month, with corresponding reservoir poral spectra. SRF has a singular
confirmatory duplicate tests, were the usual monitoring to importance with shear rate sensitive oils (pseudoplastic
track project performance. Special care was taken to verify behavior) and degree of compositional alteration. Figures 07
constancy in dynamic fluid levels pre- and post-MEOR. to 18, and 25 to 30 summarize pre- and post-MEOR oil
Pre-Meor adequate baselines for every well were production history. Composite performance is showing in next
calculated before starting the program of inoculations. Low graph. Change in oil decline tendency before and after MEOR
noise (data scatter) allowing consistent decline curve is clear and well defined. Incremental Oil averages 66% over
determination is of the upmost importance for proper baseline (dashed) with minimal values of 28.5% and
discrimination of microbial effects on well and reservoir maximum above 110%, in close correlation with oil °API
productivity. variation: PC-19 , Pre: 19.3 , Post: 24.0 °API; PC-1020, Pre:
Project evaluation is based on a customized set of MEOR 21.9, Post: 23.3 °API.
Performance Curves (MPC), Eq. 2 with embedded rock-fluid-
Oil Rate (6 wells composite)
microbiota parameters which are validated using field data. 200
Annex B. The use of MEOR performance curve methodology Qoi Pilot_start
t
is accomplished in four basic steps:
150
• First, lab screening procedures are conducted to test Qbase
t
rheology behavior in produced oils using control and ORm
[M3/D]

t
inoculated samples for every well; 100
• Second, Incremental Oil Rates (IOR) and Water Cut vs.
ORtot
i

time figures are forecast according to treatment design, ORtotm


x 50
reservoir and well completion information;
• Third, predicted curves are correlated with field
performance data during pilot implementation; providing 0
1000 0 1000
insights and guidelines for process optimization and
t shift , t , t
shift , T , T
treatment design alteration, permitting assessment of i x
Time [days from MEOR start]
MEOR prospects and offering practical guidelines during
MEOR curve-type
field implementation and pilot project follow-up Baseline
monitoring; and Incremental Oil
• Fourth, economical models are run to calculate updated Pre-MEOR production history
Post-MEOR experimental points
profitability indexes.
SPE 53715 MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PILOT TEST IN PIEDRAS COLORADAS FIELD, ARGENTINA 7

Water Cut Reduction clean-up of the productive interval and by new oil produced
Figures 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 summarize pre- and post- from original poor quality oil bearing zones. This increase is
Meor water cut evolution. Water cut tendencies for the six- not a trend and might better be viewed as a baseline shift.
well composite is shown below. Water influx is decreasing in Additional before and after MEOR samples from PC-19
relation with oil. Change in water cut tendency is evident and (C.R.I. member) and PC-1020 (V.O. member) are currently
is a clear indication of compositional and mobility alteration at under analysis.
reservoir conditions.
API gravity show a consistent and increasing trend:
Water Cut (6 wells composite) °API variation (lab normalized conditions)
100 PC-19
Pilot_start
Pre-MEOR: 19.3 Post-MEOR: 24.0 ∆: +4.7
PC-1020
Pre-MEOR: 21.9 Post-MEOR: 23.3 ∆: +1.4

80 Saturates hydrocarbons
WRtot
i PC-19
Pre-MEOR: 62.2 Post-MEOR: 66.9
[%]

WRtotm
x PC-1020
Pre-MEOR: 57.1 Post-MEOR: 68.4
60
Light end alteration: C6 and C7 components
PC-19 C6 C7
Pre-MEOR: 0.30% 0.57%
Post-MEOR: 1.34% 2.08%
40
1000 0 1000 PC-1020 C6 C7
T ,T Pre-MEOR: 0.68% 1.00%
i x
[Time from MEOR start, days] Post-MEOR: 0.82% 1.33%
Pre-MEOR history
Esteranes indicator
Post-MEOR experimental points
The molecular change that correlate positively with microbial
molecular attack is the decrease in the C29 Compounds in
Experimental Design (E.D.) relation to the C27 counterparts. This decrease is readily
To analyze MEOR performance correlation with specific apparent in the m/z 217 mass fragmentograms specific for
variations in treatment parameters a limited Experimental steranes. Also, detectable is a significative increase in αββ
Design was conducted beginning mid-course in the original isomers in respect to ααα (specially in C29 esteranes).
inoculation schedule. Mann-Whitney (Non parametric test,
also named U proof) statistic procedure was used to verify Biomarkers
degree of significance between treatment changes and MEOR A general increase in terms of absolute concentration (ppm)
response. Tables 2, 3 and 4, Figure 19, 20 and 21, summarize for the complete series of usual biomarkers such as C30
E.D. results: Segment Baseline-A: Clean up; BC: Microbial Hopane is observed:
colonization; CD: Colony retraction (well is under-
stimulated); DE: re-colonization after of concentration C30 Hopane (ppm)
changes. Status PC-19 PC-1020
Pre-MEOR: 1486 1326
Rheological comparison Post-MEOR: 2048 2052
A clear and remarkable improvement in oil rheology was Note: 25-Norhophanes series was not detected in post-MEOR
detected (Figures 33, 34, 35 and 36). samples.
Geochemical comparison Phenathrene/Dibenzothiophene ratio
A significant alteration in oil geochemical properties, Status PC-19 PC-1020
biomarkers and fingerprints was detected. Figures 31 and 32 Pre-MEOR: 14 9.5
summarize the changes in Piedras Coloradas MEOR Post-MEOR: 15.9 10.2
application. Light ends (S1) are mainly originated by
enzymatic cracking on n-alkanes (S2), and their increase
continues over the life of the project. On the other hand the
increase in heavy compounds (S3, S5) occur during initial
8 M. A MAURE, F. L. DIETRICH, V. A. DIAZ, H. ARGAÑARAZ SPE 53715

Quantified compounds (Methylnaphaftalenes, %) Pay-Outs (PO)


PC-19 Based on a well by well analysis an average PO value of 75
Status MN DMN TMN MP days from pilot start was obtained.
Pre-MEOR: 2.79 18.30 26.79 22.69 Cost per Incremental Barrel (CIB)
Post-MEOR: 7.65 31.35 31.42 12.33 CIB was 5.1 $/barrel during pilot stage. On MEOR Expanded
scales, CIB is forecast to decrease to below 2 $/barrel. The
PC-1020 difference is due to pilot trials being conducted at small scale,
Status MN DMN TMN MP and being intensive in studies, operative support and
Pre-MEOR: 8.53 26.29 27.57 16.54 engineering (Table 8).
Post-MEOR: 8.92 29.64 32.42 12.56 Incremental Reserves (IR)
IR totalizes an optimized value of 141,800 M3 of oil at
Where: economic limits (<1 M3/D per well). A mean value of 50,000
MN, Methylnaphaftalenes; DMN, Dimethylnaphaftalenes; M3 were assumed as conservative. Values were considering
TMN, Trimethylnaphaftalenes; MP, Methylphenathrene. well-by-well analysis and the further integration of individual
calculations for the composite (Table 9).
A progressive decrease in Aromatics, NSO and Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
asphalthenes is detectable. Also observable is a clear variation IRR value is above 200% at average optimized prospects.
in CPI (Carbon Preference Index) with increasing tendency in
odd carbon chain predominance mainly in nC15 to nC27 range Conclusions
[Ref: 5, 8]. 1- MEOR is technically feasible in Piedras Coloradas field
2- Both formations test positive with similar performance
figures.
Biosafety issues 3- MEOR on horizontal completions has interesting and
MEOR bacteria used in Piedras Coloradas project are non- positive effects in terms of restoring productive length
pathogenic. During the pilot, special care was taken to meet and size of colonized areas.
local and foreign regulation in regard to environmental and 4- MEOR is profitable at pilot and scaled stages.
health topics 5- A high correlation exists between the Piedras Coloradas
Toxicity tests on animals and plants were done by the and Tupungato-Refugio projects in both conditions and
Institute of Microbiology (Academia Sinica) and by the performance.
Institute of Atom Energy Utilization, Chinese Academy of 6- Multidisciplinary team integration and proper monitoring
Agriculture Science, both in the Peoples Republic of China. techniques are key factors to optimize fractional flow and
Selected animals and plants were Kunming mice (200 incremental recovery in microbial stimulated reservoirs.
individuals, weighting 18-20 grams., half-male, half-female)
and Cucumber (Jinyan #5 strain) and rice (Yuefu strain) seeds
respectively. Special essay protocols and method of exposure Course of future actions
using microbial products number #1, #4, #5 and #6 were 1- To conclude in-course optimization stage in a cluster of
applied to germinated plants, seeds and animals under test. wells under treatment.
All results were no adverse affects for plants or animals. 2- To evaluate best expansion strategies for vertical and
The microbial product caused no abnormalities in plants (rice horizontal wells to maximize economic return..
and cucumber) and mice. No abnormality or disease occurred 3- To evaluate MEOR potential in waterflooding schemes.
on different crops by different ways of treatment. No
abnormality occurred of heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney or
SI metric Conversion Factors
intestine of test mice.
acre-foot x 1.233 489 E+03 = m3
barrel x 1.589 873 E-01 = m3
Economical aspects foot x 3.048* E-01 = m
Five year and longer forecasts using net present value curves md x 9.869 233 E-04 = µm2
based on adjusted individual well performance curves were ml x 1.0 E-06 = m3
calculated at project termination. Then an integrate set of NPV psi x 6.894 757 E+00 = kPa
figures for the six well composite was calculated over a U.S.Gal x 3.785 412 E+00 = L
similar period with sensitivity and risk analysis. Different °F (°F -32)*5/9 E-01 = °C
economic indexes like Pay-Out (break even point analysis), * Conversion factor is exact
Exposure, and Internal Rates of Return (I.R.R.) were derived.
Acknowledgements
Further analysis with floating scenarios of oil prices (from
We want to thank to Perez Companc Company and Microbes
location-adjusted WTI of 17.5 to 10 $/barrel), taxes and
Inc. for permission to publish this paper. Special thanks to
treatment alternatives provide a detailed profitability
Piedras Coloradas directive staff and operative team for
evaluation (Tables 8, 9 and 10).
SPE 53715 MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PILOT TEST IN PIEDRAS COLORADAS FIELD, ARGENTINA 9

valuable discussion, follow-up effort and contribution to Aquitaine , Centre Scientifique et Technique Jean Feger
interpret MEOR field data. We also thank Alfredo 64018 Pau Cedex, France.)
Rezinovsky, for his assistance in preparing this manuscript. 13. Laboratory Testing of a Microbial Enhanced Oil
Recovery Process Under Anaerobic Conditions. Bruce
Rouse, Franz Hiebert, and L.W. Lake, U. of Texas. SPE
References
24819.
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14. A Mathematical Model for Microbially Enhanced Oil
of Successful Projects. F.L. Dietrich, SPE, F.G. Brown,
Recovery Process. Xu Zhan, R.M. Knapp, and M.J.
SPE, Z.H.Zhou, SPE, Microbes, Inc.; and M.A.Maure,
Mclnerney, U. of Oklahoma. SPE/DOE 24202.
SPE, Green Consultores. SPE 53715.
15. Mathematical Modeling of Microbial Enhanced Oil
2. Geochemical Report, Source Rock Evaluation of the
Recovery. M. R. Islam, U. of Alaska-Fairbanks. SPE
PCXP 1002 Well and Characterization of Five Oils,
20480.
Piedras Coloradas Field, Cuyo Basin, Argentina, October
16. MEOR - Altamont/ Bluebell Field Project. L.P. Streeb,
1988, Exlog Consulting Services.
Coastal Oil & Gas Corp., and F.G. Brown, Natl.
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Measurement. William G. Anderson, SPE, Conoco Inc.
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14, 1964.
Porous Media. F.H.L. Wang, SPE, Exxon Production
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and Tullis C. Onstott. Scientific American, October 1996.
5. New Tools Target Oil-Quality Sweet Spots in Viscous-Oil
19. Optimization of Microbial formulations for Oil
Accumulations. P.C. Smalley, SPE, and N.S Goodwin,
Recovery : Mechanisms of Oil Mobilization, transport of
BP Exploration ; J.F. Dillon and C.R. Bidinger, BP
Microbes and metabolities , and Effects of Additive. R.S.
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36652.
A.k. Stepp, IITRI/NIPER. SPE 19686.
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20. A Parametric Comparison of Horizontal and Vertical Well
Project. Rebecca S. Bryant, SPE, and Thomas E.
Performance. Hemanta Mukherjee and Michael J.
Burchfield, SPE, Natl. Inst. for Petroleum & Energy
Economides. Dowell Schlumberger. SPE 18303.
Research ; DM. Dennis, Microbial System Corp. ; and
21. Productivity of a Horizontal Well. D.K. Babu and
D.O. Hitzman, Injectech Inc. SPE 17341.
A.S.Odeh, Mobil R&D Corp.. SPE 18298.
7. Calculating Viscosities of Reservoir Fluids From Their
22. Augmentation of Well Productivity with Slant and
Compositions. John Lohrenz, Bruce G. Bray, Members
Horizontal Wells. SD.Joshi, SPE, Phillips Petroleum Co.
AIME, Charles R. Clark. Continental Oil Co, Ponca City ,
SPE 15375.
Okla. U. of Kansas. Lawrence , Kans. Paper presented at
23. Dimensionless Methods for the study of particle settling
SPE Annual Fall Meeting, held in Houston, Tex., Oct. 11-
in Non-Newtonian Fluids. Liang Jin, SPE, and Glenn S.
14-1964.
Penny, SPE, Stim-Lab Inc. SPE 28563.
8. Pieter Shenck Award acceptance speech Geochemical
24. The Transport of Bacteria in Porous Media and its
indicators of biodegradation : tools for developing and
Significance in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery. Long
managing heavy oil assets (17th. International Meeting on
Kuan Jang, M.M. Sharma, and T.F. Yen, U of Southern
Organic Geochemistry, Donostia- San Sebastian,
California. SPE 12770.
September 6, 1995). Mark A. McCaffrey.
25. Advances in the characterization of microbial populations
9. A Genome Probe Survey of the Microbial community in
in the subsurface. Ian Head. NRC News, May 1996,
Oil Fields. Voordouw. G. ; Telan , A. J. Department of
Subsurface Microbial Populations.
Biological Sciences, The University of Calgary, Alberta,
T2N 1N4, Canada.
10. Surfactant - Base EOR Mediated by Naturally Occurring
Microorganisms. CP. Thomas, SPE, M.L. Duvall, SPE,
E.P. Robertson, SPE, K.B. Barrett and G.A. Bala, SPE,
EG&G Idaho Inc.. SPE 22844.
11. A Prediction Technique for Inmiscible Processes Using
Field Performance Data. Iraj Ershaghi, SPE, U. of
Southern California. Doddy Abdassah, SPE, U. of
Southern California. SPE 6977.
12. Crude Oils in Reservoirs : The Factors Influencing their
Composition. Chapter I. 6. Ph. Blanc and Connan. (Elf
10 M. A MAURE, F. L. DIETRICH, V. A. DIAZ, H. ARGAÑARAZ SPE 53715

Tables

Treatment Design (original)

Well Start Date C.I. L.I. C.P. L.P. Frequency Method


[dd/mm/aa] [Gal] [hs] [gal] [hs] [T/month]
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 17/3/97 63 72 9 24 2 *Squeeze/Batch
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 03/04/97 63 72 15 24 2 *Squeeze/Batch
PC-68 (B.R.C.) 31/03/97 63 72 8 24 2 Batch
PC-19 (B.R.C.) 27/03/97 63 72 8 24 2 Batch
PC-94 (V.O.) 24/03/97 63 72 8 24 2 Batch
PC-86 (V.O.) 20/03/97 63 72 7 24 2 Batch

C.I.: Initial Concentration of Microbial Concentrates (P#1,P#4, P#5 and P#6)


L.I.: Latency (initial shut-in time)
C.P.:Periodic Concentration
L.P.:Latency (Periodic shut-in time)
Frequency: Treatments per month
* Inoculation method, Squeeze only for Initial Treatment

Table 01: MEOR, Inoculation parameters

Treatment modifications (Experimental Design)

Well Original Modified Percentage


concentration concentration of change
Time interval [gals] Time [gals]
interval
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 17/3 - 15/5 9 15/5 - 15/6 20 +122 %
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 3/4 - 15/5 15 15/5 - 15/6 25 +66 %
PC-68 (C.R.I.) 31/3 - 15/5 8 15/5 - 15/6 16 +100 %
PC-19 (C.R.I.) 27/3 - 15/5 8 15/5 - 15/6 8 0%
PC-94 (V.O.) 24/3 - 15/5 8 15/5 - 15/6 8 0%
PC-86 (V.O.) 20/3 - 15/5 7 15/5 - 15/6 14 + 100 %

Table 02: MEOR, sensitive analysis on concentrations

Oil rate comparison

ORo [M3/D] ORm1 [M3/D] ORm2 [M3/D] ORm3 [M3/D]


Well Post-MEOR Post-MEOR Post-MEOR
Pre-MEOR Phase 1 Phase 2 Post. Modif.
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 8.8 18.3 13.0 17.0
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 19.9 33.9 14.6 20.7
PC-68 (C.R.I.) 3.9 4.4 5.9 6.1
PC-19 (C.R.I.) 2.3 4.4 8.3 Unmodified
PC-94 (V.O.) 13.6 23.9 15.5 Unmodified
PC-86 (V.O.) 8.0 8.2 6.7 11.7

Table 03: MEOR, Experimental Design results


SPE 53715 MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PILOT TEST IN PIEDRAS COLORADAS FIELD, ARGENTINA 11

Water Cut comparison

Wc [%] Wcm1 [%] Wcm2 [%] Wcm3 [%]


Well Post-MEOR Post-MEOR Post-MEOR
Pre-MEOR Phase 1 Phase 2 Post. Modif.
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 64.0 39.0 45.8 39.1
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 72.5 44.0 70.7 59.5
PC-68 (C.R.I.) 68.6 67.5 65.0 55.6
PC-19 (C.R.I.) 86.6 72.3 72.8 Not modified
PC-94 (V.O.) 62.3 51.6 58.7 Not modified
PC-86 (V.O.) 56.6 54.5 63.3 40.0

Table 04: MEOR, Experimental Design results

Oil viscosity comparison

µ apparent Laboratory µ apparent µ apparent Temp.


Well Pre-MEOR [cp] Post-MEOR Post-MEOR [°F]
Control Series 1 Series 2
[cp] [cp] [cp]
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 270-340 170 50 65 100
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 70 62 51 57 95
PC-68 (C.R.I.) 380 20 20 25 170
PC-19 (C.R.I.) 330 200 20 9 180
PC-94 (V.O.) 148 50 37 39 130
PC-86 (V.O.) 275 73 62 55 94

Table 05: MEOR, Oil viscosity alteration at MDT temperatures and below SR: 1 s-1

Geochemical parameters

Well Pristane/nC-17 Phytane/nC-18 Obs.


PC-1022 0.22 0.13 Rio Blanco Fm. (P. Coloradas)
PC-19 0.26 0.14 Barrancas Fm. (P. Coloradas)
LL-7 5.02 13.51 Llancanelo (extremely biodegrated oil)

Table 06: MEOR, Natural biodegration status in Piedras Coloradas oils

MEOR performance

IOR: (MEOR365 –1) x 100 Oil Rates [M3/D]


Well [% over baselines] Values at pilot start
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 118 8.8
PC-1022 H (V.O.) 68 19.9
PC-68 (C.R.I.) 92 3.9
PC-19 (C.R.I.) 97 2.3
PC-94 (V.O.) 124 13.6
PC-86 (V.O.) 60 8.0

Table 07: MEOR, Incremental Oil (Optimized, mid term inference)


12 M. A MAURE, F. L. DIETRICH, V. A. DIAZ, H. ARGAÑARAZ SPE 53715

Economic Analysis

VAN365 VAN1825 Pay Out C.B.I.


Well [M$] [M$] [Days] [$/Incremental
barrel]
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 112 324 91 4.8
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 88 278 108 5.7
PC-68 (C.R.I.) 36 212 88 7.3
PC-19 (C.R.I.) 48 113 75 6.5
PC-94 (V.O.) 181 792 36 2.6
PC-86 (V.O.) 130 583 51 3.8

Table 08: MEOR, Profitability and cost parameters

Incremental Reserves and Economic Limits

Incremental Reserves at Shiftment in economic


Well economic limit limits from Meor start
[MEOR - Conventional] [MEOR - Conventional]
[Mm3] [Days]
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 18.7 - 9.8 2891 - 1890
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 25.7 - 11.1 3591 - 2822
PC-68 (C.R.I.) 17.5 - 17.5 1825 - 1825 *
PC-19 (C.R.I.) 8.4 - 3.7 1999 - 1188
PC-94 (V.O.) 39.7 - 39.7 3650 - 3650 *
PC-86 (V.O.) 31.8 - 31.8 3650 - 3650 *

Table 09: MEOR, comparative analysis (*, Economic limit is not reached)

Investment Periodic inoculations


Well First inoculation program (annual cost)
Alt. 1, alt 2 Alt. 1, alt 2
[M$ - M$] [M$ - M$]
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 17.2 - 18.2 52.9 - 44.0
PC-1020 H (V.O.) 17.2 - 18.2 52.0 - 44.0
PC-68 (C.R.I.) 4.2 - 5.2 44.8 - 37.5
PC-19 (C.R.I.) 4.2 - 5.2 48.0 - 40.7
PC-94 (V.O.) 4.2 - 5.2 40.7 - 34.4
PC-86 (V.O.) 4.2 - 5.2 42.3 - 35.8

Table 10: MEOR, Range of Investment and Annual cost for two alternatives of treatments
in Piedras Coloradas field
SPE 53715 MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PILOT TEST IN PIEDRAS COLORADAS FIELD, ARGENTINA 13

Figures Quaternary

1800 M
A Member
Terciary
Barrancas B Member
Formation
Triasic C Member
2100 M

Paleozoic
2050 M
Complex A
Upper Member
Layer A-1

Rio Blanco Layers C, D


Medium Member
Piedras Coloradas Field Formation
(Cuyo Basin, Argentina)
Lower Member
2400 M

Figure 1: Field Location Figure 2: Target Reservoirs

Rio Blanco Fm. ( V.O ) Barrancas Fm. (B.R.C.)


Bacteria
Bacteria Size
Size Range
Range Bacteria Size Range

25 15

20
Frecuency [ % ]

Frecuency [ % ]

10
15

10
5
5

0 0
0.1 1 10 100 0.1 1 10 100
Poral throat diameter [Microns ] Poral throat diameter [ Microns ]

Figure 3: Rio Blanco Fm., Poral Distribution and Bacteria Size Figure 4: Barrancas Fm., Poral Distribution and Bacteria Size

Figure 5: Rio Blanco Fm., Pore Structures Figure 6: Barrancas Fm., Pore Structures
14 M. A MAURE, F. L. DIETRICH, V. A. DIAZ, H. ARGAÑARAZ SPE 53715

30 Oil rate [M3/D] 100 100 Water cut [%]


30

Pilot_start Pilot_start
ORa WCa
i 20 i

ORma WCma
x x

10
50

0 30
0
3000 2000 1000 0 1000 3000 2000 1000 0 1000
3000 T ,T 1000 3000 T ,T 1000
i x i x

[Time from MEOR start, days] [Time from MEOR start, days]

Pre-Meor Pre-Meor
Post-Meor Post-Meor

Figure 7: Well PC-86, Production Response (V.O. Formation) Figure 8: Well PC-86, Water Cut Response (V.O. Formation)

30
Oil rate [M3/D] 100
Water cut [%]
30 100

Pilot_start Pilot_start
ORb WCb
i 20 i

ORmb WCmb
x x

10
50

0 30
0
3000 2000 1000 0 1000 3000 2000 1000 0 1000
3000 T ,T 1000 3000 T ,T 1000
i x i x

[Time from MEOR start, days] [Time from MEOR start, days]
Pre-Meor Pre-Meor
Post-Meor Post-Meor

Figure 9: Well PC-94, Production Response (V.O. Formation) Figure 10: Well PC-94, Water cut Response (V.O. Formation)

20 Oil rate [M3/D] 100 Water cut [%]


20 100

Pilot_start Pilot_start
ORc WCc
i i

ORmc 10 WCmc 50
x x

0 0
0 0
3000 2000 1000 0 1000 3000 2000 1000 0 1000
3000 T ,T 1000 3000 T ,T 1000
i x i x

[Time from MEOR start, days] [Time from MEOR start, days]

Pre-Meor Pre-Meor
Post-Meor Post-Meor

Figure 11: Well PC-19, Production Response (B.R.C. Formation) Figure 12: Well PC-19, Water Cut Response (B.R.C. Formation)
SPE 53715 MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PILOT TEST IN PIEDRAS COLORADAS FIELD, ARGENTINA 15

10 Oil rate [M3/D] 100 Water cut [%]


10 100

Pilot_start Pilot_start
ORd WCd
i i

ORmd 5 WCmd 50
x x

0 0
0 0
3000 2000 1000 0 1000 3000 2000 1000 0 1000
3000 T ,T 1000 3000 T ,T 1000
i x i x

[Time from MEOR start, days] [Time from MEOR start, days]

Pre-Meor Pre-Meor
Post-Meor Post-Meor
Figure 13: Well PC-68, Production Response (B.R.C. Formation) Figure 14: Well PC-68, Water Cut Response (B.R.C. Formation)

60
Oil rate [M3/D] 100 Water cut [%]
60 100

Pilot_start Pilot_start
ORe WCe
i 40 i

ORme WCme
x x
50
20

0 20
0
2000 1000 0 1000 2000 1000 0 1000
2000 T ,T 1000 2000 T ,T 1000
i x i x

[Time from MEOR start, days] [Time from MEOR start, days]
Pre-Meor Pre-Meor
Post-Meor Post-Meor
Figure 15: Well PC-1020, Production Response (V.O. Formation) Figure 16: Well PC-1020, Water Cut Response (V.O. Formation)

100
Oil rate [M3/D] 100
Water cut [%]
100 100

Pilot_start Pilot_start
ORf WCf
i i 80

ORmf 50 WCmf
x x

60

0 40
0 40
1000 0 1000 1000 0 1000
1400 T ,T 1000 1500 T ,T 1000
i x i x

[Time from MEOR start, days] [Time from MEOR start, days]
Pre-Meor Pre-Meor
Post-Meor Post-Meor

Figure 17: Well PC-1022, Production Response (V.O. Formation) Figure 18: Well PC-1022, Water Cut Response (V.O. Formation)
16 M. A MAURE, F. L. DIETRICH, V. A. DIAZ, H. ARGAÑARAZ SPE 53715

Piedras Coloradas - Well: PC-1020 (H)


30

OR Tmeor_start Tecon_lim
i

Qcp 25
v

co
Qcp
v 3 20
Oil Rate (M3/D]

co
Qcp
v 3
15
ORm
u

Qcpmx
kj
10
Qcpmy
kj

Qcpmz
kj 5 Econ_lim

0
1500 1000 500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
T , Tx , Tx , Tx , Tm , kj , kj , kj
i v v v u
Time (days)
Figure 19: MEOR Response, Control Bands On Baselines and Curve-Type sensitive Analysis

67.97 Water Cut [%] 30


Oil Rate (M3/D)
80 30

Tmeor_start OR Tmeor_start
i

Qh
60 v
A
co 20
WC Qh C
Net oil (m3/day]

i v 3
WCm 40 co
u Qh
v 4 E

Qcp
v 10 B
20 D
ORm
u

17.36
0.663
0 0
200 0 200 200 0 200
300 T , Tm 200 300 T , Tx , Tx , Tx , Tx , Tm 200
i u i v v v v u
Time (days) Time (days)

Figure 20: Water Cut Response in Horizontals Figure 21: Oil Rate Response and Controllability
SPE 53715 MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PILOT TEST IN PIEDRAS COLORADAS FIELD, ARGENTINA 17

Oil rates [M3/D]


15

OR Tmeor_start
i
Wellbore Reservoir
Qh colonization
v Clean-Up

Qcp
v
10
ORm
u

Qcpl
w

Qm1
y

Qm0
y
5
Qm2
y

Qcup
y
Econ_lim

0
2000 1500 1000 500 0 500
T , Tx , Tx , Tm , Tx , Ty , Ty , Ty , Tyc
i v v u w y y y y
Time (days)
Figure 22: MEOR Clean-up effect discrimination from Reservoir Colonization Behaviour (PC-19 (Barrancas Fm.))

Water Cut [%] Oil Rates [M3/D]


100 15

00 Tmeor_start

WR 80 72.8
i OR
C2 i
U
QWcp Baseline Qh
v C1 v 10
QWcpm1 60 Qcp
v v

QWcpm2 ORm W
v u

WCm Qcpl
u 40 w
I
QWcpp Qm1 5
q y

20 V
Econ_lim

0 0
500 0 500 500 0 500
T , Tx , Tx 20 , Tx 10 , Tm , Txq T , Tx , Tx , Tm , Tx , Ty
i v v v u q i v v u w y
Time (days) Time (days)
Figure 23: Water Cut Evaluation Using MEOR Curve-Type Figure 24: Long Term MEOR Response need to be evaluated
Analysis using V-W curve segment and after clean-up baseline (dashed
decline baseline, " I " difference)
18 M. A MAURE, F. L. DIETRICH, V. A. DIAZ, H. ARGAÑARAZ SPE 53715

Oil Rate [M3/D] Water cut [%]


100 100

Pilot_start Pilot_start

ORtot WRtot 80
i i

ORtotm 50 WRtotm
x x

60

0
40
1000 500 0 500 1000 500 0 500
T ,T T ,T
i x i x
[Time from MEOR start, days] [Time from MEOR start, days]

Pre-Meor Pre-Meor
Post-Meor Post-Meor

Figure 25: MEOR Perfomance (Six Well Composite) Figure 26: MEOR Perfomance (Six Well Composite)

Oil Rate [M3/D] Water cut [%]


20 100

Pilot_start Pilot_start
15
ORtot WRtot 80
i i

ORtotm 10 WRtotm
x x

60
5

0 40
1000 500 0 500 1000 500 0 500
T ,T T ,T
i x i x
[Time from MEOR start, days] [Time from MEOR start, days]

Pre-Meor Pre-Meor
Post-Meor Post-Meor

Figure 28: MEOR Performance (Barrancas Fm.)


Figure 27: MEOR Performance (Barrancas Fm.)

Oil Rate [M3/D] Water cut [%]


80 60

Pilot_start Pilot_start

ORtot 60 WRtot 50
i i

ORtotm WRtotm
x x

40 40

20 30
1000 500 0 500 1000 500 0 500
T ,T T ,T
i x i x
[Time from MEOR start, days] [Time from MEOR start, days]

Pre-Meor Pre-Meor
Post-Meor Post-Meor

Figure 29 MEOR Performance (Rio Blanco Fm.) Figure 30: MEOR Performance (Rio Blanco Fm.)
SPE 53715 MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PILOT TEST IN PIEDRAS COLORADAS FIELD, ARGENTINA 19

PC-1022 - Normal Alkanes


4
S2
p.p.m.

2
S1 S3

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Carbon order

Pre-Meor
Post-Meor

PC-1022 - Branched Alkanes


4
S4
S5
p.p.m.

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Carbon order

Pre-Meor
Post-Meor
Figure 31: MEOR, Geochemical Signature (Rio Blanco Oil, Horizontal Completion)

PC-19 - Normal Alkanes


4
p.p.m.

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Carbon order
Pre-Meor
Post-Meor
PC-19 - Branched Alkanes
6

4
p.p.m.

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Carbon order
Pre-Meor
Post-Meor
Figure 32: MEOR, Geochemical Signature (Barrancas Oil, Vertical Completion)
20 M. A MAURE, F. L. DIETRICH, V. A. DIAZ, H. ARGAÑARAZ SPE 53715

Viscosity vs Temperature
1500

Viscosity [mpa.s] vs. shear rate [1/s] 100 Reservoir_temperature


500

450 1 5
T3, 350
400 Field 1000

Viscosidad (mPa.s)
350
Viscosity [mpa.s]

300
Control
250

200 500
Lab Inference
150

100
50
10
50 T5, Field
0
0 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
0 5 10 15
Temperatura (F. deg.)
Shear rate [1/s]
Control, Pre-Meor
Control at Low Shear Rate (Pre-Meor) Control, Pre-Meor (duplicate)
Lab biodegradated (Pre-Meor inference) In-Vitro biodegradation, Pre-Meor Lab Inference
Lab biodegradated (Pre-Meor inference, duplicate) Post-Meor (after third treatment), field sample
Post-Meor (after fifth treament) Post-Meor (after third treatment), duplicate
Post-Meor (after fifth treatment), field sample
Post-Meor (after third treatment)
Post-Meor (after fifth treatment), duplicate

Figure 33: Rheological Signature, PC- 1020 H


Figure 34: Pour and Cloud Point alteration, PC- 1020 H

Viscosity [mpa.s] vs. shear rate [1/s] Viscosity vs Temperature


500 2000

450 1 92 Reservoir_temperature
400 350

350
Viscosity [mpa.s]

1500
300
Viscosidad (mPa.s)

250
200

150 1000

100
50
0 500 340
0 1 2 3
Shear rate [1/s] 180

Control at Low Shear Rate (Pre-Meor)


Lab biodegradated (Pre-Meor inference)
0
Lab biodegradated (Pre-Meor inference, duplicate) 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Post-Meor (after fifth treament) Temperatura (F. deg.)
Post-Meor (after third treatment)
Control, Pre-Meor
Figure 35: Rheological Signature, PC-19 (Vertical) In-Vitro biodegradation, Pre-Meor Lab Inference
Post-Meor (after third treatment), field sample
Post-Meor (after third treatment), duplicate
Post-Meor (after fifth treatment), field sample
Post-Meor (after fifth treament), duplicate

Figure 36: Pour and Cloud Point alteration, PC- 19 (Vertical)


SPE 53715 MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PILOT TEST IN PIEDRAS COLORADAS FIELD, ARGENTINA 21

Piedras Coloradas Field Piedras Coloradas Field


PC-1020 (Horizontal) PC-19

Production Data (April 97) Production Data (April 97)


SRP lifting device SRP lifting device
Oil: 8.8 M3/D Oil: 2.3 M3/D
Water Cut: 64 % Water Cut: 86 %
GOR < 100 GOR < 100

Tbg. 2 7/8" - J55 - 6.5 lb/ft Tbg. 2 7/8" - J55 - 6.5 lb/ft

Csg. 7"- J55 - 23 lb/ft.


Csg. 7"- J55 - 23 lb/ft.

Dynamic
Fluid Level
(1818 M)
Dynamic
Fluid Level
Pump Intake (1473 M)
(2008.6 M)
Anchor 7" x 5"
Barrancas Fm.
Slotted liner 5"- 15 lb/ft. Pump Intake
(2093.6 M) 2009/2127 M
Rio Blanco Fm.
SBHT: 170 F
2059 - 2672 (T.D.) M SBHP: 498 psi
Horizontal lenght 500 M SBHT: 180 F
SBHP: 1560 psi 2126 M

Figure 37: Horizontal completion and extractive system Figure 38: Vertical Completion and extractive system

100000

Cl PC-7
Na
PC-13
Concentrations in mg/liter

10000

C O 3C a PC-68
Ca
1000 PC-86

C O 3H PC-19
100 PC-94

SO 4 PC-1020
10 PC-1022
PH
Mg T-80
1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

FIgure39: Formation Water, Typical Ionic Pattern


22 M. A MAURE, F. L. DIETRICH, V. A. DIAZ, H. ARGAÑARAZ SPE 53715

Step 01 Step 02
Blending formulation by diluting microbial cultures in Microbial blending injection by annulus (1 to 2 BPM)
formation water
Piedras Coloradas Field
PC-1020
A B

Positive
Blending area displacement
pump

Piedras Coloradas Field


Prod#1 PC-1020 (Horizontal)
Tbg. 2 7/8" - J55 - 6.5 lb/ft

Prod#4

Microbial concentrates
(From five gallons drums) Csg. 7"- J55 - 23 lb/ft.
References

Prod#5 Produced fluids


Dynamic
Fluid Level Displacement water
(1818 M)
Retrievable Packer Microbial Blend

Prod#6 Pump Intake


(2008.6 M)
Anchor 7" x 5"

A B Slotted liner
5"- 15 lb/ft.
Rio Blanco Fm.

2059 - 2672 (T.D.) M


Formation water Formation water SBHT: 180 F
used for blending used for displacement Horizontal lenght 500 M
(150 bbls.) (Variable from well to well) SBHP: 1560 psi

Step 03 Step 04 Step 05


Low Rate Squeeze into formation Shut-in period
(latency) Well is restablished to production
using standard pulling operation
The well is
closed during 72 hours.
A B

Positive
displacement Oil
pump Water
Gas
Closed

Tbg. 2 7/8" - J55 - 6.5 lb/ft Tbg. 2 7/8" - J55 - 6.5 lb/ft Tbg. 2 7/8" - J55 - 6.5 lb/ft

Csg. 7"- J55 - 23 lb/ft. Csg. 7"- J55 - 23 lb/ft. Csg. 7"- J55 - 23 lb/ft.

Dynamic
Fluid Level
Retrievable Packer Retrievable Packer

Pump Intake

Anchor 7" x 5" Anchor 7" x 5"


Critical Penetration Radii Slotted liner
according with Kv/Kh 5"- 15 lb/ft.
Rio Blanco Fm. permeabilities ratio

Figure 40: Operative Procedure used to Inoculate Horizontal Wells (Initial Treatment), PC-1020 H
SPE 53715 MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PILOT TEST IN PIEDRAS COLORADAS FIELD, ARGENTINA 23

Step 01 Step 02
Blending formulation diluting microbial cultures in Microbial blending injection by annulus (1 to 2 BPM)
formation water
Piedras Coloradas Field
PC-19
A B

Positive
Blending area displacement
pump

Prod#1

SRP lifting device

Prod#4

Microbial concentrates
(From five gallons drums)

Tbg. 2 7/8" - J55 - 6.5 lb/ft


Prod#5

Csg. 7"- J55 - 23 lb/ft.

Prod#6

Dynamic
Fluid Level
A B (1473 M)

Barrancas Fm.
Peforated interval
Formation water Formation water Pump Intake 2009/2127 M
used for blending used for displacement (2093.6 M)
(20 to 50 bbls.) (Variable from well to well) SBHT: 170 F
SBHP: 498 psi

2126 M

Step 03 Step 04 Step 05


Low Rate Gravity Displacement into formation Shut-in period Well is restablished to production
(latency)

The well is
closed during 24 hours. References
A B
Produced fluids
Displacement water
Positive Microbial Blend
displacement
pump

Oil
Water
Gas

Static
Fluid Level

Dynamic
Fluid Level

Barrancas Fm.
Peforated interval

Critical Radius
2126 M 2126 M 2126 M

Figure 41: Operative Procedure used to Inoculate Vertical Wells (Initial and Periodic Treatment), PC-19 V
24 M. A MAURE, F. L. DIETRICH, V. A. DIAZ, H. ARGAÑARAZ SPE 53715

Viscosity [mpa.s] vs. shear rate [1/s]


Annex A 60

57 1 5
TMD
control minSR control maxSR
µapp µapp 54 control
NI µapp
inoculated minSR inoculted maxSR 51 i
µapp µapp

Viscosity [mpa.s]
48
TMD
maxSR maxSR 45
control inoculated
µapp µapp
i i 42
i = minSR i = minSR
DV
maxSR 39
control
µapp
i 36
i = minSR
inoculated
33
µapp
1 i
EOR 30
(1 DV ) 0 5 10 15
minSR Shear rate [1/s] maxSR
SRi
1+
Where: 2+
3
NI Newtonian Index 4
5
DV Delta Viscosity 6
Enhanced Oil Recovery index BB
EOR
Control
minSR Minimum explored Shear Rate, [1/sec]
maxSR Maximum explored Shear Rate, [1/sec] Figure 42: Methodology to analize MEOR microbial
subcommunities (1 to 6, BB) in oils
control
minSR Apparent viscosity measured at min Tg2
µapp
SR on control oil Viscosity vs Temperature
2000
control Apparent viscosity measured at SR (i )
µapp on control oil 92 Reservoir_temperature
i
inoculated Apparent viscosity measured at SR (i )
µapp on inoculated oil
i 1500

TMD Temperature of Maximun Discrimination


Rcontrol
Viscosidad (mPa.s)

of rheological properties
1000

500 R5 R3 340

Ts 180

tg1
0
80 100 120 140 160 180 200
TMD Temperatura (F. deg.)

Control, Pre-Meor
In-Vitro biodegradation, Pre-Meor Lab Inference
Post-Meor (after third treatment), field sample
Post-Meor (after third treatment), duplicate
Post-Meor (after fifth treatment), field sample
Post-Meor (after fifth treament), duplicate

Figure 43: Compositional changes in treated (lab, field) and


untreated samples (control). Rcontrol, R3 and R5 are indicators of
molecular homogeneity, Ts is the shift in precipitation points.
SPE 53715 MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PILOT TEST IN PIEDRAS COLORADAS FIELD, ARGENTINA 25

Annex B Radial model case with:

A
Qmeor MEOR t ti Elapset time from
t
i i B C .D .P .ζ .δ MEOR start [days]
t t
i i
Pe Pwfmeor t
i
MEOR t
i Qo t
i Associated equations
Pe Pwf t etv
i A 1 ξ
etv
where: B t 1 RDie t
i i

etmv
C t 1 RDiw t
Qo t
Declined oil production i i
i (convtentional), [BOPD] etmv
D ξ
Qmeor t Enhanced oil production
λ
i [BOPD] β
P ν.
η .Factor
Pwf t , Pwfmeor t Dynamics pressures, [psi]
i i Ktmv
δ
Pe Static reservoir pressure, [psi] Ktv
1 ntv
ζ
1 ntmv

2 .10
6
Factor Scale factor
24.3600. π
Qo (ti), Qw(ti), Qg(ti)

Sw,So
Swirr, Sor
Rm, R(ti) Rw Kro,Krw,Kabs
Ø
Vertical Section
PC-68, PC-19
(Barrancas Fm.) h
PC-86, PC-94
(Rio Blanco Fm)

Re Ktv,ntv
Ktmv,ntmv
Effective Lenght, L

Kv

Kh

Horizontal Section, PC-1020, PC-1022, Rio Blanco Fm.

Figure 44: Simplified diagram showing completions and colonized zones (bioreactors) coupled with untreated outer areas
26 DIETRICH F.A., MAURE M.A, DIAZ V.A., ARGAÑARAZ H. SPE 53715

Annex C

Geochemical Methods and instrumentation

Fractionation by Liquid Chromatography: Asphaltenes are


precipitated with hexane and soluble fraction is separated into
saturate hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins/NSO
compounds on a silica column by successive elutions with
hexane, benzene, and benzene-methanol. The solvents are
evaporated and weight percent of each fraction is determined.

Gas Chromatography (GC): The whole oil is analyzed with


a Varian model 3300 gas chromatograph fitted with a 50 m
fused silica capillary column. Analytical data are processed
with a Nelson Analytical Model 3000 chromatography data
system.

Very High Resolution C7 Gas Chromatography: A sample


of oil is injected directly into a Varian model 3400 gas
chromatograph fitted with a split injector and a Quadrex 100
meter fused silica capillary column. The GC run is isothermal
at 35°C while collecting the data from C2 – C8 , then heated to
purge the remaining sample from the column. Analytical data
are processed with a Nelson Analytical model 3000
chromatographic data system and IBM computer hardware.

Biomarker Analysis (GC-MS): The saturate or aromatic


fractions separated by liquid chromatography from whole oils
or source rocks extracts are injected into a HP5890 gas
chromatograph coupled to the HP5971A MSD. The Selected
Ion Monitoring (SIM) capabilities of the computer data
acquisition system permit specific ions to be monitored. Ion
m/z = 191 allows characterization of specific saturate
triterpenoid compounds and m/z = 217 certain saturate
steranes. The ions m/z = 253 and 231 are respectively specific
for mono and triaromatic steroids; m/z = 156 and 170, for C2–
naphthalenes; m/z = 178 and 192, for phenanthrene and
methylphenanthrenes, respectively; m/z = 184 and 198, for
dibenzothiophene and methyldibenzothiophene, respectively.
SPE 53715 MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PILOT TEST IN PIEDRAS COLORADAS FIELD, ARGENTINA 27

Nomenclature Pe = static reservoir pressure, [psi]


Qmeor(ti ) = oil rate after MEOR, [m3]
ψ = anisotropy factor
Qo(ti ) = oil rate before MEOR, [m3]
µ k = apparent viscosity based on Ostwald de Waele
Nutting rheological model, [cp] R(ti ) = migration radius at time ti , [m]
α = apparent viscosity relationship after and before RDie(ti ) = instantaneous migration radius at time ti to
MEOR evaluated at 1 sec –1 (shear rate), [cp]
drainage radius, dimensionless
µapp = apparent viscosity, [cp]
RDiw(ti ) = instantaneous migration radius at time ti to
β = beta parameter as function of total well
wellbore radius, dimensionless
production (QT), water cut (Wc) and poral
Re = drainage radius, [m]
volume, [days]
Rm = radius of microbial bioreactor (size of colonized
λ = derived rheological parameter, dimensionless
zone) [m]
ν = perforated interval (h) to drainage radius (Re) Rw = wellbore radius, [m]
coefficient, dimensionless Rwhoriz = equivalent wellbore radius, horizontal well, [m]
η = perforated interval (h) to mean poral radius Sirr = irreductible water saturation
(Dpmic), dimensionless Sor = residual oil saturation
ξ = wellbore radius (Rw) to drainage radius (Re) SR = shear rate, [1/s]
coefficient, dimensionless TMD = Temperature of Maximum Discrimination of
ζ = conventional to enhanced rheological parameter, rheological properties, [° F]
dimensionless V p = poral volume at drainage radius (Re), net pay (h)
δ = conventional to enhanced rheological parameter, and porosity (Por), [m3]
dimensionless Vrest = restricted Microbial Migration Velocity, [m/day]
ε = reservoir Microbial Migration Efficiency Vfree = unrestricted Microbial Migration Velocity,
(RMME), dimensionless [m/day]
A,B,C,D = intermediate variables, dimensionless
Bo = volume factor, [std m3/reservoir m3]
Dpmic = mean poral throat diameter, [µm] Subscripts
DV = Delta Viscosity index control = original sample condition (pre MEOR)
EOR = EOR index e = natural logarithms base, 2.7172...
etmv = derived rheological parameter, dimensionless h = horizontal.
etv = derived rheological parameter, dimensionless i = data point, spatial reference
Factor = scale factor m = microbial enhanced
GOR = gas oil relationship, [m3/ m3] max = maximum
h(h) = effective interval, [m] min = minimum
K = absolute permeability, [md] o = original
Kh = horizontal permeability, [md] t = time
Kr = relative permeability, dimensionless v = vertical
Ktmv,Ktv = first Ostwald de Waele Nutting rheological x = direction along well axis
parameters, after MEOR (Krmv) to conventional y = direction perpendicular to well axis
(Ktv), [cp.(1/s)(ntv-1)]
Kv = vertical permeability, [md]
L = effective lenght, horizontal well, [m]
maxSR =maximum explored Shear Rate, [1/s]
MEOR(ti ) = productivity index ratio, MEOR performance
index, dimensionless
Mf = rotational to capillary geometry correction factor
minSR =minimun explored Shear Rate, [1/s]
NI = Newtonian index
ntmv,ntv= second Ostwald de Waele Nutting rheological
parameters, after MEOR (ntmv) to conventional
(ntv), dimensionless
P = derived scaling group
pwf = dynamic pressure before MEOR, [psi]
pwfmeor = dynamic pressure after MEOR, [psi]
28 DIETRICH F.A., MAURE M.A, DIAZ V.A., ARGAÑARAZ H. SPE 53715

Equations R(t i ) = (1 − eVrest .t i ).Rm ..........................................(Eq. 17)


Qmeor(ti )
Pe − Pwfmeor(ti ) β=
Vp
..................................................(Eq. 19)
MEOR(Ti ) = .............................. (Eq. 1) QT .(1 − Wc )
Qo (ti )
Pe − Pwf ( ti ) π
Vp = h. Re 2 .Por ................................................(Eq. 20)
4

h
MEOR( ti ) =
A
........................... (Eq. 2) v= ..................................................................(Eq. 21)
B(ti ) − C (ti ) .D.P.ζ .δ Re

L
v= ..................................................................(Eq. 22)
K h = K x .K y ....................................................... (Eq. 3) Re

2.h
Kh η= ...................................................(Eq. 23)
ψ= .................................................................. (Eq. 4) Dpmic.10 −6
Kv

Rw
Rwhoriz =
Rw
.(1 + ψ ) ........................................ (Eq. 5) ξ= .................................................................(Eq. 24)
2 Re

R ( ti )
h( h ) = h ψ ............................................................. (Eq. 6) Rdiw(ti ) = .....................................................(Eq. 25)
Rw
A = 1 − ξ etv ............................................................. (Eq. 7) R ( ti )
Rdie(ti ) = ......................................................(Eq. 26)
Re
B(ti ) = 1 − ( RDie( ti ) ) etv
............................................ (Eq. 8)
µ k = Ktv.( SRk ) ( ntv −1) .............................................(Eq. 27)
C (ti ) = 1 − ( RDiw(ti ) ) etmv
......................................... (Eq. 9)
λ = ntv − ntmv ......................................................(Eq. 28)
D =ξ etmv
.............................................................. (Eq. 10)
etv = 1 − ntv ..........................................................(Eq. 29)
β etmv = 1 − ntmv .....................................................(Eq. 30)
P = (v. ) λ ................................................ (Eq. 11)
η. factor
3.ntmv + 1 ntmv
Mf = ( ) ...........................................(Eq. 31)
λ 4.ntmv
Ktmv
δ = ........................................................... (Eq. 12)
Ktv
( µapp control ) min SR − ( µapp control ) max SR
NI = ( ) TMD
1 − ntv ( µapp inoculated min SR
) − ( µapp inoculated max SR
)
ζ = ......................................................... (Eq. 13)
1 − ntmv
...............................................................................(Eq. 32)
2.10 −6
Factor = ............................................ (Eq. 14) max SR max SR
24.3600.π
∑ ( µapp i ) control − ∑ (µapp ) i
inoculated

DV = ( i = min SR max SR
i = min SR
) TMD

µappm ∑ (µapp ) i
control

α= .......................................................... (Eq. 15) i = min SR


µappo ......................................................................................(Eq.33)

Vrest 1
ε= .............................................................. (Eq. 16) EOR = .....................................................(Eq. 34)
Vfree 1 − DV
SPE 53715 MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PILOT TEST IN PIEDRAS COLORADAS FIELD, ARGENTINA 29