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Quarter 1 – Module 2:
(Motion along a straight line)

Department of Education • Republic of the Philippines

Physics I – Grade 12
Alternative Delivery Mode
Quarter 1 – Module 2: Kinematics (Motion along a Straight Line)
First Edition, 2020

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Published by the Department of Education

Secretary: Leonor Magtolis Briones
Undersecretary: Diosdado M. San Antonio

Development Team of the Module

Authors: Elgeene E. Dizon
Editor: Aiisa C. Corpuz
Reviewers: Aiisa C. Corpuz
Lily Beth B. Mallari
Layout Artist: Elgeene E. Dizon
Management Team: Maria Carmen P. Cuenco EdD, CESO V
Robert E. Osongco, EdD
Lily Beth B. Mallari
Aiisa C. Corpuz, PhD
Rebecca K. Sotto, PhD

Printed in the Philippines by Department of Education-Region III Tarlac City Schools

Division – Learning Resource Management Section (LRMS)

Quarter 1 – Module 2:
(Motion along a Straight Line)

This instructional material was collaboratively developed and reviewed

by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and or/universities. We
encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback,
comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education at

We value your feedback and recommendations.

Department of Education • Republic of the Philippines

Introductory Message
For the facilitator:

Welcome to Physics 1 - Grade 12 Alternative Delivery Mode (ADM) Module on

Kinematics (Motion along a Straight Line)

This module was collaboratively designed and reviewed by educators both

from public and private institutions to assist you, the teacher or facilitator in helping
the learners meet the standards set by the K to 12 curricula while overcoming their
personal, social, and economic constraints in schooling.

The learning resource hopes to engage the learners into guided and
independent learning activities at their own pace and time. Furthermore, this also
aims to help learners acquire the needed 21st century skills while taking into
consideration their needs and circumstances.

As a facilitator, you are expected to orient the learners on how to use this
module. You also need to keep track of the learners’ progress while allowing them to
manage their own learning. Furthermore, you are expected to encourage and assist
the learners as they do the task included in the module.

For the learner:

Welcome to Physics 1 - Grade 12 Alternative Delivery Mode (ADM) Module on

Kinematics (Motion along a Straight Line)

This module was designed to provide you with fun and meaningful
opportunities for guided and independent learning at your own pace and time. You
will be enabled to process the contents of the learning resource while being an active

This module has the following parts and corresponding icons.

This will give you an idea of the skills or
competencies you are expected to learn in the
What I Need to Know
This part includes an activity that aims to check
what you already know about the lesson to take.
If you get all the answers correct (100%), you may
What I Know decide to skip this module.
This is a brief drill or review to help you link the
current lesson with the previous one.
What’s In
In this portion, the new lesson will be introduced
to you in various ways; a story, a song, a poem, a
problem opener, an activity or a situation.
What’s New

This section provides a brief discussion of the
lesson. This aims to help you discover and
understand new concepts and skills.
What is It
This comprises activities for independent practice
to solidify your understanding and skills of the
topic. You may check the answers to the exercises
What’s More using the Answer Key at the end of the module.
This includes questions or blank sentence/
What I Have paragraph to be filled in to process what you
Learned learned from the lesson.

This section provides an activity which will help

you transfer your new knowledge or skill into real
life situations or concerns.
What I Can Do
This is a task which aims to evaluate your level of
mastery in achieving the learning competency.

In this portion, another activity will be given to
Additional you to enrich your knowledge or skill of the lesson
Activities learned.

This contains answers to all activities in the


Answer Key

At the end of this module you will also find: References This is a list of all
sources used in developing this module. The following are some reminders in using
this module:
1. Use the module with care. Do not put unnecessary mark/s on any part of the
module. Use a separate sheet of paper in answering the exercises.
2. Don’t forget to answer What I Know before moving on to the other activities
included in the module.
3. Read the instruction carefully before doing each task.
4. Observe honesty and integrity in doing the tasks and checking your answers.
5. Finish the task at hand before proceeding to the next.
6. Return this module to your teacher/facilitator once you are through with it.
If you encounter any difficulty in answering the tasks in this module, do not
hesitate to consult your teacher or facilitator. Always bear in mind that you are not
alone. We hope that through this material, you will experience meaningful learning
and gain deep understanding of the relevant competencies. You can do it!

What I Need to Know

This module was designed and written with you in mind. It is here to help you
master Kinematics (Motion along a Straight Line). The scope of this module permits
it to be used in many different learning situations. The language used recognizes the
diverse vocabulary level of students. The lessons are arranged to follow the standard
sequence of the course. But the order in which you read them can be changed to
correspond with the textbook you are now using.

The module is divided into two lessons, namely:

• Lesson 1 – Motion, Instantaneous Speed and Velocity, and Acceleration
• Lesson 2 – Free Fall

After going through this module, you are expected to:

1. Distinguish the difference of speed and velocity.
2. Convert a qualitative description of a physical situation involving uniform
acceleration in one dimension into a mathematical description.
3. Distinguish between average velocity and instantaneous velocity.
4. Recognize whether or not a physical situation involves constant velocity or
constant acceleration.
5. Interpret velocity and acceleration, as the slopes of position vs time plot and
velocity vs time plot, respectively.
6. Recognize whether or not a physical situation involves constant velocity or
constant acceleration.
7. Construct velocity vs time and acceleration time graphs, respectively,
corresponding to a given position vs time graph and velocity vs time graph,
respectively, and vice versa.
8. Describe and differentiate man’s idea of motion from Aristotle’s to Galileo and
9. Explicate the motion of free falling bodies.
10. Calculate the velocity of free falling objects for an interval time.

What I Know

Choose the letter of the best answer. Write the chosen letter on a separate sheet of

1. A continuous change of position with respect to a certain reference point.

a. Velocity
b. Motion
c. Speed
d. Displacement

2. A device that measures the speed of a car is called______.

a. Odometer
b. Speedometer
c. Velocimeter
d. Tachometer

3. Speed is a physical quantity which is a _______.

a. Vector
b. Resultant
c. Scalar
d. velocity

4. He proposed the three laws of motion.

a. Aristotle
b. Kepler
c. Newton
d. Galileo

5. Which weigh more neglecting air resistance.

a. 1 kg of feather
b. 1 kg of nail
c. equal
d. not the same

Motion, Instantaneous Speed
1 and Velocity, and Acceleration
Every day we can observe different types of motion such as a man walking on
the road, a bird flying up to the sky, trees swaying and bending depending on the
wind’s direction and vehicles moving. Their movement ranges from simple straight-
line to complicated motion. In this lesson, we will deal with the quantitative
description of motion called kinematics. We are going to understand how fast is fast
and how slow is slow.

What’s In

We learned that velocity, displacement and force are kind of vector quantities
which have both magnitude and direction while time, distance and mass are scalar
quantities that has only magnitude. These quantities can be measured and are
related to motion.
Since the older times, ancient people answered different questions about
motion with stories of mysticism and spirits. In the early 1600’s ideas about motion
had changed when a new and correct understanding of motion was developed.
Galileo and Newton presented accurate and definite answers through their works.

What’s New

Have you ever asked yourself about how much velocity does an airplane needs
to gain momentum for it to be able to fly? How about the speed of a bullet train
transferring you from one city to another in no time? Or have you asked yourself if
an object is really in motion? These are few questions that are maybe in your mind
right now.
Today we have speedometer to calculate the speed of a car in a certain distance
and time. We also have odometer to calculate the distance an object has covered. The
best of all we already have high-technology that makes transportation faster. Can
you imagine how fast would your ordered parcel through online would be delivered
if we still use horses for travelling? Technology has made a lot of things to speed-up.

What is It

Motion, Speed and Velocity, and Instantaneous Velocity

Motion – it can be defined as a continuous change of position with respect to its

reference point. The simplest type of motion is the translator motion or motion in a
straight line.
Reference Frame – a frame of reference is needed every time we do our
measurements for better communication. An example, while in a motorbike traveling
at 60km/h. you might notice a car approach you from behind at a speed of 10km/hr.
this is the speed of the car with respect to the observer in the motorcycle. With
respect to an observer on the ground the car is moving at 70 km/h.
Figure 2.1
I’m driving at 60
Haha! He thinks I’m km/h. I think that car
slow but actually I’m is slow at 10 km/h.

On his point of view

That car is quite fast!

I guess, it is running
at 70km/h.

On his point of view

Speed and Velocity

Many students are confused when to use speed and velocity. Sometimes, they
are used interchangeably. However, there is a clear difference between these two
concepts. To differentiate them, consider this situation.

A bike from the house is moving to the north along a straight road and stops
after an hour at a coffee shop 8km away from where it started. How will you describe
the motion of the bike? The rate of motion of the bike is 8 km per h northward.

The above statement can be expressed in a shorter war as 8km/h, N. this

represents the velocity of the car. The displacement of the car is 8km, N and 1 hour
is the elapsed time that it took to travel from the point of origin to where it stopped.
The speed of the car is 80km/h. Speed only indicates distance and time. No direction
is given.
Speed is a scalar quantity that represents the rate of change of displacement.
It only represents the magnitude of velocity.
Average Speed

Speed tells us how fast an object moves regardless to direction. Average Speed
may be defined as the total distance travelled by an object divided by the time it took
to travel a certain distance. In symbols:
ῡ𝑠𝑠 =

ῡ𝑠𝑠 = average speed (the bar is used as a symbol of average)
d = total distance
i = elapsed time
Suppose a motorbike moves at an average speed of 20 km/h. in 3 hours it will
have traveled 60km.
Average Velocity

Another difference of speed and velocity is that the magnitude of the average
velocity is calculated in terms of displacement rather the total distance.
ῡ𝑠𝑠 =

ῡ𝑠𝑠 = average velocity
d = total displacement (straight line distance from starting to end point)
i = elapsed time
Instantaneous Velocity
It is the velocity at any particular instant or time. Instantaneous speed is
always equal to the magnitude of an instantaneous velocity.

Take this example:

Distance d (m) Time t (s)

15.5 4.8
46.5 8.7
75 11.1
105.2 13
150 15.3
200.1 17.7

Figure 1.1
Instantaneous Velocity
Distnace d (m)

20 A
0 2 4 6 8 t1 10 12 14 16 18 20
t2 Time t(s)

If asked to determine the value of instantaneous velocity at t = 7s. what will

you do?

You have to draw a straight line tangential to the curve at point t= 7s, then
consider a small portion of this line. The velocity for the small segment of the graph
is equal to the displacement between point A and B divided by the time difference
between the two points.
Instantaneous velocity therefore is:
34 𝑚𝑚−26 𝑚𝑚
7.5 𝑠𝑠−6.5 𝑠𝑠

= 8 m/s (+x Direction)

Velocity may always vary in real situations. You cannot have a constant
velocity while driving from Tarlac to Manila because there are many things to
consider. You may speed up when overtaking and slow down when it is traffic.
Figure 2.2
0s 1s 2s 3s 4s

Start v1= 5 km/h v2= 10 km/h v3= 15 km/h v4= 20 km/h v


Acceleration is a vector quantity because it involves a change in velocity and

An increase and decrease in velocity is acceleration though more familiar

when there is a decrease in velocity is deceleration in anyway is still acceleration.
Therefore, acceleration is defined as,
𝑐𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡

In symbols,
∆𝑣𝑣 𝑣𝑣−𝑣𝑣0
ā= =
∆𝑡𝑡 𝑡𝑡−𝑡𝑡0

Where ā = average acceleration

∆𝑣𝑣 = change in velocity
𝑣𝑣0 = initial velocity
𝑣𝑣 = final velocity
∆𝑡𝑡 = change in time
𝑡𝑡0 = initial time
t = final time

In figure 2.2, what is the average acceleration of the racing car?

𝑣𝑣0 = 0 (car starts from rest)
𝑣𝑣 = 20 km/h
𝑡𝑡0 = 0 (car starts from rest)
t = 4s
Find: ā
∆𝑣𝑣 𝑣𝑣−𝑣𝑣0
Solution: ā = =
∆𝑡𝑡 𝑡𝑡−𝑡𝑡0
ℎ −0

= 5 km/h/s
This is read as ‘5km per hour per second’ which means the velocity of the
car changes every 5 km per hour.

What’s More

Activity 2.1 COMPUTATION

1. The speedometer of a car reads 12345 km from the start of the trip, while
at the end of the trip it become 12678 km and it took them to travel this
for 10 hours. What was the average speed of the car?
2. Which has a greater acceleration, a bike slowing from 6 m/s to a stop in 8
seconds or a car slowing down from 30m/s to 20 m/s in 10 seconds? Prove
your answer.
3. An eagle can fly 10km/s. how long will it take for the bird to fly 250km?

What I Have Learned

Direction: Using the statement below, give what you have learned about
speed, velocity and acceleration.

I have learned that _______ of an object is equal to the total distance traveled
in a given time. I have also learned that average velocity is the _________
divided by __________. In addition, Acceleration is ________ or __________ of
velocity at a certain time.

What I Can Do

When buying a car, a driver always checks the fuel efficiency of the unit
they are buying. Of course, they also check its top speed because who would
want to drive a slow car. What do you think are the benefits and hazards of fast
motion? Can you describe the importance of acceleration and deceleration in
Your essay will be graded based on these criteria:
Relevance of essay to the topic……………50%

Free Fall

You see a ripe mango on a tree and the next morning the mango fruit fell down
and smashed on the floor. You threw a piece of rock on an upward motion and in
split seconds its motion is going downward. Have you wondered about such
phenomena? If so, how does it happen? Early Greek philosophers really contributed
a lot about on how we view the world. Aristotle and Galileo’s works are really
indispensable to science. These philosophers focused on the description of motion
while Newton focuses on the force that causes motion.

What’s In

Velocity and acceleration are very crucial in linear motion. we have discussed
in the previous lesson what velocity and acceleration are, and now as we go further,
we are going to check the physical quantities that affects a free-falling body. We are
going to understand if there is a difference in acceleration and velocity of two different
object with different weight as they free fall.

What’s New

Activity 2.2: FREE FALL!

After the activity. You should be able to:
1. Explain what is free fall;
2. Will there be a difference in time if two objects with different weight falls
from the same height; and
3. Explain how air resistance affects a falling object.

Materials needed:
1 small marble
1 big marble
A feather
A sheet of paper


1. If your house has a second floor please go to your balcony, if not go on a

top of a strong table.
2. Get the small marble and let it go down freely from your hand. Please ask
assistance of a family member to time the free fall.
3. Repeat step 2 with all the remaining materials and observe keenly.

Q1. Which falls faster the small or the big marble? if the same, why so?
Q2. When you released the lighter material such as feather and a sheet of
paper, what have you observed?
Q3. What causes the feather and paper to fall slowly?

What is It

Aristotle’s Motion
During his time, philosophers believed that all objects on earth were mixtures
of just four elements- earth, water, fire and wind. Each of these elements were
believed to have a natural place in the terrestrial region. Fire occupied the highest
region next to it was air then water. Earth was the lowest part of the region. The
natural motion of objects composed of these elements was their movement when they
returned to their original places. Aristotle’s study however changed the views of the
philosophers and he summarized his study as follows:
1. The fall of a heavy object toward the center of the earth is a natural motion
because the object is just returning to its original place.
2. Heavy objects fall faster than lighter ones. He explained that the increased
in rate of motion is proportional to the weight of the object.
3. Objects fall faster in air than in water. He assumed that the resisting force
of water causes the decrease in the rate in motion of a falling object.
4. Objects sometimes move away from their natural force. He called this type
of motion “violent motion” which he explained was cause by an outside

In spite of certain limitations, His theory survived for almost two thousand
years because of the following:

1. His theory was based on common sense and observation.

2. There were no other concrete theories during this time.
3. There was no developed quantitative method to prove the validity of the

Galileo’s Motion

He focused not only the motions of celestial bodies but also the motions of
objects on earth. He suggested that Aristotle’s theory of motion be tested. He was the
first to make an analysis of the motion of free-falling bodies. His theory was based

on qualitative method of observation. These are the experimental findings of his

1. Two objects dropped on the tower of Pisa fell together at the same time.
2. When a ball was rolled down an inclined plane at a fixed angle. The ratio
of distance covered to the square of the corresponding time was always the
same. )2
3. When the angle of inclination is changed, the constant also changes. For
example, if θ = 30° then d/t2 = constant A; if θ = 60°, then d/t2= constant
B. The constant however remains the same for the same angle
4. The constant d/t2 is also the constant for falling objects. This ratio is a
constant for all freely falling objects and that is the constant that refers to
the acceleration due to gravity.

Based on his experimentations and reasoning, He concluded that all objects

on earth in the absence of air resistance would fall with the same constant
acceleration due to gravity. His careful experimentation showed that this constant
acceleration is equal to 9.8m/s2 and has a negative value due to its downward

ῡ = 𝑑𝑑�𝑡𝑡 is the formula for velocity

𝑣𝑣0 + 𝑣𝑣�
ῡ= 2 is average velocity
then we can derive the velocity for falling objects will be;
v = vo + gt
to get the distance or displacement we use;
𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔 2
d = vot + 2

v2 = vo2 + 2gd

Example: a ball is dropped from rest from the window of a three-story building. How
far has it fallen after 1s? what is the velocity of the ball after 1s of fall? How far does
the ball fall during the second second?
vo= 0
a. d1 after 1 s
b. v after 1 s
c. d2 during the second second


d1= ?

d2= ?


a. d1= vot + gt2/2

= 0 + (-9.8m/s2) (1s)2/2
= -4.9m
= -4.9m downward
This is the displacement of the ball after 1s

b. v = vo + gt
= 0 + (-9.8m/s2) (1s)
= -9.8 m/s
= 9.8 m/s downward
This is the magnitude of the velocity of the ball after 1s

c. d2 = vot + gt2/2
= -9.8 m/s (1s) + (-9.8m/s2) (1s)2/ 2
= -9.8m + -4.9m
= -14.7 m
= 14.7 m down
This is the displacement of the ball after the second second.

What’s More

Activity 2.3 COMPUTATION

1. Maria threw a ball upward with an initial velocity of 2000 cm/s and
was able to catch before it reached the ground on its return.
a. What was its velocity after 1 second?
b. What was its displacement in the first second?
c. How long did it take the ball to reach its maximum height?
d. How far was the maximum height from the starting point?

e. What was its final velocity just before it returns to Maria’s hand?

2. How long will it take the ball to reach a point 1000 cm above Maria’s
hand on its way down? Initial velocity is 2000cm/s.

d= 1000cm


What I Have Learned

Direction: Using the statement below, give what you have learned about

I have learned that ________ is constant acceleration due to gravity. I have

also learned that Aristotle’s theory was based on ________ and ________ while
Galileo’s are based on ___________. Lastly, without ___________ two objects
with different weight will drop simultaneously at the same time.

What I Can Do

How can we apply free-fall in our daily lives? What are the application of the
universal law of gravitation on earth and in the whole universe?
Your essay will be graded based on these criteria:
Relevance of essay to the topic……………50%


Multiple Choice. Choose the letter of the best answer. Write the chosen letter on a
separate sheet of paper.

1. Acceleration is the rate of change of

a. displacement c. velocity
b. position d. time

2. Which of the following happens when a driver steps on the accelerator?

a. No fuel is consumed c. car cover less distance
b. Car has a negative acceleration d. car speeds up

3. A ferryboat travels 9 km in 45 minutes. What is the average speed of the boat?

a. 5km / min c. 10m/s
b. 12 km/hr d. 405 cm/s

For numbers 4-7 refers to the quantities below

c. 60 km/h e. 110 km/h North
d. 50 km f. 20 m Eastward
4. Speed
5. Velocity
6. Distance
7. Displacement

8. If the masses of two particles are doubled, how is the force of attraction
a. Reduced to 1/2 c. increase quadruple times
b. Doubled d. reduced to 1/4

9. If the distance between two particles is doubled, how is the force of attraction
a. The same c. reduced to 1/4
b. Doubled d. increase thrice

10. Temperature is
a. Scalar quantity c. Both a and b
b. Vector quantity d. Resultant quantity

Additional Activities

The tabulated data show the displacement of a car against time. The distance
and the time are both taken to be zero at the beginning of the motion.

Displacement (cm) Time (s)

3.81 2
14.2 4
32.0 6
57.9 8
91.4 10

a. Plot d and t.
b. What kind of displacement-time relation is shown by your graph?
c. What is the velocity of the car?
d. What is the velocity of the car at t=3.5s?

What I Know What's More 1 Assessment
1. 33.3 km/h
1. D 1. C
2. Car has greater 2. D
2. B
3. C deceleration with 3. B
4. C 1m/s2 while bike 4. C
5. C has 0.7m/s2. 5. E
6. D
What I have learned 1 7. F
1. Ave. speed 8. C
2. Distance 9. C
10. C
3. Time
4. Increase
5. Decrease
What's More 2
A. 1020 cm/s
B. 1510 cm
C. 2.04s
D. 3.080 cm
E. -2000 cm/s
2. 3.5 s
What I have learned 2
1. Freefall
2. Common sense
3. Observation
4. Experimentation
5. Air resistance
Answer Key

Accessed July 23, 2020.

Beiser, Physics 5th edition

“Enjoy These Throw Images for Free,” May 8, 2020.


Giancoli, Douglas G. Physics: Principles with Application. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 1995.

Hewitt, Paul G. Conceptual Physics. San Francisco: Pearson/Addison-Wesley, 2006.

“Integrated Publishing, Inc. - A (SDVOSB) Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business.”
Accessed July 21, 2020.

Navaza and Valdez, Physics (You and The Natural World Series) 2nd edition

Serway, Essentials of College Physics, Raymond A. Serway 1st edition, 2006.

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